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1.
Food Chem ; 292: 90-97, 2019 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31054697

RESUMO

Ethyl carbamate (EC) is a potentially carcinogenic substance present in most alcoholic beverages, especially in Chinese rice wine. Consequently, much effort has been directed at suppressing EC formation during the production of these beverages, with particular attention directed at the use of urethanase, as this enzyme can directly catalyze EC degradation. Herein, we investigated the ability of three lactic acid bacteria (Oenococcus oeni, Lactobacillus brevis, and Lactobacillus plantarum) to generate urethanase during co-cultivation with Saccharomyces cerevisiae. qPCR and transcriptomic analyses revealed that 57 genes of S. cerevisiae were significantly expressed in the presence of L. brevis, which highlighted the importance of studying urethanase-promoted EC degradation for establishing a powerful technique of EC level control. The obtained results provided deep insights into the adaptive responses of S. cerevisiae to the challenging environment of mixed-culture fermentation.


Assuntos
Lactobacillus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Uretana/metabolismo , Vinho/análise , Amidoidrolases/genética , Amidoidrolases/metabolismo , Fermentação , Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Oenococcus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo
2.
Plant Foods Hum Nutr ; 74(3): 293-299, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31098880

RESUMO

Prebiotics are regarded as the non-digestible food constituents that are selectively consumed by health-promoting bacteria (probiotics). In fact, a number of active metabolites is released due to intensive interaction between prebiotics and probiotics in the gut which exert local and systemic beneficial effects including regulation of intestinal disorders and modulation of host immunity. Turmeric is one of the most important medicinal herbaceous that is derived from Curcuma longa rhizome. Curcumin is a well-recognized component of turmeric which contributes to the prevention of multiple inflammatory diseases. Despite curcumin as a well-known compound, few researches have focused on the turmeric extract (TE) and its potential as prebiotic and anti-inflammatory compound. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prebiotic potential and some functional-structural properties of TE. The Fourier-transform-infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) spectrum of TE showed identical peaks that belonged to ß configuration in pyranose and glycosidic bonds. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis revealed the presence of potent phenolic and flavonoid anti-oxidants and curcuminoids, and some functional monosaccharides. TE demonstrated excellent resistance to artificial human gastric and intestine juice compared to the standard prebiotic (inulin) (p ≤ 0.05). Interestingly, our time course experiment showed that TE not only is digested by probiotics including Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) and Bifidobacterium animalis BB12, but also supports the growth of these bacteria even after 72 h (p ≤ 0.05). To our knowledge, this is the first report evaluating prebiotic potential of TE and exploring its suppressive effects on LPS induced IL-8 production in HT29-19A cell line.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Bifidobacterium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Enteropatias/tratamento farmacológico , Lactobacillus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Prebióticos , Probióticos , Linhagem Celular , Curcuma , Humanos , Interleucina-8/metabolismo , Inulina/farmacologia , Lipopolissacarídeos/efeitos adversos
3.
Food Microbiol ; 82: 218-230, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31027777

RESUMO

Structure of lactic acid bacteria biota in ivy flowers, fresh bee-collected pollen (BCP), hive-stored bee bread, and honeybee gastrointestinal tract was investigated. Although a large microbial diversity characterized flowers and fresh BCP, most of lactic acid bacteria species disappeared throughout the bee bread maturation, giving way to Lactobacillus kunkeei and Fructobacillus fructosus to dominate long stored bee bread and honeybee crop. Adaptation of lactic acid bacteria was mainly related to species-specific, and, more in deep, to strain-specific features. Bee bread preservation seemed related to bacteria metabolites, produced especially by some L. kunkeei strains, which likely gave to lactic acid bacteria the capacity to outcompete other microbial groups. A protocol to ferment BCP was successfully set up, which included the mixed inoculum of selected L. kunkeei strains and Hanseniaspora uvarum AN8Y27B, almost emulating the spontaneous fermentation of bee bread. The strict relationship between lactic acid bacteria and yeasts during bee bread maturation was highlighted. The use of the selected starters increased the digestibility and bioavailability of nutrients and bioactive compounds naturally occurring in BCP. Our biotechnological protocol ensured a product microbiologically stable and safe. Conversely, raw BCP was more exposed to the uncontrolled growth of yeasts, moulds, and other bacterial groups.


Assuntos
Abelhas/microbiologia , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Pólen/metabolismo , Pólen/microbiologia , Própole/metabolismo , Animais , Anti-Infecciosos , Fermentação , Flores/microbiologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Hanseniaspora/metabolismo , Hedera , Lactobacillales/classificação , Lactobacillales/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Lactobacillales/isolamento & purificação , Lactobacillales/metabolismo , Lactobacillus/classificação , Lactobacillus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Lactobacillus/isolamento & purificação , Lactobacillus/metabolismo , Interações Microbianas , Microbiota , Pólen/química , Especificidade da Espécie
4.
Food Microbiol ; 82: 259-268, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31027782

RESUMO

The aim of this study is to examine the biogeography of the microbial communities associated to the Spanish-style green olive fermentations in the province of Seville (Andalucía, south-western Spain). Also, to understand how microorganisms colonize and persist in non-sterile food fermentations across a specific table olive producing area, i.e. a specific "agroecosystem". The microbial diversity, bacteria and yeast, in 30 ten-ton fermenters of three different fermentations yards (patios) along the olive fermentation was studied. A total of 951 microbial isolates were obtained which were clustered according to their RAPD profile. A total of 376 distinct genotypes were identified, belonging to 57 different microbial species, 41 bacterial and 16 yeast species. Up to 16 bacterial species had not been described before in table olives. Only the species Lactobacillus pentosus showed a ubiquitous presence in all 30 fermenters. Pediococcus parvulus, Lactobacillus collinoides/paracollinoides, Lactobacillus coryniformis, Lactobacillus plantarum, Pichia manshurica and Candida thaimueangensis were found in every patio. Cosmopolitan strains, up to 15, were shared by the three patios and belonged to the species L. pentosus (12 strains), P. parvulus (1), L. collinoides/paracollinoides (1) and P. manshurica (1). To expand our biodiversity analyses to the "regional" level, we have compared our results with those obtained from two previously studied patios of similar characteristics and in the same geographical area. PERMANOVA analysis of the microbial community composition revealed significant differences among different patios in their structure at every fermentation stage. In contrast, SIMPER analyses showed that, as fermentation progressed, the overall dissimilarities among patios were reduced. Discriminant species were identified for each fermentation stage. Among these, L. pentosus and P. parvulus were "eu-constant" species, while L. collinides/paracollinoides and Marinilactibacillus psychrotolerans group were "constant" species that could be considered microbial key taxa based on the occurrence stability index. The characteristic and, presumably, well adapted microbiota associated to the Spanish-style olive fermentations at the specific geographic area described here is a valuable natural resource which should be preserved conveniently. To our knowledge, this is the first study on the microbial biogeography of table olive fermentations, both at the species and strain levels.


Assuntos
Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Biodiversidade , Reatores Biológicos/microbiologia , Olea/microbiologia , Leveduras/isolamento & purificação , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ecossistema , Fermentação , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Variação Genética , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Lactobacillus/classificação , Lactobacillus/genética , Lactobacillus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Lactobacillus/isolamento & purificação , Microbiota/genética , Sais , Espanha , Leveduras/classificação , Leveduras/genética , Leveduras/crescimento & desenvolvimento
5.
Lett Appl Microbiol ; 69(1): 50-56, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31004511

RESUMO

Bioethanol fermentation is continuously exposed to contamination by Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB). In this study, the effect of adding nisin (250 mg l-1 ) to the acid wash on the viability of five bacterial contaminants were evaluated both alone and in co-incubation with Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Additionally, fed-batch fermentation was performed using an acid or acid/nisin wash for S. cerevisiae alone and cocultured with the LAB strains. Parameters such as ethanol production, sugar consumption and lactic acid production were monitored. Four model LAB were more susceptible to the acid/nisin wash than the acid wash, and were most susceptible when incubated with yeast. A fifth model LAB was very sensitive to both treatments regardless of the presence of yeast. The addition of nisin to the acid wash lowered the required time for adequate washing and resulted in a higher ethanol production (54·5 ± 0·1 g l-1 ) than the acid wash alone (52·6 ± 0·1 g l-1 ) in a subsequent fermentation. These results indicate the potential benefits of supplementing with nisin to improve the acid wash step of bioethanol fermentations. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: Acid washing by the bioethanol fermentation industry reduces yeast efficiency and selects for contaminant bacteria that are resistant to acid treatments. This study demonstrates that the incorporation of nisin into the acid wash step results in a more potent removal of lactic acid bacteria while significantly shortening the length of time needed for the acid wash.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Etanol/metabolismo , Ácido Láctico/metabolismo , Lactobacillus/metabolismo , Nisina/farmacologia , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Saccharum/metabolismo , Técnicas de Cocultura , Fermentação , Lactobacillus/efeitos dos fármacos , Lactobacillus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/crescimento & desenvolvimento
6.
Microbiome ; 7(1): 30, 2019 03 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30853028

