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1.
GM Crops Food ; 12(1): 1-17, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32762312

RESUMO

A biophysical survey was conducted in 15 cotton-growing districts of Pakistan. Four hundred cotton growers were approached and inquired about the production technology of Bt cotton. Further, 25 strip tests using combo strips (Cry1Ac, Cry2Ab, Vip3Aa and Cp4, EPSPS gene) were performed at each farmer's field. Out of 10,000 total-tested samples, farmers claimed 9682 samples as Bt and 318 samples as non-Bt. After performing a strip test, 1009 and 87 samples were found false negative and false positive, respectively. Only 53 samples were found positive for Cry2Ab, 214 for EPSPS and none for Vip3Aa gene. Quantification of Cry endotoxin and bioassay studies were performed by taking leaves from upper, middle, and lower canopies, and fruiting parts at approximately 80 days after sowing from 89 varieties. Expression was highly variable among different canopies and fruiting parts. Moreover, Cry endotoxin expression and insect mortality varied significantly among varieties from 0.26 µg g-1 to 3.54 µg g-1 with mortality ranging from 28 to 97%, respectively. Highest Cry1Ac expression (3.54 µg g-1) and insect mortality (97%) were observed for variety FH-142 from DG Khan. Cry endotoxin expression varied significantly across various plant parts, i.e., IUB-13 variety from upper canopy documented 0.34 µg g-1 expression with 37% insect mortality in Layyah to 3.42 µg g-1 expression and 96% insect mortality from DG Khan. Lethal dose, LD95 (2.20 µg g-1) of Cry1Ac endotoxin was optimized for effective control of H. armigera. Our results provided evidence of practical resistance in H. armigera and way forward.


Assuntos
Proteínas Hemolisinas/genética , Mariposas , Animais , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Endotoxinas , Gossypium , Resistência a Inseticidas , Larva , Paquistão , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas
2.
Zootaxa ; 4816(3): zootaxa.4816.3.3, 2020 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33055691

RESUMO

The larva of Archaeopodagrion fernandoi Bota-Sierra, 2017, is described and illustrated in detail, being the first larva described for the genus Archaeopodagrion. The description is based on F-0 larvae collected from the type locality. The larva of A. fernandoi shows great resemblance to larvae of Philogenia spp., which adds support to the hypothesis of the monophyletic family Philogeniidae which groups together Archaeopodagrion and Philogenia. However, both genera differ each other by the presence of basal, spiny, fleshy tubercles on caudal lamellae of Archaeopodagrion.


Assuntos
Odonatos , Estruturas Animais , Animais , Tamanho Corporal , Larva , Coluna Vertebral
3.
Zootaxa ; 4809(2): zootaxa.4809.2.8, 2020 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33055941

RESUMO

The genus Epsteinius Lin, Braby Hsu gen. nov. is established to accommodate a new, diminutive species of limacodid moth, E. translucidus Lin, sp. nov., from central Taiwan. Although the new species is the sister taxon to Microleon Butler, 1885 according to molecular phylogenetic data, it differs fundamentally from that genus in adult morphology, wing color pattern, male and female genitalia, and larval morphology. Larvae of E. translucidus Lin, sp. nov. represent an interesting case in which crypsis is based on transparency through its body color, resting behavior, and feeding pattern.


Assuntos
Mariposas , Animais , Cor , Feminino , Larva , Masculino , Filogenia , Taiwan
4.
Zootaxa ; 4859(3): zootaxa.4859.3.8, 2020 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056193

RESUMO

This is the morphological description of the mature larva of a member of the genus Dorcatoma Herbst, 1791. It is also one of the most detailed morphological descriptions of an immature stage of the subfamily Dorcatominae Thomson. Complete characteristics of the head, mouthparts, thorax and abdomen are given. Information relating to morphological convergence with other coleopteran families and the ecology of the species described is also provided.


