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1.
Zootaxa ; 4861(3): zootaxa.4861.3.10, 2020 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33311220

RESUMO

The genus Neadeloides Klima, 1939 is a small genus of the subfamily Pyraustinae (Lepidoptera, Crambidae). It was established for the type species Hoterodes cinerealis Moore, 1867 as the objective replacement name for Adeloides Warren, 1892, a homonym of Adeloides Blanchard, 1845 of Curculionidae in Coleoptera (Singh et al. 2019; Nuss et al. 2003-2020). Recently, this genus was studied by Singh et al. (2019), with the inclusion of three species: N. cinerealis (Moore, 1867) and N. nubilus Singh, Ranjan Singh, 2019 from India, and N. glaucoptera (Hampson, 1896) from Bhutan. Species of Neadeloides can be distinguished by the following characters. In the male, the antenna are very long, about twice the length of the forewing; forewing narrow, with a produced apex; termen extremely oblique; in the female, antenna almost same length of the forewing; forewing wider than male; in the male genitalia, uncus broad, inverted U-shaped, ventrally concave, with a small, sub-apical lateral projection on both sides; valva elongated flap-like, membranous at base and sclerotized from middle to apex; costal margin rather concave, nearly straight; dorsum of valva outwardly angled at middle or roughly straight; sacculus process hook-shaped or broad rectangular, with setose apical flap (Singh et al. 2019).


Assuntos
Lepidópteros , Mariposas , Animais , Feminino , Genitália Masculina , Laos , Masculino
2.
Zootaxa ; 4890(3): zootaxa.4890.3.1, 2020 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33311115

RESUMO

New taxonomic and faunistic data for eight species of Paraphloeostiba Steel, 1960 (Omaliini) from China and Laos are provided. Three new species are described and illustrated: P. ampliata sp.n. (China: Yunnan), P. brancuccii sp.n. (Laos), and P. cooteri sp.n. (China: Zhejiang). A new synonymy is established: P. formosana Shavrin Smetana, 2016 = P. amooraphila Shavrin, 2017 syn.n. Paraphloeostiba opacicollis Steel, 1960 is redescribed, illustrated, and recorded from Laos for the first time. A key to the species of Paraphloeostiba of China and Laos is presented. Previous records of P. apicalis (Cameron, 1925) from China are doubtful; additional material from Indonesia and the Philippines is reported. Paraphloeostiba sulcicollis (Fauvel, 1904) is recorded from China for the first time. New records of Paraphloeostiba are reported: P. apicalis from Mindanao (Philippines), P. formosana Shavrin Smetana, 2016 from mainland China and Vietnam, P. gayndahensis (MacLeay, 1873) from Yunnan, and P. sonani (Bernhauer, 1943) from Myanmar. In addition, four new species of Omaliini are described and illustrated: Nipponophloeostiba longilobata sp.n., Omalium khmericum sp.n., and Phloeostiba assingi sp.n. from northern Laos, and Phloeonomus (Phloeonomus) rougemonti sp.n. from China (Yunnan).


Assuntos
Besouros , Distribuição Animal , Animais , China , Laos , Filipinas
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33352927

RESUMO

The objectives of the present study were to determine the concentrations of heavy metals and metalloids in water, sediment and Osteochilus vittatus fish, and to assess chromosome aberrations, serum biochemical changes and histopathological alterations in O. vittatus from the Nam Kok river near the Sepon gold-copper mine, Lao People's Democratic Republic compared with the reference area. The results showed that Fe, Mn and Ni in water, As and Cd in sediment as well as As, Cd, Cr, Mn and Ni in O. vittatus muscle samples near the gold-copper mine exceeded standard values. Furthermore, the chromosome assessment in O. vittatus revealed seven types of chromosome aberrations, and the highest total number of chromosome aberrations was a centromere gap. The total number of chromosome aberrations, cell number with chromosome aberrations and percentage of chromosome aberrations in O. vittatus as well as serum liver enzymes between the studied areas were significantly different (p < 0.05). The liver histopathological alterations of the fish near the gold-copper mine revealed atypical cellular structures as nuclear membrane degeneration, rough endoplasmic reticulum disintegration and abnormal cytoplasmic mitochondria. The results of this study suggested that heavy metal and metalloid contaminations from the Sepon gold-copper mine area negatively affect O. vittatus fish in terms of chromosomal defects, serum biochemical changes and liver histopathological appearances.


Assuntos
Cromossomos/efeitos dos fármacos , Peixes/fisiologia , Metaloides/toxicidade , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Cromossomos/química , Cobre/toxicidade , Monitoramento Ambiental , Ouro , Humanos , Laos , Metaloides/análise , Metais Pesados/análise , Mineração , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
4.
Ann Biol Clin (Paris) ; 78(5): 499-518, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33026346

RESUMO

The French society of clinical biology "Biochemical markers of COVID-19" has set up a working group with the primary aim of reviewing, analyzing and monitoring the evolution of biological prescriptions according to the patient's care path and to look for markers of progression and severity of the disease. This study covers all public and private sectors of medical biology located in metropolitan and overseas France and also extends to the French-speaking world. This article presents the testimonies and data obtained for the "Overseas and French-speaking countries" sub-working group made up of 45 volunteer correspondents, located in 20 regions of the world. In view of the delayed spread of the SARS-CoV-2 virus, the overseas regions and the French-speaking regions have benefited from feedback from the first territories confronted with COVID-19. Thus, the entry of the virus or its spread in epidemic form could be avoided, thanks to the rapid closure of borders. The overseas territories depend very strongly on air and/or sea links with the metropolis or with the neighboring continent. The isolation of these countries is responsible for reagent supply difficulties and has necessitated emergency orders and the establishment of stocks lasting several months, in order to avoid shortages and maintain adequate patient care. In addition, in countries located in tropical or intertropical zones, the diagnosis of COVID-19 is complicated by the presence of various zoonoses (dengue, Zika, malaria, leptospirosis, etc.).


Assuntos
Serviços de Laboratório Clínico , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Saúde Global/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Medicina de Viagem/organização & administração , Adulto , África/epidemiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Bélgica/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Biomarcadores/análise , Biomarcadores/sangue , Camboja/epidemiologia , Criança , Serviços de Laboratório Clínico/organização & administração , Serviços de Laboratório Clínico/estatística & dados numéricos , Busca de Comunicante/métodos , Busca de Comunicante/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , França/epidemiologia , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Ilhas/epidemiologia , Idioma , Laos/epidemiologia , Louisiana/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoal de Laboratório Médico/organização & administração , Pessoal de Laboratório Médico/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Estudos Retrospectivos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Análise de Sobrevida , Medicina de Viagem/métodos , Medicina de Viagem/estatística & dados numéricos , Doença Relacionada a Viagens , Clima Tropical , Medicina Tropical/métodos , Medicina Tropical/organização & administração , Medicina Tropical/estatística & dados numéricos , Vietnã/epidemiologia
5.
Zootaxa ; 4834(3): zootaxa.4834.3.2, 2020 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056113

RESUMO

The genus Leucinodella Strand (1918) is reported from Laos for the first time, with a new species, Leucinodella banthaensis n. sp., and one newly recorded species, Leucinodella leucostola (Hampson, 1896). A key to Leucinodella species in Laos is provided, with illustrations of adults and genitalia.


Assuntos
Mariposas , Animais , Genitália , Laos
6.
Zootaxa ; 4859(2): zootaxa.4859.2.5, 2020 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056199

RESUMO

Here we describe five further new species of the genus Microserica Brenske, 1894 belonging to the Microserica lineata group: Microserica banvaneue Bohacz Ahrens, new species, M. ginae Bohacz Ahrens, new species, M. helferi Bohacz Ahrens, new species, M. tenasserimensis Bohacz Ahrens, new species, M. ventrosa Bohacz Ahrens, new species. The female specimens of Microserica lineata Moser, 1915 are described for the first time. The key to species of the Microserica lineata group is updated and illustrations of genitalia and habitus of adults of the new species are given. Finally, the distribution of the species of the group is mapped.


Assuntos
Besouros , Animais , Feminino , Laos , Tailândia
7.
Zootaxa ; 4822(4): zootaxa.4822.4.3, 2020 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056268

RESUMO

Two new Cyrtodactylus species are described from Houaphan and Luang Prabang provinces in Laos based on morphological and molecular data. Cyrtodactylus houaphanensis sp. nov. differs from all other Cyrtodactylus in the C. wayakonei species group by at least 3.3 % genetic divergence in the COI gene and can be diagnosed in morphology as follows: SVL 75.8 mm; supralabials 9 or 10; infralabials 8 or 9; ventral scales 35; dorsal tubercles in 20 rows at midbody; precloacal pores 6 in the male; femoral pores absent; subcaudals enlarged; five irregular, brown bands between limb insertions. The new species morphologically resembles C. chauquangensis and revealed to be a sister taxon to C. puhuensis according to our genetic analyses, from which it mainly differs in the absence of enlarged femoral scales. Cyrtodactylus ngoiensis sp. nov. differs from other closely related congeners by at least 11.6 % genetic divergence in the COI gene and can be diagnosed in morphology as follows: maximum SVL 95.3 mm; supralabials 6-9; infralabials 8-11; ventral scales 38-43; dorsal tubercles in 15-21 rows at midbody; enlarged femoral scales present; precloacal pores 7 in the male, 7 pitted scales in females; femoral pores 14 in the male, absent in females; five bright yellowish transverse dorsal bands; subcaudals enlarged. The new species is shown to be a member of the C. wayakonei species group, but morphologically resembles C. dumnuii from Thailand. According to our phylogenetic analyses, it is a basal taxon to a clade comprising C. spelaeus, C. chauquangensis, C. vilaphongi, C. cucphuongensis, C. puhuensis, C. houaphanensis, C. otai and C. bobrovi. Based on a new record of C. bansocensis from central Laos, which represents the first recorded female we provide a redescription of C. bansocensis including expanded diagnosis. In addition, an updated identification key for the Cyrtodactylus known from Laos is provided.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Lagartos , Distribuição Animal , Estruturas Animais , Animais , Feminino , Laos , Masculino , Filogenia
8.
Zootaxa ; 4786(2): zootaxa.4786.2.5, 2020 Jun 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056485

RESUMO

Indosialis Lestage, 1927 is a small and rare megalopteran genus belonging to the family Sialidae and endemic to the Oriental region. The Thai and Lao species of Indosialis are herein revised by an integrative approach combining morphological and molecular evidence, including two species: Indosialis bannaensis Liu, Yang Hayashi, 2006 and Indosialis siamensis sp. nov. The pupal stage of Indosialis is reported here for the first time. Indosialis siamensis sp. nov. can be distinguished from its congeners by 1) the brown head and prothorax (orange in congeners); 2) the apical tooth of right mandible in male sharply angulated (truncate or almost absent in congeners); and 3) the distinct sac-like structure present in male genitalia (indistinct or absent in congeners). The new species coexists with I. bannaensis in Loei Province, northeastern Thailand. Both species inhabit slow-flowing or sluggish streams that are usually covered by Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott (Araceae).


Assuntos
Araceae , Holometábolos , Animais , Laos , Masculino , Pupa , Tailândia
9.
Zootaxa ; 4851(2): zootaxa.4851.2.5, 2020 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056729

RESUMO

Genus Torodora Meyrick of the family Lecithoceridae in Laos is reviewed, describing five new species and reporting two unrecorded species of the genus. The new species are T. barathrona Park, sp. nov., T. canalis Park, sp. nov., T. cordisigna Park, sp. nov., T. digitalis Park, sp. nov., and T. multispinata sp. nov. In addition, T. metasaris (Meyrick, 1911), comb. nov. and Torodora pegasana Wu Liu, 1994 are reported for the first time from Laos. Images of adults and genitalia for the new species and the first known species are provided, along with a list of the previously known species with new collected localities.


Assuntos
Mariposas , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Genitália , Laos
10.
Zootaxa ; 4759(4): zootaxa.4759.4.4, 2020 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056894

RESUMO

A new species of Dixonius is described on the basis of three specimens from the karst forests around Thakhek town, Khammouane Province, Laos. The new species from Laos can be distinguished from other species of Dixonius based on molecular and morphological divergences. It is characterized by a maximum SVL of 55.4 mm; 20-23 longitudinal rows of dorsal tubercles at mid-body; 23-24 longitudinal rows of ventrals across the abdomen; 8-10 supralabials, 7 or 8 in mid-orbital position; 7 or 8 infralabials; 8 precloacal pores in male; the male without femoral pores; precloacal and femoral pores absent in females; uniformly pebble brown dorsum. In phylogenetic analyses, the new species is shown to be the sister taxon to two undescribed taxa from Thailand but differs by at least 8.6% in genetic pairwise distance from the latter based on the complete sequences of the mitochondrial ND2 gene with partial or complete sequences of six adjacent tRNAs. This is the ninth known species of Dixonius, and the second recorded species from Laos.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Florestas , Lagartos , Distribuição Animal , Estruturas Animais , Animais , Tamanho Corporal , Feminino , Laos , Masculino , Filogenia
11.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(9): e0008625, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32956390

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Efforts to control soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections have intensified over the past decade. Field-survey data on STH prevalence, infection intensity and drug efficacy is necessary to guide the implementation of control programs and should be of the best possible quality. METHODOLOGY: During four clinical trials designed to evaluate the efficacy of albendazole against STHs in Brazil, Ethiopia, Lao PDR and Tanzania, quality control (QC) was performed on the duplicate Kato-Katz thick smears and the data entry. We analyzed datasets following QC on both fecal egg counts (FECs) and data entry, and compared the prevalence of any STH infection and moderate-to-heavy intensity (MHI) infections and the drug efficacy against STH infections. RESULTS: Across the four study sites, a total of 450 out of 4,830 (9.3%) Kato-Katz thick smears were re-examined. Discrepancies in FECs varied from ~3% (hookworms) to ~6.5% (Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura). The difference in STH prevalence and prevalence of MHI infections using the datasets with and without QC of the FECs did not exceed 0.3%, except for hookworm infections in Tanzania, where we noted a 2.2 percentage point increase in MHI infections (pre-QC: 1.6% vs. post-QC: 3.8%). There was a 100% agreement in the classification of drug efficacy of albendazole against STH between the two datasets. In total, 201 of the 28,980 (0.65%) data entries that were made to digitize the FECs were different between both data-entry clerks. Nevertheless, the overall prevalence of STH, the prevalence of MHI infections and the classification of drug efficacy remained largely unaffected. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: In these trials, where staff was informed that QC would take place, minimal changes in study outcomes were reported following QC on FECs or data entry. Nevertheless, imposing QC did reduce the number of errors. Therefore, application of QC together with proper training of the personnel and the availability of clear standard operating procedures is expected to support higher data quality.


Assuntos
Albendazol/uso terapêutico , Helmintíase/tratamento farmacológico , Controle de Qualidade , Ancylostomatoidea , Animais , Ascaris , Brasil/epidemiologia , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Fezes/parasitologia , Guias como Assunto , Helmintíase/epidemiologia , Helmintíase/transmissão , Infecções por Uncinaria/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Uncinaria/epidemiologia , Humanos , Laos/epidemiologia , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas , Prevalência , Solo/parasitologia , Tanzânia/epidemiologia , Trichuris
12.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 32(4): 414-418, 2020 Jun 11.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32935520

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the advantages, disadvantages, opportunities and challenges for schistosomiasis elimination in Laos, so as to propose the corresponding healthy policies and suggestions. METHODS: A SWOT analysis was performed to analyze the strength, weakness, opportunity and threat for the schistosomiasis elimination program in Laos, and the corresponding policy suggestions were proposed. RESULTS: The national schistosomiasis elimination program of Laos receives governmental emphases and great supports. A strategy based on mass drug administration was proposed and a sentinel site-bases surveillance system has been built for schistosomiasis elimination in Laos; however, there are several challenges for the national schistosomiasis elimination program in Laos, including insufficient financial supports, inadequate professional capability, weak schistosomiasis control awareness in community populations and difficulty in vector control. CONCLUSIONS: Persistent governmental leadership, increasing financial supports, strengthening professional team building and improving schistosomiasis control awareness in community populations are required to facilitate the progress towards schistosomiasis elimination in Laos.


Assuntos
Erradicação de Doenças , Programas Nacionais de Saúde , Esquistossomose , Erradicação de Doenças/normas , Humanos , Laos , Programas Nacionais de Saúde/economia , Programas Nacionais de Saúde/normas , Controle de Pragas , Esquistossomose/prevenção & controle
13.
Zoonoses Public Health ; 67(7): 796-804, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32812389

RESUMO

Wet markets are a critical part of South-East Asian culture and economy. However, their role in circulation and transmission of both endemic and emerging disease is a source of concern in a region considered a hotspot of disease emergence. In the Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR, Laos), live and dead wild animals are frequently found in wet markets, despite legislation against the bushmeat trade. This is generally considered to increase the risk of disease transmission and emergence, although whether or not wildlife vendors themselves have indeed increased incidence of zoonotic disease has rarely been assessed. In preparation for a future longitudinal study of market vendors investigating vendors' exposure to zoonotic pathogens, we conducted a pilot survey of Lao market vendors of wildlife meat, livestock meat and vegetables, to identify demographic characteristics and potential control groups within markets. We also investigated baseline risk perception for infectious diseases among market vendors and assessed the association between risk perception and risk mitigation behaviours. The surveys conducted with 177 vendors revealed similar age, sex, ethnic background and geographical origin between vendor types, but differences in professional background and work history for livestock meat vendors. The perception of disease risk was very low across all vendors, as was the reported use of personal protective equipment, and the two appeared unrelated. Personal risk discounting and assumptions about transmission routes may explain this lack of association. This information will help inform the development of future research, risk communication and risk mitigation policy, especially in the light of the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens/virologia , Comércio/estatística & dados numéricos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Zoonoses/transmissão , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Laos/epidemiologia , Gado/virologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Carne/virologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/virologia
14.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237384, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32764809

RESUMO

Dengue fever is one of the major public health problems in Lao PDR. Over the last decade, dengue virus (DENV) epidemics were characterized by a novel predominant serotype accompanied by at least two other serotypes. Since 2008, DENV-2 circulated at a low level in Lao PDR but its epidemiologic profile changed at the end of 2018. Indeed, the number of confirmed DENV-2 cases suddenly increased in October 2018 and DENV-2 became predominant at the country level in early 2019. We developed a Genotype Screening Protocol (GSP) to determine the origin(s) of the Lao DENV-2 and study their genetic polymorphism. With a good correlation with full envelope gene sequencing data, this molecular epidemiology tool evidence the co-circulation of two highly polymorphic DENV-2 genotypes, i.e. Asian I and Cosmopolitan genotypes, over the last five years, suggesting multiple introductions of DENV-2 in the country. GSP approach provides relevant first line information that may help countries with limited laboratory resources to reinforce their capabilities to DENV-2 and to follow the epidemics progresses and assess situations at the regional level.


Assuntos
Vírus da Dengue/genética , Técnicas de Genotipagem/métodos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Vírus da Dengue/isolamento & purificação , Vírus da Dengue/fisiologia , Humanos , Laos , Sorotipagem , Fatores de Tempo , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32659988

RESUMO

Cigarette smoking represents a major public health problem in Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR). This study aims to examine factors associated with cigarette smoking cessation attempts and intention to quit. Data were from the Lao National Adult Tobacco Survey that consisted of 7562 participants ≥15 years old. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to evaluate the associations, adjusted for sex, age groups, education level, income per day, and smoking frequency. Results show that past quit attempts were associated with visiting a healthcare provider in the past year (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 1.74, 95% confidence intervals [CI]: 1.28-2.35), home smoking bans (AOR: 5.52, 95% CI: 2.13-14.33), noticing media-based messages informing the dangers of smoking or encouraging quitting (AOR: 3.25, 95% CI: 2.28-4.63), noticing health warnings on cigarette packages in the past 30 days (AOR: 3.33, 95% CI: 2.21-5.03), and believing that smoking is seriously harmful to their health (AOR: 3.45, 95% CI: 1.24-9.57). The Lao PDR government should continue implementing tobacco control policies that demonstrated associations with cessation attempts or intention to quit, such as smoke-free environments and required health warnings on cigarette packages. Tobacco cessation treatment programs are pressingly needed in Lao PDR.


Assuntos
Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , Produtos do Tabaco , Abandono do Uso de Tabaco , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Laos/epidemiologia , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários , Tabaco , Dispositivos para o Abandono do Uso de Tabaco
16.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 103(4): 1416-1426, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32618258

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to assess the impact of different strategies for delivering supplemental zinc on fecal myeloperoxidase (MPO), neopterin (NEO), and calprotectin (CAL) among young Laotian children. In a double-blind controlled trial, children aged 6-23 months were randomized to receive either daily preventive zinc (PZ) tablets (7 mg/day), daily micronutrient powder (MNP; containing 10 mg zinc and 14 other micronutrients), therapeutic zinc (TZ) supplements for diarrhea treatment (20 mg/day for 10 days), or daily placebo powder and followed for ∼36 weeks. Stool samples were collected at baseline and endline. Fecal MPO, NEO, and CAL concentrations were determined in a randomly selected subsample of 720 children using commercially available ELISA kits. At baseline, the mean age was 14.1 ± 4.9 months and prevalence of stunting was 39%. The endline prevalence of stunting was 43%; there was no overall treatment effect on physical growth in the parent trial. At endline, the mean (95% CI) MPO in the PZ group was 1,590 [1,396; 1,811] ng/mL and did not differ from that in the MNP (1,633 [1,434; 1,859] ng/mL), TZ (1,749 [1,535; 1,992] ng/mL), and control (1,612 [1,415; 1,836] ng/mL) groups (P = 0.749). Similarly, there was no overall treatment effect on NEO and CAL concentrations (P = 0.226 and 0.229, respectively). In this population, the provision of PZ or TZ supplements or MNP had no impact on growth or environmental enteric dysfunction (EED) as assessed by fecal MPO, NEO, and CAL. Additional research is needed to better understand the etiology and proposed mechanisms of EED pathogenesis.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/análise , Diarreia/tratamento farmacológico , Fezes/química , Zinco/administração & dosagem , Desenvolvimento Infantil/efeitos dos fármacos , Saúde da Criança , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Laos/epidemiologia , Complexo Antígeno L1 Leucocitário/análise , Masculino , Micronutrientes/administração & dosagem , Micronutrientes/efeitos adversos , Micronutrientes/uso terapêutico , Neopterina/análise , Peroxidase/análise , Zinco/efeitos adversos , Zinco/uso terapêutico
17.
Syst Parasitol ; 97(4): 347-355, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32495191

RESUMO

Dermacentor pasteuri n. sp. (Acari: Ixodidae) is described based on adults ex wild boar and vegetation from Laos and Thailand. Adults of D. pasteuri n. sp. are similar to those of D. compactus Neumann, 1901, but can be distinguished by the shape of conscutum in the male, development of dorsal cornua in the female, size and shape of spurs on coxae and coloration of leg segments in both sexes.


Assuntos
Dermacentor/anatomia & histologia , Dermacentor/classificação , Sus scrofa/parasitologia , Animais , Feminino , Laos , Masculino , Especificidade da Espécie , Tailândia
18.
Arch Virol ; 165(8): 1869-1875, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32488616

RESUMO

Coronaviruses can become zoonotic, as in the case of COVID-19, and hunting, sale, and consumption of wild animals in Southeast Asia increases the risk for such incidents. We sampled and tested rodents (851) and other mammals and found betacoronavirus RNA in 12 rodents. The sequences belong to two separate genetic clusters and are closely related to those of known rodent coronaviruses detected in the region and distantly related to those of human coronaviruses OC43 and HKU1. Considering the close human-wildlife contact with many species in and beyond the region, a better understanding of virus diversity is urgently needed for the mitigation of future risks.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens/virologia , Betacoronavirus/genética , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Pandemias/veterinária , Pneumonia Viral/veterinária , RNA Viral/genética , Roedores/virologia , Animais , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Quirópteros/virologia , Coronavirus Humano OC43/genética , Humanos , Laos/epidemiologia , RNA Viral/isolamento & purificação
19.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 103(2): 675-678, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32484153

RESUMO

Melioidosis is endemic in many rural areas in Southeast Asia where facilities for culture and identification of Burkholderia pseudomallei are often limited. We performed a prospective observational study in patients presenting with fever to Mahosot Hospital, the primary referral hospital in Laos, to establish whether the detection of abscesses on ultrasound could support a presumptive diagnosis of melioidosis. All patients underwent ultrasound examination to detect abscesses in the liver, spleen, prostate, or, if indicated, subcutaneous tissue. We enrolled 153 patients, including 18 patients with melioidosis. Of these, 11 (61%) had an abscess at one or more sites, including five (28%) with splenic and/or liver abscesses. Absence of abscesses cannot rule out melioidosis, but the positive predictive value of abscesses for melioidosis was high at 93% (88-96%). Therefore, in endemic areas, the presence of abscesses in febrile patients should prompt empiric antibiotic therapy for melioidosis even in the absence of culture confirmation.


Assuntos
Abscesso Hepático/diagnóstico por imagem , Melioidose/diagnóstico por imagem , Infecções dos Tecidos Moles/diagnóstico por imagem , Baço/diagnóstico por imagem , Abscesso Abdominal/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Comorbidade , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Laos/epidemiologia , Masculino , Melioidose/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sistemas Automatizados de Assistência Junto ao Leito , Ultrassonografia , Adulto Jovem
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