Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 1.943
Filtrar
1.
Zoolog Sci ; 38(2): 148-161, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33812354

RESUMO

We investigated the geographic diversification of Plestiodon finitimus, which occurs in the central to northern parts of the Japanese Islands, based on a time-calibrated mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) phylogeny and external morphological characters. The mtDNA phylogeny suggests that P. finitimus diverged from its sister species Plestiodon japonicus in western Japan 2.82-4.63 million years ago (MYA), which can be explained by geographic isolation due to the spread of sedimentary basins in the Pliocene. The primary intraspecific divergence was that between P. finitimus lineages in central and northeastern Japan 1.58-2.76 MYA, which could have been caused by the upliftings of major mountain ranges. In the northeastern lineage, mtDNA and morphological characters suggest a geographic differentiation between sub-lineages of the northwestern Tohoku District (α) and other areas (ß). Although the sub-lineage ß occurs in a disjunct geographic range, consisting of Hokkaido and the central to south of Tohoku, these areas are bridged by populations with intermediate characteristics along the Pacific side of northern Tohoku. Overall, the geographic variation in P. finitimus in northern Japan can be explained by an initial allopatric divergence of the sub-lineages α and ß at 0.71-1.39 MYA, a recent northward expansion of the sub-lineage ß, and subsequent secondary introgressive hybridization between the sub-lineages.


Assuntos
Distribuição Animal , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Lagartos/fisiologia , Escamas de Animais/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Japão , Lagartos/anatomia & histologia , Lagartos/genética , Filogenia , Filogeografia
2.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 1525, 2021 03 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33750763

RESUMO

Anolis lizards originated in continental America but have colonized the Greater Antillean islands and recolonized the mainland, resulting in three major groups (Primary and Secondary Mainland and Greater Antillean). The adaptive radiation in the Greater Antilles has famously resulted in the repeated evolution of ecomorphs. Yet, it remains poorly understood to what extent this island radiation differs from diversification on the mainland. Here, we demonstrate that the evolutionary modularity between girdles and limbs is fundamentally different in the Greater Antillean and Primary Mainland Anolis. This is consistent with ecological opportunities on islands driving the adaptive radiation along distinct evolutionary trajectories. However, Greater Antillean Anolis share evolutionary modularity with the group that recolonized the mainland, demonstrating a persistent phylogenetic inertia. A comparison of these two groups support an increased morphological diversity and faster and more variable evolutionary rates on islands. These macroevolutionary trends of the locomotor skeleton in Anolis illustrate that ecological opportunities on islands can have lasting effects on morphological diversification.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Lagartos/anatomia & histologia , Lagartos/classificação , Filogenia , Esqueleto/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Região do Caribe , Extremidades , Feminino , Ilhas , Masculino , Sistema Musculoesquelético/anatomia & histologia , Filogeografia , Especificidade da Espécie
3.
Zootaxa ; 4927(3): zootaxa.4927.3.4, 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33756701

RESUMO

Documenting recent extinction events against the backdrop of increasing human-induced environmental pressure is complicated by the lack of historical and subfossil evidence for most parts of the world. This paucity of data renders it particularly difficult to evaluate the human impact on fragile environments, such as small islands, that may have been heavily altered by historical human exploitation. Here we describe a new species of an extinct Leiocephalus lizard from Guadeloupe, Leiocephalus roquetus sp. nov. based on recent discoveries of both a previously undocumented historically taxidermy specimen and of a large assemblage of subfossil bone remains from La Désirade Island. This new species presents a primitive morphology compared to all extant species of its genus and provides evidence for the past existence of a Lesser Antillean clade of Leiocephalus lizards that was completely wiped out in the centuries following the European colonization of these islands. Our study demonstrates how paleontological approaches can help to better understand the history of human environmental impact as well as the degree of degradation of modern ecosystems.


Assuntos
Fósseis , Lagartos , Animais , Ecossistema , Guadalupe , Ilhas , Lagartos/anatomia & histologia
4.
Mol Phylogenet Evol ; 157: 107046, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33421613

RESUMO

Recent conceptual and methodological advances have enabled an increasing number of studies to address the problem of species delimitation in a comprehensive manner. This is of particular interest in cases of species whose divergence times are recent and/or effective population sizes are large, where the conclusions obtained from a single source of evidence may lead to erroneous estimations of true species numbers or incorrect assignment of individuals to species. Iguanian lizards of the Liolaemus kingii group (13 species) comprise an important component of the endemic fauna of Patagonia. The southernmost species of this group (namely L. baguali, L. escarchadosi, L. sarmientoi, and L. tari) show widely overlapping distributions across southern Patagonia, also, their phylogenetic relationships are ambiguous and species boundaries have not been explicitly tested. Here we use a comprehensive approach to assess species limits through the use of molecular and morphological information (mitochondrial cytb, nuclear sequences collected by ddRADseq, and linear, meristic and landmark-based morphometrics). We found support for the current taxonomy given that the different analyses recognized the nominal species (4 entities), also a candidate species was supported by mitochondrial and morphological data. In addition, we detected signs of admixture between some of the species. Our results indicate that the L. kingii group can serve as a model system in studies of diversification accompanied by hybridization in nature, which in turn might have been promoted by past climatic oscillations and generalist morphologies. We emphasize the importance of using multiple lines of evidence in order to solve evolutionary stories, and minimizing potential erroneous results that may arise when relying on a single source of information.


Assuntos
Lagartos/classificação , Análise de Variância , Animais , Citocromos b/genética , DNA Mitocondrial , Loci Gênicos , Geografia , Hibridização Genética , Lagartos/anatomia & histologia , Lagartos/genética , Filogenia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Análise de Componente Principal , Especificidade da Espécie
5.
Mol Phylogenet Evol ; 154: 106993, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33148523

RESUMO

Lineage differentiation, long-term persistence, and range limitation promote high levels of phylogenetic and phylogeographic endemisms and likely underlie the abundant morphologically cryptic diversity observed in the Brazilian Atlantic Forests (AF). We explore lineage differentiation and range restriction in the AF and ask if genetic divergence and morphological disparity are correlated by integrating coalescent-based species delimitation, molecular phylogenetic, and morphological analyses in the lizard genus Leposoma. We present the first species tree for Leposoma and of their tribe, the Ecpleopodini. The analyses are based on the largest dataset ever assembled for Leposoma in terms of number of species (all represented), genetic markers (12 loci), and geographic coverage (~2,500 km). The exercise allows us to robustly delimit species within the genus and phylogeographic lineages within all species. We find support for the monophyly of the genus and for the recognition of a yet undescribed species around the Baía de Todos-os-Santos, in the state of Bahia; this form is distinct from all other congeners, both genetically and morphologically. We find that L. baturitensis, from the northeastern state of Ceará, is basal to the genus - and sister to a clade of six species restricted to the AF across the eastern coast of Brazil. Relationships within this coastal clade are ((((L. annectans, Leposoma sp.), L. scincoides), L. puk) (L. nanodactylus, L. sinepollex)). Phylogenetic and phylogeographic analyses, together with precise distribution data, allowed us to update the ranges of species and phylogeographic lineages. We reveal pervasive geographic restriction of divergent lineages in Leposoma at and below species level and discuss how forest refuges and rivers might have contributed to it. We find that morphological disparity lags behind genetic divergence in the genus because although they are correlated, the first accumulates at a much slower rate than the latter. We hope to encourage new studies in the area of AF north of the Doce river; phylogeographic sampling in that region has been much less common relative to southern sites, yet it may hold the key to several important processes defining biodiversity patterns in eastern Brazil. This appears to specially apply to processes underlying geographic restriction of morphologically cryptic, yet genetic divergent lineages, as the case of Leposoma.


Assuntos
Florestas , Variação Genética , Geografia , Lagartos/anatomia & histologia , Lagartos/genética , Animais , Biodiversidade , Brasil , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Deriva Genética , Filogenia , Filogeografia , Probabilidade , Especificidade da Espécie
6.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 22040, 2020 12 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33328503

RESUMO

Organs throughout the body develop both asymmetrically and symmetrically. Here, we assess how symmetrical teeth in reptiles can be created from asymmetrical tooth germs. Teeth of lepidosaurian reptiles are mostly anchored to the jaw bones by pleurodont ankylosis, where the tooth is held in place on the labial side only. Pleurodont teeth are characterized by significantly asymmetrical development of the labial and lingual sides of the cervical loop, which later leads to uneven deposition of hard tissue. On the other hand, acrodont teeth found in lizards of the Acrodonta clade (i.e. agamas, chameleons) are symmetrically ankylosed to the jaw bone. Here, we have focused on the formation of the symmetrical acrodont dentition of the veiled chameleon (Chamaeleo calyptratus). Intriguingly, our results revealed distinct asymmetries in morphology of the labial and lingual sides of the cervical loop during early developmental stages, both at the gross and ultrastructural level, with specific patterns of cell proliferation and stem cell marker expression. Asymmetrical expression of ST14 was also observed, with a positive domain on the lingual side of the cervical loop overlapping with the SOX2 domain. In contrast, micro-CT analysis of hard tissues revealed that deposition of dentin and enamel was largely symmetrical at the mineralization stage, highlighting the difference between cervical loop morphology during early development and differentiation of odontoblasts throughout later odontogenesis. In conclusion, the early asymmetrical development of the enamel organ seems to be a plesiomorphic character for all squamate reptiles, while symmetrical and precisely orchestrated deposition of hard tissue during tooth formation in acrodont dentitions probably represents a novelty in the Acrodonta clade.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Ósseo/fisiologia , Arcada Osseodentária/fisiologia , Lagartos , Odontogênese/fisiologia , Dente/fisiologia , Animais , Lagartos/anatomia & histologia , Lagartos/fisiologia
7.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 22068, 2020 12 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33328577

RESUMO

Toe fringe is the most typical morphological feature of lizards adapted to sandy environments, and it is simple in shape, can evolve repeatedly, and has a high degree of repetition; therefore, this feature is suitable for testing the adaptive convergence suggested by form-environment correlations. Phrynocephalus mystaceus mainly lives in dune habitats, has a developed bilateral toe fringe, and exhibits fast sand-burying behavior for predator avoidance. We tested the effects of resecting the medial and bilateral toe fringes on the locomotor performance and sand-burying performance of P. mystaceus. The results showed that the maximum sprint speed and acceleration on sand substrate did not significantly differ under different conditions (P > 0.05). Sand-burying performance scores of the unresected individuals were significantly greater than those of the resected individuals (P < 0.05). A partial least squares (PLS) regression analysis showed that the relative area of toe fringe was the main factor affecting the sand-burying performance of unresected P. mystaceus. For lizards without fringe, the PLS regression showed that the swinging index of the hind-limb was the main factor affecting the sand-burying performance of the lizard. A comparison of the swinging indexes of the hind-limb of the lizard under three states revealed that under the unresected states, the frequency of the swinging of the hind-limb was significantly higher than those of lizards with resected bilateral fringes, further indicating that the lizards compensated for the loss of fringe by increasing the time and frequency of swinging of the hind-limb. A path analysis also showed that the fringe affected the sand-burying performance of P. mystaceus not only directly but also indirectly by affecting the frequency of the swinging of the hind-limb. After the bilateral toe fringe was removed, a significant negative correlation between locomotor and sand-burying performance was observed (P < 0.05). Taken together, these results provide experimental evidence that toe fringe is positively associated with the sand-burying performance of P. mystaceus.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Ecossistema , Membro Posterior , Lagartos , Locomoção/fisiologia , Animais , Membro Posterior/anatomia & histologia , Membro Posterior/fisiologia , Lagartos/anatomia & histologia , Lagartos/fisiologia
8.
J Vis Exp ; (160)2020 06 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32597869

RESUMO

This protocol presents a method for manufacturing, control, and evaluation of the performance of a soft robot that can climb inclined flat surfaces with slopes of up to 84°. The manufacturing method is valid for the fast pneunet bending actuators in general and might, therefore, be interesting for newcomers to the field of actuator manufacturing. The control of the robot is achieved by means of a pneumatic control box that can provide arbitrary pressures and can be built by only using purchased components, a laser cutter, and a soldering iron. For the walking performance of the robot, the pressure-angle calibration plays a crucial role. Therefore, a semi-automated method for the pressure-angle calibration is presented. At high inclines (> 70°), the robot can no longer reliably fix itself to the walking plane. Therefore, the gait pattern is modified to ensure that the feet can be fixed on the walking plane.


Assuntos
Biomimética , Lagartos/anatomia & histologia , Robótica , Animais , Calibragem , Elastômeros/química , Desenho de Equipamento , Humanos , Movimento (Física)
9.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234736, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32574166

RESUMO

Imaging techniques have proved to be crucial for diagnosis in reptile species. The topography of the internal organs of bearded dragons has been described in recent studies as meeting the small animal practitioners´ demand for knowledge concerning their anatomy. However, the nomenclature in the respective literature is not uniform, which could lead to misunderstandings concerning the respective and/or affected parts of the alimentary canal. Therefore, the aim of this study was to provide clear information on anatomy and histology of the alimentary canal of bearded dragons including supplying blood vessels. For the dissection of the alimentary canal, 11 Inland Bearded Dragons (Pogona vitticeps) were used (five males, six females), which had been euthanised for clinical reasons other than those concerning the digestive tract or had died spontaneously. The supplying arteries were demonstrated by injecting red latex into the aorta, while the intestinal veins were filled with blue latex via the portal vein. Microscopic examination was carried out on specimens of seven additional bearded dragons using routine histologic procedures. Macroscopically, the sections of the alimentary canal from oral to aboral were distinguished into oesophagus, stomach, small intestine, colic ampulla, colic isthmus, rectum and cloaca. Differentiation of the duodenum, jejunum and ileum was only possible when considering the bile duct, the vasculature and the histology of the organ wall. Arteries supplying the oesophagus and the final straight part of the large intestine originated from the aorta in a segmental manner. Between these, three unpaired arteries arose from the aorta. Their branches supplied stomach and intestine excluding its last part. Based on the findings of the present study, a nomenclature for the different parts of the alimentary canal and the supplying blood vessels of bearded dragons is suggested which is well understandable for veterinary practitioners and is based on zoological knowledge of reptiles.


Assuntos
Vasos Sanguíneos/anatomia & histologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/anatomia & histologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/citologia , Lagartos/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Vasos Sanguíneos/fisiologia , Feminino , Técnicas Histológicas , Masculino , Neovascularização Fisiológica
10.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(3): 602-610, June 2020. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1098294

RESUMO

Due to the great change in the morphology of squamate vomeronasal organ (VNO), the histomorphology characteristics of VNO in Scincella tsinlingensis were studied by light and electronic microscopy. The results indicated that the VNO of S. tsinlingensis was located at the base of nasal cavity and consisted of a mushroom body situated anteroventrally and a sensory epithelium (SE) situated dorsocaudally. SE was composed of supporting cells, receptor cells and basal cells, and the supporting cells contained secretory granules near the surface membrane. Most of receptor cells were irregular in shape with long cytoplasmic extensions and characterized by microtubules, vesicles, and mitochondria. The basal cells with long cytoplasmic extensions were also irregular in shape and appeared a greater electron density than others. The thick nerve bundles were found on the dorsomedial area of VNO, and the surface of mushroom body was non-sensory epithelium consisting of ciliated and basal cells, without goblet cells. Epithelial cells were arranged in irregular, with many cilia and microvilli distributed on its free surface. Cells on the basal layer were irregularly circular in shape and arranged sparsely. Taken together, the results indicated that the fine structure of VNO in S. tsinlingensis was similar to other species from scincomorphs.


Debido al gran cambio en la morfología del órgano vomeronasal (OVN), se estudiaron las características histomorfológicas en la Scincella tsinlingensis por microscopías de luz y electrónica. Los resultados indicaron que el OVN de S. tsinlingensis se localizaba en la base de la cavidad nasal y consistía en un cuerpo como hongo situado anteroventralmente y un epitelio sensorial (ES) situado dorso caudamente. El ES estaba compuesto de células de soporte, células receptoras y células basales, y las células de soporte contenían gránulos secretores cerca de la membrana superficial. En gran parte de la mayoría de las células receptoras se observó una forma irregular con largas extensiones citoplasmáticas, caracterizadas por microtúbulos, vesículas y mitocondrias. Las células basales con extensiones citoplasmáticas también tenían forma irregular y algunas parecían tener una mayor densidad de electrones. Los haces gruesos nerviosos se encontraron en el área dorsomedial del OVN, la superficie del cuerpo de estaba compuesto de epitelio no sensorial y consistía de células ciliadas y basales, sin células caliciformes. Las células epiteliales estaban dispuestas de manera irregular, con muchos cilios y microvellosidades distribuidas en su superficie libre. Las células en la capa basal eran escasas y de forma circular irregular. Tomados en conjunto, los resultados indicaron que la estructura fina del OVN en S. tsinlingensis era similar a otras especies de scincomorpha.


Assuntos
Animais , Órgão Vomeronasal/anatomia & histologia , Lagartos/anatomia & histologia , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Órgão Vomeronasal/ultraestrutura , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão
11.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0233221, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32433700

RESUMO

Conspicuous coloration is an important subject in social communication and animal behavior, and it can provide valuable insight into the role of visual signals in social selection. However, animal coloration can be plastic and affected by abiotic factors such as temperature, making its quantification problematic. In such cases, careful consideration is required so that metric choices are consistent across environments and least sensitive to abiotic factors. A detailed assessment of plastic trait in response to environmental conditions could help identify more robust methods for quantifying color. Temperature affects sexual ornamentation of eastern fence lizards, Sceloporus undulatus, with ventral coloration shifting from green to blue hues as temperatures rise, making the calculation of saturation (color purity) difficult under conditions where temperatures vary. We aimed to characterize how abiotic factors influence phenotypic expression and to identify a metric for quantifying animal color that is either independent from temperature (ideally) or best conserves individual's ranks. We compared the rates of change in saturation across two temperature treatments using seven metrics: three that are based on fixed spectral ranges (with two of them designed by us specifically for this system) and three that track the expressed hue (with one of them designed by us to circumvent spurious results in unornamented individuals). We also applied a lizard visual sensitivity model to understand how temperature-induced color changes may be perceived by conspecifics. We show that the rate of change in saturation between two temperatures is inconsistent across individuals, increasing at a higher rate in individuals with higher baseline saturation at lower temperatures. In addition, the relative color rank of individuals in a population varies with the temperature standardized by the investigator, but more so for some metrics than others. While we were unable to completely eliminate the effect of temperature, current tools for quantifying color allowed us to use spectral data to estimate saturation in a variety of ways and to largely preserve saturation ranks of individuals across temperatures while avoiding erroneous color scores. We describe our approaches and suggest best-practices for quantifying and interpreting color, particularly in cases where color changes in response to environmental factors.


Assuntos
Lagartos/fisiologia , Animais , Cor , Meio Ambiente , Feminino , Genitália/anatomia & histologia , Genitália/fisiologia , Lagartos/anatomia & histologia , Masculino , Caracteres Sexuais , Pigmentação da Pele/fisiologia , Temperatura
12.
Proc Biol Sci ; 287(1926): 20200123, 2020 05 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32370666

RESUMO

Remarkable progress has been made characterizing one of nature's most integrated, hierarchical structures--the fibrillar adhesive system of geckos. Nonetheless, we lack an understanding of how multiple toes coordinate to facilitate geckos' acrobatic locomotion. Here, we tested the control function of gecko toes by running them on vertical substrates varying in orientation, friction and roughness. Sideways wall-running geckos realigned the toes of their top feet upward to resist gravity. Toe contact area was not compromised, but redistributed. Geckos aligned all toes upward to resist slipping when encountering low-friction patches during sideways wall-running. Negotiation of intermittent slippery strips showed an increased contribution of particular toes to compensate for toes that lost adhesion. Increasing substrate roughness using discrete rods perpendicular to sideways locomotion resulted in geckos bending and/or rotating toes to conform to and even grasp the rods, with potential forces more than five times body weight. Geckos increase their effectiveness of manoeuvrability in demanding environments by taking advantage of the distributed control afforded by multiple toes. Our findings provide insight on biological attachment and offer inspiration to advance gecko-inspired robotics and other biomimetic applications.


Assuntos
Lagartos/anatomia & histologia , Dedos do Pé , Adesividade , Animais , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Fricção , Lagartos/fisiologia , Locomoção , Modelos Biológicos , Corrida , Propriedades de Superfície
13.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(19): 10429-10434, 2020 05 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32341144

RESUMO

Extreme climate events such as droughts, cold snaps, and hurricanes can be powerful agents of natural selection, producing acute selective pressures very different from the everyday pressures acting on organisms. However, it remains unknown whether these infrequent but severe disruptions are quickly erased by quotidian selective forces, or whether they have the potential to durably shape biodiversity patterns across regions and clades. Here, we show that hurricanes have enduring evolutionary impacts on the morphology of anoles, a diverse Neotropical lizard clade. We first demonstrate a transgenerational effect of extreme selection on toepad area for two populations struck by hurricanes in 2017. Given this short-term effect of hurricanes, we then asked whether populations and species that more frequently experienced hurricanes have larger toepads. Using 70 y of historical hurricane data, we demonstrate that, indeed, toepad area positively correlates with hurricane activity for both 12 island populations of Anolis sagrei and 188 Anolis species throughout the Neotropics. Extreme climate events are intensifying due to climate change and may represent overlooked drivers of biogeographic and large-scale biodiversity patterns.


Assuntos
Lagartos/anatomia & histologia , Seleção Genética/fisiologia , Animais , Biodiversidade , Evolução Biológica , Clima , Mudança Climática/estatística & dados numéricos , Tempestades Ciclônicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Desastres/estatística & dados numéricos , Ecossistema , Ilhas , Filogenia , Filogeografia , Dinâmica Populacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Dedos do Pé/anatomia & histologia
14.
Integr Comp Biol ; 60(1): 190-201, 2020 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32227193

RESUMO

Synopsis Elongate, snake- or eel-like, body forms have evolved convergently many times in most major lineages of vertebrates. Despite studies of various clades with elongate species, we still lack an understanding of their evolutionary dynamics and distribution on the vertebrate tree of life. We also do not know whether this convergence in body form coincides with convergence at other biological levels. Here, we present the first craniate-wide analysis of how many times elongate body forms have evolved, as well as rates of its evolution and reversion to a non-elongate form. We then focus on five convergently elongate squamate species and test if they converged in vertebral number and shape, as well as their locomotor performance and kinematics. We compared each elongate species to closely related quadrupedal species and determined whether the direction of vertebral or locomotor change matched in each case. The five lineages examined are obscure species from remote locations, providing a valuable glimpse into their biology. They are the skink lizards Brachymeles lukbani, Lerista praepedita, and Isopachys anguinoides, the basal squamate Dibamus novaeguineae, and the basal snake Malayotyphlops cf. ruficaudus. Our results support convergence among these species in the number of trunk and caudal vertebrae, but not vertebral shape. We also find that the elongate species are relatively slower than their limbed counterparts and move with lower frequency and higher amplitude body undulations, with the exception of Isopachys. This is among the first evidence of locomotor convergence across distantly related, elongate species.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Lagartos , Locomoção , Serpentes , Animais , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Lagartos/anatomia & histologia , Lagartos/fisiologia , Filogenia , Serpentes/anatomia & histologia , Serpentes/fisiologia
15.
Zool Res ; 41(2): 172-181, 2020 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32125102

RESUMO

The European glass lizard, Pseudopus apodus (Pallas, 1775), is a large, legless lizard with wide distribution across south-eastern Europe and eastern and central Asia. To date, morphological diversification among populations on a geographically small scale has not yet been reported in this lizard. Thus, we investigated the morphological variations and corresponding differences in habitat utilization between two populations of P. apodus inhabiting the same biogeographical zone within a relatively close geographic area. We hypothesized that minor differences in habitat could induce a significant level of morphological differentiation, thus indicating morphological plasticity in this species on a small geographical scale. We sampled 164 individuals (92 from the Croatian mainland and 72 from the island of Cres). Results showed that P. apodus indeed exhibited morphological differences between populations in the same biogeographical zone within a relatively close geographic area, with the Cres Island individuals being generally larger than the individuals from the mainland. Some ecological characteristics were similar in both populations (e.g., soil temperature, distance to hiding place), whereas others were distinct (e.g., air temperature and humidity). In addition, vegetation cover differed between the two sites, with more vegetation present on the mainland than on the island. Furthermore, the Cres Island population showed clear sexual dimorphism, which was absent in the mainland population.


Assuntos
Traços de História de Vida , Lagartos/anatomia & histologia , Lagartos/fisiologia , Animais , Croácia , Ecossistema
16.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 2673, 2020 02 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32060387

RESUMO

Proximate control of the development of sexual dimorphism is still hotly debated in reptiles. In some squamates, many male-typical exaggerated traits including body size were assumed to be controlled by masculinization by male gonadal androgens. We performed a manipulative experiment to test the importance of this mechanism in the development of pronounced sexual differences in body size and size of head casque in the chameleon Chamaeleo calyptratus. Castrated males attained male-typical body size highly deviating from the body size of control females. Ontogenetic allometries of casque size on head length revealed that sexes depart considerably in casque growth later in the ontogeny; however, castrated males still follow male-typical casque growth. Paradoxically, exogenous testosterone led in females to slight increase of casque size, which might reflect interference with the feminizing effects of female gonadal hormones. The results in males strongly suggest that masculinization by male gonadal androgens during growth is not required for the development of sexual dimorphism in body size and casque size in the chameleon. The ontogeny of sexually dimorphic body size and exaggerated traits in at least some squamates is likely controlled by other proximate mechanism, possibly by feminization by ovarian hormones.


Assuntos
Androgênios/metabolismo , Lagartos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Caracteres Sexuais , Testosterona/metabolismo , Androgênios/genética , Animais , Tamanho Corporal/genética , Castração , Feminino , Gônadas/metabolismo , Lagartos/anatomia & histologia , Lagartos/genética , Lagartos/metabolismo , Masculino , Crânio/anatomia & histologia , Crânio/metabolismo , Testosterona/genética
17.
Mol Phylogenet Evol ; 146: 106754, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32028030

RESUMO

Recognizing species-level diversity is important for studying evolutionary patterns across biological disciplines and is critical for conservation efforts. However, challenges remain in delimiting species-level diversity, especially in cryptic radiations where species are genetically divergent but show little morphological differentiation. Using multilocus molecular data, phylogenetic analyses, species delimitation analyses, and morphological data, we examine lineage diversification in a cryptic radiation of Riopa skinks in Myanmar. Four species of Riopa skinks are currently recognized from Myanmar based on morphological traits, but the boundaries between three of these species, R. anguina, R. lineolata, and R. popae, are not well-defined. We find high levels of genetic diversity within these three species. Our analyses suggest that they may comprise as many as 12 independently evolving lineages, highlighting the extent to which species diversity in the region is underestimated. However, quantitative trait data suggest that these lineages have not differentiated morphologically, possibly indicating that this cryptic radiation represents non-adaptive evolution, although additional data is needed to corroborate this.


Assuntos
Lagartos/classificação , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , Variação Genética , Lagartos/anatomia & histologia , Lagartos/genética , Mianmar , Filogenia , Filogeografia
18.
Am Nat ; 195(2): E51-E66, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32017622

RESUMO

Evolutionary innovations and ecological competition are factors often cited as drivers of adaptive diversification. Yet many innovations result in stabilizing rather than diversifying selection on morphology, and morphological disparity among coexisting species can reflect competitive exclusion (species sorting) rather than sympatric adaptive divergence (character displacement). We studied the innovation of gliding in dragons (Agamidae) and squirrels (Sciuridae) and its effect on subsequent body size diversification. We found that gliding either had no impact (squirrels) or resulted in strong stabilizing selection on body size (dragons). Despite this constraining effect in dragons, sympatric gliders exhibit greater size disparity compared with allopatric gliders, a pattern consistent with, although not exclusively explained by, ecological competition changing the adaptive landscape of body size evolution to induce character displacement. These results show that innovations do not necessarily instigate further differentiation among species, as is so often assumed, and suggest that competition can be a powerful force generating morphological divergence among coexisting species, even in the face of strong stabilizing selection.


Assuntos
Voo Animal , Lagartos/anatomia & histologia , Sciuridae/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Tamanho Corporal , Comportamento Competitivo , Ecossistema , Lagartos/classificação , Filogenia , Sciuridae/classificação
19.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 2273, 2020 02 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32080209

RESUMO

The Middle Triassic was a time of major changes in tetrapod faunas worldwide, but the fossil record for this interval is largely obscure for terrestrial faunas. This poses a severe limitation to our understanding on the earliest stages of diversification of lineages representing some of the most diverse faunas in the world today, such as lepidosauromorphs (e.g., lizards and tuataras). Here, we report a tiny new lepidosauromorph from the Middle Triassic from Vellberg (Germany), which combines a mosaic of features from both early evolving squamates and rhynchocephalians, such as the simultaneous occurrence of a splenial bone and partial development of acrodonty. Phylogenetic analyses applying different optimality criteria, and combined morphological and molecular data, consistently recover the new taxon as a stem-lepidosauromorph, implying stem-lepidosauromorph species coinhabited areas comprising today's central Europe at the same time as the earliest known rhynchocephalians and squamates. It further demonstrates a more complex evolutionary scenario for dental evolution in early lepidosauromorphs, with independent acquisitions of acrodonty early in their evolutionary history. The small size of most terrestrial vertebrates from Vellberg is conspicuous, contrasting to younger Triassic deposits worldwide, but comparable to Early Triassic faunas, suggesting a potential long-lasting Lilliput effect in this fauna.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Ossos Faciais/anatomia & histologia , Fósseis , Lagartos/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Alemanha
20.
Nature ; 578(7795): 413-418, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32051589

RESUMO

The mammalian claustrum, owing to its widespread connectivity with other forebrain structures, has been hypothesized to mediate functions that range from decision-making to consciousness1. Here we report that a homologue of the claustrum, identified by single-cell transcriptomics and viral tracing of connectivity, also exists in a reptile-the Australian bearded dragon Pogona vitticeps. In Pogona, the claustrum underlies the generation of sharp waves during slow-wave sleep. The sharp waves, together with superimposed high-frequency ripples2, propagate to the entire neighbouring pallial dorsal ventricular ridge (DVR). Unilateral or bilateral lesions of the claustrum suppress the production of sharp-wave ripples during slow-wave sleep in a unilateral or bilateral manner, respectively, but do not affect the regular and rapidly alternating sleep rhythm that is characteristic of sleep in this species3. The claustrum is thus not involved in the generation of the sleep rhythm itself. Tract tracing revealed that the reptilian claustrum projects widely to a variety of forebrain areas, including the cortex, and that it receives converging inputs from, among others, areas of the mid- and hindbrain that are known to be involved in wake-sleep control in mammals4-6. Periodically modulating the concentration of serotonin in the claustrum, for example, caused a matching modulation of sharp-wave production there and in the neighbouring DVR. Using transcriptomic approaches, we also identified a claustrum in the turtle Trachemys scripta, a distant reptilian relative of lizards. The claustrum is therefore an ancient structure that was probably already present in the brain of the common vertebrate ancestor of reptiles and mammals. It may have an important role in the control of brain states owing to the ascending input it receives from the mid- and hindbrain, its widespread projections to the forebrain and its role in sharp-wave generation during slow-wave sleep.


Assuntos
Claustrum/anatomia & histologia , Claustrum/fisiologia , Lagartos/anatomia & histologia , Lagartos/fisiologia , Sono/fisiologia , Animais , Claustrum/citologia , Claustrum/lesões , Masculino , Mamíferos/fisiologia , Mesencéfalo/citologia , Mesencéfalo/fisiologia , Vias Neurais , RNA-Seq , Rombencéfalo/citologia , Rombencéfalo/fisiologia , Serotonina/metabolismo , Análise de Célula Única , Transcriptoma , Tartarugas/anatomia & histologia , Tartarugas/fisiologia
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...