Assuntos
Besouros , Animais , Larva
5.
Zootaxa ; 4859(2): zootaxa.4859.2.2, 2020 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056196

RESUMO

Larvae of 15 species of Macronychini, subfamily Elminae, belonging to the genera Sinonychus Jäch Boukal, Paramacronychus Nomura, Zaitzeviaria Nomura, Zaitzevia Champion, and Urumaelmis Satô were described based on scanning electron microscope (SEM) observation. Larvae of eleven of these species, S. tsujunensis Yoshitomi Nakajima, Zaitzeviaria gotoi (Nomura), Zaitzeviaria brevis (Nomura), Zaitzeviaria kuriharai Kamite, Ogata Satô, Zaitzevia elongata Nomura, Zaitzevia aritai Satô, Zaitzevia yaeyamana Satô, Zaitzevia awana (Kôno), Zaitzevia nitida Nomura, Zaitzevia tsushimana Nomura, and U. uenoi (Nomura) are described for the first time.


Assuntos
Besouros , Animais , Japão , Larva
6.
Zootaxa ; 4822(2): zootaxa.4822.2.4, 2020 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056289

RESUMO

The male and female adult and larva of Clunio balticus Heimbach, 1978 are diagnosed and described based on reared material, which was collected in the marine littoral zone along the coast of Bergen (Norway). Male and female adults and larvae of C. balticus can be easily distinguished from other known European Clunio species on the basis of some atypical features found in the male and female adults and fourth instar larvae. The biological cycle (reproduction and emergence) of C. balticus is a slight semilunar-periodic synchronization on days near the high tides. C. balticus is a local biogeographic representative of the northern Atlantic coast, which includes the eastern and western seashores. Remarks on related known Clunio species from Europe with comments on the ecology and geographical distribution of C. balticus are given.


Assuntos
Chironomidae , Animais , Feminino , Larva , Masculino , Noruega
7.
Zootaxa ; 4767(3): zootaxa.4767.3.4, 2020 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056556

RESUMO

The taeniopterygid genus Taenionema Banks, 1905 is reported from China for the first time. A newly discovered and probable new species of this genus, Taenionema sp., is described and illustrated based on larvae from Zhejiang Province of coastal southeastern China. The species is characterized by the male larva having a bilobed post-genital plate. Adults will be necessary for a future formal species description. This contribution represents the first larval description in the family Taeniopterygidae from China.


Assuntos
Insetos , Neópteros , Animais , China , Larva , Masculino
8.
Zootaxa ; 4767(2): zootaxa.4767.2.8, 2020 Apr 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056569

RESUMO

The genus Heterixalus is endemic to Madagascar. It contains eleven species of small to medium-sized tree frogs that typically inhabit open areas like swamps and rice fields. We describe the larval stages of three sympatric species that occur in western Madagascar: H. tricolor, H. carbonei, and H. luteostriatus. Similar to other species of this genus, the tadpoles of these species have a depressed, ovoid body-form and a generalized oral disc. The labial tooth row formula is 1/3(1). Examined phenotypes differed marginally between species. Compared to H. tricolor and H. carbonei, H. luteostriatus showed fewer cusps on the fork-like labial teeth, a lower ventral fin, and a shorter tail. The high morphological resemblance implicates an ecological similarity between species. Highly overlapping niches raise questions on how species co-occur.


Assuntos
Anuros , Animais , Larva , Madagáscar , Dente
9.
Zootaxa ; 4845(4): zootaxa.4845.4.1, 2020 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056752

RESUMO

This study represents a detailed taxonomic account of 31 species of Plusiinae (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) from India. The survey and collection of 39 localities from different regions of India between 2015 and 2018. The tribe Argyrogrammatini Eichlin Cunningham, 1978 with Ctenoplusia Dufey, 1970 was the most species rich genera with seven species, followed by Thysanoplusia Ichinose, 1973 and Chrysodeixis Hubner, 1821 with four and three species respectively. Among 31 species, 15 species are commonly found in Himalayan regions and while other species were distributed from subtropical to tropical region. Five species, T. orichalcea (Fabricius, 1775), Chrysodeixis eriosoma (Doubleday, 1843), C. acuta (Walker, 1858), C. chalcites (Esper, 1789), Trichoplusia ni (Hubner, 1803) are widespread throughout India and reported as serious crop pests. Present study also revealed range expansion of four species viz., Dactyloplusia impulsa (Walker, 1865), Ctenoplusia mutans (Walker, 1865), Ctenoplusia tarassota (Hampson, 1913) and Zonoplusia ochreata (Walker, 1865). Systematic accounts of all 31 species are discussed here with adult images, species diagnostic characters, collection localities, detailed distributions and reported larval host plants. In addition to morphological studies, for the first time, a preliminary barcode library for 25 species of Indian Plusiinae with average intra-specific distance (%), maximum intra-specific distance (%) and distance to nearest neighbor (%) for individual species is provided. Among 25 species, four species barcode data (Ctenoplusia mutans, C. kosemponesis, Plusiopalpa adrasta, Sclerogenia jessica) are novel to world and 18 species barcode sequences were novel to India.


Assuntos
Código de Barras de DNA Taxonômico , Mariposas , Animais , DNA , Índia , Larva
10.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4627, 2020 10 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33009389

RESUMO

Animals have evolved responses to low oxygen conditions to ensure their survival. Here, we have identified the C. elegans zinc finger transcription factor PQM-1 as a regulator of the hypoxic stress response. PQM-1 is required for the longevity of insulin signaling mutants, but surprisingly, loss of PQM-1 increases survival under hypoxic conditions. PQM-1 functions as a metabolic regulator by controlling oxygen consumption rates, suppressing hypoxic glycogen levels, and inhibiting the expression of the sorbitol dehydrogenase-1 SODH-1, a crucial sugar metabolism enzyme. PQM-1 promotes hypoxic fat metabolism by maintaining the expression of the stearoyl-CoA desaturase FAT-7, an oxygen consuming, rate-limiting enzyme in fatty acid biosynthesis. PQM-1 activity positively regulates fat transport to developing oocytes through vitellogenins under hypoxic conditions, thereby increasing survival rates of arrested progeny during hypoxia. Thus, while pqm-1 mutants increase survival of mothers, ultimately this loss is detrimental to progeny survival. Our data support a model in which PQM-1 controls a trade-off between lipid metabolic activity in the mother and her progeny to promote the survival of the species under hypoxic conditions.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans/metabolismo , Caenorhabditis elegans/metabolismo , Hipóxia/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Transativadores/metabolismo , Animais , Caenorhabditis elegans/embriologia , Caenorhabditis elegans/genética , Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans/genética , Embrião de Mamíferos/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Glicogênio/metabolismo , Insulina/metabolismo , Larva/metabolismo , Mutação/genética , Consumo de Oxigênio , Transdução de Sinais , Estresse Fisiológico , Análise de Sobrevida , Transativadores/genética , Transcrição Genética , Vitelogeninas/metabolismo
11.
Zootaxa ; 4768(3): zootaxa.4768.3.1, 2020 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33055645

RESUMO

Japanese species of Caliroa (Hymenoptera, Tenthredinidae) are the following 13 species, five of which are described as new: C. aizankei Hara, sp. nov. from Hokkaido, C. bibaiensis Hara, sp. nov. from Hokkaido, C. cerasi (Linné, 1758), C. ibukii Hara, sp. nov. from Honshu, C. matsumotonis (Harukawa, 1919), C. nara Hara, 2011, C. nire Hara, sp. nov. from Hokkaido, C. oishii (Takeuchi, 1933), C. ouensis Hara, sp. nov. from Honshu, C. staphyleae Oishi, 1961, C. vaccini Okutani, 1965, C. varipes (Klug, 1816) and C. zelkovae Oishi, 1961. The following two new synonymies are proposed: C. quercivora Togashi, 1999, syn. nov. with C. oishii; C. sumomovora Togashi Oishi, 1978, syn. nov. with C. zelkovae. Lectotypes are designated for C. staphyleae Oishi, 1961 and C. zelkovae Oishi, 1961. Keys to adults and larvae are given. Caliroa staphyleae and C. zelkovae are newly recorded from Hokkaido. New host records are given for C. cerasi and C. zelkovae. Caliroa annulipes (Klug, 1816) is excluded from the fauna of Japan. An additional description of C. annulipes is given. The generic characters are also discussed.


Assuntos
Himenópteros , Animais , Japão , Larva
12.
Zootaxa ; 4768(3): zootaxa.4768.3.4, 2020 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33055648

RESUMO

A new black fly species, Simulium (Nevermannia) karavalliense sp. nov. is described from Southern Eastern Ghats of South India. This new species is placed in the Simulium ruficorne species-group of the subgenus Nevermannia. S. (N.) karavalliense sp. nov. is characterized by female with a long sensory vesicle, male upper eye with 14 vertical columns and 16 horizontal rows of large facets, pupal gill with 8 filaments and larval hypostoma with 6 hypostomal bristles lying parallel to lateral margin. Taxonomic keys are provided to distinguish this new species from related species in India.


Assuntos
Simuliidae , Animais , Feminino , Índia , Larva , Masculino , Pupa
13.
Zootaxa ; 4830(3): zootaxa.4830.3.5, 2020 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056146

RESUMO

The final instar of Neoerythromma cultellatum (Hagen in Selys, 1876) is redescribed and illustrated based upon reared specimens from Turrialba, Cartago, Costa Rica. This is a detailed complement of the original description provided by García-Díaz (1938) and illustrated with high quality photos of the larval morphology. The larva of N. cultellatum is characterized by a slender, spinulose, and yellow to yellowish-brown body, premental setae 3+1, five palpal setae, male cerci long, and caudal lamella lanceolate, with obvious node, spotted, and markedly tracheate.


Assuntos
Odonatos , Animais , Cor , Larva , Masculino
14.
Zootaxa ; 4830(3): zootaxa.4830.3.7, 2020 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056148

RESUMO

The genus Amazophrynella Fouquet, Recoder, Teixeira, Cassimiro, Amaro, Camacho, Damasceno, Carnaval, Moritz, and Rodrigues, is represented by 12 nominal species and distributed in the Amazon region of Brazil, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Guyana, French Guiana, Peru, and Venezuela (Frost 2020). In the last eight years, ten species from this genus have been described. However, despite the wide distribution and diversity of these species, only the tadpole of Amazophrynella manaos Rojas, Carvalho, Ávila, Farias, and Hrbek from the Brazilian Amazon (Menin et al. 2014) and A. siona Rojas, Fouquet, Ron, Hernández-Ruz, Melo-Sampaio, Chaparro, Vogt, Carvalho, Pinheiro, Ávila, Farias, Gordo, and Hrbek from Ecuador have been formally described (Duellman Lynch 1969; Rojas et al. 2018). Literature about tadpole morphology, reproduction, and bioacoustics of Amazophrynella is scarce and necessary to a comprehensive taxonomic classification (Kaefer et al. 2019). Herein, we describe the tadpole of the recently described species Amazophrynella teko Rojas, Fouquet, Ron, Hernández-Ruz, Melo-Sampaio, Chaparro, Vogt, Carvalho, Pinheiro, Ávila, Farias, Gordo, and Hrbek, found in the northeastern Amazon, in the State of Amapá, Brazil, and in French Guiana.


Assuntos
Anuros , Bufonidae , Animais , Brasil , Larva
15.
Zootaxa ; 4859(4): zootaxa.4859.4.5, 2020 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056183

RESUMO

All larval instars of the tiger beetle species Cosmodela aurulenta aurulenta (Fabricius, 1801) which is the type species of the genus Cosmodela Rivalier, 1961 are described and illustrated here for the first time, based on material from Bali Island (Indonesia). A brief review of habitat preferences and ecology for adults and larvae of Cosmodela aurulenta are provided. Differences between C. aurulenta and C. batesi (Fleutiaux, 1893) and allied Palaearctic genera of the subtribe Cicindelina are discussed. The preliminary key of known larvae of relevant genera and subgenera of the Oriental Region is given.


Assuntos
Besouros , Animais , Ecossistema , Larva
16.
Zootaxa ; 4858(3): zootaxa.4858.3.3, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056219

RESUMO

Adults and larvae of the genus Hydropsyche from Yun-nan and Si-chuan Provinces, China, were examined and the COI barcode gene sequences were obtained and analyzed, adults and larvae of 3 species were successfully associated. Of them, H. uvana Mey 1995 is a new record for the Chinese caddisfly fauna. The larvae of H. cerva Li Tian 1990, H. penicillata Martynov 1931, and H. uvana Mey 1995 are described for the first time. The diagnostic features of the species are described and illustrated.


