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1.
Zoolog Sci ; 37(1): 91-101, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32068378

RESUMO

Two lineages of stream toads in the genus Ansonia from Malaysian Borneo have long been suspected to be specifically distinct on the basis of molecular data. We assessed the taxonomic status of these lineages using morphological and additional genetic data. In mtDNA phylogeny, each lineage-one from Bario, Kelabit Highlands of Sarawak, the other from Mt. Mulu of Sarawak and the Crocker Range of Sabah-is separated from other congeners by large genetic distances, comparable with those observed between heterospecific species in the genus. These lineages are also morphologically distinguishable from other species, and are considered to represent valid, independently evolving species. We therefore describe them as A. kelabitensis sp. nov. and A. kanak sp. nov.


Assuntos
Bufonidae/anatomia & histologia , Bufonidae/classificação , Animais , Bornéu , Bufonidae/genética , Bufonidae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Feminino , Larva/anatomia & histologia , Masculino , Filogenia , Especificidade da Espécie
2.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0227853, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32023290

RESUMO

In this study, we present a phylogenetic analysis of the genus Bruggmanniella Tavares based on morphological features. Cladistic analyses were conducted using 57 characters from 26 species. All species of Bruggmanniella except for B. byrsonimae were selected as ingroup and the genera Asphondylia Loew, Bruggmannia Tavares, Illiciomyia Tokuda, Parazalepidota Maia, Pseudasphondylia Monzen, Schizomyia Kieffer, and Lopesia Rübsaamen as outgroup. We used characters from larvae, pupae, adults, and galls. The results of this study supported Bruggmanniella as the sister group of Pseudasphondylia. Bruggmanniella actinodaphnes Tokuda and Yukawa and B. cinnamomi Tokuda and Yukawa have been moved to genus Pseudasphondylia (Pseudasphondylia actinodaphnes (Tokuda and Yukawa) comb. nov. and Pseudasphondylia cinnamomi (Tokuda and Yukawa) comb. nov.). The new genus Odontokeros gen. nov. has been erected for the single species Odontokeros brevipes (Lin, Yang & Tokuda) comb. nov. In addition, we described a new Brazilian species, Bruggmanniella miconia Garcia, Lamas and Urso-Guimarães sp. nov. Identification keys to the New World species of Bruggmanniella are presented.


Assuntos
Dípteros/classificação , Dípteros/fisiologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Filogenia , Tumores de Planta/parasitologia , Animais , Brasil , Dípteros/anatomia & histologia , Feminino , Geografia , Larva/anatomia & histologia , Larva/fisiologia , Masculino , Pupa/anatomia & histologia , Pupa/fisiologia , Especificidade da Espécie
3.
Nat Protoc ; 15(3): 1158-1187, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32042177

RESUMO

The Drosophila larva has been used to investigate many processes in cell biology, including morphogenesis, physiology and responses to drugs and new therapeutic compounds. Despite its enormous potential as a model system, longer-term live imaging has been technically challenging because of a lack of efficient methods for immobilizing larvae for extended periods. We describe here a simple procedure for anesthetization and uninterrupted long-term in vivo imaging of the epidermis and other larval organs, including gut, imaginal discs, neurons, fat body, tracheae, muscles and hemocytes, for up to 8 h. We also include a procedure for probing cell properties by laser ablation. We provide a survey of the effects of different anesthetics, demonstrating that short exposure to diethyl ether is the most effective for long-term immobilization of larvae. This protocol does not require specific expertise beyond basic Drosophila genetics and husbandry, and confocal microscopy. It enables high-resolution studies of many systemic and subcellular processes in larvae.


Assuntos
Drosophila/anatomia & histologia , Microscopia Confocal/métodos , Gravação em Vídeo/métodos , Animais , Éter , Imobilização , Larva/anatomia & histologia , Fatores de Tempo
4.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(6): 3034-3044, 2020 02 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31988131

RESUMO

Developmental novelties often underlie the evolutionary origins of key metazoan features. The anuran urostyle, which evolved nearly 200 MYA, is one such structure. It forms as the tail regresses during metamorphosis, when locomotion changes from an axial-driven mode in larvae to a limb-driven one in adult frogs. The urostyle comprises of a coccyx and a hypochord. The coccyx forms by fusion of caudal vertebrae and has evolved repeatedly across vertebrates. However, the contribution of an ossifying hypochord to the coccyx in anurans is unique among vertebrates and remains a developmental enigma. Here, we focus on the developmental changes that lead to the anuran urostyle, with an emphasis on understanding the ossifying hypochord. We find that the coccyx and hypochord have two different developmental histories: First, the development of the coccyx initiates before metamorphic climax whereas the ossifying hypochord undergoes rapid ossification and hypertrophy; second, thyroid hormone directly affects hypochord formation and appears to have a secondary effect on the coccygeal portion of the urostyle. The embryonic hypochord is known to play a significant role in the positioning of the dorsal aorta (DA), but the reason for hypochordal ossification remains obscure. Our results suggest that the ossifying hypochord plays a role in remodeling the DA in the newly forming adult body by partially occluding the DA in the tail. We propose that the ossifying hypochord-induced loss of the tail during metamorphosis has enabled the evolution of the unique anuran bauplan.


Assuntos
Anuros , Evolução Biológica , Cóccix , Metamorfose Biológica/fisiologia , Animais , Anuros/anatomia & histologia , Anuros/embriologia , Anuros/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cóccix/anatomia & histologia , Cóccix/embriologia , Cóccix/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/anatomia & histologia , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Notocorda/anatomia & histologia , Notocorda/embriologia , Notocorda/crescimento & desenvolvimento
5.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0227448, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31899763

RESUMO

Third-stage larvae (L3) of Steinernema feltiae exist as free-living infective juveniles (IJ), with suspended development activities. In contrast, parasitic stages (L1, L2, L4, adult) have mutualistic relations with Xenorhabdus species bacteria, along with unique morphological changes and development inside the cadaver of host insects and/or plant-parasitic nematodes. Commercial IJ strains are tolerant to cucurbitacin-containing phytonematicides, but we have scant information on how morphological adjustments in IJ are achieved. In this study, we investigated the nature of morphological adjustments in commercial S. feltiae IJ strains to Nemafric-BL phytonematicide, which contains cucurbitacin B as active ingredient. Post-72 h exposure to phytonematicide concentration, IJ specimens were fixed on mounting slides. Length (body, excretory pore to anterior end, pharynx, rectum, stoma, tail), diameter (head width, neck base, mid-body, anal body), cuticle thickness and De Man ratios were measured with a computer software programme attached to Omax light microscope. Morphometric data against increasing phytonematicide concentration exhibited either density-dependent quadratic, linear or neutral relations. Increase in body length at low phytonematicide concentration was accompanied by decrease in tail length and pharynx length during muscle contraction when IJ were still alive. After death at high phytonematicide concentration, the opposite morphometric effects ensued due to muscle relaxation. The observed changes in morphometric structures were explained on the basis of morphological adjustments that modulated volumes of pseudocoelom cavity in IJ. The modulation is intended to maintain hydrostatic pressure within permissible upper limits in order to avoid structural damage to internal organs embedded in the pseudocoelom fluids.


Assuntos
Antinematódeos/química , Rabditídios/fisiologia , Animais , Antinematódeos/metabolismo , Antinematódeos/farmacologia , Tamanho Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Larva/anatomia & histologia , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Larva/fisiologia , Microscopia , Rabditídios/efeitos dos fármacos , Rabditídios/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Simbiose , Triterpenos/farmacologia , Xenorhabdus/fisiologia
6.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 13(12): e0007887, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31869329

RESUMO

Myiasis is the infestation of human tissues by dipterous fly larvae of the class Insecta. Clogmia albipunctatus, family Psychodidae, is one of the most medically important insects that cause human myiasis. The aim of the present study is the morphological identification and the molecular characterization of moth flies causing many cases of urinary myiasis in Egypt, based on sequencing of the mitochondrial DNA of the larvae. Seven urinary samples of patients complaining of urinary symptoms and giving a history of low socioeconomic level were examined. Recovered larvae were identified using light microscopy and SEM. For molecular identification, the mitochondrial genes Cytochrome B (cytB), NADH1, NADH1, and 16S were sequenced and phylogenetically analyzed. The morphological and molecular characterization could accurately diagnose our patients to have C. albipunctatus infestation. Such results provided the initial set of data on the molecular identification and phylogenetic analysis of moth flies based on DNA barcoding in Egypt.


Assuntos
Larva/anatomia & histologia , Larva/genética , Miíase/parasitologia , Psychodidae/anatomia & histologia , Psychodidae/genética , Doenças Urológicas/parasitologia , Adolescente , Animais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Análise por Conglomerados , Citocromos b/genética , Código de Barras de DNA Taxonômico , DNA Mitocondrial/química , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , DNA Ribossômico/química , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Egito , Feminino , Humanos , Larva/classificação , Masculino , Microscopia , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , NADH Desidrogenase/genética , Filogenia , Psychodidae/classificação , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Adulto Jovem
7.
J Insect Sci ; 19(6)2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31782508

RESUMO

True setae borne on the abdominal tergites of Ochrogaster lunifer Herrich-Schӓffer caterpillars are the agents of an irritating contact dermatitis, osteomyelitis, ophthalmia, and severe allergic reactions in humans, and are the cause of Equine Amnionitis and Fetal Loss in Australia. The setae are detached and readily dislodge from the integument whereby they disperse throughout the environment. To better understand the true setae of O. lunifer as agents of medical and veterinary concern, we studied their characteristics and distance dispersed. Whereas members of the European Thaumetopoeinae have been widely studied, their southern-hemisphere counterparts such as O. lunifer are not well known despite their harmfulness and known medical and veterinary importance. The caterpillar's investment in true setae increased with age and size, and two distinct size classes co-occurred in setae fields. A previously undescribed morphological type of true seta was found on the first abdominal segment. All true setae were calculated to travel long distances in the air even under light breeze conditions. Our results show there is a high risk of exposure to airborne urticating setae within 100 m of elevated caterpillar activity, and a likely risk of exposure for some kilometers in the direction of the prevailing breeze. This information should be used to inform management strategies in areas where urticating processionary caterpillars are active, and especially during periods of an outbreak.


Assuntos
Dermatite de Contato/etiologia , Larva/anatomia & histologia , Modelos Biológicos , Mariposas/anatomia & histologia , Sensilas/anatomia & histologia , Variação Anatômica , Animais , Humanos
8.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 91(4): e20190302, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31664309

RESUMO

The beautifully colored damselflies included in Neoneura Selys are divided in 28 species known from North, Central and South America. Larval stage is little known, only seven species were described at this stage. We describe and illustrate the final instar larva of Neoneura confundens for the first time. