Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 7.431
Filtrar
1.
Rev Environ Contam Toxicol ; 251: 1-24, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31011831

RESUMO

Heavy metal pollution in surface water is a global environmental problem. This study analyzed the trends, health risks, and sources of eight dissolved heavy metal species in river and lake water across five continents (Africa, Asia, Europe, North America, and South America; Oceania was excluded owing to a lack of data) for the period 1970-2017. We wanted to assess the effects of various implemented countermeasures to pollution and to determine those that could be adopted worldwide. Collectively, the water system showed increasing trends for Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Mn, and Fe and decreasing trends for Pb and Zn. The mean dissolved concentrations of most heavy metals were highest in Asia and lowest in Europe. Most heavy metals had low non-carcinogenic risks over this period. The cancer risks associated with Pb were lower than the hazardous level on all five continents over the five decades, whereas the cancer risks related to Cr exceeded the hazardous level in the 1970s, 2000s, and 2010s, and in Africa, Asia, and North America over the entire period. Mining and manufacturing were consistently found to be critical sources of metal pollution from 1970 to 2017. However, the heavy metal sources differed significantly by continent, with waste discharge and rock weathering dominant in Africa; mining and manufacturing, along with rock weathering, are dominant in Asia and South America; fertilizer and pesticide use, along with rock weathering, are dominant in North America; and mining and manufacturing, waste discharge, and rock weathering are dominant in Europe. Global trends in the metal loadings in water and in relevant pollution-control measures suggest that countermeasures in Europe have successfully controlled heavy metal pollution. The successful measures include implementing rigorous standards for metal emissions, limiting the metal concentrations in products, and rigorously treating metal-contaminated waste. Therefore, the measures implemented in Europe should be extended worldwide to treat heavy metal pollution in water.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/análise , Metais Pesados/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluição Química da Água/estatística & dados numéricos , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Lagos , Rios
2.
J Water Health ; 17(5): 826-836, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31638032

RESUMO

There is a global concern regarding the occurrences of harmful algal blooms (HABs) and their effects on human health. Lake Victoria (LV) has been reported to face eutrophication challenges, resulting in an increase of bloom-forming cyanobacteria. This study is aimed at understanding the association of HABs and health risks at Ukerewe Island. A cross-sectional study conducted on 432 study subjects and water samples for cyanobacteria species identification were collected at LV shores. The results reveal that concentrations of cyanobacteria cells are beyond (WHO) acceptable limits; species of Microcystis aeruginosa range from 90,361.63 to 3,032.031.65 cells/mL and Anabaena spp. range from 13,310.00 to 4,814,702 cells/mL. Water usage indicates that 31% use lake water, 53% well water and 16% treated supplied pipe water. Vomiting and throat irritation was highly reported by lake water users as compared to wells and pipe water (P < 0.001). Gastrointestinal illness (GI) was significantly elevated among lake water users as compared to pipe and well water users (P < 0.001). Visible blooms in lake water were associated with GI, skin irritation and vomiting as compared to water without visible blooms (P < 0.001). The concentration of cyanobacteria blooms poses greater risks when water is used without treatment.


Assuntos
Proliferação Nociva de Algas , Lagos/microbiologia , Microcystis , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Tanzânia
3.
Water Sci Technol ; 80(4): 675-684, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31661447

RESUMO

Microbial processes are critical to the function of freshwater ecosystems, yet we still do not fully understand the factors that shape freshwater microbial communities. Furthermore, freshwater ecosystems are particularly susceptible to effects of environmental change, including influx of exogenous nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus. To evaluate the impact of nitrogen loading on the microbial community structure of shallow freshwater lakes, water samples collected from Lake Shenandoah (Virginia, USA) were incubated with two concentrations of either ammonium, nitrate, or urea as a nitrogen source. The potential impact of these nitrogen compounds on the bacterial community structure was assessed via 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing. At the phylum level, the dominant taxa in Lake Shenandoah were comprised of Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria, which were not affected by exposure to the various nitrogen treatments. Overall, there was not a significant shift in the diversity of the bacterial community of Lake Shenandoah with the addition of nitrogen sources, indicating this shallow system may be constrained by other environmental factors.