Assuntos
Holometábolos , Insetos , Animais , China , Larva
17.
Zootaxa ; 4858(3): zootaxa.4858.3.5, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056221

RESUMO

The larval stage of the Chinese endemic antlion Bullanga florida (Navás, 1913) is described for the first time with biological notes. The wide distribution of B. florida in southern China is discussed under the context of habitat selection of the larvae. Meanwhile, comparing the adults and larvae between B. florida and Dendroleon esbenpeterseni Miller Stange, 1999, extensive morphological similarities suggest that these two species may belong to a same genus.


Assuntos
Holometábolos , Insetos , Animais , Florida , Larva
18.
Zootaxa ; 4858(1): zootaxa.4858.1.7, 2020 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056245

RESUMO

Thermothrips mohelensis Pelikán is an extremely rare thrips found in dry steppe grassland ecosystems (Pelikán 1949, 1995; Ulitzka 2019a). It has been reported from only a few locations and almost always in very low abundance: one female each has been collected in Germany (Ulitzka 2019a), Slovenia (Kucharczyk 2008) and Turkey (Tunç 1992), two females are known from Iran (Mirab-balou Chen 2013), three from Poland (Zawirska 1988; Kucharczyk 2007) and six from Western Russia (Schliephake 1977). Larger series including males and larvae are known only from Czechoslovakia (Pelikán 1949, 1995) and from Yakutia, East Siberia where-besides other specimens-the larvae discussed below have been collected (see Evdokarova Kucharczyk 2020). The fragmented and selective occurrence of this species in steppe habitats has been interpreted to represent scattered relict populations that may have remained from a more extensive distribution far back, possibly in the wide dry grasslands of the Late Pleistocene (Ulitzka 2019a). Similar to other specialist species of those barren habitats T. mohelensis is severely threatened by the general decline of these fragile ecosystems due to natural succession or anthropogenic impact (Kucharczyk 2008; Kucharczyk Kucharcyk 2008; Ulitzka 2019a). T. mohelensis is a thermophilous (zur Strassen 2003) and highly xerophilous species. This thrips was erroneously considered an hydrophilous wetland thrips (Bhatti 1998) due to a mistranslation (see Ulitzka 2019a). T. mohelensis lives and breeds monophagously in flowers of Galium (Rubiaceae), particularly G. verum but also G. mollugo (Pelikán 1949, 1995; Schliephake 1972; Tunç 1992).


Assuntos
Tisanópteros , Animais , Ecossistema , Feminino , Larva , Masculino
19.
Zootaxa ; 4857(1): zootaxa.4857.1.5, 2020 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056346

RESUMO

This paper deals with the detailed morphological observation of larva, protonymph and deutonymph, as well as female and male adults of Neoseiulus californicus (McGregor) based on laboratory reared specimens. The main changes are as follows: larva with one dorsal shield, while protonymph with two, which fused into a holodorsal shield in deutonymph; 9 pairs of dorsal setae in larvae, 14 pairs in protonymph, and 19 pairs in deutonymph and adult; the immature stages without discernible ventrianal shield, though hypoplastic shield, a weakly sclerotized small plate around the anal pore, present in the protonymph and deutonymph. larva and protonymph each with seven pairs of ventral setae, while deutonymph and adult each with 12 pairs; movable digit with one or two teeth in larva, three teeth in protonymph, deutonymph or adult. The development of morphological traits in ontogenesis of N. californicus could provide helpful basis to identify it practically from its relatives.


Assuntos
Ácaros , Animais , Feminino , Larva , Masculino
20.
Zootaxa ; 4857(1): zootaxa.4857.1.6, 2020 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056347

RESUMO

The morphological ontogeny of Zachvatkinibates latilamellatus Bayartogtokh Aoki, 1998 is described and illustrated. The juveniles of this species are light brown, with several pairs of small, sclerotized depressions on the gastronotum, which are unique in Zachvatkinibates Shaldybina, 1973. The larva has 12 pairs of gastronotal setae, including h3, all are inserted on unsclerotized integument; nymphs have 15 pairs, of which c-series is inserted on individual sclerites, d-, l-, h-series and p1 are on sclerotized integument, and p2 and p3 on unsclerotized integument. In all juveniles, a porose humeral organ is present.


Assuntos
Ácaros , Animais , Tegumento Comum , Larva , Ninfa , Sensilas
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