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Blastocystis is a common gut eukaryote detected in humans and animals. It has been associated with gastrointestinal disease in the past although recent metagenomic studies also suggest that it is a member of normal microbiota. This study investigates interactions between pathogenic human isolates belonging to Blastocystis subtype 7 (ST7) and bacterial representatives of the gut microbiota. RESULTS: Generally, Blastocystis ST7 exerts a positive effect on the viability of representative gut bacteria except on Bifidobacterium longum. Gene expression analysis and flow cytometry indicate that the bacterium may be undergoing oxidative stress in the presence of Blastocystis. In vitro assays demonstrate that Blastocystis-induced host responses are able to decrease Bifidobacterium counts. Mice infected with Blastocystis also reveal a decrease in beneficial bacteria Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that particular isolates of Blastocystis ST7 cause changes in microbiota populations and potentially lead to an imbalance of the gut microbiota. This study suggests that certain isolates of Blastocystis exert their pathogenic effects through disruption of the gut microbiota and provides a counterpoint to the increasing reports indicating the commensal nature of this ubiquitous parasite.


Assuntos
Infecções por Blastocystis/microbiologia , Blastocystis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Gastroenteropatias/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Animais , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Bifidobacterium longum/genética , Bifidobacterium longum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Blastocystis/classificação , Blastocystis/isolamento & purificação , Blastocystis/patogenicidade , Técnicas de Cocultura , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Fezes/microbiologia , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica , Células HT29 , Humanos , Lactobacillus/genética , Lactobacillus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Metagenômica , Camundongos
7.
Biomed Res Int ; 2019: 4361358, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30906772

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate the effects of the combined use of cellulose-decomposing bacteria (CDB) and heterolactic lactic acid bacteria (LAB) on corn silage fermentation. Fresh maize was treated with heterolactic LAB or CDB combined with heterolactic LAB inoculants or without any treatment. Chemical and microbiological analyses were conducted at specific times after ensiling. A comprehensive value evaluation was conducted using the principal component analysis model. Although all treatments significantly affected the microorganism numbers during fermentation, the numbers of aerobic bacteria, LAB, yeast, and molds in the groups with combined CDB and LAB were significantly higher than those in the group with LAB only (P < 0.05). All treatments regulated the silage CO2 production. Each treatment had different effects on the nutrient degradation rate. Based on a comprehensive evaluation, the CDB and heterolactic LAB combination had the best effect on the ensiling process in improving the quality and feed value of corn silage.


Assuntos
Celulose/metabolismo , Lactobacillus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Silagem/microbiologia , Zea mays/microbiologia
8.
Nutrients ; 11(3)2019 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30889821

RESUMO

The current study investigates whether probiotic fermented milk (PFM) and yogurt consumption (YC) are related to both the ingested bacteria taxa and the overall gut microbiota (GM) composition in healthy adults. PFM and YC habits were analyzed in 260 subjects (51% male) by specific questionnaires, and the following groups were considered: (1) PFM groups: nonconsumers (PFM-NC, n = 175) and consumers (PFM, n = 85), divided as follows: Bifidobacterium-containing PFM (Bif-PFM; n = 33), Lactobacillus-containing PFM (Lb-PFM; n = 14), and mixed Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus-containing PFM (Mixed-PFM; n = 38); (2) PFM-NC were classified as: yogurt nonconsumers (Y-NC; n = 40) and yogurt consumers (n = 135). GM was analyzed through 16S rRNA sequencing. PFM consumers showed higher Bifidobacteria taxa levels compared to NC, from phylum through to species. Specifically, Bif-PFM consumption was related to higher B. animalis levels (p < 0.001), whereas Lb-PFM consumption was associated to higher levels of Bifidobacterium (p < 0.045) and B. longum (p = 0.011). YC was related to higher levels of the yogurt starter Streptococcus thermophilus (p < 0.001). Lactobacilli and the overall GM were not related either to YC or PFM consumption. According to these results, healthy adults might benefit from PFM intake by increasing Bifidobacterium levels.


Assuntos
Bifidobacterium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Lactobacillus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Leite/microbiologia , Probióticos , Streptococcus thermophilus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Iogurte/microbiologia , Adulto , Animais , Feminino , Fermentação , Humanos , Masculino , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Valores de Referência
9.
Benef Microbes ; 10(4): 385-393, 2019 Apr 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30882242

