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1.
Food Chem ; 362: 130231, 2021 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34237653

RESUMO

The silkworm (Bombyx mori) is an important economic insect that can be used as food in many countries in Asia. However, silkworms and their metabolites are an important source of allergens, which can induce severe allergic reactions. So far, there are no systematic studies on the potential allergens in silkworm and its metabolites. These studies have important guiding significance for the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of silkworm allergy. The aim of this study was to identify the potential allergens from larva, pupa, moth, silk, slough and feces of silkworm and analyze the sequence homology of silkworm allergens with other allergens identified in the Allergenonline database. We have found 45 potential allergens in silkworm. The results of the homology comparison suggested that silkworm allergens likely cross-react with those of Dermatophagoides farinae, Aedes aegypti, Tyrophagus putrescentiae, Triticum aestivum and Malassezia furfur.


Assuntos
Alérgenos/análise , Bombyx/química , Proteínas de Insetos/química , Alérgenos/metabolismo , Animais , Ásia , Bombyx/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Reações Cruzadas , Fezes/química , Hipersensibilidade , Proteínas de Insetos/análise , Proteínas de Insetos/metabolismo , Larva/química , Mariposas/química , Pupa/química , Seda/química
2.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 221: 112452, 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34198186

RESUMO

Helicoverpa armigera (cotton bollworm) is one of the most destructive pests worldwide. Due to resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis and conventional insecticides, an effective management strategy to control this pest is urgently needed. Spinosad, a natural pesticide, is considered an alternative; however, the mechanism underlying the developmental effects of sublethal spinosad exposure remains elusive. In this study, the mechanism was examined using an insect model of H. armigera. Results confirmed that exposure to sublethal spinosad led to reduced larval wet weight, delayed larval developmental period, caused difficulty in molting, and deformed pupae. Further investigation demonstrated that exposure to sublethal spinosad caused a significant decrease in 20E titer and increase in JH titer, thereby leading to the discordance between 20E and JH titers, and consequently alteration in the expression levels of HR3 and Kr-h1. These results suggested that sublethal spinosad caused hormonal disorders in larvae, which directly affect insect development. Our study serves as a reference and basis for the toxicity evaluation of spinosad on molting and pupation in insect metamorphosis, which may contribute to identifying targets for effective control of cotton bollworm.


Assuntos
Inseticidas/toxicidade , Macrolídeos/toxicidade , Mariposas/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Combinação de Medicamentos , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Muda/efeitos dos fármacos , Mariposas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Pupa/efeitos dos fármacos
3.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(8): 480, 2021 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34240260

RESUMO

The study evaluates Hermetia illucens larvae's ability to decrease direct methane emissions and nutrients from cattle and swine manure. Hermetia illucens larvae were put into fresh cattle and swine manure, and the same conditions, without larvae, for the control treatment were established. The methane emissions were measured until the first prepupae appeared. The methane emissions from the bioconversion of animal manure by Hermetia illucens larvae were up to 86% lower than in the control treatments (conventional storage). The cumulative methane emissions from cattle and swine manure bioconversion were 41.4 ± 10.5 mg CH4 kg-1 and 134.2 ± 17.3 mg CH4 kg-1, respectively. Moreover, Hermetia illucens larvae could reduce 32% of dry matter, 53% nitrogen, 14% phosphorus, and 42% carbon in swine manure. Meanwhile, in cattle manure, reductions of 17% of dry matter, 5% of nitrogen, 11% of phosphorus, and 15% of carbon and pH reductions in both swine and cattle manure were found. Thus, the production of larvae was higher in swine manure than cattle manure. Furthermore, the larvae frass from swine manure was appropriate for agricultural use, unlike the larvae frass from cattle manure requiring further processing. These results reveal the ability of Hermetia illucens larvae to mitigate methane emissions from animal manure and show it to be a promising technology for manure treatment, with great potential to promote a circular economy in the livestock sector.