Assuntos
Lagos , Nitrogênio , Bactérias , Proteobactérias , RNA Ribossômico 16S
4.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 69(7): 2108-2113, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31663498

RESUMO

Strain M8-2T, which was isolated from brackish lake water (Lake Sanaru) in Japan, was characterized for representation of a novel species in the genus Algoriphagus. Cells of strain M8-2T were aerobic, Gram-stain-negative and curved-rod-shaped (0.2-0.5 µm wide and 0.7-1.9 µm long). Strain M8-2T grew optimally at 30 °C, pH 6.5-7.5 and in the presence of 0.5-1.0 % (w/v) NaCl. MK-7 was the sole isoprenoid quinone. The major polar lipids were phosphatidylethanolamine, an unidentified phospholipid and an unidentified polar lipid. The predominant cellular fatty acids were iso-C15 : 0 and anteiso-C15 : 0. Phylogenetic analysis based on its 16S rRNA gene sequence showed that strain M8-2T belonged to the genus Algoriphagus and was closely related to Algoriphagus aquatilis A8-7T, Algoriphagus boseongensis BS-R1T, Algoriphagus aquaeductus T4T, Algoriphagus olei CC-Hsuan-617T, Algoriphagusshivajiensis NIO-S3T and Algoriphagus mannitolivorans DSM 15301T with sequence similarities of 96.6-97.4 %. Results of average nucleotide identity (<75 %) and digital DNA-DNA hybridization (<19 %) studies showed that M8-2T was distinct from its phylogenetic relatives. Based on the results of tests for acid production, the predominant cellular fatty acid composition, the DNA G+C content and phylogenetic position, a novel species in the genus Algoriphagus, with the name Algoriphagussanaruensis sp. nov., is proposed for strain M8-2T (=JCM 31446T=LMG 29969T).


Assuntos
Bacteroidetes/classificação , Lagos/microbiologia , Filogenia , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Bacteroidetes/isolamento & purificação , Composição de Bases , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Graxos/química , Japão , Hibridização de Ácido Nucleico , Fosfolipídeos/química , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Vitamina K 2/análogos & derivados , Vitamina K 2/química
5.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 91(3): e20171022, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31576911

RESUMO

Field surveys and integral modelling were carried out to study the effect of bubble plumes on the flow hydrodynamics and the time-evolution of water temperature profiles in a shallow lake with maximum depth of about 4 m. Then, model simulations were performed to verify the feasibility of destratification of ten water-supply reservoirs with capacities of 10-2,000 hm3. Finally, hydrological modelling was conducted to assess the impact of destratification on evaporation suppression and its effects on reservoir yield. The results indicate that net temperature reductions of the order of 1.0°C can be obtained, which corresponds to evaporation suppressions of approximately 10%. In turn, this resulted in increases in the regulated flow of 2-12% that could be described by a general correlation. Lastly, a simplified feasibility analysis provided an operational cost of about 1.0 US$ per cubic meter of saved water, which suggests that artificial destratification cannot be discarded as an alternative for supplementing water supply in rural water-scarce regions.


Assuntos
Lagos , Temperatura Ambiente , Recursos Hídricos , Abastecimento de Água/métodos , Brasil , Hidrodinâmica , Estações do Ano , Fatores de Tempo
6.
Sci Total Environ ; 692: 1201-1208, 2019 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31539951

RESUMO

Colloidal particles in lake waters interact inevitably with cyanobacterial extracellular polymeric substance (EPS), which will change their behavior and fate. Quantitative prediction of the effects of cyanobacterial EPS on colloidal behavior is difficult due to its variability and heterogeneity. To explore the effects of molecular weight (MW) fractions and chemical properties of cyanobacterial EPS on aggregation kinetics of colloidal particles, time-series cyanobacterial samples were collected in Lake Taihu, China, from April to November (during blooming and maintenance period), with the bulk EPS matrix fractionating into low MW (LMW-, <1 nm) and high MW (HMW-, 1 nm-0.45 µm) fractions. HMW-EPS was generally characterized with higher absorbance and predominant distribution of protein-like substances, while LMW-EPS contained mainly the humic- and fulvic-like substances. The absorbance, molecular size, and humification degree for each MW fraction consistently increased from April to November, showing obvious temporal variations from blooming period to maintenance period. As for the MW-dependent aggregation behaviors, the HMW-EPS provided better stability against aggregation than the LMW-EPS, and the bulk EPS matrix that consisted of HMW- and LMW-fractions exhibited the effects intermediate between that of each fraction alone. Regardless of MW fractions, the effects of EPS-induced stability enhancement were more evident in maintenance period than in blooming period. Further analysis showed that the colloidal stability was correlated positively with SUVA254 (R2 = 0.82-0.93) but negatively with Slope275-295 (R2 = 0.53-0.91) of UV-Vis absorption spectra, indicating that aromaticity and MWs were two critical parameters controlling colloidal aggregation. Therefore, cyanobacterial EPS can exhibit variable effects on colloidal stability, and characterization of MW distribution is strongly required in predicating the behavior and fate of colloidal particles in water environments.