RESUMO

Vaginal discharge is one of the common reasons for gynaecologist consultation, as bacterial vaginosis and candidiasis are the main causes of discharge. These patients frequently experience numerous problems due to recurrent infections, side effects and drug resistance therefore alternative drugs are needed. Our primary aim was to evaluate safety and tolerability of the potentially probiotic Lactobacillus crispatus strains in volunteer women considering themselves healthy. We also monitored the effects of these strains on vaginal health parameters and lactobacilli counts in vagina and intestine. Forty women were recruited into trial. Absence of chronic diseases was confirmed by questionnaire and blood analysis at screening visit. In randomised double-blind placebo-controlled crossover study the eligible participants were randomly allocated to one of four groups and had to consume one of the two study products (Pro I or Pro II) - a capsule containing 3 strains, 109 cfu per strain, or placebo for 1 week. Treatment period was followed by 2-week washout period and continued with second treatment and washout period. Individuals receiving firstly probiotic, received later placebo and vice versa. Blood, vaginal and faecal samples were collected, and self-reported questionnaires were applied. Thirty subjects completed the trial. The probiotic capsules were well-tolerated. The Pro II intake resulted in a significant decrease in Nugent score (from median 3.0 to 2.0, mean 3.9 to 2.6, P=0.002) and reduction in Gardnerella vaginalis counts (log10 3.57 to 2.38; P=0.027). Reduction of total vaginal bacterial counts was revealed in Pro I group (log10 7.99 to 7.72; P=0.048). In conclusion, the selected vaginal L. crispatus strains are well tolerable and Pro II mixture is prospectively effective in reducing Nugent score and vaginal counts of G. vaginalis. Therefore, these strains seem to be promising candidates for development of novel evidence-based well-focused probiotics to target female urogenital tract disorders.


Assuntos
Lactobacillus crispatus/fisiologia , Probióticos/administração & dosagem , Vaginose Bacteriana/tratamento farmacológico , Administração Oral , Adulto , Estudos Cross-Over , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Gardnerella vaginalis/efeitos dos fármacos , Gardnerella vaginalis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Humanos , Lactobacillus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Segurança , Resultado do Tratamento , Vagina/microbiologia , Adulto Jovem
10.
Phytomedicine ; 58: 152863, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30836215

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The gut microbiota plays a key role in the maintenance of human health and mediates the beneficial effects of natural products including polyphenols. Previous studies have demonstrated that the polyphenol-rich Pandanus tectorius fruit extract (PTF) was effective in ameliorating high-fat diet (HFD)-induced hyperlipidaemia, and polyphenols can significantly change the structure of the gut microbiota. PURPOSE: In this study, we assessed whether the modulation of the gut microbiota plays a key role in the PTF-induced anti-hyperlipidaemic effects. METHODS: Male C57BL/6 J mice were induced with hyperlipidaemia by consuming a high-fat diet (HFD) for 4 weeks. Then, the mice were orally administered PTF, antibiotics (ampicillin+ norfloxacin), PTF+antibiotics or vehicle for another 6 weeks. Body weights and 24-h food intake were assessed weekly. At the end of the experiment, fresh stools were collected for 16S RNA pyrosequencing, and blood and liver and fat tissue were collected for pharmacological analysis. RESULTS: PTF was effective in ameliorating high-fat diet (HFD)-induced hyperlipidaemia and significantly changed the structure of the gut microbiota. However, the anti-hyperlipidaemic effect of PTF was not influenced by the co-treatment with antibiotics (ampicillin+norfloxacin). A microbiological analysis of the gut microbiotas revealed that PTF selectively enhanced the relative abundance of Lactobacillus and decreased the relative abundance of Bacteroides and Alistipes. A correlation analysis between biochemical indexes and individual taxon showed that Lactobacillus was negatively associated with serum lipids and glucose while Bacteroides and Alistipes were positively associated with serum lipids and glucose. The modulatory effect of PTF on Lactobacillus, Bacteroides and Alistipes was not disturbed by the administration of antibiotics. CONCLUSION: These results demonstrated that the polyphenol-rich PTF as a unique gut microbiota modulating agent and highlighted the richness of Lactobacillus and the decreased abundance of Bacteroides and Alistipes as an effective indicator of the therapeutic effect of medicinal foods on hyperlipidaemia.


Assuntos
Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Hiperlipidemias/tratamento farmacológico , Pandanaceae/química , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Ampicilina/administração & dosagem , Animais , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Bacteroidetes/efeitos dos fármacos , Bacteroidetes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Peso Corporal , Fezes/microbiologia , Frutas/química , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Humanos , Hiperlipidemias/induzido quimicamente , Lactobacillus/efeitos dos fármacos , Lactobacillus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Norfloxacino/administração & dosagem , Plantas Medicinais , Polifenóis/farmacologia
11.
J Appl Microbiol ; 126(6): 1861-1868, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30887606

RESUMO

AIMS: This study focuses on the development of a new strategy xylooligosaccharide (XOS) production from aqueous ammonia-pretreated rice straw (A-PRS), followed by ß-xylosidase hydrolysis produced by the newly identified strain Weissella cibaria FB069. METHODS AND RESULTS: We report a higher efficiency of A-PRS, including the removal of lignin and increase in cellulose and xylan content, compared to that of the alkali and stream explosion methods. Using the ammonia pretreatment method, rice straw was used to obtain 32·4% xylan. The crude xylanase from W. cibaria was used to hydrolyse A-PRS over different hydrolysis times. The highest XOS yield (131 mg XOS per gram rice straw) was observed after 10 h. XOS produced from the PRS was tested on stimulation effect on Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus. CONCLUSION: The possibility of XOS production from PRS using ß-xylosidase with strong prebiotic properties. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: We investigated the new strain for signification production of XOS. The two-stage process here described could help to further explore the optimization conditions for prebiotic production. Additionally, the stimulation effect of XOS from alternative source has a promising prospect in functional food.


Assuntos
Amônia/química , Glucuronatos/metabolismo , Oligossacarídeos/metabolismo , Oryza/metabolismo , Prebióticos , Weissella/enzimologia , Xilosidases/metabolismo , Bifidobacterium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Hidrólise , Lactobacillus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Lignina/metabolismo
12.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(5): e13941, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30702555

RESUMO

Gut flora plays an essential role in disease and health. A traditional Chinese herb formula, Dahuang Danpi Decoction (DDD) can alleviate several gastrointestinal diseases.In the present study, we assessed the effect of DDD on the growth and metabolism of Lactobacillus bulgaricus. L bulgaricus was cultured in MRS with 40 mg/ml (high), 10 mg/ml (medium), and 2.5 mg/ml (low) of DDD, Ceftriaxone and blank (control). The growth of L bulgaricus was measured by optical density. The levels of L-lactic acid and D-lactic acid were also measured.Compared to the control group, the concentrations of L bulgaricus in the medium and the high concentrations DDD groups were significantly higher (P < .001 for all), while the concentrations of L bulgaricus in the ceftriaxone groups were significantly lower. In the 3 DDD groups, the L- lactic acid levels were significantly higher than those in the control group and the ceftriaxone groups (P < .001 for all), and the L-lactic acid level was the highest in the high DDD group. Similarly, the D-lactic acid level in the high concentration DDD group was significantly higher than those in the medium and low concentration DDD groups, the control group and the ceftriaxone groups. Both the L-lactic acid and D-lactic acid levels were lower than those in the control group and the DDD groups.DDD could dose-dependently promote the growth of L bulgaricus and enhance the secretion of L-lactic acid and D-lactic acid, which suggests DDD may be able to interact with the probiotics, improve the gut microbiota, and serve in the prevention and treatment of dysbiosis.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Lactobacillus/efeitos dos fármacos , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Ceftriaxona/farmacologia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Humanos , Ácido Láctico/biossíntese , Lactobacillus/crescimento & desenvolvimento
13.
J Anim Sci ; 97(3): 1273-1285, 2019 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30715344

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to assess the impact of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in combination with Lactobacillus buchneri on the fermentation characteristics, aerobic stability, nutritive value, and microbial communities of corn silage. Whole crop corn (39% DM) was either uninoculated (Control) or inoculated with S. cerevisiae and L. buchneri at the following concentrations: S. cerevisiae 104 cfu/g fresh forage (S4), S. cerevisiae 105 cfu/g (S5), S. cerevisiae 104 cfu/g + L. buchneri 105 cfu/g (S4L5), and S. cerevisiae 105 cfu/g + L. buchneri 104 cfu/g (S5L4), and ensiled in mini silos for 118 d, followed by 7 d of aerobic exposure. Changes in fermentation characteristics and nutritive value were assessed in terminal silages. Saccharomyces cerevisiae, L. buchneri, and total yeast, fungal, and bacterial communities in silage were estimated using quantitative PCR. Composition of bacterial and fungal communities during ensiling and aerobic exposure was measured using 16S rDNA and ITS sequencing, respectively. In the first 7 d of ensiling, the concentration of lactic acid rapidly increased (P < 0.01) in all silages, with the pH declining to 4.0 (P < 0.001) and thereafter remaining stable (P = 0.23). Although S4L5 contained a higher (P = 0.03) concentration of acetic acid than Control, other fermentation characteristics were did not differ among terminal silages. Inoculation with S. cerevisiae had no detrimental effect on the aerobic stability of silage, whereas L. buchneri did not prevent spoilage as the pH across all silages averaged 8.0 after 7 d of aerobic exposure. Total yeast (P = 0.42), bacterial (P = 0.13), and fungal (P = 0.89) communities were not altered by the inoculants after ensiling or aerobic exposure. Sequencing identified temporal shifts of bacterial and fungal communities during ensiling and aerobic exposure. Concentrations of S. cerevisiae and L. buchneri in all inoculated silages remained greater (P < 0.01) than Control after ensiling, with numbers of S. cerevisiae increasing after 7 d of aerobic exposure. Bacterial communities in silages inoculated with S. cerevisiae and L. buchneri clustered separately from other silages, an observation that was not apparent for fungal communities. Our findings suggest that aerobic exposure could potentially increase the abundance of S. cerevisiae with probiotic properties in corn silage just prior to feeding.