Assuntos
Dípteros , Esterco , Animais , Bovinos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Larva , Metano , Suínos
4.
Molecules ; 26(12)2021 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34204264

RESUMO

The present research investigated the chemical characterization and insecticidal activity of n-Hexane extracts of Epaltes divaricata (NH-EDx) along with their chief derivatives n-Hexadecanoic acid (n-HDa) and n-Octadecanoic acid (n-ODa) against the dengue vector Aedes aegypti and lepidopteran pest Spodoptera litura. Chemical screening of NH-EDx through GC-MS analysis delivered nine major derivatives, and the maximum peak area percentage was observed in n-Hexadecanoic acid (14.63%) followed by n-Octadecadienoic acid (6.73%). The larvicidal activity of NH-EDx (1000 ppm), n-HDa (5 ppm), and n-ODa (5 ppm) against the A. aegypti and S. litura larvae showed significant mortality rate in a dose-dependent way across all the instars. The larvicidal activity was profound in the A. aegypti as compared to the S. litura across all the larval instars. The sublethal dosages of NH-EDx (500 ppm), n-HDa (2.5 ppm), and n-ODa (2.5 ppm) also showed alterations in the larval/pupal durations and adult longevity in both the insect pests. The enzyme activity revealed that the α- and ß-carboxylesterase levels were decreased significantly in both the insect pests, whereas the levels of GST and CYP450 uplifted in a dose-dependent manner of NH-EDx, n-HDa, and n-ODa. Correspondingly, midgut tissues such as the epithelial layer (EL), gut lumen (GL), peritrophic matrix (Pm), and brush border membrane (BBM) were significantly altered in their morphology across both A. aegypti and S. litura against the NH-EDx and their bioactive metabolites. NH-EDx and their bioactive metabolites n-HDa and n-ODa showed significant larvicidal, growth retardant, enzyme inhibition, and midgut toxicity effects against two crucial agriculturally and medically challenging insect pest of ecological importance.


Assuntos
Aedes/efeitos dos fármacos , Asteraceae/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Spodoptera/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Asteraceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Culex/efeitos dos fármacos , Dengue/prevenção & controle , Hexanos/química , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Mosquitos Vetores/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/química , Solventes/química
5.
Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz ; 116: e200587, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34287503

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The inappropriate use of antibiotics has led to the accelerated growth of resistance to antibiotics. The search for new therapeutic strategies (i.e., antimicrobial peptides-AMPs) has thus become a pressing need. OBJECTIVE: Characterising and evaluating Sarconesiopsis magellanica larval fat body-derived AMPs. METHODS: Fat body extracts were analysed by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC); mass spectrometry was used for characterising the primary structure of the AMPs so found. ProtParam (Expasy) was used for analysing the AMPs' physico-chemical properties. Synthetic AMPs' antibacterial activity was evaluated. FINDINGS: Four new AMPs were obtained and called sarconesin III, IV, V and VI. Sarconesin III had an α-helix structure and sarconesins IV, V and VI had linear formations. Oligomer prediction highlighted peptide-peptide interactions, suggesting that sarconesins III, V and VI could form self-aggregations when in contact with the microbial membrane. AMPs synthesised from their native molecules' sequences had potent activity against Gram-positive bacteria and, to a lesser extent, against Gram-negative and drug-resistant bacteria. Sarconesin VI was the most efficient AMP. None of the four synthetic AMPs had a cytotoxic effect. MAIN CONCLUSIONS: S. magellanica larval fat body-derived antimicrobial peptides are an important source of AMPs and could be used in different antimicrobial therapies and overcoming bacterial resistance.


Assuntos
Dípteros , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Calliphoridae , Corpo Adiposo , Larva , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Proteínas Citotóxicas Formadoras de Poros
6.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 53(3): 402, 2021 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34258641

RESUMO

Since 2011, period of the livestock invasion by the cattle tick Rhipicephalus microplus in Burkina Faso (BF), tick-control problems were exacerbated. Based on farmer's reports, most commonly used commercial acaricides were found to be ineffective in Western South part of the country. To investigate the occurrence and extent of such acaricidal ineffectiveness, we performed the standardized larval packet test (LPT) with commercial deltamethrin (vectocid) and cypermethrin (cypertop), on two cattle tick species, the native Amblyomma variegatum and the invasive R. microplus. The resistance ratios (RR) were computed with susceptible Hounde strain of Rhipicephalus geigyi as reference. The R. microplus population showed resistance to the two acaricides tested with the highest lethal concentration (LC) values, and different resistance ratios higher than 4 (deltamethrin: RR50 = 28.18 and RR90 = 32.41; cypermethrin: RR50 = 8.79 and RR90 = 23.15). In the contrary, A. variegatum population was found to be highly susceptible to acaricides tested with low lethal concentrations and resistance ratio values (deltamethrin: RR50 = 0.5 and RR90 = 0.48; cypermethrin: RR50 = 0.68 and RR90 = 0.79). These data demonstrate high synthetic pyrethroid resistance in R. microplus strain, leading to conclude that the acaricide ineffectiveness in tick populations control remains a concern in BF.


Assuntos
Acaricidas , Piretrinas , Rhipicephalus , Amblyomma , Animais , Burkina Faso , Larva , Nitrilas
7.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 177: 104907, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34301350

RESUMO

Many pollinating insects expand their niche to adjacent agricultural areas and are, therefore, exposed to chemical insecticides. Acraea horta L. (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) is a pollinator butterfly widely distributed in the Southern African region. The objectives of this work were to evaluate carbohydrate, lipid and chemical elements in the hemolymph of A. horta exposed to pyriproxyfen, a juvenile hormone analog (JHA). Last instar larvae (L6: day 1 or day 2) were topically exposed to an aqueous solution of pyriproxyfen (100 µg of the active ingredient per insect) or to diluent (control group). Hemolymph was collected after adult eclosion to determine total carbohydrate and lipid concentrations: in the control group lipids were present in lower concentrations than carbohydrates and there was no significant difference in metabolite levels between sexes; a similar pattern with similar levels were measured in the treated group, except that lipid concentrations in treated males were lower, and carbohydrate concentrations in treated females were lower than the control values. Morphologically intact adult males from treated larvae were subjected to free flight; their hemolymph carbohydrate levels were significantly reduced and did not recover to starting levels in a 30 min rest period following the exhaustive flight episode. To assess the effect of pyriproxyfen on a different stage of development, 48 h old butterflies were treated in the same way as described for the L6 larvae above; hemolymph samples were taken 48 h later for metabolite measurements and for quantification of chemical elements: carbohydrate levels decreased significantly after pyriproxyfen exposure, while lipid levels increased; inorganic elements measured in untreated adults were more abundant in females, with a general decrease in concentration following pyriproxyfen exposure, except for an increase in Fe levels in males and Cl levels in females. The quantitative changes measured in A. horta hemolymph via biochemical and chemical element analyses may indicate distinct physiological interferences beyond the main mode of action of pyriproxyfen on JH activity. In conclusion, the use and quantification of pyriproxyfen should be carefully evaluated prior to application in areas where A. horta and other pollinator species occur.


Assuntos
Borboletas , Animais , Feminino , Hemolinfa , Hormônios Juvenis , Larva , Masculino , Piridinas
8.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(7)2021 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34301709

RESUMO

Infestation of any dead or necrotic tissues by the larvae of flies (maggots) is myiasis. This form of habitation is not restricted to any particular tissues in the body and can occur anywhere. However, myiasis at the surgical stoma site is very rare. We present a 55-year-old woman diagnosed with metastatic carcinoma of the oesophagus who underwent feeding gastrostomy (FG). The patient later presented with worms at the FG site. We removed the FG tube, cleared all the maggots, thoroughly cleaned the wound and placed a new FG tube. Although its occurrences have been reported enough in medical history, there are only two documented cases of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy stoma site myiasis. Hence, we present the first case in the literature of cutaneous myiasis around an FG stoma site.


Assuntos
Dípteros , Miíase , Estomas Cirúrgicos , Animais , Feminino , Gastrostomia/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Larva , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Miíase/diagnóstico , Miíase/terapia , Estomas Cirúrgicos/efeitos adversos
9.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4145, 2021 07 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34230474

RESUMO

Organisms have the capacity to make decisions based solely on internal drives. However, it is unclear how neural circuits form decisions in the absence of sensory stimuli. Here we provide a comprehensive map of the activity patterns underlying the generation of saccades made in the absence of visual stimuli. We perform calcium imaging in the larval zebrafish to discover a range of responses surrounding spontaneous saccades, from cells that display tonic discharge only during fixations to neurons whose activity rises in advance of saccades by multiple seconds. When we lesion cells in these populations we find that ablation of neurons with pre-saccadic rise delays saccade initiation. We analyze spontaneous saccade initiation using a ramp-to-threshold model and are able to predict the times of upcoming saccades using pre-saccadic activity. These findings suggest that ramping of neuronal activity to a bound is a critical component of self-initiated saccadic movements.


Assuntos
Controle da População , Rombencéfalo/patologia , Rombencéfalo/fisiologia , Movimentos Sacádicos/fisiologia , Animais , Potenciais Evocados Visuais , Movimentos Oculares , Tecnologia de Rastreamento Ocular/psicologia , Larva , Neurônios/patologia , Neurônios/fisiologia , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Peixe-Zebra
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(13)2021 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34281244

RESUMO

Olfaction is an important neural system for survival and fundamental behaviors such as predator avoidance, food finding, memory formation, reproduction, and social communication. However, the neural circuits and pathways associated with the olfactory system in various behaviors are not fully understood. Recent advances in optogenetics, high-resolution in vivo imaging, and reconstructions of neuronal circuits have created new opportunities to understand such neural circuits. Here, we generated a transgenic zebrafish to manipulate olfactory signal optically, expressing the Channelrhodopsin (ChR2) under the control of the olfactory specific promoter, omp. We observed light-induced neuronal activity of olfactory system in the transgenic fish by examining c-fos expression, and a calcium indicator suggesting that blue light stimulation caused activation of olfactory neurons in a non-invasive manner. To examine whether the photo-activation of olfactory sensory neurons affect behavior of zebrafish larvae, we devised a behavioral choice paradigm and tested how zebrafish larvae choose between two conflicting sensory cues, an aversive odor or the naturally preferred phototaxis. We found that when the conflicting cues (the preferred light and aversive odor) were presented together simultaneously, zebrafish larvae swam away from the aversive odor. However, the transgenic fish with photo-activation were insensitive to the aversive odor and exhibited olfactory desensitization upon optical stimulation of ChR2. These results show that an aversive olfactory stimulus can override phototaxis, and that olfaction is important in decision making in zebrafish. This new transgenic model will be useful for the analysis of olfaction related behaviors and for the dissection of underlying neural circuits.


Assuntos
Channelrhodopsins/metabolismo , Percepção Olfatória/genética , Olfato/genética , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados/genética , Channelrhodopsins/genética , Sinais (Psicologia) , Larva/fisiologia , Luz , Rede Nervosa/metabolismo , Neurônios/metabolismo , Odorantes , Optogenética/métodos , Estimulação Luminosa , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , Natação , Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo , Proteínas de Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo
11.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(14)2021 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34300655

RESUMO

American foulbrood is a dangerous disease of bee broods found worldwide, caused by the Paenibacillus larvae larvae L. bacterium. In an experiment, the possibility of detecting colonies of this bacterium on MYPGP substrates (which contains yeast extract, Mueller-Hinton broth, glucose, K2HPO4, sodium pyruvate, and agar) was tested using a prototype of a multi-sensor recorder of the MCA-8 sensor signal with a matrix of six semiconductors: TGS 823, TGS 826, TGS 832, TGS 2600, TGS 2602, and TGS 2603 from Figaro. Two twin prototypes of the MCA-8 measurement device, M1 and M2, were used in the study. Each prototype was attached to two laboratory test chambers: a wooden one and a polystyrene one. For the experiment, the strain used was P. l. larvae ATCC 9545, ERIC I. On MYPGP medium, often used for laboratory diagnosis of American foulbrood, this bacterium produces small, transparent, smooth, and shiny colonies. Gas samples from over culture media of one- and two-day-old foulbrood P. l. larvae (with no colonies visible to the naked eye) and from over culture media older than 2 days (with visible bacterial colonies) were examined. In addition, the air from empty chambers was tested. The measurement time was 20 min, including a 10-min testing exposure phase and a 10-min sensor regeneration phase. The results were analyzed in two variants: without baseline correction and with baseline correction. We tested 14 classifiers and found that a prototype of a multi-sensor recorder of the MCA-8 sensor signal was capable of detecting colonies of P. l. larvae on MYPGP substrate with a 97% efficiency and could distinguish between MYPGP substrates with 1-2 days of culture, and substrates with older cultures. The efficacy of copies of the prototypes M1 and M2 was shown to differ slightly. The weighted method with Canberra metrics (Canberra.811) and kNN with Canberra and Manhattan metrics (Canberra. 1nn and manhattan.1nn) proved to be the most effective classifiers.


