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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(3): e18305, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32011432

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ultrasonic measurements of tongue thickness and condylar translation were recently introduced to predict difficult laryngoscopy in non-obstetric patients. We designed the present study to evaluate the performance of these two ultrasonic indicators in predicting difficult laryngoscopy in healthy parturients. METHODS: The 119 parturients undergoing elective cesarean delivery were enrolled. Tongue thickness and condylar translation measured by ultrasonography, and Modified Mallampati test (MMT) score, inter-incisor distance (IID) and modified Cormack-Lehane grading system (MCLS) were measured and recorded before anesthesia. The primary outcome was difficult laryngoscopy defined as MCLS 3 or 4. The association between these variables and difficult laryngoscopy were analyzed by using multivariable logistic regression and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. RESULTS: Compared to the Easy Laryngoscopy Group, the tongue thickness was significantly higher and the condylar translation and IID were significantly lower in the Difficult Laryngoscopy Group. Tongue thickness and condylar translation but not MMT score and IID were proved to be two independent predictors for difficult laryngoscopy by multivariate logistic regression, with the odds ratios of 2.554 (95% confidence interval (CI), 1.715 to 3.802) and 0.457 (95% CI, 0.304 to 0.686). The area under the ROC curve to predict difficult laryngoscopy for tongue thickness was 0.93 (95% CI, 0.88-0.98) and for condylar translation was 0.77 (95% CI, 0.67-0.86), which were significantly higher than those for MMT score (0.67, 95% CI, 0.56-0.77) and IID (0.65, 95% CI, 0.55-0.76). CONCLUSIONS: Compared with MMT and IID, tongue thickness and condylar translation measured by ultrasonography appear to be better indicators for predicting difficult laryngoscopy in parturients.The trial was registered at the Chinese Clinical Trial Registry (ChiCTR)(www.chictr.org), registration number ChiCTR-ICR-1800019991.


Assuntos
Laringoscopia/métodos , Côndilo Mandibular/diagnóstico por imagem , Língua/diagnóstico por imagem , Ultrassonografia/métodos , Adulto , Anestesia , Cesárea , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Côndilo Mandibular/anatomia & histologia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Língua/anatomia & histologia
2.
Codas ; 32(1): e20180216, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31721923

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study aimed to compare the fiberoptic endoscopic findings of oropharyngeal swallowing of distinct food consistencies in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS). METHODS: This was a retrospective clinical study of a convenience sample of 20 individuals (13 males and seven females aged 34 to 78 years old) with a diagnosis of ALS and oropharyngeal dysphagia confirmed by clinical and objective evaluation of swallowing, regardless of the bulbar or skeletal type and of the time of neurological diagnosis. The fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing (FEES) of the liquid (N = 18), thickened liquid (N = 19) and pureed samples (N = 20) in a volume of 5 ml were analyzed. Data related to posterior oral spillage, pharyngeal residues, laryngeal penetration and/or aspiration after swallowing the three food consistencies were analyzed statistically by the Friedman ANOVA test. RESULTS: No impairment of laryngeal sensitivity was found in this population. There was no statistically significant difference in posterior oral spillage, penetration and/or aspiration between food consistencies. There was a statistically significant difference only related to pharyngeal residues of the thickened liquid and pureed consistency. CONCLUSION: Among the fiberoptic endoscopic findings of swallowing in ALS, only pharyngeal residues had a higher frequency depending on the consistency of food.


Assuntos
Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/complicações , Transtornos de Deglutição/diagnóstico por imagem , Transtornos de Deglutição/etiologia , Laringoscopia/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Deglutição , Endoscopia do Sistema Digestório , Feminino , Alimentos/classificação , Humanos , Laringe , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Orofaringe , Estudos Retrospectivos
3.
Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol ; 129(2): 142-148, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31559860

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of opioid abuse has become epidemic in the United States. Microdirect laryngoscopy (MDL) is a common otolaryngological procedure, yet prescribing practices for opioids following this operation are not well characterized. OBJECTIVE: To characterize current opioid-prescribing patterns among otolaryngologists performing MDL. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey of otolaryngologists at a national laryngology meeting. RESULTS: Fifty-eight of 205 physician registrants (response rate 28%) completed the survey. Fifty-nine percent of respondents were fellowship-trained in laryngology. Respondents performed an average of 13.3 MDLs per month. Thirty-four percent of surgeons prescribe opioids for over two-thirds of their MDLs, while only 7% of surgeons never prescribe opioids. Eighty-eight percent of surgeons prescribed a combination opioid and acetaminophen compound, hydrocodone being the most common opioid component. Many surgeons prescribe non-opioid analgesics as well, with 70% and 84% of surgeons recommending acetaminophen and ibuprofen after MDL respectively. When opioids were prescribed, patient preference, difficult exposure and history of opioid use were the most influential patient factors. Concerns of opioid abuse, the physician role in the opioid crisis, and literature about postoperative non-opioid analgesia were also underlying themes in influencing opioid prescription patterns after MDL. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, over 90% of practicing physicians surveyed are prescribing opioids after MDL, though many are also prescribing non-opioid analgesia as well. Further studies should be completed to investigate the needs of patients following MDL in order to allow physicians to selectively and appropriately prescribe opioid analgesia postoperatively.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides , Prescrições de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Laringoscopia , Otolaringologia , Dor Pós-Operatória/tratamento farmacológico , Padrões de Prática Médica , Analgésicos , Estudos Transversais , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Laringoscopia/métodos
4.
Anaesthesia ; 75(2): 179-186, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31631314

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of cricoid and paralaryngeal force for oesophageal entrance occlusion during induction of anaesthesia. Seventy-four patients were included in this randomised, crossover study. The relative position of the glottis and outer anteroposterior diameter of the upper oesophageal entrance were assessed at baseline, after the application of 30 N cricoid and paralaryngeal force, and after induction of anaesthesia. The occlusion rate of the oesophageal entrance with cricoid and paralaryngeal force was assessed during direct laryngoscopy. The relative position of the upper oesophageal entrance to the glottis changed in 45 out of 74 patients after induction of anaesthesia and during direct laryngoscopy compared with the awake state. The application of cricoid and paralaryngeal force decreased the mean (SD) diameter of the upper oesophageal entrance to a similar degree in awake (8.5 (2.1) mm to 6.4 (1.7) mm and 6.5 (1.6) mm, respectively; p < 0.001) and anaesthetised (8.7 (2.2) mm to 6.5 (1.7) mm and (6.7 (1.9) mm, respectively; p < 0.001) states. During direct laryngoscopy, the occlusion rate of the oesophageal entrance was greater with cricoid compared with paralaryngeal force (46/74 vs. 26/74, respectively; p = 0.002). The relative position of the upper oesophageal entrance to the glottis may change after induction of anaesthesia and during direct laryngoscopy. Cricoid and paralaryngeal force both decrease the diameter of the upper oesophageal entrance in awake and anaesthetised states. Occlusion of the oesophageal entrance is achieved more frequently with cricoid force compared with paralaryngeal force during direct laryngoscopy.


Assuntos
Anestesia/métodos , Cartilagem Cricoide/anatomia & histologia , Esôfago/anatomia & histologia , Laringoscopia/métodos , Laringe/anatomia & histologia , Ultrassonografia/métodos , Estudos Cross-Over , Feminino , Humanos , Intubação Intratraqueal/métodos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pressão
5.
Int. arch. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 23(4): 384-388, Out.-Dez. 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1024143

RESUMO

Introduction: The understanding of normal vocal production is essential to guide any voice professional as it is fundamental to understand the effects of the posterior glottal gap on the vocal quality. Objective: The aim of the present study was to verify the association between glottic closure, acoustic parameters, and some characteristics of the videolaryngostroboscopy of young women without vocal complaints nor laryngeal disorders. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study with 56 women between 20 and 30 years old who underwent videolaryngostroboscopy. The acoustic parameters of the vowel /a:/ were analyzed using the Praat software, Release 4.6.10 (Paul Boersman and David Weenik, Amsterdam, Netherlands). Statistical Analysis: The chi-squared, Fischer, and Kruskall-Wallis tests were applied, with 5% significance. Results: Significant occurrence of posterior glottal gap (85.71%, p < 0.001), of normal vocal folds vibration amplitude (82.14%, p < 0.001), and of absence of significant constriction of the laryngeal vestibule (98.21%, p < 0.001); no significant association of the glottic closure with the vocal acoustic parameters; no significant association of glottic closure, vocal folds vibration amplitude, and constriction of the laryngeal vestibule. Conclusion: There was a predominance of posterior glottal gap, normal vocal folds vibration amplitude, and absence of laryngeal vestibule constriction, and no relation with the acoustic parameters, suggesting that the posterior glottal gap did not generate impact on the vocal production of the young adult women studied (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Adulto , Voz/fisiologia , Glote/fisiologia , Acústica da Fala , Prega Vocal/fisiologia , Qualidade da Voz/fisiologia , Estudos Transversais , Laringoscopia/métodos , Laringe/fisiologia
7.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(46): e17898, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31725637

RESUMO

This study demonstrated a training program of the suction-assisted laryngoscopy assisted decontamination (S.A.L.A.D.) technique for emergency medical technician paramedic (EMT-P). The effectiveness of the training program on the improvements of skills and confidence in managing soiled airway was evaluated.In this pilot before-after study, 41 EMT-P participated in a training program which consisted of 1 training course and 3 evaluation scenarios. The training course included lectures, demonstration, and practice and focused on how to perform endotracheal intubation in soiled airway with the S.A.L.A.D technique. The first scenario was performed on standard airway mannequin head with clean airway (control scenario). The second scenario (pre-training scenario) and the third scenario (post-training scenario) were performed in airway with simulated massive vomiting. The post-training scenario was applied immediately after the training course. All trainees were requested to perform endotracheal intubation for 3 times in each scenario. The "pass" of a scenario was defined as more than twice successful intubation in a scenario. The intubation time, count of successful intubation, pass rate, and the confidence in endotracheal intubation were evaluated.The intubation time in the post-training scenario was significantly shorter than that in the pre-training scenario (P = .031). The pass rate of the control, pre-training, and post-training scenario was 100%, 82.9%, and 92.7%, respectively. The proportion of trainees reporting confident or very confident in endotracheal intubation in soiled airway increased from 22.0% to 97.6% after the training program. Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed that the adjusted hazard ratio of successful intubation for post-training versus pre-training scenario was 2.13 (95% confidence interval of 1.57-2.91).The S.A.L.A.D. technique training could efficiently help EMT-P performing endotracheal intubation during massive vomiting simulation.


Assuntos
Auxiliares de Emergência/educação , Intubação Intratraqueal/métodos , Laringoscopia/educação , Sucção/educação , Vômito/terapia , Adulto , Competência Clínica , Estudos Controlados Antes e Depois , Descontaminação , Desenho de Equipamento , Feminino , Humanos , Capacitação em Serviço , Laringoscopia/métodos , Masculino , Manequins , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto , Sucção/métodos
8.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(42): e16987, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31626079

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Oral bleeding is usually diagnosed after by referral to other department for the differential diagnosis of hematemesis or hemoptysis. If a patient presents with blood in the oral cavity with no obvious source, generally upper airway, pulmonary, or gastroesophageal lesions are considered likely bleeding foci. The tongue base is an unusual site for laryngopharyngeal varices and only a few cases have been reported. PATIENT CONCERNS: Although varix at the tongue base in patients with liver cirrhosis has been rarely described, physicians must consider variceal bleeding from the tongue base when presented with oral bleeding. In such cases, bleeding foci can be identified and controlled by laryngoscopy. We describe the case of a 42-year-old woman complaining of small amount of hemoptysis with variceal bleeding at the tongue base controlled by laryngoscopic excision and cauterization. DIAGNOSIS: A diagnosis of tongue base varix was made based on medical history, clinical manifestations, laryngoscopic findings and pathologic features for the patient. INTERVENTIONS: The successful laryngoscopic procedures were performed. OUTCOMES: The patient has shown no recurrent oral bleeding during follow-up. LESSONS: Variceal bleeding in the tongue base is likely to cause serious massive hemorrhage. We need to consider this possibility when presented with a patient with intraoral bleeding but no evidence of hemoptysis or hematemesis.


Assuntos
Hemorragia/etiologia , Língua/irrigação sanguínea , Varizes/complicações , Adulto , Cauterização , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Humanos , Laringoscopia/métodos , Lasers de Gás/uso terapêutico , Língua/cirurgia , Resultado do Tratamento , Varizes/patologia
9.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(42): e17450, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31626100

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cerebral aneurysm surgery has significant mortality and morbidity rate. Inflammation plays a key role in the pathogenesis of intracranial aneurysms, their rupture, subarachnoid hemorrhage and neurologic complications. Proinflammatory cytokine level in blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is an indicator of inflammatory response. Cytokines contribute to secondary brain injury and can worsen the outcome of the treatment. Lidocaine is local anesthetic that can be applied in neurosurgery as regional anesthesia of the scalp and as topical anesthesia of the throat before direct laryngoscopy and endotracheal intubation. Besides analgesic, lidocaine has systemic anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effect.Primary aim of this trial is to determine the influence of local anesthesia with lidocaine on the perioperative levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin-1ß, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α in plasma and CSF in cerebral aneurysm patients. METHODS: We will conduct prospective randomized clinical trial among patients undergoing craniotomy and cerebral aneurysm clipping surgery in general anesthesia. Patients included in the trial will be randomly assigned to the lidocaine group (Group L) or to the control group (Group C). Patients in Group L, following general anesthesia induction, will receive topical anesthesia of the throat before endotracheal intubation and also regional anesthesia of the scalp before Mayfield frame placement, both done with lidocaine. Patients in Group C will have general anesthesia only without any lidocaine administration. The primary outcomes are concentrations of cytokines interleukin-1ß, interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α in plasma and CSF, measured at specific timepoints perioperatively. Secondary outcome is incidence of major neurological and infectious complications, as well as treatment outcome in both groups. DISCUSSION: Results of the trial could provide insight into influence of lidocaine on local and systemic inflammatory response in cerebrovascular surgery, and might improve future anesthesia practice and treatment outcome. TRIAL IS REGISTERED AT CLINICALTRIALS.GOV:: NCT03823482.


Assuntos
Anestesia Local/métodos , Anestésicos Locais/administração & dosagem , Citocinas/efeitos dos fármacos , Aneurisma Intracraniano/cirurgia , Lidocaína/administração & dosagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Anestesia por Condução/métodos , Anestesia Geral/métodos , Craniotomia/métodos , Citocinas/sangue , Citocinas/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Feminino , Humanos , Aneurisma Intracraniano/sangue , Aneurisma Intracraniano/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Intubação Intratraqueal/métodos , Laringoscopia/métodos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Faringe , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Estudos Prospectivos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Couro Cabeludo , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
10.
West J Emerg Med ; 20(5): 784-790, 2019 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31539335

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Emesis occurs during airway management and results in pulmonary aspiration at rates of 0.01% - 0.11% in fasted patients undergoing general anesthesia and 0% - 22% in non-fasted emergency department patients. Suction-assisted laryngoscopy and airway decontamination (SALAD) involves maneuvering a suction catheter into the hypopharynx, while performing laryngoscopy and endotracheal intubation. Intentional esophageal intubation (IEI) involves blindly intubating the esophagus to control emesis before endotracheal intubation. Both are previously described techniques for endotracheal intubation in the setting of massive emesis. This study compares the SALAD and IEI techniques with the traditional approach of ad hoc, rigid suction catheter airway decontamination and endotracheal intubation in the setting of massive simulated emesis. METHODS: Senior anesthesiology and emergency medicine (EM) residents were randomized into three trial arms: the traditional, IEI, or SALAD. Each resident watched an instructional video on the assigned technique, performed the technique on a manikin, and completed the trial simulation with the SALAD simulation manikin. The primary trial outcome was aspirate volume collected in the manikin's lower airway. Secondary outcomes included successful intubation, intubation attempts, and time to successful intubation. We also collected pre- and post-simulation demographics and confidence questionnaire data. RESULTS: Thirty-one residents (21 anesthesiology and 10 EM residents) were randomized. Baseline group characteristics were similar. The mean aspirate volumes collected in the lower airway (standard deviation [SD]) in the traditional, IEI, and SALAD arms were 72 (45) milliliters per liter (mL), 100 (45) mL, and 83 (42) mL, respectively (p = 0.392). Intubation success was 100% in all groups. Times (SD) to successful intubation in the traditional, IEI, and SALAD groups were 1.69 (1.31) minutes, 1.74 (1.09) minutes, and 1.74 (0.93) minutes, respectively (p = 0.805). Overall, residents reported increased confidence (1.0 [0.0-1.0]; P = 0.002) and skill (1.0 [0.0-1.0]; P < 0.001) in airway management after completion of the study. CONCLUSION: The intubation techniques provided similar performance results in our study, suggesting any one of the three can be employed in the setting of massive emesis; although this conclusion deserves further study. Residents reported increased confidence and skill in airway management following the experience, suggesting use of the manikin provides a learning impact.


Assuntos
Manuseio das Vias Aéreas/métodos , Anestesiologia/educação , Descontaminação , Educação de Pós-Graduação em Medicina/métodos , Medicina de Emergência/educação , Manequins , Vômito/terapia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Intubação Intratraqueal/métodos , Laringoscopia/métodos , Masculino , Sucção/métodos
11.
Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol ; 276(11): 3159-3164, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31485732

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Ultra-high-resolution computed tomography (UHRCT) is an emerging imaging technology that is able to achieve simultaneous 160 slices with super-thin 0.25 mm thickness. The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility of UHRCT to visualize laryngeal structure and kinetics. METHODS: Three normal volunteers and three patients with unilateral vocal fold paralysis (UVFP) were incorporated in this case series. First, images were taken under five conditions in normal volunteers. Five tasks consisted of (1) air inspiration through the nose (IN), (2) breath holding (BH), (3) sustained vowel /i:/ phonation (IP), (4) humming phonation (HP), and (5) forced glottic closure during exhalation (FC). Three-dimensional CT images of arytenoid and cricoid cartilages, as well as virtual laryngoscopic images, were reconstructed using UHRCT data. Reconstructed images were compared among five conditions to assess the best tasks to picture laryngeal kinetics. Second, pre- and post-phonosurgical images were examined in UVFP patients to evaluate potential role of UHRCT to assess laryngeal pathology in hoarse patients. RESULTS: Among the five conditions, IN and IP conditions were considered suitable to visualize laryngeal structure at rest and during phonation, respectively. Kinetic abnormalities including asymmetric motion of arytenoid cartilages were elucidated in UVFP patients, and virtual endoscopy visualized the clinically invisible posterior three-dimensional glottic chinks. Furthermore, UHRCT was useful to understand changes in laryngeal structure achieved by phonosurgery. CONCLUSIONS: UHRCT is an emerging imaging technology that can be used for minimally invasive visualization and assessment of laryngeal structure and kinetics. Future studies to assess more number of patients with laryngeal dysfunction are warranted.


Assuntos
Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Imagem Tridimensional/métodos , Laringe , Tomografia Computadorizada Multidetectores/métodos , Paralisia das Pregas Vocais , Adulto , Cartilagem Aritenoide/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Humanos , Cinética , Laringoplastia/métodos , Laringoscopia/métodos , Laringe/diagnóstico por imagem , Laringe/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fonação/fisiologia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Paralisia das Pregas Vocais/diagnóstico , Paralisia das Pregas Vocais/fisiopatologia , Paralisia das Pregas Vocais/cirurgia
12.
Int. arch. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 23(3): 305-310, July-Sept. 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040015

RESUMO

Abstract Introduction Suspension laryngoscopy (SL) is a commonly performed procedure among otolaryngologists. Several studies have shown that adverse effects occur regularly with SL. Objective To evaluate the postoperative complications of SL, and to determine if protecting the dentition and the oral mucosa and limiting suspension times decrease the overall incidence of oral cavity and pharyngeal complications of SL. Methods All of the cases of SL performed by 1 surgeon from November 2008 through September 2014 were retrospectively reviewed. A consistent technique for dental and mucosal protection was utilized, and suspension times were strictly limited to 30 consecutiveminutes. The incidence of postoperative complications was calculated and analyzed with respect to gender, smoking status, dentition, laryngoscope type, and suspension system. Results A total of 213 consecutive SL cases were reviewed, including 174 patients (94 male, 80 female). The overall postoperative complication rate was of 3.8%. Four patients experienced tongue-related complications, two experienced oral mucosal alterations, one had a dental injury, and one experienced a minor facial burn. The complication incidence was greater with the Zeitels system(12.5%) compared with the Lewy suspension system (3.3%), although it was not significant (p = 0.4). Likewise, the association of complications with other patient factors was not statistically significant. Conclusion Only 8 out of 213 cases in the present series experienced complications, which is significantly less than the complication rates observed in other reports. Consistent and conscientious protection of the dentition and of the oral mucosa and limiting suspension times to 30 minutes are factors unique to our series that appear to reduce complications in endolaryngeal surgery.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Laringoscopia/efeitos adversos , Laringoscopia/métodos , Tabagismo , Odontopatias/prevenção & controle , Fatores Sexuais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Laringoscópios , Doenças da Boca/prevenção & controle
13.
BMJ Case Rep ; 12(8)2019 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31401573

RESUMO

Managing the difficult airway presents a great challenge to anaesthesiologists and emergency physicians. Although there are many methods and scoring systems available to predict and anticipate difficult airway, the dictum in emergency airway is to always expect the unexpected. We have encountered a novel simple method of improving laryngoscopic view in difficult airway. We report four cases of difficult airway encountered in our district hospital from November 2017 to December 2018, in which intubation was performed using a simple manoeuvre called supine left head rotation (LeHeR). In all these cases, LeHeR manoeuvre has proven to be successful after more than a single attempt at intubation using various methods. The manoeuvre improves drastically the laryngoscopic view of Cormack-Lehane from 3B and 4 to 1 and 2.


Assuntos
Intubação Intratraqueal/efeitos adversos , Laringoscopia/métodos , Posicionamento do Paciente/métodos , Adulto , Manuseio das Vias Aéreas/métodos , Pré-Escolar , Evolução Fatal , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Intubação Intratraqueal/métodos , Masculino
14.
Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol ; 276(11): 3153-3158, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31414223

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Functional electrical stimulation (FES) is considered an upcoming treatment modality for a number of laryngeal diseases. However, sound data are scarce when it comes to surface FES to treat voice disorders. Aim of the present study was to identify and differentiate suitable surface FES patterns to activate internal laryngeal muscles. METHODS: Non-invasive FES was performed in a cohort of 17 elderly woman. Our user-customized electrical stimulation setup allowed us to deliver ten different stimulation patterns (rectangular and sawtooth shaped) with variation of frequency and amplitude. Stimulation outcome, i.e., vocal fold (VF) reaction, was continuously verified by transnasal endoscopy. RESULTS: Responses to FES using ten different stimulation patterns varied inter-individually. None of the stimulation parameter sets could elicit a VF reaction in all participants. CONCLUSION: Based on our findings we conclude that individual fitting is necessary when defining surface stimulation parameters. To overcome limitations of previous studies, devices with freely programmable patterns are required as shown here. Endoscopic control of VF reaction is absolutely essential to ensure effectiveness of the delivered patterns.


Assuntos
Terapia por Estimulação Elétrica , Músculos Laríngeos/fisiopatologia , Distúrbios da Voz , Idoso , Estimulação Elétrica/métodos , Terapia por Estimulação Elétrica/instrumentação , Terapia por Estimulação Elétrica/métodos , Eletrodos , Feminino , Humanos , Laringoscopia/métodos , Resultado do Tratamento , Prega Vocal/fisiopatologia , Distúrbios da Voz/fisiopatologia , Distúrbios da Voz/terapia , Qualidade da Voz
15.
Anaesthesia ; 74(12): 1563-1571, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31448404

RESUMO

Dental trauma is a common complication of tracheal intubation. As existing evidence is insufficient to validly assess the impact of different laryngoscopy techniques on the incidence of dental trauma, the force exerted onto dental structures during tracheal intubation was investigated. An intubation manikin was equipped with hidden force sensors in all maxillary incisors. Dental force was measured while 104 anaesthetists performed a series of tracheal intubations using direct laryngoscopy with a Macintosh blade, and videolaryngoscopy with a C-MAC® , or the hyperangulated GlideScope® or KingVision® laryngoscopes in both normal and difficult airway conditions. A total of 624 tracheal intubations were analysed. The median (IQR [range]) peak force of direct laryngoscopy in normal airways was 21.1 (14.0-32.8 [2.3-127.6]) N and 29.3 (17.7-44.8 [3.3-97.2]) N in difficult airways. In normal airways, these were lower with the GlideScope and KingVision hyperangulated laryngoscopes, with a reduction of 4.6 N (p = 0.006) and 10.9 N (p < 0.001) compared with direct laryngoscopy, respectively. In difficult airways, these were lower with the GlideScope and KingVision hyperangulated laryngoscopes, with a reduction of 9.8 N (p < 0.001) and 17.6 N (p < 0.001) compared with direct laryngoscopy, respectively. The use of the C-MAC did not have an impact on the median peak force. Although sex of anaesthetists did not affect peak force, more experienced anaesthetists generated a higher peak force than less experienced providers. We conclude that hyperangulated videolaryngoscopy was associated with a significantly decreased force exerted on maxillary incisors and might reduce the risk for dental injury in clinical settings.


Assuntos
Incisivo , Intubação Intratraqueal/métodos , Laringoscopia/métodos , Maxila , Manuseio das Vias Aéreas , Algoritmos , Humanos , Incisivo/lesões , Laringoscópios , Manequins , Traumatismos Dentários/etiologia , Traumatismos Dentários/prevenção & controle
17.
Anaesthesia ; 74(9): 1147-1152, Ago., 28, 2019. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | Sec. Est. Saúde SP, SESSP-IDPCPROD, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: biblio-1015569

RESUMO

We examined the potential for voice sounds to predict a difficult airway as compared with prediction by the modified Mallampati test. A total of 453 patients scheduled for elective surgery under general anaesthesia with tracheal intubation were studied. Five phonemes were recorded and their formants analysed. Difficult laryngoscopy was defined as the Cormack-Lehane grade 3 or 4. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression were used to examine the association between some variables (mouth opening, sternomental distance, modified Mallampati and formants) and difficult laryngoscopy. Difficult laryngoscopy was reported in 29/453 (6.4%) patients. Among five regression models evaluated, the model achieving better performance to predict difficult laryngoscopy, after a variable selection criteria (stepwise, multivariate) and included a modified Mallampati classification (OR 2.920; 95%CI 1.992-4.279; p < 0.001), first formant of /i/(iF1) (OR 1.003; 95%CI 1.002-1.04; p < 0.001), and second formant of /i/(iF2) (OR 0.998; 95%CI 0.997-0.998; p < 0.001). The receiver operating curve for a regression model that included both formants and Mallampati showed an area under curve of 0.918, higher than formants alone (area under curve 0.761) and modified Mallampati alone (area under curve 0.874). Voice presented a significant association with difficult laryngoscopy during general anaesthesia showing a 76.1% probability of correctly classifying a randomly selected patient. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Voz/fisiologia , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios , Intubação Intratraqueal , Anestesia , Laringoscopia/métodos
18.
Int J Comput Assist Radiol Surg ; 14(10): 1751-1761, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31352673

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Contact endoscopy (CE) is a minimally invasive procedure providing real-time information about the cellular and vascular structure of the superficial layer of laryngeal mucosa. This method can be combined with optical enhancement methods such as narrow band imaging (NBI). However, these techniques have some problems like subjective interpretation of vascular patterns and difficulty in differentiation between benign and malignant lesions. We propose a novel automated approach for vessel pattern characterization of larynx CE + NBI images in order to solve these problems. METHODS: In this approach, five indicators were computed to characterize the level of vessel's disorder based on evaluation of consistency of gradient and two-dimensional curvature analysis and then 24 features were extracted from these indicators. The method evaluated the ability of the extracted features to classify CE + NBI images based on the vascular pattern and based on the laryngeal lesions. Four datasets were generated from 32 patients involving 1485 images. The classification scenarios were implemented using four supervised classifiers. RESULTS: For classification of CE + NBI images based on the vascular pattern, polykernel support vector machine (SVM), SVM with radial basis function (RBF), k-nearest neighbor (kNN), and random forest (RF) show an accuracy of 97%, 96%, 96%, and 96%, respectively. For the classification based on the histopathology, Polykernel SVM showed an accuracy of 84%, 86% and 84%, RBF SVM showed an accuracy of 81%, 87% and 83%, kNN showed an accuracy of 89%, 87%, 91%, RF showed an accuracy of 90%, 88% and 91% for classification between benign histopathologies, between malignant histopathologies and between benign and malignant lesions, respectively. CONCLUSION: These promising results show that the proposed method could solve the problem of subjectivity in interpretation of vascular patterns and also support the clinicians in the early detection of benign, pre-malignant and malignant lesions.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Laríngeas/diagnóstico por imagem , Laringoscopia/métodos , Mucosa Respiratória/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Imagem de Banda Estreita , Máquina de Vetores de Suporte
19.
Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol ; 128(11): 1048-1053, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31271035

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Mucociliary clearance is a protective mechanism of the respiratory tract that facilitates the removal of foreign particles and microorganisms. There is a paucity of data on the mucociliary clearance in the adult larynx. Our study aims to visualize and describe the mucociliary clearance of the adult larynx in healthy subjects. METHODOLOGY: Subjects were identified from a volunteer database. Exclusion criteria included laryngeal disease, previous laryngeal surgery, recent upper respiratory infection, and current smoking. A high-definition videolaryngoscope was used to visualize the larynx. The larynx was topicalised with local anesthetic. Methylene blue was placed on both false vocal cords and at the petiole of the epiglottis. Dye clearance was recorded and analyzed. RESULTS: In total, 10 participants participated, 7 men and 3 women, with a mean age of 42 ± 15.7 years (range: 25-71). The average reflux symptom index score was 1.4. Clearance of the dye from the false vocal cords followed a uniform lateral flow, up onto the aryepiglottic folds. The dye from the petiole had minimal vertical movement. Swallowing cleared dye from the aryepiglottic folds. The average time for dye clearance to the aryepiglottic fold was 2.21 ± 1.14 minutes. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study visualizing the mucociliary clearance of the larynx. Ciliary directionality was consistent in the participants studied, with dye moving superolateral from the false cords to the aryepiglottic fold. Swallowing was an effective mechanism for clearance from the endolarynx, when the dye had reached the aryepiglottic fold. Future research can study potential alterations in laryngeal mucociliary clearance in chronic disease states.


Assuntos
Deglutição/fisiologia , Doenças da Laringe/diagnóstico , Laringoscopia/métodos , Laringe/diagnóstico por imagem , Depuração Mucociliar/fisiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Seguimentos , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Doenças da Laringe/metabolismo , Laringe/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Prega Vocal/diagnóstico por imagem
20.
Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol ; 128(11): 1073-1077, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31161772

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To review the natural history of type I posterior glottic stenosis (PGS-I) and its treatment outcomes through a case presentation and demonstrate the feasibility of in-office management of PGS-I. METHODS: The case of a middle-aged woman who developed PGS-I after prolonged intubation is presented. A review of the literature on management and treatment outcomes of PGS-I is also performed. RESULTS: Initially presenting with a large granuloma that failed conservative management, the patient deferred surgical intervention and developed unilateral vocal fold hypomobility with posterior glottic synechia. The adhesion was successfully ablated in the office with potassium-titanyl-phosphate (KTP) laser; however, vocal fold hypomobility persisted after treatment. CONCLUSIONS: This case illustrates the natural history of the development of PGS-I, demonstrates the feasibility of office-based management of this condition, and provides further evidence that lysis of PGS-I synechia does not uniformly lead to restoration of normal laryngeal function and mobility.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Ambulatórios/métodos , Glote/diagnóstico por imagem , Glote/cirurgia , Laringoscopia/métodos , Laringoestenose/cirurgia , Terapia a Laser/métodos , Qualidade da Voz , Feminino , Humanos , Laringoestenose/diagnóstico , Laringoestenose/fisiopatologia , Lasers de Estado Sólido/uso terapêutico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
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