Assuntos
Lactobacillus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Microbiota , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Silagem/microbiologia , Zea mays/microbiologia , Animais , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fermentação , Fungos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ácido Láctico/metabolismo , Valor Nutritivo , Leveduras/crescimento & desenvolvimento
14.
Cell Tissue Res ; 376(3): 325-340, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30778729

RESUMO

Diabetic patients suffer from gastrointestinal disorders associated with dysmotility, enteric neuropathy and dysbiosis of gut microbiota; however, gender differences are not fully known. Previous studies have shown that a high-fat diet (HFD) causes type two diabetes (T2D) in male mice after 4-8 weeks but only does so in female mice after 16 weeks. This study seeks to determine whether sex influences the development of intestinal dysmotility, enteric neuropathy and dysbiosis in mice fed HFD. We fed 8-week-old C57BL6 male and female mice a standard chow diet (SCD) or a 72% kcal HFD for 8 weeks. We analyzed the associations between sex and intestinal dysmotility, neuropathy and dysbiosis using motility assays, immunohistochemistry and next-generation sequencing. HFD ingestion caused obesity, glucose intolerance and insulin resistance in male but not female mice. However, HFD ingestion slowed intestinal propulsive motility in both male and female mice. This was associated with decreased inhibitory neuromuscular transmission, loss of myenteric inhibitory motor neurons and axonal swelling and loss of cytoskeletal filaments. HFD induced dysbiosis and changed the abundance of specific bacteria, especially Allobaculum, Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus, which correlated with dysmotility and neuropathy. Female mice had higher immunoreactivity and numbers of myenteric inhibitory motor neurons, matching larger amplitudes of inhibitory junction potentials. This study suggests that sex influences the development of HFD-induced metabolic syndrome but dysmotility, neuropathy and dysbiosis occur independent of sex and prior to T2D conditions. Gastrointestinal dysmotility, neuropathy and dysbiosis might play a crucial role in the pathophysiology of T2D in humans irrespective of sex.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/fisiopatologia , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Disbiose/etiologia , Resistência à Insulina , Pseudo-Obstrução Intestinal/etiologia , Intestinos/inervação , Intestinos/fisiopatologia , Animais , Bifidobacterium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Feminino , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Motilidade Gastrointestinal , Lactobacillus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Fatores Sexuais
15.
Int Microbiol ; 22(2): 265-277, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30810989

RESUMO

We aimed at isolating and characterising microorganisms present in human breast milk with probiotic potential. In an 8-week postpartum sampling period, two strains of bifidobacteria (Bifidobacterium longum LM7a and Bifidobacterium dentium LM8a') and four strains of lactobacilli were isolated, all during the first 4-week postpartum. B. longum LM7a and B. dentium LM8a', together with four strains previously isolated from breast milk (Bifidobacterium lactis INL1, INL2, INL4 and INL5), were considered for further studies. Susceptibility of the strains to tetracycline, erythromycin, clindamycin, streptomycin, vancomycin and chloramphenicol was evaluated and the isolates exhibited, in general, the same properties as previously reported for bifidobacteria. All isolates showed low hydrophobicity and B. lactis and B. longum strains had satisfactory resistance to gastric digestion and bile shock, but not to pancreatin. B. lactis INL1, B. longum LM7a and B. dentium LM8a' were selected for some comparative technological studies. In particular, B. lactis INL1 displayed technological potential, with satisfactory growth in cheese whey-based media in biofermentor and resistance to freeze-drying, accelerated storage conditions and simulated gastric digestion.


Assuntos
Bifidobacterium/isolamento & purificação , Meios de Cultura/química , Lactobacillus/isolamento & purificação , Leite Humano/microbiologia , Probióticos/efeitos adversos , Probióticos/isolamento & purificação , Soro do Leite/metabolismo , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bifidobacterium/efeitos dos fármacos , Bifidobacterium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bifidobacterium/metabolismo , Ácidos e Sais Biliares/toxicidade , Feminino , Ácido Gástrico/metabolismo , Humanos , Lactobacillus/efeitos dos fármacos , Lactobacillus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Lactobacillus/metabolismo , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Viabilidade Microbiana/efeitos dos fármacos , Pancreatina/toxicidade
16.
Nutrients ; 11(2)2019 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30795551

RESUMO

Many Clostridium species are found as commensal members of the intestinal microbiota. However, imbalances of the microbiota may lead to certain infections caused by these microorganisms, mainly Clostridium butyricum, Clostridium difficile, and Clostridium perfringens. In many cases, infection recurrence can occur after antibiotics, indicating the need for novel therapeutic options that act on the pathogens and also restore the microbiota. Herein, the in vitro antimicrobial activity and probiotic potential of clinical and reference strains of Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus were investigated against Clostridium species. Antimicrobial activity was evaluated by the agar spot test and inhibition of gas production. Then, the probiotic potential of selected strains was assessed by analyzing their coaggregation ability, adhesive properties to host cells and mucin, tolerance to acidic pH and bile salts, and antimicrobial susceptibility profiles. Lactobacillus plantarum ATCC 8014 was the most promising strain based on its inhibitory activity against Clostridium spp. Also, this strain met criteria to be considered a probiotic based on its coaggregation ability, adhesive properties, and tolerance to harsh pH and bile acid salt conditions. The results indicate that among the studied strains, L. plantarum ATCC 8014 presents probiotic potential for controlling infections induced by the studied Clostridium species and should be further evaluated in in vivo animal models.


Assuntos
Bifidobacterium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Infecções por Clostridium/microbiologia , Clostridium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Lactobacillus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Interações Microbianas , Probióticos , Anti-Infecciosos , Aderência Bacteriana , Ácidos e Sais Biliares , Infecções por Clostridium/tratamento farmacológico , Clostridium butyricum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Clostridium perfringens/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Lactobacillus plantarum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Probióticos/uso terapêutico
17.
Parasitol Res ; 118(2): 693-699, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30623233

RESUMO

Chinese liver fluke Clonorchis sinensis changes the host's immune system. Recently, it has been reported that helminths including C. sinensis can ameliorate immune-related diseases such as allergy. In addition, recent studies showed that helminth infection can alleviate immune-mediated disorders by altering the gut microbiome. However, changes in the gut microbiome due to C. sinensis have not been reported yet. In this study, changes in the gut microbiome of C57BL/6 mice infected with C. sinensis metacercariae were evaluated over time. Stool was analyzed by 16S rRNA amplicon analysis using high-throughput sequencing technology. There was no apparent difference in species richness and diversity between the infected and control groups. However, the composition of the microbiome was different between the infected and control groups at 20 days and 30 days post-infection, and the difference disappeared at 50 days post-infection. In particular, this microbiome alteration was associated with a change in the relative abundance of genus Lactobacillus and the probiotic Lactobacillus species that are known to have an immune-modulation role in immune-mediated diseases.


Assuntos
Clonorquíase/imunologia , Clonorchis sinensis/imunologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Lactobacillus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Probióticos/análise , Animais , Clonorquíase/parasitologia , Clonorchis sinensis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fezes/microbiologia , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Lactobacillus/classificação , Lactobacillus/citologia , Metacercárias/citologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
18.
J Med Food ; 22(2): 202-210, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30638420

RESUMO

Ingestion of bioactive compounds, such as hesperidin and naringin, found in citrus fruits and orange juice, can improve the homeostasis of gut microbiota. A controlled clinical study with temporal series intergroup design with 10 apparently healthy women (28.5 ± 8.4 years, 24.1 ± 3.3 kg/m2) were evaluated after continuous consumption of commercial pasteurized orange juice for 2 months. Samples of blood serum and stool were collected at basal time and periodically during the experiment for biochemical and microbiology assays. Intestinal microbiota was evaluated for total anaerobic bacteria, Lactobacillus spp., Bifidobacterium spp., and Clostridium spp. An independent culture evaluation was performed using Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE). The pH, ammonium (NH4+), and short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) were evaluated for microbial metabolism. The results showed that daily intake of orange juice did not change women's body composition, but improved blood biochemical parameters, such as low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, glucose, and insulin sensitivity. Orange juice positively modulated the composition and metabolic activity of microbiota, increasing the population of fecal Bifidobacterium spp. and lactobacillus spp. Polymerase chain reaction-DGGE of microbiota showed similar composition of total bacteria, and microbial metabolism showed a reduction of ammonia and an increase of the production of SCFAs. These results suggested that a daily consumption of orange had a positive effect on the intestinal microbiota and metabolic biomarkers of young women, which may be an effective alternative for a healthy drink.


Assuntos
Glicemia/metabolismo , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Citrus sinensis/química , Comportamento Alimentar , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais , Frutas , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto , Bifidobacterium/efeitos dos fármacos , Bifidobacterium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bifidobacterium/metabolismo , Biomarcadores/sangue , Dieta , Feminino , Flavanonas/farmacologia , Hesperidina/farmacologia , Humanos , Insulina/sangue , Resistência à Insulina , Intestinos/microbiologia , Lactobacillus/efeitos dos fármacos , Lactobacillus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Lactobacillus/metabolismo , Lipídeos/sangue , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Valores de Referência , Adulto Jovem
19.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(3): 867-874, 2019 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30632742