Assuntos
Coloides/química , Cianobactérias , Matriz Extracelular de Substâncias Poliméricas , China , Eutrofização , Cinética , Lagos/química , Peso Molecular , Polímeros
7.
J Environ Manage ; 249: 109396, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31472307

RESUMO

Lakes are regarded as copious antibiotic reservoirs because the antibiotics discharged by human activities mostly end up in lakes and further threaten the aqueous ecosystem. Antibiotic contamination in lakes is mostly attributed to wastewater treatment plant effluents, which change the water quality and pose ecological risks. This study investigated the concentration of 10 selected antibiotics in 17 lakes along the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River Basin. The correlation between antibiotics and water quality parameters were analyzed. Seven out of the 10 selected antibiotics were detected in almost all the 17 lakes with the highest concentration at 1139.40 ng/L. Sulfamethoxazole (SMZ) and erythromycin (ERY) had relatively higher concentration compared with other antibiotics. Antibiotic detection frequency was approximately 40%-100% in all 17 lakes. Ofloxacin (OFX) and naproxen (NPX) were negatively correlated (p < 0.05) with redox potential, indicating their oxidation potential in freshwater lakes. OFX showed high or medium short-term risks in some of the lakes and low or insignificant long-term risks in the corresponding lakes, respectively. In contrast, sulfadiazine and SMZ exerted low and medium short-term ecological risks and medium and high long-term risks, respectively. Roxithromycin (ROX) showed low short-term risk in seven of the 17 lakes and medium long-term risk in the corresponding lakes. NPX showed insignificant short-term and long-term risks in almost all the 17 lakes. This study fills the gap on antibiotic ecological risk assessment along the Yangtze River Basin and reveal the importance of SMZ control in the research area.


Assuntos
Rios , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Antibacterianos , China , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Lagos , Medição de Risco
8.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 30(7): 2393-2403, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31418243

RESUMO

Polyphosphate accummulating organisms (PAOs) play an important role in the phosphorus metabolic cycling in the sediment of reservoir. We assessed the diversity and community structure of PAOs in the sediments by T-RFLP and clone sequencing which targeted ppk1 gene at the hearts of three reservoirs (Jiulongjiangxipi reservoir, Sanshiliujiao lake reservoir and Dongyaxi reservoir) in Fujian Province. The results showed that the diversity of PAOs varied among different reservoirs, though not statistically significant. The diversity of PAOs in the Sanshiliujiao lake reservoir was highest (Shannon index H=2.89±0.03, Simpson index D=0.06±0.01). The community structure of the PAOs in the Sanshiliujiao lake reservoir was most complicated, consistent with the results of the T-RFLP. The differences of dominant PAOs genera in three reservoirs were distinct, mainly concentrated in the Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria and Acidobacteria. The percentage of those three phylum accounted for 74.5%, 85.0% and 75.0%, respectively, of the total PAOs. The dominant groups in each reservoir sediment were Anaeromyxobacter and Solibacter. Various forms of phosphorus had certain influence on the diversity of PAOs. There were significantly correlation between Fe/Al-P and PAOs diversity and community structure. The dominant genus in the three reservoirs, Anaeromyxobacter, was positively correlated with all forms of phosphorus and significantly correlated with insoluble phosphorus such as OP and Ca-P, while Solibacter was negatively correlated with all forms of phosphorus. The results suggested that PAOs had important impacts on the phosphorus cycle of sediment in eutrophicatied reservoirs.


Assuntos
Sedimentos Geológicos/microbiologia , Lagos , Polifosfatos/metabolismo , China , Fósforo
9.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 30(7): 2404-2414, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31418244

RESUMO

Based on the net anthropogenic phosphorus input (NAPI) model, we estimated the NAPI of the Dongting Lake basin and its sub-basins from 1985 to 2015, and analyzed the spatio-temporal distributions and variations. The results showed that there was an increasing trend at first and then a decrease in the Dongting Lake basin. The NAPI values in the area in 1985, 1995, 2005 and 2015 were 7.00, 9.20, 10.33, 10.01 kg·hm-2·a-1, respectively. The largest input source changed from the net food and feed import in 1985 to phosphorus fertilizer during 1995-2015. The mean annual input of phosphorus fertilizer, with an average value of 6.01 kg·hm-2·a-1 accounting for 65.8% of NAPI; followed by the food and feed import, the annual average value was 2.65 kg·hm-2·a-1, accounting for 29.0%, and the least was non-food phosphorus, with an average annual value of 0.47 kg·hm-2·a-1, accounting for 5.2%. Spatially, the distribution of NAPI in the Dongting Lake basin showed the characteristics of high in the northeast region and low in the west, which was mainly consistent with distribution of local agriculture. The average annual NAPI values in sub-basin from high to low ranked as following: Dongting Lake area, Xiangjiang River downstream, Zijiang River upstream, Xiangjiang River upstream, Lishui River area, Yuanjiang River upstream, Yuanjiang River downstream and Zijiang River downstream. The highest NAPI was found in the Dongting Lake area, increasing from 13.01 kg·hm-2·a-1 in 1985 to 24.14 kg·hm-2·a-1 in 2015. Agricultural production and population growth were the main contributors to the current input of net phosphorus, and the negative ecological effects of which could not be ignored.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Lagos , Fósforo/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , China , Rios
10.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 182: 109482, 2019 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31398780

RESUMO

In Chinese Lake Taihu, the algal quantity was significantly larger in summer than late spring (p < 0.01). In summer, compared with the dredged area including neither zoobenthos nor submerged macrophytes, the algal biomass and density were significantly lower in the area filled with the submerged macrophytes. Interestingly, the minimum algal bloom was observed in the combined area containing submerged macrophytes and zoobenthos, which was due to the synergistic interaction between the zoobenthos and the macrophytes. The metabolite extracts from the numerically dominant zoobenthos Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri had significant algal inhibitory effects of Microcystis aeruginosa, and displayed stimulatory effects on seed germination, seedling growth, and peroxidase activity of the prevalent submerged macrophyte Potamogeton malaianus. 27 active compounds in the worm metabolites were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Among these compounds three chemicals arachidonic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, and linoleic acid with concentrations of 13.92 ±â€¯1.11, 10.57 ±â€¯2.52, 2.75 ±â€¯0.73 mg/kg dry weight, respectively, were confirmed as the typical allelochemicals with algal inhibition potential. In short, the metabolites allelopathy of L. hoffmeisteri can form and assist the synergistic effect between L. hoffmeisteri and P. malaianus on algal suppression. Thus, it is feasible to simultaneously restore submerged macrophytes and zoobenthos community in the disturbed eutrophic lakes for removing harmful algae.


Assuntos
Alelopatia , Eutrofização , Oligoquetos/fisiologia , Potamogetonaceae/fisiologia , Animais , Biomassa , Lagos , Oligoquetos/metabolismo , Plantas/química
11.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 30(8): 2793-2802, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31418205

RESUMO

This study assessed the dynamics of lakes in the north Tanggula Mountains in Tibet (NT area) and predicted the spatial changes. We used object-oriented classification and a spectral-angle vector change detection method to generate ecosystem distribution data for the NT area at five-year interval between 2000 and 2015. Based on this dataset, we measured the spatial pattern of lake dynamics and related geophysical and meteorological factors. A boost regression tree model was used to examine the contribution of these variables to lake area change, which were further used in a GEOMOD model to predict the distribution of lakes in 2030. The results showed that the area of lakes increased by 14.2% between 2000 and 2015, which was one of the main forms of ecosystem change in the NT area. In the study region, the area of 10 lakes out of the total 15 lakes with an area greater than 10 km2 increased and that of another five lakes decreased with a relatively low shrinkage ratio. Both the mean site area and site number of lakes increased, and the percentage of large lake sites increased slightly. Lakes located in areas with high altitude, high slope, low tempe-rature, low precipitation, or near glaciers had a higher probability of size increase. Locales near the current lake sites with low temperature, precipitation, and slope tended to become new parts of extant lakes. Following the trend of the last 15 years, lakes in the NT area would increase by 119 km2 by 2030, with the main form of lake expansion changing from inundation of area around large lakes to area around smaller sites.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Lagos/química , China , Tibet
13.
Environ Monit Assess ; 191(9): 548, 2019 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31392422

RESUMO

Global warming portends an accelerated water cycle as increased evaporation feeds atmospheric moisture and precipitation. To monitor effects on surface water levels, we describe a low-cost hydrologic observatory suitable for small to medium size lakes. The observatory comprises sensor platforms that were built in-house to compile continuous, sub-daily water budgets. The variables measured directly are lake stage (S), evaporation (E), and precipitation (P). A net inflow term (Qnet) is estimated as a residual in the continuity equation: ∆S = P - E + Qnet. We describe how to build in-lake stilling wells and floating evaporation pans using readily available materials. We assess their performance in laboratory tests and field trials. A 3-month deployment on a small Wisconsin lake (18 ha, 10 m deep) confirms that continuous estimates of ∆S, E, P, and Qnet can be made with good precision and accuracy at hourly time scales. During that deployment, daily estimates of E from the floating evaporation pans were comparable with estimates made using the more data-intensive Bowen ratio energy balance method and a mass transfer model. Since small lakes are numerically dominant and widely distributed across the globe, a network of hydrologic observatories would enable the calibration and validation of climate models and consumptive use policies at local and regional scales. And since the observatories are inexpensive and relatively simple to maintain, citizen scientists could facilitate the expansion of spatial coverage with minimal training.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Hidrologia/métodos , Lagos/análise , Clima , Aquecimento Global , Ciclo Hidrológico , Wisconsin
14.
J Environ Manage ; 249: 109251, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31401449

RESUMO

Quantifying the relationship between hydrological regime and habitat availability is the first step to predict potential impacts of water engineering projects on waterbirds, particularly in periodically flooded wetlands. The proposed Yangtze-to-Huaihe Water Diversion Project (YHWD) cuts through Caizi Lake, which is of international importance for wintering waterbirds. In order to explore the potential impacts of the project on habitat availability for the wintering waterbirds, we first built linear models to fit relationships between land cover patterns and water level dynamics in the lake, and then used generalized linear mixed models to test effects of habitat variables (water area, grassland area and mudflat area) on bird abundances of different functional groups. The avian habitat use differed among guilds, and was correlated with the land cover pattern, which was strongly dependent on seasonal water level fluctuations. Following water recession in autumn, the exposure of riparian habitats was more prominent in the eastern part of the lake, where the channel of the proposed YHWD project is located. This part of the lake is also where we located most of the important bird areas. Compared to the current situation, 54.3% of the grassland and 60.5% of the mudflats are predicted to be lost during winter due to the projected water level rise, resulting in reduced habitat availability for grass foragers, invertebrate eaters and tuber feeders. In order to mitigate potential impacts of the YHWD project, we suggest habitat compensations by construction of artificial habitats, and maintenance of water level regime at the whole lake by restoring similarity in water level fluctuations between Xizi Lake and Caizi Lake.


Assuntos
Lagos , Água , Animais , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Ecossistema , Estações do Ano
15.
J Environ Manage ; 249: 109371, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31404853

RESUMO

Point bar areas around lakes can provide ecological service functions. For example, plants growing on point bars absorb and remove nutrients from the soil and water. However, if the point-bar plants are unregulated, in the fall and winter, plant debris will decompose, releasing nutrients that then enter the water body and cause eutrophication. Therefore, any harvesting should be managed. But how to harvest plants and how often to harvest them, and there is little research on these. In this study, the point bar at Qingcaosha Reservoir was used to study the effects of three plant harvesting modes (M1: unharvested; M2: one harvest in the fall; and M3: one harvest in summer and one in the fall) on the removal of nitrogen (N) from point-bar soil. The largest amount of N was removed by the plants when the M3 mode was used (26.93 g/m2). However, the M2 mode removed the most N from the soil during the plant growth season (81.62 g/m2), which implied that the nitrification and denitrification effects of soil microorganisms make the largest contribution to N removal from this point-bar soil. The nitrification and denitrification activity of microorganisms was higher for M2 than for M1 and M3 in the following year. Additionally, summer harvesting (M3) had a negative effect on nitrification efficiency in the current season because anaerobic bacteria in the soil significantly increased and nitrifying bacteria significantly decreased after harvesting. However, after a period of recovery, the number of microbial nitrifiers increased again and nitrification activity rose in the following year. The reduction in oxygen supply after harvesting may be the main reason for low nitrification in the current season, but it was beneficial to nitrification and denitrification in the following year because there was luxuriant plant growth. Therefore, when considering both the current season and the following year, harvesting should not be too frequent and one harvest in the fall (M2) led to the largest removal of N from the soil.


Assuntos
Lagos , Nitrogênio , Desnitrificação , Nitrificação , Solo
16.
Environ Monit Assess ; 191(9): 571, 2019 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31420753

RESUMO

In Poland, lake minnow (Eupallasella percnurus Pall.) inhabit 160 sites, including 44 in the eastern part of the country. Their habitats are mainly small and shallow peat holes vulnerable to complete destruction due to being dried or overgrown. Such processes are regularly observed, with ~ 60% of sites having vanished since the 1950s. Therefore, this species is one of the most endangered fish species from the Cyprinidae family in Polish inland waters. A GIS approach was adopted to fully analyze their habitat loss. The habitat area was marked in four time periods (from the 1960s to 2018) in reference to 26 sites composed of 111 reservoirs and representing almost 60% of all those documented in Eastern Poland. On this basis, the rate at which the habitat will vanish and the predicted time when this will happen were calculated. The results showed that the mean vanishing rate oscillates between 1 and 2% of the area per year for 50% of the analyzed sites (N = 13). For three sites (11%), this value does not exceed 1% of each area per year and is higher than 2% for the rest of the sites (39%). The results indicate that if the process of overgrowing and shallowing is not stopped, 58% of the analyzed sites will disappear in the next 50 years (including 8 (31%) in the next 20 years). This trend may lead to a serious decline in the species population or even its extinction in the next decades. Passive protection has proven to be insufficient in preserving lake minnow habitats. Therefore, there is an urgent need to undertake decisive protection action, as proposed in this manuscript.


Assuntos
Cyprinidae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ecossistema , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Lagos/química , Animais , Extinção Biológica , Polônia
17.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(35): 9942-9949, 2019 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31403785

RESUMO

We develop an ultrasensitive T2-mediated immunosensor based on the coordination chemistry and Cu(I)-catalyzed 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition of azide andalkyne (CuAAC) and apply it for the detection of pesticide residues. We functionalize polyglutamic acid (PGA) on polystyrene to form a brush-like nanostructure that has a large loading capacity of Cu(II) through the coordination chemistry between PGA and Cu(II). Such a brush-like nanostructure could be used to chelate Cu(II) to modulate the CuAAC between azide-functionalized 1000 nm polystyrene (PS1000) and alkyne-functionalized 30 nm magnetic nanoparticles (MNP30), and the MNP30-PS1000 conjugate as a product of CuAAC can act as a magnetic probe in this T2-based immunosensor. This click chemistry and coordination chemistry-mediated immunosensor allows for an ultrasensitive detection for chlorpyrifos residue (0.022 ng/mL), a 58-fold enhancement compared with that of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (1.28 ng/mL), providing a promising platform for detection of trace small molecules.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais/métodos , Clorpirifos/análise , Nanoestruturas/química , Resíduos de Praguicidas/análise , Alquinos/química , Azidas/química , Técnicas Biossensoriais/instrumentação , Quelantes/química , Química Click , Cobre/química , Água Potável/análise , Lagos/análise , Ácido Poliglutâmico/química , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Poluentes da Água/análise
18.
Nat Ecol Evol ; 3(9): 1351-1358, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31427731