Assuntos
Semicondutores , Animais , Abelhas , Meios de Cultura , Larva , Estados Unidos
12.
Poult Sci ; 100(8): 101272, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34237547

RESUMO

Recently, the US FDA and Association of American Feed Control Officials approved Black Soldier Fly larvae (BSFL) as a feed ingredient for poultry. The objectives of this work were 1) to evaluate the nutritional profile of BSFL oil and meal in laying hens, and 2) measure the impact of the BSFL treatments on hen performance and egg quality. In 2 experiments, BSFL oil and meal were fed to replicate hens from 43 to 47 wk and from 51 to 55 wk of age. The hens were fed isocaloric, isonitrogenous diets with 3 treatment levels of BSFL oil (1.5, 3, and 4.5%, Exp. 1) or BSFL meal (8, 16 and 24%, Exp. 2). Data were analyzed by one-factor ANOVA for the main effect of diet and Tukey's multiple comparison for mean separation when significant. Exp. 1 results suggest BSFL oil could readily substituted for soybean oil with commercial hens at inclusion levels up to 4.5%. ADFI, BW, egg production, FCR, and egg weight were not impacted by the oil treatments (P > 0.05). Yolk color among hens fed the BSFL oil was greater averaging 7.88 compared to 7.37 from Control hen eggs (P = 0.0001). Exp. 2 diet formulation replaced soybean oil and meal with BSFL meal, and some additional corn was used in the higher BSFL diets. Diet amino acid balance at the highest level of inclusion (24% BSFL meal) indicates arginine and tryptophan are limiting and ADFI, BW and egg production were reduced (P < 0.05). Egg production averaged 85.14% for the Control, 8 and 16% BSFL meal hens and was significantly greater than hens fed 24% meal at 77.01%. However, 8 and 16% BSFL meal levels had no negative impact on performance and were not significantly different than the Controls. Yolk color was again higher among the meal treatments compared to the control (P = 0.0351). These experiments indicate that BSFL oil and meal can be used as dietary energy, protein and amino acids for hen maintenance, egg production and yolk coloration, although there may be upper limits of dietary inclusion.


Assuntos
Gorduras Insaturadas na Dieta , Dípteros , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Galinhas , Dieta/veterinária , Feminino , Larva , Óvulo
13.
GM Crops Food ; 12(1): 382-395, 2021 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34193022

RESUMO

The idea of enhanced methanol production from cell wall by pectin methyl esterase enzymes (PME) combined with expression of cry genes from Bacillus thuringiensis as a strategy to improve insect pest control in cotton is presented. We constructed a cassette containing two cry genes (cry1Fa and Cry32Aa) and two pme genes, one from Arabidopsis thaliana (AtPME), and other from Aspergillus. niger (AnPME) in pCAMBIA1301 plant expression vector using CAMV-35S promoter. This construction was transformed in Eagle-2 cotton variety by using shoot apex-cut Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Expression of cry genes and pme genes was confirmed by qPCR. Methanol production was measured in control and in the cry and pme transformed plants showing methanol production only in transformed plants, in contrast to the non-transgenic cotton plants. Finally, insect bioassays performed with transgenic plants expressing cry and pme genes showed 100% mortality for Helicoverpa armigera (cotton bollworm) larvae, 70% mortality for Pectinophora gossypiella (pink bollworm) larvae and 95% mortality of Earias fabia, (spotted bollworm) larvae, that was higher than the transgenic plants expressing only cry genes that showed 84%, 49% and 79% mortality, respectively. These results demonstrate that Bt. cry-genes coupled with pme genes are an effective strategy to improve the control of different insect pests.


Assuntos
Bacillus thuringiensis , Mariposas , Animais , Bacillus thuringiensis/genética , Toxinas de Bacillus thuringiensis , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Endotoxinas/genética , Gossypium/genética , Proteínas Hemolisinas/genética , Resistência a Inseticidas , Larva , Metanol , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas
14.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34218554

RESUMO

Objective: This study aims to explore whether lead exposure could cause anxiety of zebrafish larvae, and to explore its mechanism. Methods: In May 2020, zebrafish embryos 4 hours after fertilization (4 hpf) were collected, E3 culture medium was used as the control group, and different lead exposure concentrations (6, 12, 24, 48 µmol/L) as the poisoned group during the time was 140 h. The mortalities, hatching rates and deformity rates were calculated, the behavioral changes of 144 hpf larvae were observed (moving speed, moving distance, activity, absolute turn angle, the light-evoked startle response, darkness-evoked escape response and thigmotaxis) . The levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were detected in zebrafish larvae in the heads. ELISA kits were used to detect the expression of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) , dopamine (DA) , noradrenaline (NA) and corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) related to anxiety. Results: The mortalities rates of zebrafish embryos in the lead exposure concentration of 12, 24 and 48 µmol/L were higher than the control group, and the embryo hatching rates were lower than control group. The deformity rates of zebrafish larvae in the lead exposure concentration of 24 and 48 µmol/L were higher than control group (P<0.01) . The movement speed, activity and thigmotaxis of zebrafish larvae in the lead exposure concentration of 24 and 48 µmol/L were significantly lower than control group, the absolute turn angle were higher than control group (P<0.01) . The moving distance and darkness-evoked escape response of zebrafish larvae in the lead exposure concentration of 48 µmol/L group were lower than control group (P<0.05) . The light-evoked startle response of zebrafish larvae in the lead exposure concentration of 12, 24 and 48 µmol/L groups were lower than control group (P<0.05) . The ROS levels and MDA concentrations in the heads of larvae in the lead exposure concentration of 24 and 48 µmol/L were higher than control group (P<0.05) . The levels of NA and DA in the heads of the larvae in the lead exposure groups of 12, 24 and 48 µmol/L were lower than control group, and the levels of 5-HT and CRH in the heads of the larvae in the lead exposure groups of 24 and 48 µmol/L were higher than control group (P<0.05) . Conclusion: Lead exposure is toxic to zebrafish embryonic development and may cause anxiety-like neurobehavior changes and oxidative stress in zebrafish.


Assuntos
Chumbo , Peixe-Zebra , Animais , Ansiedade , Larva , Estresse Oxidativo
15.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e244480, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34259780

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to evaluate the properties of garlic as a growth promoter in larvae of angelfish Pterophyllum scalare and its benefits during transport of juveniles of this species. The experiment was conducted in recirculation aquaculture system, consisting of 20 tanks of 40 L equipped with independent water input and output. We used 1,400 larvae distributed among five treatments, with four repetitions, which totaled 20 experimental units. The treatments were 0, 50, 100, 200, and 400 mg of garlic extract per kilo of feed. The results showed that the inclusion of levels of garlic extract in the feed did not significantly effect the fish's development or their transport. Neither did the inclusion of levels of garlic extract affect the survival of the larvae during the trial period. New research with extracts of higher dosages should be performed to elucidate the effect of garlic extract as a growth promoter.


Assuntos
Ciclídeos , Alho , Animais , Aquicultura , Larva , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia
16.
Dis Aquat Organ ; 145: 185-190, 2021 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34263733

RESUMO

Larvae (metacestodes) of gryporhynchid tapeworms (Cestoda: Cyclophyllidea) are reported for the first time from the liver of tilapia hybrids (Oreochromis aureus × O. niloticus) reared in earth ponds in northeastern Israel (along the Jordan River). This is the first record of Amirthalingamia macracantha (Joyeux & Baer, 1935), a parasite of cormorants (Phalacrocoracidae), outside Africa and outside the tropics. Larvae found in the liver of tilapias (Cichlidae) were identified to species level because they possessed 20 massive rostellar hooks of 3 types, with the 4 largest hooks measuring almost 500 µm. Molecular data confirmed species identification. The possible route of introduction to Israel of this African parasite, which is large (length up to 2 cm) and potentially pathogenic for cultivated tilapias, is discussed.


Assuntos
Cestoides , Tilápia , Animais , Aquicultura , Cestoides/genética , Israel , Larva
17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(13)2021 Jun 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34201772

RESUMO

Nucleolar stress occurs when ribosome production or function declines. Nucleolar stress in stem cells or progenitor cells often leads to disease states called ribosomopathies. Drosophila offers a robust system to explore how nucleolar stress causes cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, or autophagy depending on the cell type. We provide an overview of nucleolar stress in Drosophila by depleting nucleolar phosphoprotein of 140 kDa (Nopp140), a ribosome biogenesis factor (RBF) in nucleoli and Cajal bodies (CBs). The depletion of Nopp140 in eye imaginal disc cells generates eye deformities reminiscent of craniofacial deformities associated with the Treacher Collins syndrome (TCS), a human ribosomopathy. We show the activation of c-Jun N-terminal Kinase (JNK) in Drosophila larvae homozygous for a Nopp140 gene deletion. JNK is known to induce the expression of the pro-apoptotic Hid protein and autophagy factors Atg1, Atg18.1, and Atg8a; thus, JNK is a central regulator in Drosophila nucleolar stress. Ribosome abundance declines upon Nopp140 loss, but unusual cytoplasmic granules accumulate that resemble Processing (P) bodies based on marker proteins, Decapping Protein 1 (DCP1) and Maternal expression at 31B (Me31B). Wild type brain neuroblasts (NBs) express copious amounts of endogenous coilin, but coilin levels decline upon nucleolar stress in most NB types relative to the Mushroom body (MB) NBs. MB NBs exhibit resilience against nucleolar stress as they maintain normal coilin, Deadpan, and EdU labeling levels.


Assuntos
Nucléolo Celular/genética , Corpos Enovelados/patologia , Proteínas de Drosophila/genética , Drosophila melanogaster/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/genética , Estresse Fisiológico , Animais , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Corpos Enovelados/genética , Proteínas de Drosophila/antagonistas & inibidores , Drosophila melanogaster/fisiologia , Larva/genética , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fosfoproteínas , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/antagonistas & inibidores , Ribossomos/genética , Ribossomos/metabolismo
18.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(7)2021 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34266828

RESUMO

We reported a case of gnathostomiasis in a 42-year-old woman with an unclear history of eating high-risk foods and had a non-migratory skin lesion, negative serological testing and normal blood eosinophil counts. A diagnosis of gnathostomiasis was based on a live, third-stage Gnathostoma spinigerum larva that was randomly taken from the patient's skin lesion by herself. The presenting case report demonstrates challenges in correctly diagnose cutaneous gnathostomiasis even in endemic countries due to atypical skin lesions, negative serology testing and the absence of eosinophilia and thus, the widely used classic triad of suggestive evidence of gnathostomiasis is not fulfilled.


Assuntos
Gnathostoma , Gnatostomíase , Larva Migrans , Adulto , Animais , Feminino , Gnatostomíase/diagnóstico , Gnatostomíase/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Larva , Larva Migrans/diagnóstico , Larva Migrans/tratamento farmacológico , Vietnã
19.
Zootaxa ; 4966(5): 578584, 2021 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34186590

RESUMO

The last instar larva of Planiplax sanguiniventris (Calvert, 1907) is described and illustrated in detail based on one specimen collected in the municipality of Tenosique, Tabasco, Mexico. It is compared with the larvae of P. phoenicura Ris, 1912 and a congeneric unidentified species from Colombia. The main structural features are the number of setae on palp and prementum, the size of dorsal protuberance on S3, and the length of posterolateral spines on S89 and caudal appendages.


Assuntos
Larva/anatomia & histologia , Odonatos/classificação , Animais , México
20.
Zootaxa ; 4966(5): 563570, 2021 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34186592

RESUMO

The larva of the genus Brachygonia Kirby, 1889 is described and illustrated for the first time based on the larvae of Brachygonia oculata (Brauer, 1878) discovered and successfully reared in Singapore. Compared to known larvae from genera in the rather heterogeneous subfamily Brachydiplacinae, B. oculata is most similar to species from the genus Brachydiplax Brauer, 1868 after comparison is made with the larva of Brachydiplax farinosa Krüger, 1902.


Assuntos
Larva/anatomia & histologia , Odonatos/classificação , Animais , Singapura
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