RESUMO

Gut microbiota improved using prebiotics may delay the onset of senescence-related health problems. We hypothesized that prolonged intake of prebiotics delays senile osteoporosis. Forty-five male senescence-accelerated mouse prone 6 (SAMP6) aged four weeks were raised on 5% fructooligosaccharide (FOS), 5% glucomannan (GM), or a control diet for 31 weeks. Gut microbiota were identified using culture-dependent analytical methods. Mineral content in femoral bone was analyzed using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Bone metabolism and inflammatory markers were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The numbers of Lactobacillus and Bacteroides in cecal contents were significantly higher in the FOS than in the control group ( p < 0.05); the number of Clostridium was significantly higher in the GM than in the control group ( p < 0.05). Calcium content was significantly higher in the femoral bones of the FOS group (30.5 ± 0.8 mg) than in the control group (27.5 ± 1.5 mg) ( p < 0.05). There was no difference between the GM (29.1 ± 2.0 mg) and control groups. During senescence, urinary deoxypyridinoline and serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels significantly decreased in the FOS (1.2 ± 0.2 nmol/3 d and 80 ± 6.1 ng/100 mL) and GM groups (1.2 ± 0.2 nmol/3 d and 80 ± 6.1 ng/100 mL) compared with the control group (1.8 ± 0.5 nmol/3 d and 93 ± 7.4 ng/100 mL) ( p < 0.05). Thus, dietary FOS and GM modified gut microbiota and reduced bone resorption by reducing systemic inflammation in SAMP6.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/metabolismo , Osso e Ossos/metabolismo , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Mananas/metabolismo , Oligossacarídeos/metabolismo , Osteoporose/microbiologia , Animais , Bacteroides/genética , Bacteroides/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bacteroides/isolamento & purificação , Bacteroides/metabolismo , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Humanos , Lactobacillus/genética , Lactobacillus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Lactobacillus/isolamento & purificação , Lactobacillus/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Osteoporose/metabolismo , Prebióticos/análise
20.
J Appl Microbiol ; 126(4): 1070-1080, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30664312

RESUMO

AIMS: The assessment of the bacterial viability of chlorine- and quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs)-treated Lactobacillus cells by culture-dependent and -independent methods. METHODS AND RESULTS: Lactobacillus isolates (Lactobacillus plantarum G1, Lactobacillus plantarum B1, Lactobacillus brevis S1 and Lactobacillus paracasei W1) in biofilm and planktonic cell suspensions were treated with chlorine-based (0·018 and 0·18%) and QACs-based (0·2 and 2·0%) disinfectants for 5 min and then analysed by plate counting, flow cytometry (FCM) and fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS). The reaction of sessile cells to disinfectants was assessed with the confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Plate counts revealed L. paracasei W1 to be substantially inactivated by both disinfectants, while counts of the other isolates to be significantly reduced only by QACs, with L. plantarum B1 and L. brevis S1 showing a greater difference between QACs concentrations and cell types. In several cases, the disinfectants caused slightly higher inactivation of planktonic than biofilm cells, with L. plantarum B1 being significantly less sensitive to QACs in biofilm cells (P < 0·05). Following FCM with a Syto® 9/PI assay, which addresses cell membrane integrity, the emergence of damaged (Syto® 9- PI+ ) and injured (Syto® 9+ PI+ ) subpopulations was often observed in cells when they were treated with QACs, whereas intact (Syto® 9+ PI- ) and unstained (Syto® 9- PI- ) subpopulations were mostly encountered in chlorine-treated cells. Except Syto® 9- PI+ , all subpopulations were recovered on agar plates following FACS, with biofilm cells showing higher culturability irrespective of conditions, probably because of the residues of the biofilm matrix which serve as a protective cover for the bacteria. The CLSM revealed a substantial cell membrane damage within the QACs-treated biofilms, however, some cells deep in the biofilm were still intact and thus remained protected against this disinfectant. CONCLUSION: We found that FCM/FACS proved useful in the analysis of lactobacilli membrane integrity in disinfection experiments as well as in recovery evaluation of planktonic-biofilm cell subpopulations. In turn, CLSM was particularly useful in investigating the resistance mechanism when Lactobacillus cells were embedded in biofilms. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: This study highlights the need for treatment optimization on a case-by-case basis to avoid the emergence of cells in intermediate states with recovery potential and to reach and, thus, kill all bacteria in already developed lactobacilli biofilms.


Assuntos
Cloro/farmacologia , Desinfetantes/farmacologia , Lactobacillus/efeitos dos fármacos , Viabilidade Microbiana/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos de Amônio Quaternário/farmacologia , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Biofilmes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Membrana Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Citometria de Fluxo , Lactobacillus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Lactobacillus/isolamento & purificação , Microscopia Confocal
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