RESUMO

When traits affecting species interactions evolve rapidly, ecological dynamics can be altered while they occur. These eco-evolutionary dynamics have been documented repeatedly in laboratory and mesocosm experiments. We show here that they are also important for understanding community functioning in a natural ecosystem. Daphnia is a major planktonic consumer influencing seasonal plankton dynamics in many lakes. It is also sensitive to succession in its phytoplankton food, from edible algae in spring to relatively inedible cyanobacteria in summer. We show for Daphnia mendotae in Oneida Lake, New York, United States, that within-year ecological change in phytoplankton (from spring diatoms, cryptophytes and greens to summer cyanobacteria) resulted in consumers evolving increasing tolerance to cyanobacteria over time. This evolution fed back on ecological seasonal changes in population abundance of this major phytoplankton consumer. Oneida Lake is typical of mesotrophic lakes broadly, suggesting that eco-evolutionary consumer-resource dynamics is probably common.


Assuntos
Cianobactérias , Plâncton , Animais , Ecossistema , Lagos , Fitoplâncton
19.
Oecologia ; 190(4): 879-889, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31270594

RESUMO

Both biotic and abiotic factors have been invoked to explain the large variations observed in the prevalence and abundance of parasites in aquatic ecosystems. However, we have only a poor knowledge of the potential interplay among these factors in natural systems. It is, therefore, important to analyze the effects of multiple potential environmental drivers together to get an integrated view of their influence on the prevalence and abundance of parasites. To this end, we selected two genera of digenean trematode parasites that require at least two hosts to complete their life cycle and use two different transmission strategies. Crepidostomum moves through a trophic pathway via consumption of infected prey by the host, while Apophallus infects its hosts via direct penetration of their skin. This study was conducted in 23 Canadian Shield lakes exhibiting orthogonal gradients of biotic (fish species richness and biomass) and abiotic (morphometry, physico-chemical) variables. We quantified prevalence and abundance of these parasites in the skin and intestine of brook charr (Salvelinus fontinalis). Our results show that biotic factors are key drivers of parasite abundance and prevalence, with Apophallus being negatively associated with the fish species richness-biomass gradient, and Crepidostomum responding more to identity of host than to the diversity gradient. Among the abiotic variables, lake area was found to be positively related to both prevalence and abundance in Apophallus. Our results suggest that taking into account the interplay of both biotic and abiotic factors is crucial for understanding patterns of parasite transmission success in boreal lakes.


Assuntos
Trematódeos , Truta , Animais , Canadá , Ecossistema , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Lagos
20.
Sci Total Environ ; 691: 896-907, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31326813

RESUMO

The Lower Mara River and Wetland, Tanzania, is an important ecosystem and unique water resource for a vast semi-arid area. The river, an affluent of Lake Victoria, and the wetland are experiencing morphological and vegetation changes resulting in channel avulsions and wetland expansion. This study analyses the changes over the last 100 years and investigates natural and anthropogenic behaviors to explain the increase of the Mara Wetland area. We collated historical topographic maps and satellite images. We conducted two field surveys in low and high flow condition with an unmanned aerial vehicle, a sonar and an ADCP. We mapped selected areas as well as the bed topography in some stretches of the river, measured discharges, and collected river bed and suspended sediment samples. The analysis of the sediments shows that the wetland system, dominated by papyrus sp., is very efficient in trapping sediment, releasing clear water to the Lake Victoria. The historical reconstruction using topographic maps, satellite images and a multivariable analysis including hydrology and land cover, shows that 4 major avulsions occurred in the last 70 years due to a combination of natural behaviors, hydrological fluctuations and anthropogenic factors such as basin deforestation, farming and grazing along the river banks and in the wetland. Each avulsion led to substantial expansion of the wetland. Combined, they increased the wetland area by a factor of 3.6. Describing the Lower Mara River dynamic behavior, this work provides relevant information for sustainable future water and sediment management in order to preserve wetland habitats and natural resources.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Áreas Alagadas , Agricultura , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Ecossistema , Humanos , Hidrologia , Lagos , Rios , Imagens de Satélites , Tanzânia
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA