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1.
Zootaxa ; 4612(2): zootaxa.4612.2.1, 2019 May 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31717063

RESUMO

Rhyacoschistura, new genus, belongs to a group of genera (Physoschistura, Mustura, Pteronemacheilus, Petruichthys) characterised by the modified branched pectoral-fin rays of males, with a very thick first ray, usually without membranes between some of the branches and/or rays, and anterior rays and/or membranes covered by small tubercles at maturity. Rhyacoschistura is distinguished from them by the combination of: presence of a suborbital flap; emarginate caudal fin; lower lip with a wide median interruption and connected to isthmus by a frenum; body depth about equal from behind head to caudal-fin base. Rhyacoschistura larreci, new species, is described from the Mekong drainage in Xayaburi Province, Laos. It is distinguished by details of the morphology of the pelvic fin, and its colour pattern (flank with numerous narrow slanted bars, very irregularly organised and shaped, more or less connected, or sometimes covering the whole flank). Schistura suber, from Nam Ngum watershed, is redescribed on the basis of adults and placed in Rhyacoschistura.


Assuntos
Cipriniformes , Animais , Cor , , Laos , Masculino
2.
Zootaxa ; 4612(1): zootaxa.4612.1.11, 2019 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31717086

RESUMO

The Kokarit Frog, recently referred to as Hylarana lateralis (Boulenger), is widely distributed throughout Indochina (Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam), Thailand, Myanmar and southern China. The position of this species in ranid systematics remains unclear; accordingly to the latest revision by Oliver et al. (2015), it was formally withdrawn from the genus Hylarana, but not assigned to any other hylaranine genus and currently is referred to as "Hylarana" lateralis (Frost 2019).


Assuntos
Anuros , Ranidae , Animais , Camboja , China , Indochina , Laos , Larva , Mianmar , Tailândia , Vietnã
3.
Zootaxa ; 4602(1): zootaxa.4602.1.1, 2019 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31717248

RESUMO

A review of female mutillids in southern Thailand is presented, based on literature, loaned material, and two field expeditions. Thirty-three species in 23 genera have been previously recorded from Thailand (Lelej 2005; Lelej et al. 2016, 2017; Okayasu et al. 2018). In March and April 2017, 337 female specimens were collected in the provinces of Krabi, Nakhon Si Thammarat, Phatthalung, Songkhla, and Trang. In May 2018, 255 female specimens were collected in the provinces of Kanchanaburi, Phetchaburi, and Surat Thani. These collected specimens were sorted into 38 morphospecies: 13 already known from Thailand, nine previously described species newly recorded from Thailand, and 16 new to science and described here. Based on loaned material, three more described species were newly recorded from southern Thailand and one more undescribed species was found. Keys to females of the 31 mutillid genera found in southeast Asia and 42 mutillid species studied from southern Thailand are provided. Illustrations and diagnoses are provided for each species studied in southern Thailand, including the following 17 new species: Bischoffitilla tokay Williams, Bischoffitilla cambrai Williams, Mickelomyrme puttasoki Williams, Mickelomyrme kinguri Williams, Nordeniella maleeae Williams, Smicromyrme helarctos Williams, Smicromyrme borkenti Williams, Smicromyrme thaochani Williams, Krombeinidia agricola Williams, Krombeinidia chang Williams, Krombeinidia baanmaka Williams, Orientidia manleyi Williams, Orientidia thoawanae Williams, Petersenidia modkhong Williams, Petersenidia leleji Williams, Trogaspidia pittsi Williams, and Trogaspidia wilsoni Williams. Three new synonyms and one new combination are recognized: Bischoffitilla lamellata (Mickel, 1933) = Squamulotilla arundinacea Pagden, 1934, syn. nov., Mickelomyrme pusillaeformis (Hammer, 1962), comb. nov. = Mickelomyrme yunnanensis Lelej, 1996, syn. nov., Trogaspidia pagdeni (Mickel, 1933) = Timulla (Trogaspidia) pagdeni nodoa Mickel, 1933, syn. nov. Finally, two other taxa are raised to full species from subspecies status, Eotrogaspidia oryzae (Pagden, 1934), status resurr., and Trogaspidia lingnani (Mickel, 1933), status nov. New combination is also proposed for Krombeinidia meeungensis (Cockerell, 1928), comb. nov. Twenty-three new country records are presented: 12 from Thailand, four from Vietnam, four from Laos, two from Cambodia, and one from Indonesia.


Assuntos
Formigas , Himenópteros , Animais , Camboja , Feminino , Indonésia , Laos , Tailândia , Vietnã
4.
Zootaxa ; 4686(1): zootaxa.4686.1.1, 2019 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31719497

RESUMO

Eleven new species of the Tachinus nepalensis Ullrich group of the subgenus Tachinoderus Motschulsky are described from China, Vietnam and Laos: T. asperius Chang, Li Yin, sp. nov. (Yunnan), T. biangulatus Chang, Li, Yin Schülke, sp. nov. (Shaanxi, Sichuan), T. bimorphus Chang, Li, Yin Schülke, sp. nov. (Yunnan, Xizang), T. breviculus Chang, Li, Yin Schülke, sp. nov. (Sichuan, Yunnan), T. chengzhifeii Chang, Li, Yin Schülke, sp. nov. (Shaanxi, Zhejiang, Hubei, Fujian, Guangxi, Chongqing, Sichuan, Yunnan, Vietnam: Sa Pa), T. granosus Chang, Li, Yin Schülke, sp. nov. (Shaanxi, Gansu, Sichuan), T. maculosus Chang, Li, Yin Schülke, sp. nov. (Yunnan), T. meniscus Chang, Li, Yin Schülke, sp. nov. (Hunan, Guangdong, Guangxi, Yunnan), T. qian Chang, Li Yin, sp. nov. (Guizhou), T. songxiaobini Chang, Li Yin, sp. nov. (Yunnan), and T. yunnanensis Chang, Li, Yin Schülke, sp. nov. (Yunnan; Laos: Phongsaly). Main characters distinguishing species are the shapes of the terminal tergites and sternites of both sexes, and morphological differences in the aedeagi. New collecting data for eight known species: T. beckeri Ullrich, T. grandicollis (Bernhauer), T. laosensis Katayama Li, T. naomii Li, T. nigriceps Sharp, T. pseudobirmanus Schülke, T. sugayai Schülke and T. yushanensis Campbell are given. Tachinus laosensis Katayama Li is recorded from China for the first time. An identification key to and distributional maps of the Chinese species of the T. nepalensis group are provided.


Assuntos
Besouros , Distribuição Animal , Estruturas Animais , Animais , China , Feminino , Laos , Masculino , Vietnã
5.
Zootaxa ; 4629(4): zootaxa.4629.4.5, 2019 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31712502

RESUMO

The genus Barypalpus Cameron, 1932 is reviewed and diagnosed. Three new species are described: B. chinensis sp. n. (China), B. holzschuhi sp. n. (Laos), B. shibatai sp. n. (Laos). The habitus, body details and the aedeagi of all species are illustrated. A key to species is provided.


Assuntos
Besouros , Distribuição Animal , Animais , China , Laos
6.
Zootaxa ; 4629(1): zootaxa.4629.1.6, 2019 Jul 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31712535

RESUMO

The Agrilus vittatus species-group comprising fifteen species from the Oriental region is defined and revised. A key to species is provided and complemented with illustrations of habitus and genitalia. Five new species are described: Agrilus acacivorus sp. nov. (Myanmar); A. albizivorus sp. nov. (North India, Nepal); A. coco sp. nov. (Philippines); A. monadikos sp. nov. (Laos) and A. occultus sp. nov. (Laos, Thailand). Seven new junior subjective synonyms are proposed for following taxa: Agrilus babaulti Théry, 1930 (= bonadonai Descarpentries Villiers, 1963 syn.nov.); A. terraereginae Blackburn, 1892 (= deerratus Curletti, 2006 syn.nov.) and A. viridicupreus Saunders, 1866 (= cylindratus Kerremans, 1896 syn.nov., = albizziae Fisher, 1935 syn.nov., = javicola Fisher, 1935 syn.nov., = cariosulus Obenberger, 1935 syn.nov., = theodasae Baudon, 1968 syn.nov.).


Assuntos
Besouros , Distribuição Animal , Estruturas Animais , Animais , Tamanho Corporal , Índia , Laos , Mianmar , Nepal , Filipinas , Tailândia
7.
Zootaxa ; 4577(1): zootaxa.4577.1.8, 2019 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31715740

RESUMO

Two new species of the gekkonid lizard genus Hemiphyllodactylus are described based on specimens collected from Champasak Province in southern Laos and Houaphanh Province in northern Laos. Phylogenetic analyses recover H. indosobrinus sp. nov. from Champasak Province as the sister lineage to the Thai endemic H. flaviventris. Hemiphyllodactylus indosobrinus sp. nov. can be diagnosed by having 15 supralabial scales, eight chin scales, 4­5­5­4 subdigital lamellae on Fingers II-V, 4­5­5­5 subdigital lamellae on Toes II-V, and 18 continuous precloacofemoral pores. Phylogenetic analyses recover H. serpispecus sp. nov. from Houaphanh Province to be most closely related to the Vietnamese endemic H. banaensis. Hemiphyllodactylus serpispecus sp. nov. differs from congeners by having seven chin scales; 3­4­4­4 subdigital lamellae on Fingers II-V; 3­4­4­5 subdigital lamellae on Toes II-V; and 11 continuous precloacofemoral pores. The recognition of these two new species doubles the number of Hemiphyllodactylus known from Laos.


Assuntos
Lagartos , Distribuição Animal , Estruturas Animais , Animais , Ecossistema , Laos , Filogenia , Tailândia
8.
Zootaxa ; 4571(3): zootaxa.4571.3.7, 2019 Mar 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31715807

RESUMO

Channa auroflammea is a new freshwater fish species of the Marulius group from the Mekong River system. Previously reported as C. marulius, C. cf. marulius, or C. aff. marulius, C. auroflammea is readily distinguished from C. marulius and other members of the Marulius group by a different colour pattern, and a DNA barcode sequence at least 6.5% divergent from other members of the group. Comparison of counts of vertebrae, dorsal-fin rays, and lateral-line scales reveals that these counts are lower in the Mekong C. auroflammea than in C. aurolineata from the Salween and Irrawaddy-Chindwin, higher than in the Marulius group species C. pseudomarulius and C. marulioides, but similar to those in C. marulius. Channa auroflammea is known from the Mekong river and tributaries in Laos and Cambodia, where it forms a regular component of the wild fisheries catch from the rivers Tonle San and Tonle Srepok. Literature records of Channa marulius from China appear to be based on confusion originating with Cuvier's description of Ophiocephalus grandinosus.


Assuntos
Perciformes , Animais , Camboja , China , Laos , Rios
9.
Zootaxa ; 4586(2): zootaxa.4586.2.8, 2019 Apr 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716134

RESUMO

Three new species of the genus Cyana Walker, 1854 are described: C. artemis sp. n. (southeastern China, Thailand, Laos, Vietnam), C. butyracea sp. n. (Vietnam) and C. kucheri sp. n. (Vietnam). The first two species are related to the Himalayan C. moelleri (Elwes, 1890) and the Indochinese C. intercomma Cerný, 2009. Despite the external similarity of C. kucheri sp. n. to C. moelleri and its allies, by the genitalia structure this species is related to C. gazella (Moore, 1872). Adults and male and female genitalia of new and related species are illustrated.


Assuntos
Mariposas , Animais , China , Feminino , Indochina , Laos , Masculino , Tailândia , Vietnã
10.
Zootaxa ; 4586(2): zootaxa.4586.2.13, 2019 Apr 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716139

RESUMO

Halone Walker (1854) is one of the small genera within the tribe Lithosiini of subfamily Arctiinae (Erebidae). It was established for its type species, Halone sobria Walker, 1854, from Australia. The genus Halone is distributed in Southeast Asia (total 14 spp.: 3 spp. from India; 1 sp. from Thailand; 9 spp. from Malay Peninsula; 1 sp. from Papua New Guinea) to Australia (total 14 spp.), with 28 species described by several authors in various genera: Halone sobria Walker (1854), Setina sinuata Wallengren (1860), Pitane sejuncta Felder Rogenhofer (1875), Mosoda consolatrix Rosenstock (1885), Mosoda servilis and M. ophiodes Meyrick (1886), Sorocostia interspersa Lucas (1890), Halone coryphoea and H. ebaea Hampson (1914), Eurypepla pteridaula Turner (1922), Halone epiopsis and H. prosenes Turner (1940), Psapharacis camptopleura and Scaphidriotis xylogramma Turner (1899) from Australia; Halone furcifascia Hampson (1914) from Papua New Guinea; Halone ariadna, H. bifornica, H. dissimulata, H. oblimarea, H. pillea, H. iuguma, H. marketae, H. solitus and H. viktorai Bucsek (2012; 2014) from Malay Peninsula; Halone straturata Cerný (2009) from Thailand; Aemene diffusifascia Swinhoe (1896), Aemene flavescens Hampson (1898), and Halone flavinigra Hampson (1907) from India. The genus is cataloged in Poole (1989) and Edwards (1996).


Assuntos
Mariposas , Animais , Austrália , Camboja , Índia , Laos , Malásia , Papua Nova Guiné , Tailândia , Vietnã
11.
Zootaxa ; 4615(1): zootaxa.4615.1.3, 2019 Jun 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716355

RESUMO

The taxa of the genus Macrogomphus Selys, 1858 occurring in continental south-east Asia are reconsidered. Macrogomphus rivularis Förster, 1914 (described from Vietnam), M. borikhanensis Fraser, 1933 (described from Laos), and M. guilinensis Chao, 1983 (described from China), are synonymised with M. albardae Selys, 1878. The relationship and conspecificity of the latter with M. parallelogramma Burmeister, 1839 are doubtful, perhaps they are bona species. Males of M. albardae (and seemingly of parallelogramma as well) are approximately trimorphic for the pale pattern of the abdominal S3-S6, being of either a 'dashed morph' (with small isolated anteriolateral spots and conspicuous middorsal streaks), or a 'ringed morph (with broad anterior rings and less conspicuous middorsal streaks), or an 'intermediate morph'. Validity of the species M. matsukii Asahina, 1986 is doubted; its holotype could be an aberrant male of M. albardae. The main diagnostic character of M. albardae, M. phalantus Lieftinck, 1935 and probably M. parallelogramma, is clarified to be the structure of the cercus inner branch. M. phalantus jayavarman subsp. nov. is described from temporarily inundated forest at the northern bank of the great Lake Tonlé Sap of Cambodia (Siem Reap Province, 1.5 km SSW of Kampong Pluk village, 13.1956° N, 103.9725° E, 3 m a.s.l.), which is ca 1,300 km north and overseas from the presumed range of M. phalantus phalantus.


Assuntos
Odonatos , Distribuição Animal , Estruturas Animais , Animais , Tamanho Corporal , Camboja , China , Laos , Masculino , Tamanho do Órgão , Vietnã
12.
Zootaxa ; 4613(2): zootaxa.4613.2.9, 2019 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716418

RESUMO

Two new species, Dipogon (Stigmatodipogon) siam Loktionov Lelej, sp. nov. and D. (S.) wasbaueri Loktionov Lelej, sp. nov., are described and illustrated based on females from northern Thailand and Laos. The subgenus Stigmatodipogon Ishikawa of the genus Dipogon Fox is newly recorded from Thailand. An updated key to the females is provided.


Assuntos
Fabaceae , Himenópteros , Vespas , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Feminino , Laos , Tailândia
13.
Zootaxa ; 4564(2): zootaxa.4564.2.7, 2019 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716506

RESUMO

Twenty new species of Agrilus jewel beetles from the Oriental region are described and illustrated: Agrilus cicadelloides sp. nov. (Malaysia: Sarawak); A. draco sp. nov. (Malaysia: Sabah); A. hergovitsi sp. nov. (Malaysia: Johor); A. hik sp. nov.(Cambodia); A. ika sp. nov. (Solomon Islands); A. jankae sp. nov. (Indonesia: Sumatra, Singapore); A. jum sp. nov. (Laos); A. kon sp. nov. (Cambodia); A. mimicus sp. nov. (Laos); A. qom sp. nov. (Laos); A. titi sp. nov. (Malaysia: Perak); A. uxo sp. nov. (Vietnam); A. wos sp. nov. (Laos); A. xen sp. nov. (Laos); A. xia sp. nov. (Laos); A. xis sp. nov. (Laos); A. yoa sp. nov. (Laos, Vietnam); A. yuk sp. nov. (Laos); A. zao sp. nov. (Indonesia: Java and Sumba Islands); A. zim sp. nov. (Malaysia: Pahang).


Assuntos
Besouros , Distribuição Animal , Estruturas Animais , Animais , Tamanho Corporal , Camboja , Indonésia , Laos , Malásia , Melanesia , Tamanho do Órgão , Singapura , Vietnã
14.
Zootaxa ; 4563(2): zootaxa.4563.2.1, 2019 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716539

RESUMO

Before this study, giant pill-millipedes (order Sphaerotheriida) were unknown from Laos despite their presence in all surrounding countries. As by-catch from collections by arachnologists, 31 specimens of Sphaerotheriida from Laos became available for study. The sample included 14 species. Three species were only represented by females, which are described but cannot be named. Of the remaining 11 species, a single species belongs to the genus Zephronia Gray, 1832: Z. laotica n. sp.; and the other ten belong to the genus Sphaerobelum Verhoeff, 1924: S. bolavensis n. sp., S. phouloei n. sp., S. denticulatum n. sp., S. spinatum n. sp., S. lachneeis n. sp., S. peterjaegeri n. sp., S. nigrum n. sp., S. splendidum n. sp., S. laoticum n. sp., and S. schwendingeri n. sp. This more than doubles the known diversity of Sphaerobelum. Here, I integratively describe these species, combining morphology and DNA barcodes with a molecular analysis including all Zephroniidae species deposited on GenBank-including the only giant pill-millipede species known from Cambodia, Zephronia dawydoffi Attems, 1953. An updated determination key to the species of the genus is presented. Zephronia laotica n. sp. belongs to the monophyletic Zephronia sensu stricto group, which is confirmed by molecular barcoding. In contrast, most species of Sphaerobelum are in a weakly supported clade. Genetically, Sphaerobelum species differ greatly from one another, with most p-distances >15%. The lowest observed p-distance (9.8%) is between S. truncatum Wongthamwanich et al. 2012 from Thailand and S. peterjaegeri n. sp.


Assuntos
Artrópodes , Animais , Camboja , Feminino , Laos , Tailândia
15.
Zootaxa ; 4560(3): zootaxa.4560.3.2, 2019 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716566

RESUMO

The genus Rhitymna Simon, 1897 is revised by means of new material. Four new species are described: R. gerdmangel spec. nov. (Thailand, Malaysia; male, female), R. merianae spec. nov. (Indonesia: Bali; male), R. flores spec. nov. (Indonesia: Flores; male, female), R. senckenbergi spec. nov. (Philippines; male). The male of R. plana Jäger, 2003 and the female of R. tangi Quan Liu, 2012 are described for the first time. Rhitymna simoni Jäger, 2003 is recognised as junior synonym of R. cursor (Thorell, 1894) comb. nov., the latter transferred from the genus Olios Walckenaer, 1837. New records are given for further Rhitymna species, among them new country or island records for R. verruca (Wang, 1991) (Thailand), R. tangi Quan Liu, 2012 (Laos), R. plana Jäger, 2003 (Cambodia), R. pinangensis (Thorell, 1891) (Thailand), R. deelemanae Jäger, 2003 (Bali). The number of cheliceral bristles close to the fang base is recognised as size dependent, therefore without true phylogenetic signal. Two main types of copulatory organs within the genus are recognised and discussed. R. gerdmangel spec. nov. has a special biology as it lives exclusively in bamboo. Holes made by beetles or woodpeckers are used to enter the bamboo stem. Spiders hide during the day and lay their eggs in bamboo internodes.


Assuntos
Aranhas , Distribuição Animal , Estruturas Animais , Animais , Camboja , Feminino , Indonésia , Laos , Malásia , Masculino , Óvulo , Filipinas , Filogenia , Tailândia
16.
Zootaxa ; 4664(4): zootaxa.4664.4.4, 2019 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716654

RESUMO

Pyrrhalta Joannis, 1865 species with maculate elytra are revised. Pyrrhalta maculata is shown to be a complex of several species. Seven species are recognized: P. maculata Gressitt Kimoto, 1963 (Fujian, Taiwan), P. carolusi sp. nov. (Laos, Thailand), P. kaboureki sp. nov. (Sumatra), P. kambaitiensis sp. nov. (Myanmar), P. lucka sp. nov. (Laos, Thailand, Yunnan), P. schillhammeri sp. nov. (Laos) and P. tsoui sp. nov. (Taiwan). Colour photos of habitus, as well as drawings of male and female genitalia are provided.


Assuntos
Besouros , Distribuição Animal , Estruturas Animais , Animais , China , Feminino , Indonésia , Laos , Masculino , Mianmar , Taiwan , Tailândia
17.
Zootaxa ; 4657(1): zootaxa.4657.1.3, 2019 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716797

RESUMO

This revision of the bee genus Bathanthidium Mavromoustakis, 1953, treats 12 species, with 11 recorded from China, including Bathanthidium fengkaiense Niu Zhu, sp. nov.. Two species are proposed as new combinations in genus Bathanthidium: Anthidium (s. str.) bicolor Wu, 2004, A. (s. str.) monganshanensis Wu, 2004. The two new combinations (B. bicolor, B. monganshanense) are in Bathanthidium (Manthidium), previously considered to include only the type species from Burma and Laos (published records from northeastern India and Malaysia are based on misinterpreted localities). Trachusa (Paraanthidium) concavum (Wu, 1962) and Stelis siamensis Friese, 1925 are synonymized with B. binghami (Friese, 1901). Bathanthidium circinatum Wu, 2004 is transferred to Pseudoanthidium Friese forming the new combination P. (s. str.) circinatum (Wu, 2004). The distribution of each species is given, new distribution sites are marked by asterisk (*) especially. Our results confirm that the genus Bathanthidium has higher species diversity than previously documented and that this diversity is centered in China.


Assuntos
Himenópteros , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Abelhas , China , Índia , Laos , Malásia , Mianmar
18.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 851, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31615439

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In Lao People's Democratic Republic (PDR), tuberculosis (TB) prevalence was estimated at 540/100,000 in 2011. Nevertheless, little is known about the genetic characteristics and anti-TB drug resistance of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis population. The main objective of this work was to study the genetic characteristics and drug resistance of M. tuberculosis population collected during the first National TB Prevalence Survey (TBPS) of Lao PDR (2010-2011). METHODS: Two hundred and twenty two isolates collected during TBPS (2010-2011) were analyzed with the GenoType MTBDRplus test for M. tuberculosis identification and drug resistance detection. Then, 206 of the 222 isolates were characterized by spoligotyping and MIRU-VNTR typing. RESULTS: Among the 222 M. tuberculosis isolates, 11 were mono-resistant to isoniazid and 2 were resistant to isoniazid and rifampicin (MDR-TB), using the GenoType MTBDRplus test. Among the 202 genetically characterized isolates, the East African-Indian (EAI) family was predominant (76.7%) followed by the Beijing (14.4%) and T (5.5%) families. EAI isolates came from all the country provinces, whereas Beijing isolates were found mainly in the northern and central provinces. A higher proportion of Beijing isolates was observed in people younger than 35 years compared to EAI. Moreover, the percentage of drug resistance was higher among Beijing (17.2%) than EAI (5.2%) isolates, and the two MDR-TB isolates belonged to the Beijing family. Combined analysis of the MIRU-VNTR and spoligotyping results (n = 202 isolates) revealed an estimated clustering rate of 11% and the occurrence of mini-outbreaks of drug-resistant TB caused by Beijing genotypes. CONCLUSIONS: The EAI family, the ancient and endemic family in Asia, is predominant in Lao PDR whereas the prevalence of Beijing, the most harmful M. tuberculosis family for humans, is still low, differently from neighboring countries. However, its association with drug resistance, its presence in young patients and its potential association with recent transmission suggest that the Beijing family could change TB epidemiological pattern in Lao PDR. Therefore, efficient TB control and surveillance systems must be maintained and reinforced to prevent the emergence of highly transmissible and drug-resistant strains in Lao PDR, as observed in neighboring countries.


Assuntos
Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genética , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Adulto , Antituberculosos/farmacologia , Antituberculosos/uso terapêutico , Análise por Conglomerados , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Isoniazida/farmacologia , Isoniazida/uso terapêutico , Laos/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/classificação , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolamento & purificação , Filogenia , Prevalência , Rifampina/farmacologia , Rifampina/uso terapêutico , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
19.
J Helminthol ; 94: e95, 2019 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31564254

RESUMO

There is geographical variation in the morphology and genetics of Wuchereria bancrofti, the major cause of human lymphatic filariasis. This study aims to compare morphological and genetic variation of W. bancrofti microfilariae recovered from carriers in Lao PDR, Myanmar and Thailand. Six morphological parameters (body length, cephalic space length and width, length of head to nerve ring, body width at nerve ring, Innenkȍrper length and number of column nuclei between the cephalic space and nerve ring) were evaluated from microfilariae in Giemsa-stained thick blood films. A portion of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene of mitochondrial DNA was sequenced and analysed. Wuchereria bancrofti microfilariae showed a wide variation in their morphology and morphometry among three countries. Phylogenetic analysis confirmed that all microfilariae belonged to W. bancrofti. Higher mutation frequencies were observed in samples from Myanmar, relative to Thailand and Lao PDR. This study highlights the morphological disparities of microfilariae and genetic variability within W. bancrofti among three geographical locations. We found that reported morphometric differences between localities were less clear-cut than previously thought. Further studies are needed to determine the microfilarial periodicity in Lao PDR.


Assuntos
Portador Sadio/parasitologia , Filariose Linfática/parasitologia , Variação Genética , Wuchereria bancrofti/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Wuchereria bancrofti/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Corantes Azur/química , Sangue/parasitologia , Feminino , Laos , Masculino , Microfilárias/classificação , Microfilárias/genética , Microfilárias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Microfilárias/isolamento & purificação , Mutação , Filogenia , Coloração e Rotulagem , Tailândia , Wuchereria bancrofti/classificação , Wuchereria bancrofti/genética
20.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 477, 2019 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31610813

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus (Skuse) is an important worldwide invasive species and can be a locally important vector of chikungunya, dengue and, potentially, Zika. This species is native to Southeast Asia where populations thrive in both temperate and tropical climates. A better understanding of the population structure of Ae. albopictus in Lao PDR is very important in order to support the implementation of strategies for diseases prevention and vector control. In the present study, we investigated the genetic variability of Ae. albopictus across a north-south transect in Lao PDR. METHODS: We used variability in a 1337-bp fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene (cox1), to assess the population structure of Ae. albopictus in Lao PDR. For context, we also examined variability at the same genetic locus in samples of Ae. albopictus from Thailand, China, Taiwan, Japan, Singapore, Italy and the USA. RESULTS: We observed very high levels of genetic polymorphism with 46 novel haplotypes in Ae. albopictus from 9 localities in Lao PDR and Thailand populations. Significant differences were observed between the Luangnamtha population and other locations in Lao PDR. However, we found no evidence of isolation by distance. There was overall little genetic structure indicating ongoing and frequent gene flow among populations or a recent population expansion. Indeed, the neutrality test supported population expansion in Laotian Ae. albopictus and mismatch distribution analyses showed a lack of low frequency alleles, a pattern often seen in bottlenecked populations. When samples from Lao PDR were analyzed together with samples from Thailand, China, Taiwan, Japan, Singapore, Italy and the USA, phylogenetic network and Bayesian cluster analysis showed that most populations from tropical/subtropical regions are more genetically related to each other, than populations from temperate regions. Similarly, most populations from temperate regions are more genetically related to each other, than those from tropical/subtropical regions. CONCLUSIONS: Aedes albopictus in Lao PDR are genetically related to populations from tropical/subtropical regions (i.e. Thailand, Singapore, and California and Texas in the USA). The extensive gene flow among locations in Lao PDR indicates that local control is undermined by repeated introductions from untreated sites.


Assuntos
Aedes/fisiologia , Mosquitos Vetores/fisiologia , Aedes/classificação , Aedes/genética , Aedes/virologia , Algoritmos , Animais , Ásia Sudeste , Teorema de Bayes , Análise por Conglomerados , DNA/química , DNA/isolamento & purificação , Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/genética , Extremo Oriente , Feminino , Variação Genética , Genética Populacional , Haplótipos , Itália , Laos , Mitocôndrias/enzimologia , Controle de Mosquitos , Mosquitos Vetores/classificação , Mosquitos Vetores/genética , Mosquitos Vetores/virologia , Filogenia , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Clima Tropical , Estados Unidos
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