Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 707
Filtrar
1.
J Environ Qual ; 49(5): 1322-1333, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33016441

RESUMO

Antibiotics and estrogens are recognized as emerging contaminants in the water environment because of their potentially adverse effects on aquatic ecosystems. The concentrations of four steroid estrogens (17α-estradiol, 17ß-estradiol, estrone, and estriol) and eight antibiotics (norfloxacin, levofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin, metronidazole, sulfapyridine, doxycycline, and sulfamethoxazole) in the Chaohu Lake basin in Anhui province, China, were analyzed along with adjacent wastewater. The levels of the target antibiotics and estrogens were below detection limits (not detected [nd])-89.86 and nd-118.09 ng L-1 , respectively, in the lake water. All of the target antibiotics and estrogens were detected in sediment, and the concentrations ranged widely (nd-35,544 and nd-16,344 ng kg-1 , respectively). Antibiotics and estrogens varied spatially in the study area and mostly came from untreated wastewater. Antibiotics and estrogens were associated with water parameters such as pH and total nitrogen. A significant positive correlation was observed between estriol and levofloxacin concentrations (r = .65; p < .01), indicating that levofloxacin from the same source might have inhibited the microbiological degradation of estriol in the surface water. Overall, the estrogens pose a more severe risk than antibiotics to the Chaohu Lake system. However, co-occurrence of antibiotics may affect the fate of estrogens in the same lake media. More attention should be given to estrogens than to antibiotics in wastewater-affected lake systems.


Assuntos
Águas Residuárias , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Antibacterianos/análise , China , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental , Estrogênios/análise , Lagos/análise
2.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 203: 110984, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32888605

RESUMO

The use of water for drinking and agriculture requires knowledge of its toxicity. In this study, we compared the use of genetically modified bioluminescent (GMB) bacteria whose luminescence increases in the presence of toxicants and Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells for the characterization of the toxicity of water samples collected from a lake and streams, hydroponic and aquaponic farms, and a wastewater treatment plant. GMB bacteria were used to probe genotoxicity, cytotoxicity and reactive oxygen species-induced effects in the whole water samples. Unlike GMB bacteria, the use of CHO cells requires XAD resin-based pre-concentration of toxic material present in water samples for the subsequent cytotoxicity assay. In addition to the examination of the toxicity of the water from the different sources, the GMB bacteria were also used to test the XAD extracts diluted to the concentrations causing 50% growth inhibition of the CHO cells. The two biomonitoring tools provided different results when they were used to test the above-mentioned diluted XAD extracts. A pre-concentration procedure based on adsorption by XAD resins with subsequent elution was not sufficient to represent the material responsible for the toxicity of the whole water samples toward the GMB bacteria. Therefore, the use of XAD resin extracts may lead to major underestimates of the toxicity of water samples. Although the toxicity findings obtained using the GMB bacteria and CHO cells may not correlate with each another, the GMB bacteria assay did provide a mechanism-specific biomonitoring tool to probe the toxicity of water samples without a need for the pre-concentration step.


Assuntos
Bactérias , Monitoramento Biológico/métodos , Água Potável/análise , Lagos/análise , Rios , Águas Residuárias/análise , Animais , Bactérias/genética , Células CHO , Cricetulus , Hidroponia , Luminescência , Microrganismos Geneticamente Modificados/genética , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos
3.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3831, 2020 07 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32737305

RESUMO

Long-term time series have provided evidence that anthropogenic pressures can threaten lakes. Yet it remains unclear how and the extent to which lake biodiversity has changed during the Anthropocene, in particular for microbes. Here, we used DNA preserved in sediments to compare modern micro-eukaryotic communities with those from the end of the 19th century, i.e., before acceleration of the human imprint on ecosystems. Our results obtained for 48 lakes indicate drastic changes in the composition of microbial communities, coupled with a homogenization of their diversity between lakes. Remote high elevation lakes were globally less impacted than lowland lakes affected by local human activity. All functional groups (micro-algae, parasites, saprotrophs and consumers) underwent significant changes in diversity. However, we show that the effects of anthropogenic changes have benefited in particular phototrophic and mixotrophic species, which is consistent with the hypothesis of a global increase of primary productivity in lakes.


Assuntos
DNA/genética , Eucariotos/genética , Sedimentos Geológicos/análise , Lagos/análise , Alveolados/classificação , Alveolados/genética , Alveolados/isolamento & purificação , Biodiversidade , Evolução Biológica , Ecossistema , Eucariotos/classificação , Eucariotos/isolamento & purificação , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Atividades Humanas/história , Humanos , Microalgas/classificação , Microalgas/genética , Microalgas/isolamento & purificação , Microbiota/genética , Processos Fototróficos/fisiologia , Rhizaria/classificação , Rhizaria/genética , Rhizaria/isolamento & purificação , Estramenópilas/classificação , Estramenópilas/genética , Estramenópilas/isolamento & purificação
4.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(29): 17063-17067, 2020 07 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32631997

RESUMO

Little is known about the exchange of gaseous nitrogen (N2) with the atmosphere in freshwater systems. Although the exchange of N2, driven by excess or deficiencies relative to saturation values, has little relevance to the atmospheric N2 pool due to its large size, it does play an important role in freshwater and marine nitrogen (N) cycling. N-fixation converts N2 to ammonia, which can be used by microbes and phytoplankton, while denitrification/anammox effectively removes it by converting oxidized, inorganic N to N2 We examined N2 saturation to infer net biological nitrogen processes in 34 lakes across 5° latitude varying in trophic status, mixing regime, and bathymetry. Here, we report that nearly all lakes examined in the upper Midwest (USA) were supersaturated with N2 (>85% of samples, n = 248), suggesting lakes are continuously releasing nitrogen to the atmosphere. The traditional paradigm is that freshwaters compensate for N-limitation through N-fixation, but these results indicate that lakes were constantly losing N to the atmosphere via denitrification and/or anammox, suggesting that terrestrial N inputs are needed to balance the internal N cycle.


Assuntos
Lagos , Nitrogênio/análise , Argônio/análise , Gases de Efeito Estufa/análise , Lagos/análise , Lagos/química , Minnesota , Fixação de Nitrogênio , Oxigênio/análise
5.
Bull Environ Contam Toxicol ; 105(1): 76-85, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32607623

RESUMO

Lake sediments, as an important emission source of nutrients and greenhouse gases, play a crucial role during the biogeochemical cycle processes. However, the impact mechanisms of different nutrient levels on greenhouse gas emission from lakes are still insufficient. In this study, the sediments from eight shallow lakes in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River were cultured to study the release characteristics of greenhouse gases more than one month. Results showed that the greenhouse gases during the mineralization processes of sediments were mainly released to the atmosphere instead of being dissolved in the overlying water. The released concentrations of CH4 and CO2 were as high as 1 × 103 µmol L-1 in the later stage of the experiment, while the concentration of N2O was relatively low with a maximal value of about 10 µmol L-1. In addition, all the lake sediments displayed a nutrient release to the overlying water, where the concentrations of TC, TOC, TN, NH4+-N and TP were up to 173.0, 102.7, 36.7, 30.8 and 6.34 mg L-1, respectively. The nutrient levels of different lake sediments are symmetrical to the released nutrients concentrations in the overlying water. The further statistical analysis illustrated a synchronous nutrient controlled-release of greenhouse gases, that is, the higher the levels of nutrients in the sediments, the higher the concentrations of greenhouse gases released. These findings provide a better understanding that the control of endogenous nutrient levels of sediments is extremely important for lacustrine management, which can play a positive role in mitigating the greenhouse gas emissions from lake sediments.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Gases de Efeito Estufa , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Atmosfera , China , Sedimentos Geológicos , Lagos/análise , Nutrientes , Fósforo/análise , Rios
6.
Chemosphere ; 258: 127293, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32535449

RESUMO

The occurrence and distribution of 111 organic micropollutants (OMPs) were evaluated in water and sediment samples from Lake Mälaren, Sweden, using a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method. The partitioning of contaminants between lake compartments was estimated using solid water distribution coefficients (Kd) and organic carbon-water partitioning coefficients (KOC). In total, 30 and 24 OMPs were detected in lake water and sediment, respectively. Concentrations ranged from low ng/L to 89 ng/L (lamotrigine) in lake water and from low ng/g dry weight (dw) to 28 ng/g dw (citalopram) in sediment. Carbamazepine, lamotrigine, caffeine, and tolyltriazole were the dominant compounds in Lake Mälaren samples (both water and sediment). Seventeen OMPs were detected in both water and sediment samples, including carbamazepine, DEET, tolyltriazole, bicalutamide, caffeine, lamotrigine, and cetirizine. Log Kd values varied between 0.84 for lamotrigine and 4.4 for citalopram, while log KOC values varied between 2.1 for lamotrigine and 5.9 for citalopram. These results indicate that sorption to sediment plays a minor role in removal of all OMPs analyzed in the aqueous phase except for citalopram and cetirizine, which showed high sorption potential. The environmental risks of OMPs were assessed based on the RQ values. The worst-case scenario for environmental risk assessment was conducted using the maximum measured environment concentration. For most of the target OMPs, including tolyltriazole, bicalutamide, fexofenadine, oxazepam, cetirizine, and diclofenac, the RQ values were below 0.01, indicating low or no risk to lake ecosystems.


Assuntos
Sedimentos Geológicos/análise , Lagos/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Ecossistema , Ecotoxicologia , Monitoramento Ambiental , Suécia
7.
Chemosphere ; 255: 126847, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32417509

RESUMO

In this study, surface sediments along the Zayandehrud River (14 samples), and two dated core sediments (46 samples) from small artificial urban lakes at the middle section of the Zayandehrud River in the Gavkhooni basin in the central arid regions of Iran were analyzed for residual levels of 20 organochlorine pesticide (OCP) compounds. Total OCP concentrations ranged from 0.1 to 50.1 ng g-1 dry weight and from 1.9 to 51.5 ng g-1 dry weight in surface and core sediments, respectively. Dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (DDD) were found to be the predominant OCPs in these sediments. The calculated metabolic and isomeric ratios confirmed the aged nature of residual dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) in sediments. Moreover, the isomeric ratios indicated the aged nature of technical HCH (hexachlorocyclohexane), while the contribution of γ- HCH (lindane) as a main source has increased, especially in the last two decades. Past usage, as well as current usage of endosulfan technical mixture in the Gavkhooni basin, has been found in the last four decades. Analyses of sedimentary cores, as natural archives, have shown the successful ban on the use of organochlorine pesticides (especially DDT) in the Gavkhooni basin, and to some extent, in the central plateau of Iran. In general, it can be concluded that natural factors (i.e., floods and wet years) lead to soil leachate and play an essential role in remobilization and transfer of residual OCPs from soil to inland aquatic ecosystems in the Gavkhooni basin, which is an arid region.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/análise , Praguicidas/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , China , DDT/análise , Diclorodifenil Dicloroetileno/análise , Ecossistema , Endossulfano/análise , Sedimentos Geológicos/análise , Hexaclorocicloexano , Irã (Geográfico) , Lagos/análise , Rios , Solo
8.
Chemosphere ; 254: 126788, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32334251

RESUMO

Microplastics are abundant in oceans, lakes, soils and even air, and can pose potential threats to human health through food or respiratory intake. Moreover, microplastics have synergistic toxicity to the body after absorbing organic pollutants. In this study, laser scanning confocal microscope and flow cytometry were used to observe the intake of colonic cancer Caco-2 cells to polystyrene plastic with five different particlesizes (300 nm, 500 nm, 1 µm, 3 µm, 6 µm). The uptake rates of microplastics with different particle sizes were 73%, 71%, 49%, 43%, and 30%, respectively. Then, High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) was used to analyze the adsorption differences of polystyrene plastic with different particle sizes to bisphenol A (BPA). Finally, the proliferation toxicity of polystyrene microplastics with different particle sizeson Caco-2 cells before and after adsorption of BPA was compared. MTT experiments confirmed that microplastics caused an increase in cytotoxicity. This result may be related to increased cellular oxidative stress and mitochondrial depolarization. This hypothesis has been confirmed in reactive oxygen species (ROS) and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) assays because nanoscale microplastics cause a large amount of ROS on Caco-2 cells after microplastic exposure, and micron-scale microplastics cause a significant decrease in MMP. At the same time, nanoscale microplastics can cause further depolarization of mitochondria due to their large specific surface area adsorption of BPA, which leads to enhanced cytotoxicity of microplastics after BPA adsorption. The results of this study are of great significance in the evaluation of the safety of microplastics in the human body.


Assuntos
Compostos Benzidrílicos/toxicidade , Microplásticos/toxicidade , Fenóis/toxicidade , Poliestirenos/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Adsorção , Células CACO-2 , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Humanos , Lagos/análise , Oceanos e Mares , Tamanho da Partícula , Plásticos/análise , Poliestirenos/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
9.
Food Chem ; 320: 126683, 2020 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32229401

RESUMO

Here, we demonstrate use of acetylcholinesterase (AChE)-responsive polyoxometalate (POM)/surfactant supramolecular spheres to build a liquid crystal (LC)-based sensing platform for detection of organophosphorus pesticides. The self-assembled spheres are composed of hybrid materials of a POM, sodium dodecatungstophosphate (PW12), and a surfactant, myristoylcholine (Myr). It displays dark appearance when the aqueous solution is in contact with LCs supported on the octadecyltrichlorosilane-treated glass deposited with the supramolecular spheres, suggesting perpendicular orientation of LCs at the aqueous/LC interface. In contrast, LCs show bright appearance when the surface-deposited supramolecular spheres are enzymatically hydrolyzed by AChE, corresponding to planar orientation of LCs at the aqueous/LC interface. Detection of organophosphates are successfully achieved as they are potent inhibitors of AChE. The detection limit of the sensing platform reached 0.9 ng/mL for dimethoate. This method can avoid disturbance of external interference with excellent specificity and sensitivity, which makes it very promise in detection of organophosphorus pesticides.


Assuntos
Acetilcolinesterase/metabolismo , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Cristais Líquidos/química , Praguicidas/análise , Análise de Alimentos/instrumentação , Hidrólise , Lagos/análise , Limite de Detecção , Compostos Organofosforados/análise , Silanos/química , Tensoativos/química , Compostos de Tungstênio/química , Água/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
10.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 92(1): e20181102, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32187255

RESUMO

Significant reductions in the water levels of lakes are influenced by droughts and freshwater demands, especially in semi-arid regions, where hydric stress is greater. The aim of this study was to investigate the dynamics of phytoplankton during two different water volume periods resulting from an extended drought in a semi-arid lake. Another objective was to compare two functional approaches to test which one of these best captures phytoplankton variability as a function of environmental variability. Multivariate analyses performed using the Reynolds Functional Groups (RFG) and Morphology-Based Functional Groups (MBFG) classification schemes indicated two periods, high and a low water volume. The results demonstrated the importance of light availability on phytoplankton assemblages as these two periods showed significant differences in water transparency and phytoplankton composition. During extended droughts the reduction in water volume enhances the development of bloom-forming cyanobacteria through the limitation of light in a eutrophic man-made lake. Moreover, both functional traits approaches demonstrated the effect of light availability on phytoplankton assemblage composition and can be applied in similar systems. However, the RFG classification provides more information and allows a more detailed description of the algal assemblages.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Lagos/química , Fitoplâncton/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Biomassa , Brasil , Cianobactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Lagos/análise , Dinâmica Populacional , Estações do Ano
11.
Chemosphere ; 248: 125961, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32059332

RESUMO

Cyanobacteria can form extensive blooms in water with concurrent production and release of a large number of chemically diverse and bioactive metabolites, including hazardous toxins. Significant number of the metabolites belongs to non-ribosomal peptides, with unique residues, unusual structures and great potential for biotechnological application. The biosynthetic pathways of the peptides generate tens of variants, but only part of them has been identified. Microginins are an understudied class of cyanobacterial linear peptides with a characteristic decanoic acid derivative amino acid residue in their structure. In this study, cyanobacterial blooms and isolated strains from Greek lakes were analyzed for the presence of microginins by liquid chromatography coupled to hybrid triple quadrupole/linear ion trap mass spectrometer (LC-qTRAP MS/MS). Microginin structures were elucidated based on the obtained fragmentation spectra. A large number of microginins occurred in blooms of Greek freshwaters and the most frequently detected were Microginin FR1 (70% of samples), Microginin T1 (52%), Microginin 565B (52%), Microginin T2 (43%), and Microginin 565A (43%). Additionally, nine cyanobacterial strains i.e. Nostoc oryzae, Synechococcus sp., Microcystis aeruginosa, Microcystis viridis, and five Microcystis sp., were found to produce microginins. Thirty-six new microginin structures were characterized out of fifty-one totally detected variants. This is the first time that such a diversity of microginins is reported to be present in water bodies. Results clearly demonstrate the great metabolomic potential of cyanobacteria that inhabit Greek freshwaters and significantly expand the knowledge of cyanobacterial secondary metabolites with regards to the class of microginins.


Assuntos
Cianobactérias/metabolismo , Poluição da Água , Cromatografia Líquida , Monitoramento Ambiental , Grécia , Lagos/análise , Metabolômica , Microcystis/metabolismo , Peptídeos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Microbiologia da Água
12.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0229453, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32084252

RESUMO

The Atacama Desert (21-26°S) is currently one of the driest places on Earth and metal(loid)s are of special concern for this region, which hosts the largest-known porphyry copper deposits produced in Chile. Evidence of past environmental conditions is commonly preserved in natural archives, such as lacustrine sediments. Sediment records obtained from Inca Coya Lake (22°20'S-68°35'W, 2534 m.a.s.l.), a small lake located in the Atacama Desert, reflected the evolution of regional mining activity during the 20th century and sedimentation associated with decadal climate variability. We studied the aquatic community structure changes recorded in sediment records from Inca Coya Lake. By analysis of magnetic properties (susceptibility, hysteresis curves and Curie temperatures), grain size and geochemical composition of the sediments, we identified environmental periods and changes in the community of benthic and planktonic organisms (diatoms and diapausing egg bank). We identified three detrital episodes that we interpret as dry/wet phases during the last 90 years associated with the increase of flash flood events promoting hypoxia oscillations; anthropogenic (mining activity) signals were also identified. Invertebrate community structure (primary consumers) reflected the metal exposure, measured as changes in assemblage composition through species turnover. Diatom community composition was best associated with variables related to wetter/drier alternation and consequent changes in oxygen availability. Bioindicators analyzed (diatoms, diapausing egg bank and invertebrate community) demonstrated to be excellent indicators of the bioavailability of compounds in the aquatic ecosystem of Inca Coya Lake, allowing the environmental impact assessment of the water resources due to flash floods and mining activity in the driest desert of the world.


Assuntos
Organismos Aquáticos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Sedimentos Geológicos/análise , Lagos/análise , Metais/análise , Animais , Organismos Aquáticos/metabolismo , Chile , Clima Desértico , Magnetismo
13.
Chemosphere ; 249: 126168, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32086062

RESUMO

The main objective of this study was to comprehensively investigate the occurrence of organic micropollutants (OMPs) in the surface water in Lake Mälaren over a period of one year and assess the spatial (horizontal and vertical) distribution and seasonal trends of OMPs. The applied multi-residue method comprised 111 OMPs covering compounds with wide range of physicalal-chemical properties. In total, 46 OMPs were detected at least once above limit of quantification (LOQ). DEET (diethyltoluamide), lamotrigine, bicalutamide, tolyltriazole, caffeine, carbamazepine, metoprolol, oxazepam, cetirizine, fexofenadine, lidocaine and tramadol were detected in more than 75% of the sampling points. The highest detected concentration was found for lamotrigine with 140 ng/L. The locations Ekoln and Västeråsfjärden were identified to be most affected by OMPs pollution. In the surface water (0.5 m depth) most highest concentrations of OMPs were observed in spring and lower concentrations in summer. Antihistamine demonstrated a seasonal trend that can be related to seasonal consumption patterns. The investigation of the vertical distribution of OMPs demonstrated that thermal lake stratification can lead to different concentrations within the water column. For instance, in February the highest concentration for most OMPs was observed in the deepest sampled water depth (30 m). Two industrial chemicals, tolyltriazole and tris(2-butoxylethyl)phosphate were detected frequently and it is recommended to incorporate these compounds more regularly in future analysis. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first one to report the occurrence and distribution of OMPs representing such wide physico-chemical properties, including industrial chemicals, in a Swedish lake.


Assuntos
Água Potável/química , Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Lagos/análise , Organofosfatos/análise , Estações do Ano , Suécia
14.
Environ Pollut ; 261: 113644, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32078874

RESUMO

Sediment dissolved organic matter (DOM) was collected in November 2018 from Lake Dongping, China. The lake was divided into the entrance of the Dawen River, the open region of the lake, the tourism district and the macrophyte-dominated region based on principal component analysis (PCA) of 9 DOM-related parameters. Multispectroscopic tools were used to investigate the binding of zinc (Zn) with four kinds of DOM collected from the entrance of the Dawen River (EDOM), the open area of the lake (ODOM), the macrophyte-dominated area (mainly dominated by Potamogeton crispus L.) (PDOM) and the tourism district (TDOM). Three fluorescent components, the humic-like (components 1 and 3) and protein-like (component 2) components, were found by excitation-emission matrix spectra with parallel factor analysis. The EDOM, ODOM and TDOM were controlled by protein-like components, and the PDOM was controlled by humic-like components. Different components respond differently to Zn addition. The binding order of the tyrosine-like fraction > the tryptophan fraction > the humic-like fraction was identified by Synchronous fluorescence (SF) spectra and two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2D-COS). The fluorescence intensity of the protein-like component was suppressed, and the humic-like component was enhanced with the addition of Zn. The effective quenching constants (log K) of the protein-like component in PDOM were clearly higher than those in the EDOM, ODOM and TDOM, indicating higher metal binding potential in PDOM than in other kinds of DOM in Lake Dongping. The %Fmax (the amounts of each component measured as % of the total fluorescence maxima for the three components) of the humic-like components exhibited a gradual increase in all kinds of DOM with the addition of Zn, suggesting that the addition of Zn increased the humification of DOM.


Assuntos
Substâncias Húmicas/análise , Zinco , China , Análise Fatorial , Lagos/análise , Espectrometria de Fluorescência
15.
Environ Geochem Health ; 42(9): 2733-2745, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31907783

RESUMO

Concentrations of trace elements in drinking water affect its safety and acceptability for use. Potentially toxic element (PTE) contaminations are considered extremely hazardous because of toxicity, persistence, and bioaccumulative behaviour. Many areas in the Southern African Development Community are data poor and have poor accessibility. The results of our previous research identified the presence of fossil waters in southern Limpopo National Park. Groundwater and river water are the only sources of drinking water for the villages in the study area. The current study focuses on the understanding of trace element distribution and health perspectives of PTEs (Hg, U, Sr, B, and Mn) in the groundwater and surface water samples (rivers and lakes) collected within the buffer zone of the Limpopo National Park, Southern Mozambique. Two sampling campaigns (October 2016-March 2017) were carried out during the end of the wet season and the end of the dry season to analyse the differences. The results improved our knowledge of the occurrence of trace elements in drinking water in an area where water resources play a fundamental role-because of their scarcity-and where the climate is harsh. ICP-MS results provided information on concentration ranges, highlighting the exceedance of the permissible maximum limit of mercury imposed by the World Health Organization on several groundwater samples. In the buffer zone of Limpopo Park, the highest levels of risk seem to be associated with the presence of Hg and U in drinking water. The use of risk assessment markers such as non-cancer risk value (hazard quotient [HQ]) revealed the exceedance of HQ values for Hg and U. The HQ values are higher in the wet season than the dry season, and most of the exceedance has been found in groundwater. HQ values are higher in exposed children than exposed adults. The water of Lake Massingir seems to be safer than any other source, but people do not currently use it because of the distance between the lake and their villages. Proactive control and research on alternative solutions for the water needs of the population and on creation of water distribution are recommended. In the current study, drinking water was the only route of exposure that was evaluated. Therefore, it would be appropriate to investigate the concentrations of PTEs in crops, livestock, and any other potential pathways.


