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1.
Georgian Med News ; (326): 23-35, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35959873

RESUMO

The extremely important role of the microbiome for human life and health has long been known. Many studies around the world are devoted to studying the mechanisms of action and functions of various bacteria that are permanent residents of our body. Connections between the bacteria of our microbiome and all organs and systems of the human body (intestine, brain, nervous and cardiovascular systems) have been identified. However, the effect of bacteria can be positive or negative, which affects the emergence and development of diseases or promotes healing. Genus Lactobacillus is one of the most numerous populations of bacteria in the human body. Moreover, they have a significant positive effect on health. Scientists are actively researching methods of cultivating and using bacteria of this genus in the pharmaceutical and industrial fields. Most probiotics contain lactobacilli strains. Therefore, the study of methods of cultivation and storage of lactobacilli in order to find ways to improve their viability and functionality and, at the same time, the invention of options to protect cell culture from various harmful factors is extremely important. In our review, we considered the importance of the microbiome for human health and the role of bacteria of the genus Lactobacillus as its component. Scientific works on studying the mechanisms of influence of lactobacilli on the functional capacity of human organs and systems have been studied. Much of the review is devoted to the study of lactobacilli cultivation methods, the diversity of culture media, and the importance of their components to improve the viability of lactobacilli culture because they are quite demanding and vulnerable. Attention is also paid to the development of methods of storage of grown cultures of bacterial cells and their improvement in order to obtain functional and suitable for further use in the pharmacological and industrial areas of bacterial strains.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Probióticos , Bactérias , Humanos , Lactobacillus/fisiologia
2.
J Oleo Sci ; 71(9): 1363-1374, 2022 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35965088

RESUMO

Probiotics frontier in depressing the clinical bacterial pathogens to avoid multidrug resistance phenomenon. The present study aimed to determine the antibacterial efficiency of chitosan encapsulated probiotics isolated from buffalo milk samples against clinical bacterial pathogens. The Agar well method was used for antibacterial activity. Lactococcus lactis (A) and Lactobacillus curvattus (B) were isolated from fresh buffalo milk samples, identified via culturing media, Gram's staining, biochemical tests, and antibiogram analysis. Encapsulation of probiotics was carried out using chitosan and was characterized via a scanning electron microscope. Antibiogram analysis elicit that L. lactis culture (A1) was highly sensitive to chloramphenicol (17.66±0.47 mm), tobramycin (15.33±0.47 mm), and ciprofloxacin (12.33±0.47 mm) and resistant against tetracycline, Penicillin G, Erythromycin, Amoxycillin, Ceftriaxone, Cephalothin, and Cephradine, while L. curvattus culture (B1) was affected by Ceftriaxone (18.67±0.47 mm), Amoxycillin (14.33±0.94 mm), Cephalothin (13.67±0.47 mm), Erythromycin (13.33±0.47 mm), Penicillin G (12.67±0.47 mm), Cephradine (10.33±0.47 mm), and Chloramphenicol (9.67±0.47 mm) and resistant against tetracycline, Tobramycin, and Ciprofloxacin. Antibacterial efficacy of non-encapsulated probiotic cultures was significant and maximum inhibition of bacterial were recorded compared to their cellular components. SEM of encapsulated probiotics revealed that they were successfully covered with a chitosan protective layer and could be effective as bio-preservatives due to being slowly released at the target site. The current study concluded that L. lactis, L. curvattus, and their cellular components have a significant bactericidal effect against infectious pathogens and could be used as a potential therapeutic drug against infectious diseases.


Assuntos
Quitosana , Lactococcus lactis , Probióticos , Amoxicilina , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Búfalos , Ceftriaxona , Cefalotina , Cefradina , Quitosana/farmacologia , Cloranfenicol , Ciprofloxacina , Eritromicina , Lactobacillus/fisiologia , Lactococcus lactis/química , Lactococcus lactis/fisiologia , Probióticos/farmacologia , Tetraciclinas , Tobramicina
3.
BMC Res Notes ; 15(1): 239, 2022 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35799214

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study evaluates the probiotic activity of three vaginal Lactobacillus gasseri (H59.2, IMAUFB014, and JCM1131) and one non-vaginal L. plantarum ATCC14917 against three Candida albicans (ATCC10231, candidiasis, and healthy vaginal microbiota). Displacement of lactobacilli and adhesion inhibition of C. albicans were evaluated on an abiotic surface through adhesion assays with different experimental settings (ES) through low (1.0E + 03 CFU/ml) and high (1.00E + 09 CFU/ml) levels of colonization. ES simulated dysbiosis (ES1 and ES4), candidiasis (ES2), and healthy vaginal microbiota (ES3). RESULTS: At ES2 and ES3, L. gasseri H59.2 showed discrepant inhibition values among C. albicans isolates (ES2: P = 0.008, ES3: P = 0.030; two-way ANOVA). L. plantarum was only displaced by 23%, 31%, 54%, and 94% against low and high levels of C. albicans ATCC10231. L. plantarum was less displaced, when compared to L. gasseri strains (ES1: 61-84%, ES2: 82-96%, ES3: 83-95%, and ES4: 73-97%), showing multiple statistical differences (ES1: P = < 0.001, ES2: P = 0.003, and ES3: P = < 0.001; two-way ANOVA). L. plantarum also showed a superior inhibition of C. albicans ATCC10231 in ES1 (81%) and ES2 (58%) when compared to L. gasseri strains (ES1: 27-73%, P < 0.001; and ES2:1-49%, P < 0.001; two-way ANOVA).


Assuntos
Candidíase , Probióticos , Candida albicans , Feminino , Humanos , Lactobacillus/fisiologia , Probióticos/farmacologia , Vagina
4.
Microbiol Spectr ; 10(4): e0115522, 2022 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35771011

RESUMO

The gut microbiota and its metabolic activities are crucial for maintaining host homoeostasis and health, of which the role of probiotics has indeed been emphasized. The current study delves into the performance of probiotics as a beneficial managemental strategy, which further highlights their impact on growth performance, serologic investigation, gut microbiota, and metabolic profiling in yaks' calves. A field experiment was employed consisting of 2 by 3 factorial controls, including two development stages, namely, 21 and 42 days (about one and a half month), with three different feeding treatments. Results showed a positive impact of probiotic supplements on growth performance by approximately 3.16 kg (P < 0.01) compared with the blank control. Moreover, they had the potential to improve serum antioxidants and biochemical properties. We found that microorganisms that threaten health were enriched in the gut of the blank control with the depletion of beneficial bacteria, although all yaks were healthy. Additionally, the gut was colonized by a microbial succession that assembled into a more mature microbiome, driven by the probiotics strategy. The gut metabolic profiling was also changed significantly after the probiotic strategy, i.e., the concentrations of metabolites and the metabolic pattern, including enrichments in protein digestion and absorption, vitamin digestion and absorption, and biosynthesis of secondary metabolites. In summary, probiotics promoted gut microbiota/metabolites, developing precise interventions and achieving physiological benefits based on intestinal microecology. Hence, it is important to understand probiotic dietary changes to the gut microbiome, metabolome, and the host phenotype. IMPORTANCE The host microbiome is a composite of the trillion microorganisms colonizing host bodies. It can be impacted by various factors, including diet, environmental conditions, and physical activities. The yaks' calves have a pre-existing imbalance in the intestinal microbiota with an inadequate feeding strategy, resulting in poor growth performance, diarrhea, and other intestinal diseases. Hence, targeting gut microbiota might provide a new effective feeding strategy for enhancing performance and maintaining a healthy intestinal environment. Based on the current findings, milk replacer-based Lactobacillus feeding may improve growth performance and health in yaks' calves.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Microbiota , Probióticos , Animais , Bovinos , Lactobacillus/fisiologia , Leite , Probióticos/farmacologia
5.
Microbiol Spectr ; 10(4): e0065722, 2022 08 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35730951

RESUMO

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has become a global public health problem. Although the pathogenesis of the disease is unknown, a potential association between the gut microbiota and inflammatory signatures has been established. Probiotics, especially Lactobacillus or Bifidobacterium, are orally taken as food supplements or microbial drugs by patients with IBD or gastrointestinal disorders due to their safety, efficacy, and power to restore the gut microenvironment. In the current study, we investigated the comprehensive effects of probiotic bacterial consortia consisting of Lactobacillus reuteri, Lactobacillus gasseri, Lactobacillus acidophilus (Lactobacillus spp.), and Bifidobacterium lactis (Bifidobacterium spp.) or their metabolites in a dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis mouse model. Our data demonstrate that probiotic consortia not only ameliorate the disease phenotype but also restore the composition and structure of the gut microbiota. Moreover, the effect of probiotic consortia is better than that of any single probiotic strain. The results also demonstrate that mixed fermentation metabolites are capable of ameliorating the symptoms of gut inflammation. However, the administration of metabolites is not as effective as probiotic consortia with respect to phenotypic characteristics, such as body weight, disease activity index (DAI), and histological score. In addition, mixed metabolites led only to changes in intestinal flora composition. In summary, probiotic consortia and metabolites could exert protective roles in the DSS-induced colitis mouse model by reducing inflammation and regulating microbial dysbiosis. These findings from the current study provide support for the development of probiotic-based microbial products as an alternative therapeutic strategy for IBD. IMPORTANCE IBD is a chronic nonspecific inflammatory disease. IBD is characterized by a wide range of lesions, often involving the entire colon, and is characterized mainly by ulcers and erosions of the colonic mucosa. In the present study, we investigated the efficacy of probiotics on the recovery of gut inflammation and the restoration of gut microecology. We demonstrate that probiotic consortia have a superior effect in inhibiting inflammation and accelerating recovery compared with the effects observed in the control group or groups administered with a single strain. These results support the utilization of probiotic consortia as an alternative therapeutic approach to treat IBD.


Assuntos
Colite , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais , Probióticos , Animais , Bifidobacterium/fisiologia , Colite/tratamento farmacológico , Colite/terapia , Colo/microbiologia , Sulfato de Dextrana/efeitos adversos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Inflamação/patologia , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/terapia , Lactobacillus/fisiologia , Camundongos , Probióticos/farmacologia , Probióticos/uso terapêutico
6.
J Microbiol ; 60(4): 355-363, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35344188

RESUMO

Periodontitis refers to a wide range of the inflammatory conditions of supporting dental structures. For some patients with periodontitis, antibacterial agents are needed as an adjuvant to mechanical debridement treatments and oral hygiene maintenance. However, the widespread use of broad-spectrum antibiotics for the prophylaxis and treatment of periodontal infections results in the emergence of resistant pathogens. Therefore, probiotics have become markedly interesting to researchers as a potentially safe alternative to periodontal treatment and maintenance. Probiotics have been used in medicine for decades and extensively applied to the treatment of inflammatory diseases through the modulation of microbial synergy and other mechanisms. A growing amount of evidence has shown that using Lactobacillus strains for oral cavity maintenance could improve periodontal health. In this study, we reviewed studies showing proof of the inhibitory effects of Lactobacillus species on periodontal inflammation. We also explored the rationale and potential for using Lactobacillus species in the management of periodontitis.


Assuntos
Lactobacillus , Periodontite , Probióticos , Humanos , Lactobacillus/fisiologia , Periodontite/microbiologia , Periodontite/prevenção & controle , Periodontite/terapia , Probióticos/uso terapêutico
7.
Microbiol Spectr ; 10(2): e0083221, 2022 04 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35238613

RESUMO

More and more people are aware of the importance of intestinal flora to human health, and people are interested in the regulation of intestinal flora and its interaction with the host. The survival status of the probiotics in the gastrointestinal environment and the microbial interactions between the lactic acid bacteria have also received considerable attention. In this study, the gastrointestinal environment tolerance, adhesion ability, and biofilm formation of the Lactobacillus strain in the coculture system were explored through the real-time fluorescence-based quantitative PCR, UPLC-MS/MS metabolic profiling analysis, and Live/Dead BacLight cell staining methods. The results showed that the coculture system could promote the release of signal molecules autoinducer-2 and effectively protect the viability of the Lactobacillus acidophilus in the gastrointestinal environment. Meanwhile, amino acid-derived characteristic metabolite l-alanine (1%) could effectively enhance the communication of the cells in the complex fermentation model, which led to an increase in the tolerance ability of the L. acidophilus by 28% in the gastrointestinal-like environment. IMPORTANCE It was deduced from the study that amino acid-derived metabolites play an important role in cell communication in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) environment, thus enhancing the communication of Lactobacillus strains in the complex fermentation model. Meanwhile, the viability of Lactobacillus acidophilus can be increased in the coculture system during the gastrointestinal stress environment treated with the amino acid-derived quorum sensing (QS) molecule l-alanine. It will shed some light on the application of amino acid-derived QS molecules in the fermentation stater industry.


Assuntos
Lactobacillus , Probióticos , Alanina/metabolismo , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida , Técnicas de Cocultura , Fermentação , Trato Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Humanos , Lactobacillus/fisiologia , Percepção de Quorum , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
8.
Probiotics Antimicrob Proteins ; 14(2): 252-262, 2022 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35325390

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate the probiotic potential of gut indigenous lactic acid bacteria (LAB) originated from Apis cerana. Six Limosilactobacillus reuteri and one Lactobacillus helveticus were isolated from gut samples of A. cerana adult worker bee. All isolates antagonized the growth of pathogens including Salmonella typhimurium, Escherichia coli, Shigella flexneri, and Flavobacterium frigidimaris, and L. helveticus KM7 showed the greatest antimicrobial activity among them. All strains were sensitive to cefotaxime, amoxicillin, cephalothin, penicillin G, kanamycin, and vancomycin, moderately sensitive to novobiocin and resistant to gentamicin. Six out of seven strains were sensitive to ampicillin. L. helveticus KM7 was chosen to evaluate in vivo probiotic effect of adult worker bees of A. cerana through fed sucrose syrup supplemented with KM7. Administration of KM7 increased survival rate and gut LAB but decreased gut fungi and Enterococcus in honeybees. Expressions of genes related to antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) including Abaecin and Defensin were also induced in the gut of honeybees. The results suggested that L. helveticus KM7 with greater probiotic properties could improve the survival rate of adult worker honeybees of A. cerana through regulating gut microbiota and AMPs genes expression.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Lactobacillales , Probióticos , Animais , Abelhas , Enterococcus , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Lactobacillus/fisiologia , Probióticos/farmacologia
9.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 1076, 2022 02 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35228537

RESUMO

Despite the high prevalence of both cervico-vaginal human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and bacterial vaginosis (BV) worldwide, their causal relationship remains unclear. While BV has been presumed to be a risk factor for HPV acquisition and related carcinogenesis for a long time, here, supported by both a large retrospective follow-up study (n = 6,085) and extensive in vivo data using the K14-HPV16 transgenic mouse model, we report a novel blueprint in which the opposite association also exists. Mechanistically, by interacting with several core members (NEMO, CK1 and ß-TrCP) of both NF-κB and Wnt/ß-catenin signaling pathways, we show that HPV E7 oncoprotein greatly inhibits host defense peptide expression. Physiologically secreted by the squamous mucosa lining the lower female genital tract, we demonstrate that some of these latter are fundamental factors governing host-microbial interactions. More specifically, several innate molecules down-regulated in case of HPV infection are hydrolyzed, internalized and used by the predominant Lactobacillus species as amino acid source sustaining their growth/survival. Collectively, this study reveals a new viral immune evasion strategy which, by its persistent/negative impact on lactic acid bacteria, ultimately causes the dysbiosis of vaginal microbiota.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Infecções por Papillomavirus , Vaginose Bacteriana , Aminoácidos , Animais , Feminino , Seguimentos , Lactobacillus/fisiologia , Camundongos , Microbiota/fisiologia , Membrana Mucosa , Peptídeos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Vagina/microbiologia , Vaginose Bacteriana/microbiologia
10.
Microb Pathog ; 164: 105446, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35167954

RESUMO

Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) is the most important oral pathogenic bacterial cause of dental caries. Here we investigated the abilities of probiotic lactobacillus strains of Lactobacillus curvatus (L. curvatus) BSF206 and Pediococcus pentosaceus (P. pentosaceus) AC1-2 to control S. mutans. Both probiotic strains are acid and bile salt tolerant and are resistant to hydrogen peroxide and lysozyme to promote their survival within the oral environment. In addition, both strains are highly hydrophobic and are also capable of engaging in electrostatic interactions. These properties enhance abilities of both strains to adhere to gingival epithelial cells and HT-29 for improved colonization of oral tissues, while also enabling these probiotics auto-aggregate and to form aggregates with S. mutans that both may prevent S. mutans from colonizing oral tissues and facilitate the clearance of the cariogenic bacteria from the mouth during swallowing of food and saliva. Furthermore, results presented herein revealed that L. curvatus BSF206 and P. pentosaceus AC1-2 effectively inhibited S. mutans activities (biofilm formation, secretion of extracellular matrix components, synthesis of water-insoluble glucans) and led to downregulation of expression of key S. mutans genes involved in biofilm production (gtfA, gtfB, ftf, brpA). Taken together, these results indicate that L. curvatus BSF206 and P. pentosaceus AC1-2 can inhibit S. mutans biofilm formation as a new strategy for preventing dental caries.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária , Probióticos , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Biofilmes , Cárie Dentária/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Lactobacillus/fisiologia , Pediococcus pentosaceus , Probióticos/farmacologia , Streptococcus mutans
11.
Food Funct ; 13(6): 3098-3109, 2022 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35226005

RESUMO

As a broadly defined member of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), the Lactobacillus strain is well characterized in food fermentation and specific strains can enhance the intestinal barrier function and be recognized as the probiotic strain. In recent years, many molecules of the cell surface are thought to be related to the adhesion property in the gastrointestinal mucosa. Mucus layer-related proteins, extracellular matrix proteins, and immunoglobulins also exhibit immunity regulation and protection of the intestinal epithelial barrier function. Meanwhile, the effects of bile and the low pH of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) on Lactobacillus colonization are also needed to be considered. Furthermore, LAB can adhere and aggregate in the GIT to promote the maturity of biofilm and the extracellular matrix secreting through the signal molecules in the quorum sensing (QS) system. Therefore, it is of great interest to use the QS system to regulate the initial adhesion ability of Lactobacillus and further enhance the probiotic effect of the biofilm formation of beneficial bacteria. This review summarizes the adhesion properties of cell surface proteins derived from Lactobacillus strains in recent studies and provides valuable information on the QS effect on the adhesion property of Lactobacillus strains in the GIT environment.


Assuntos
Aderência Bacteriana , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Trato Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Lactobacillales/fisiologia , Lactobacillus/fisiologia , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Percepção de Quorum , Fímbrias Bacterianas/fisiologia , Flagelos/fisiologia , Humanos , Lactobacillus/ultraestrutura , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Muco/metabolismo , Muco/microbiologia , Peptidoglicano/química , Peptidoglicano/metabolismo , Probióticos , Ácidos Teicoicos/química , Ácidos Teicoicos/metabolismo
12.
Microbiol Spectr ; 10(1): e0189621, 2022 02 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34985299

RESUMO

Honeybee gut microbiota plays an important role in host physiology and metabolism. Recent studies have shown that the influence of the resident microorganisms in the regulation of honeybee immune system is profound, which protects against the pathogen Serratia marcescens. However, only few of the core gut members in the regulation of immune functions have been studied. Here, we explored how different bee gut bacterial species aided in the clearance of the pathogenic Hafnia alvei, which causes bee septicemia with a high mortality rate. We found that both Gilliamella apicola W8136 and Lactobacillus apis W8172 protect honeybees from the opportunistic pathogen, while two other strains from Gilliamella and Lactobacillus did not affect the invasion of H. alvei. Transcriptomic analysis revealed that gut species induced different expression profiles in the gut. Specifically, two regulator genes from the Toll pathway, PGRP-S3 recognizing Gram-positive and Spätzle that bind to the Toll protein for the downstream signal transduction, were elevated by L. apis. Correspondingly, multiple genes encoding antibacterial proteins were also stimulated by L. apis. Interestingly, we found an increased expression of apidaecin, which also exhibited a high in vitro inhibitory effect on H. alvei. To elucidate the difference of strains in the host's immune regulation, comparative genomic analyses indicate that the S-layer proteins unique to L. apis are potentially involved in honeybee Toll signaling and the activation of antibacterial protein production. IMPORTANCE Honeybees are essential pollinators supporting global agricultural economies and food supplies. Recent honeybee decline has been linked to several factors, while pathogen infection is considered one of the most significant contributing factors. Although a limited number of bacterial pathogens have been identified, Hafnia alvei is one of the pathogens causing septicemia in adult bees. In this study, we showed that two bee gut members, Gilliamella and Lactobacillus, can clear H. alvei from invasion. Mono-colonization of specific strains can stimulate the host Toll signaling pathway and the downstream expression of AMPs. Specifically, apidaecin upregulated by the gut symbionts is more effective against the pathogen. Moreover, our genomic analysis suggests that the surface-layer proteins specific to Lactobacillus strains are an important driver of Toll signaling, highlighting the variation of bee gut strains in regulating the host immune system.


Assuntos
Abelhas/imunologia , Abelhas/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/imunologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Sistema Imunitário , Lactobacillus/fisiologia , Animais , Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos , Bactérias/classificação , Gammaproteobacteria , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Genômica , Hafnia alvei , Imunidade Inata , Simbiose , Tetraciclina
13.
Can J Microbiol ; 68(4): 269-280, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35038286

RESUMO

Exposure of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and yeasts to adverse fluctuations during fermentation causes stress; consequently, microbes develop adaptive responses. In this study, we investigated the physiological and proteomic responses of LAB and yeast to acid stress and their application in food fermentation. The physiological and proteomic responses of Lactobacillus amylovorus LS07 and Candida kefyr YS12 to acid stress were measured using turbidimetry, SDS-PAGE, and LC-MS/MS. The technique previously reported by the Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC) was employed to evaluate the physicochemical and organoleptic properties of sorghum gruel fermented using LAB and yeast alone and in combination as starter cultures and spontaneous fermentation as a control. The growth of L. amylovorus LS07 was optimal at pH 1.0, and that of C. kefyr YSI2 was optimal at pH 4. An increased intensity of 30S ribosomal protein S2 (L. amylovorus LS07) and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (C. kefyr YS12) was observed at pH 1 and 4, respectively, suggesting increased microbial metabolism, thereby reducing the stress. Sorghum gruel produced with combined starters had the highest crude protein (10.94%), iron content (0.0085%), and organoleptic acceptability (7.29), which was significantly different from the products produced with the single starters and the control. The combined starter (L. amylovorus LS07 and C. kefyr YSI2) adapted to stress yielded foods with improved sensory properties, minerals, and reduced anti-nutrient contents.


Assuntos
Lactobacillus acidophilus , Sorghum , Cromatografia Líquida , Fermentação , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Kluyveromyces , Lactobacillus/fisiologia , Proteômica , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
14.
BMC Vet Res ; 18(1): 60, 2022 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35093088

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pathogenic Escherichia coli (E. coli) is an important causative agent for infectious diseases in pigs and causes significant economic loss. The global concern of antimicrobial resistance of bacteria raises awareness of the alternative ways of using antimicrobial peptides (AMPs). The study was aimed to identify and test the efficacy of AMPs from Lactobacillus spp. against the growth of pathogenic E. coli isolated from pigs in Thailand. Briefly, cell-free culture supernatants (CFCS) from 3 strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) consisting of Lactobacillus acidophilus (strain KMP), Lactobacillus plantarum (strain KMP), and Pediococcus pentosaceus (strain KMP) were tested against pathogenic E. coli via agar well diffusion assay in quadruplicates. The presence of a zone of inhibition (ZOI) around wells was evaluated at different incubation time. Acid and bile tolerance test was performed for bacterial viability in acid and bile salt conditions. In addition, LAB cross-streaking assay was evaluated for antagonist activity. RESULTS: The study showed that CFCS from L. acidophilus KMP, L. plantarum KMP, and P. pentosaceus KMP could inhibit the growth of pathogenic E. coli isolated from pigs in a time-dependent manner. To exemplify, the ZOI of L. plantarum KMP against E. coli (ETEC) at 8, 10, 12, 14, and 16 h incubation, were 26.6 ± 1.1, 24.9 ± 1.9, 22.5 ± 2.4, 20.3 ± 2.9, and 17.9 ± 3.3 mm, respectively. The ZOI was significantly different between 8, 10, 12, 14 h incubation, and the ZOI of the CFCS from L. plantarum KMP was larger than others (P-value < 0.05). Furthermore, L. acidophilus KMP, L. plantarum KMP, and P. pentosaceus KMP showed viability in pH 3.0, 0.3, and 0.5% (w/v) bile salt concentration. They exhibited no antagonist activity among each other. CONCLUSIONS: According to the results, the CFCS from LAB including L. acidophilus KMP, L. plantarum KMP and P. pentosaceus KMP can inhibit the growth of pathogenic E. coli, isolated from pigs in Thailand. The antimicrobial activity observed was incubation time dependent.


Assuntos
Infecções por Escherichia coli , Probióticos , Doenças dos Suínos , Animais , Escherichia coli , Infecções por Escherichia coli/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Escherichia coli/veterinária , Lactobacillus/fisiologia , Pediococcus , Probióticos/farmacologia , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/prevenção & controle , Tailândia
15.
Microbiol Spectr ; 10(1): e0181521, 2022 02 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35019699

RESUMO

Evidence for the concept of the "gut-brain axis" (GBA) has risen. Many types of research demonstrated the mechanism of the GBA and the effect of probiotic intake. Although many studies have been reported, most were focused on neurodegenerative disease and, it is still not clear what type of bacterial strains have positive effects. We designed an experiment to discover a strain that positively affects brain function, which can be recognized through changes in cognitive processes using healthy mice. The experimental group consisted of a control group and three probiotic consumption groups, namely, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lacticaseibacillus paracasei, and Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus. Three experimental groups fed probiotics showed an improved cognitive ability by cognitive-behavioral tests, and the group fed on L. acidophilus showed the highest score. To provide an understanding of the altered microbial composition effect on the brain, we performed full 16S-23S rRNA sequencing using Nanopore, and operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were identified at species level. In the group fed on L. acidophilus, the intestinal bacterial ratio of Firmicutes and Proteobacteria phyla increased, and the bacterial proportions of 16 species were significantly different from those of the control group. We estimated that the positive results on the cognitive behavioral tests were due to the increased proportion of the L. acidophilus EG004 strain in the subjects' intestines since the strain can produce butyrate and therefore modulate neurotransmitters and neurotrophic factors. We expect that this strain expands the industrial field of L. acidophilus and helps understand the mechanism of the gut-brain axis. IMPORTANCE Recently, the concept of the "gut-brain axis" has risen and suggested that microbes in the GI tract affect the brain by modulating signal molecules. Although many pieces of research were reported in a short period, a signaling mechanism and the effects of a specific bacterial strain are still unclear. Besides, since most of the research was focused on neurodegenerative disease, the study with a healthy animal model is still insufficient. In this study, we show using a healthy animal model that a bacterial strain (Lactobacillus acidophilus EG004) has a positive effect on mouse cognitive ability. We experimentally verified an improved cognitive ability by cognitive behavioral tests. We performed full 16S-23S rRNA sequencing using a Nanopore MinION instrument and provided the gut microbiome composition at the species level. This microbiome composition consisted of candidate microbial groups as a biomarker that shows positive effects on cognitive ability. Therefore, our study suggests a new perspective for probiotic strain use applicable for various industrialization processes.


Assuntos
Cognição , Fezes/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Lactobacillus acidophilus/genética , Lactobacillus acidophilus/fisiologia , Metagenoma , RNA Ribossômico 23S/genética , Animais , Biodiversidade , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Lactobacillus/genética , Lactobacillus/fisiologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Doenças Neurodegenerativas , Probióticos/farmacologia , Probióticos/uso terapêutico
16.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 593: 137-143, 2022 02 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35066403

RESUMO

Depression, characterized by low mood, is a complex mental disorder that is a serious threat to human health. Depression is thought to be caused by a combination of genetic, environmental and psychological factors. However, the pathophysiology of depression remains unclear. In the present study, we found that Dcf1 knockout (KO) mice had depression-like symptoms and disruptive changes in gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) concentration and GABA receptor expression were found in the hippocampus of Dcf1 KO and WT mice. Furthermore, the gut microbiota composition of Dcf1 KO mice was significantly different from that of wildtype (WT) mice and Dcf1 KO mice showed lower Firmicutes and Lactobacillus content compared to WT mice. In addition, the depression-like behavior of Dcf1 KO mice was alleviated by the administration of microbiota. More surprisingly, after treatment with Lactobacillus murine and Lactobacillus reuteri, two Lactobacillus species with proportionally greater differences in content between the WT and KO groups, KO mice showed similar GABA content, as well as restored GABA-related receptor expression, as the WT group. Our data elucidated a possible mechanism of depression induction by gut microbiota in Dcf1 KO mice and provide a new avenue to explore the treatment of depression by gut microbiota.


Assuntos
Depressão/terapia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Intestinos/transplante , Lactobacillus reuteri/fisiologia , Lactobacillus/fisiologia , Proteínas de Membrana/fisiologia , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/fisiologia , Probióticos/administração & dosagem , Animais , Depressão/etiologia , Depressão/metabolismo , Depressão/patologia , Intestinos/microbiologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout
17.
J Reprod Immunol ; 149: 103455, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34883392

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the available scientific evidence regarding the placental microbial composition of a healthy pregnancy, the quality of this evidence, and the potential relation between placental and oral microbiome. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data sources: MEDLINE and EMBASE up to August 1, 2019. STUDY ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: Human subjects; healthy women; term deliveries; healthy normal birth weight; assessment of microorganisms (bacteria) in placental tissue; full research papers in English. The quality of the included studies was assessed by a modified Joanna Briggs Institute checklist for analytical cross-sectional studies. RESULTS: 57 studies passed the inclusion criteria. Of these, 33 had a high risk of quality bias (e.g., insufficient infection control, lack of negative controls, poor description of the healthy cases). The remaining 24 studies had a low (N = 12) to moderate (N = 12) risk of bias and were selected for in-depth analysis. Of these 24 studies, 22 reported microorganisms in placental tissues, where Lactobacillus (11 studies), Ureaplasma (7), Fusobacterium (7), Staphylococcus (7), Prevotella (6) and Streptococcus (6) were among the most frequently identified genera. Methylobacterium (4), Propionibacterium (3), Pseudomonas (3) and Escherichia (2), among others, although frequently reported in placental samples, were often reported as contaminants in studies that used negative controls. CONCLUSIONS: The results support the existence of a low biomass placental microbiota in healthy pregnancies. Some of the microbial taxa found in the placenta might have an oral origin. The high risk of quality bias for the majority of the included studies indicates that the results of individual papers should be interpreted with caution.


Assuntos
Fusobacterium/fisiologia , Lactobacillus/fisiologia , Microbiota/genética , Placenta/microbiologia , Gravidez , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Ureaplasma/fisiologia , Adulto , Animais , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos
18.
Oral Dis ; 28(6): 1723-1732, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33749084

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Probiotics participate in regulating oral microbiota and reducing the prevalence of oral diseases; however, clinical research on probiotics is insufficient. Therefore, in this study, we performed in vitro screening of potential oral protective probiotic strains and then evaluated the clinical efficacy of the selected strains on maintaining oral health. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty healthy individuals were recruited and randomly assigned into the placebo group and probiotics group, which included three strains of probiotics, Lactobacillus salivarius subs. salicinius AP-32, Lactobacillus paracasei ET-66, and Lactobacillus plantarum LPL28. Each group was blindly administered placebo or probiotics for four weeks. RESULTS: Next-generation sequencing results showed that the oral microbiota of Lactobacillus salivarius in the oral cavity were significantly increased in subjects supplemented with mixed probiotic lozenges. The anti-bacterial activities of viable probiotics were observed within two weeks. Both IgA levels and Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium abundances in the oral cavity were significantly increased in the experimental groups, along with a reduced formation of plaque. Most participants reported that their oral health conditions and intestinal symptoms had improved. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, our clinical study suggests that oral probiotic lozenges may enhance oral immunity, modulate oral microbiota, and improve oral health.


Assuntos
Placa Dentária , Probióticos , Bifidobacterium/fisiologia , Placa Dentária/microbiologia , Humanos , Imunidade , Lactobacillus/fisiologia , Probióticos/uso terapêutico
19.
J Sci Food Agric ; 102(7): 2981-2989, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34773408

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Maintaining viability of beneficial microorganisms applied to foods still constitutes an industrial challenge. Many microencapsulation methodologies have been studied to protect probiotic microorganisms and ensure their resistance from manufacturing through to consumption. However, in many Latin-American countries such as Argentina there are still no marketed food products containing microencapsulated beneficial bacteria. The objectives of this work were: (i) to obtain microcapsules containing Lactobacillus fermentum L23 and L. rhamnosus L60 in a milk protein matrix; and (ii) to evaluate the viability of microencapsulated lactobacilli exposed to long-term refrigerated storage, mid-high temperatures and simulated gastrointestinal conditions. RESULTS: The method of emulsification/rennet-catalyzed gelation of milk proteins used in this study led to high encapsulation yields for both strains (98.2-99%). Microencapsulated lactobacilli remained viable for 120 days at 4 °C, while free lactobacilli gradually lost their viability under the same conditions. Microencapsulation increased the resistance of lactobacilli to mid-high temperatures, since they showed survival rates of 95-99.3% at 50 °C, and of 72.5-74.4% at 65 °C. Under simulated gastric conditions, the microencapsulated lactobacilli counts were higher than 8.5 log CFU mL-1 and showed survival rates between 96.61% and 97.74%. Furthermore, in the presence of bile (0.5-2% w/v) the survival of microencapsulated strains was higher than 96%. CONCLUSION: The microencapsulation process together with the matrix of milk proteins used in this study protected beneficial Lactobacillus strains against these first simulated technological and physiological conditions. These findings suggest that this microencapsulation method could contribute to secure optimal amounts of living lactobacilli cells able to reach the intestine. © 2021 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Lactobacillus , Probióticos , Cápsulas , Lactobacillus/fisiologia , Viabilidade Microbiana , Proteínas do Leite
20.
Pol J Microbiol ; 70(4): 511-520, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34970318

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate in vitro effects of the selected prebiotics alone, and in combination with two potential probiotic Lactobacillus strains on the microbial composition of Apis cerana gut microbiota and acid production. Four prebiotics, inulin, fructo-oligosaccharides, xylo-oligosaccharides, and isomalto-oligosaccharides were chosen, and glucose served as the carbon source. Supplementation of this four prebiotics increased numbers of Bifidobacterium and lactic acid bacteria while decreasing the pH value of in vitro fermentation broth inoculated with A. cerana gut microbiota compared to glucose. Then, two potential probiotics derived from A. cerana gut at different dosages, Lactobacillus helveticus KM7 and Limosilactobacillus reuteri LP4 were added with isomalto-oligosaccharides in fermentation broth inoculated with A. cerana gut microbiota, respectively. The most pronounced impact was observed with isomalto-oligosaccharides. Compared to isomalto-oligosaccharides alone, the combination of isomalto-oligosaccharides with both lactobacilli strains induced the growth of Bifidobacterium, LAB, and total bacteria and reduced the proliferation of Enterococcus and fungi. Consistent with these results, the altered metabolic activity was observed as lowered pH in in vitro culture of gut microbiota supplemented with isomalto-oligosaccharides and lactobacilli strains. The symbiotic impact varied with the types and concentration of Lactobacillus strains and fermentation time. The more effective ability was observed with IMO combined with L. helveticus KM7. These results suggested that isomalto-oligosaccharides could be a potential prebiotic and symbiotic with certain lactobacilli strains on A. cerana gut microbiota.


Assuntos
Abelhas , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Prebióticos , Probióticos , Simbióticos , Animais , Abelhas/microbiologia , Bifidobacterium/fisiologia , Fermentação , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Trato Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Glucose/farmacologia , Lactobacillus/fisiologia , Oligossacarídeos/farmacologia , Probióticos/farmacologia , Simbióticos/análise
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