Assuntos
Água Potável/análise , Água Subterrânea/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Adulto , Criança , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Água Subterrânea/química , Humanos , Lagos/análise , Metais/análise , Metais/toxicidade , Moçambique , Parques Recreativos , Medição de Risco , Rios , Estações do Ano , Oligoelementos/análise
16.
Environ Geochem Health ; 42(9): 2747-2769, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31933038

RESUMO

The presence of phosphorus (P) and heavy metals (HMs) in surface sediments originating from lakes Volvi, Kerkini, and Doirani (N. Greece), as well as their fractionation patterns, were investigated. No statistically significant differences in total P content were observed among the studied lakes, but notable differences were observed among sampling periods. HM contents in all lakes presented a consistent trend, i.e., Mn > Cr > Zn > Pb > Ni > Cu > Cd, while the highest concentrations were recorded in Lake Kerkini. Most of the HMs exceeded probable effect level value indicating a probable biological effect, while Ni in many cases even exceeded threshold effects level, suggesting severe toxic effects. P was dominantly bound to metal oxides, while a significant shift toward the labile fractions was observed during the spring period. The sum of potentially bioavailable HM fractions followed a downward trend of Mn > Cr > Pb > Zn > Cu > Ni > Cd for most lakes. The geoaccumulation index Igeo values of Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, and Zn in all lakes characterized the sediments as "unpolluted," while many sediments in lakes Volvi and Kerkini were characterized as "moderately to heavily polluted" with regard to Cd. The descending order of potential ecological risk [Formula: see text] was Cd > Pb > Cu > Ni > Cr > Zn > Mn for all the studied lakes. Ni and Cr presented the highest toxic risk index values in all lake sediments. Finally, the role of mineralogical divergences among lake sediments on the contamination degree was signified.


Assuntos
Sedimentos Geológicos/análise , Lagos/análise , Metais Pesados/análise , Fósforo/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Fracionamento Químico , Monitoramento Ambiental , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Grécia , Lagos/química , Metais Pesados/química , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Fósforo/química , Medição de Risco , Estações do Ano , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
17.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(2): 72, 2020 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31897765

RESUMO

This study presents the use of Quick Easy Cheap Efficient Rugged and Safe (QuEChERS) as an effective sample cleaning procedure and switchable solvent liquid phase microextraction (SS-LPME) as a preconcentration tool for the determination of fenazaquin by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) at ultratrace levels. After a thorough optimization process, 0.50 mL of switchable solvent, 1.5 mL of 1.0 M sodium hydroxide, and 15 s of vortexing were determined as optimum conditions of the SS-LPME method. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantitation (LOQ) determined using the optimum method (SS-LPME/GC-MS) were 0.05 and 0.18 ng/mL, respectively. Compared with direct GC-MS determination of fenazaquin, the optimum method yielded about 800-fold enhancement in detection power of GC-MS. The method was applied to lake, irrigation canal, well, and wastewater samples. In order to test the method's applicability on fresh tomato samples, a QuEChERS method was used before applying the SS-LPME method. Matrix-matched calibration standards were used to enhance the accuracy of fenazaquin quantification in spiked tomato samples to obtain recovery results close to 100%.


Assuntos
Lycopersicon esculentum/química , Quinazolinas/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Água/química , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Lagos/análise , Limite de Detecção , Microextração em Fase Líquida/métodos , Solventes/química , Águas Residuárias/química , Água/análise
18.
Chemosphere ; 246: 125779, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31927372

RESUMO

Great ecological and human health risks may arise from the presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in aquatic environments and particularly in sediments, where they often partition. In spite of the apparent risk, knowledge about PAHs and their polar derivatives in sediments is limited. We, therefore, carried out an assessment of the concentrations of parent PAHs and their derivatives (polar PAHs) in sediments of Lake Macquarie: the largest saltwater lake in the southern hemisphere. A total of 31 sediment samples along the pollution prone western shoreline of the estuary were analysed. Multiple source apportionment methods were used to investigate PAH sources contributing to parent and polar PAH concentrations in the estuarine sediments. Concentration levels were highest for high molecular weight (HMW) PAHs compared to low molecular weight (LMW) PAHs. The highest PAH concentrations were recorded for oxygenated PAHs (oxy-PAHs) compared to parent and other polar PAHs. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon diagnostic ratios and compositional analysis showed that PAHs in Lake Macquarie were predominantly pyrogenic exhibiting strong positive correlation (R2 = 0.972) with total PAH concentrations. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) identified three groupings of PAHs with oxy-PAHs and NPAHs dominating (40.2%). Carbazole, a heterocyclic PAH, was also a prominent contributor to sediment PAH concentrations. Atmospheric deposition, coal combustion and vehicular emissions were implicated as the major contributors to sediment pollution.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Austrália , Carvão Mineral/análise , Estuários , Sedimentos Geológicos/análise , Humanos , Lagos/análise , Compostos Policíclicos/análise , Análise de Componente Principal , Cloreto de Sódio/análise , Emissões de Veículos/análise
19.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(5): 2717-2722, 2020 02 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31964826

RESUMO

Regime shift modeling and management generally focus on tipping points, early warning indicators, and the prevention of abrupt shifts to undesirable states. Few studies assess the potential for restoring a deteriorating ecosystem that is on a transition pathway toward an undesirable state. During the transition, feedbacks that stabilize the new regime are still weak, providing an opportunity to reverse the ongoing shift. Here, we present a social-ecological model that explores both how transient social processes affect ecological dynamics in the vicinity of a tipping point to reinforce the desired state and how social mechanisms of policy implementation affect restoration time. We simulate transitions of a lake, policy making, and behavioral change by lake polluters to study the time lags that emerge as a response to the transient, deteriorating lake state. We found that restoration time is most sensitive to the timing of policy making, but that the transient dynamics of the social processes determined outcomes in nontrivial ways. Social pressure to adopt costly technology, in our case on-site sewage treatment, was up to a degree capable of compensating for delays in municipal policy making. Our analysis of interacting social and ecological time lags in the transient phase of a shallow lake highlights opportunities for restoration that a stable state analysis would miss. We discuss management perspectives for navigating critical feedbacks in a transitioning social-ecological system. The understanding of transient dynamics and the interaction with social time lags can be more relevant than solely stable states and tipping points.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Ecossistema , Política Pública , Humanos , Lagos/análise
20.
Anal Bioanal Chem ; 412(8): 1835-1846, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31982925

RESUMO

Exposure to endocrine disruptor substances will alter the function of the endocrine system and then cause adverse effects on human health. Among these endocrine disrupting chemicals, hexestrol, nonylphenol, and bisphenol A are most commonly used worldwide. In this study, we aim to develop a simple, rapid, and efficient analytical method for the simultaneous determination of trace hexestrol, nonylphenol, and bisphenol A in lake water and milk samples. A magnetic molecularly imprinted polymer-assisted magnetic solid-phase extraction technique was applied. The magnetic molecularly imprinted polymer was prepared and characterized by electron scanning microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Subsequently, different experiments were conducted to optimize the magnetic solid-phase extraction conditions. High-performance liquid chromatography with UV detection was employed to determine hexestrol, nonylphenol, and bisphenol A. Limits of detection of the developed method were from 0.1 to 0.3 µg L-1 and spiked recoveries ranged from 89.9 to 102.5%, with a relative standard deviation of < 2.5% (intraday). Results obtained from this study showed that the proposed magnetic solid-phase extraction method was a simple, rapid, and sensitive sample pre-treatment method for the determination of trace hexestrol, nonylphenol, and bisphenol in different aqueous samples.


Assuntos
Disruptores Endócrinos/análise , Lagos/análise , Magnetismo , Leite/química , Impressão Molecular , Polímeros/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA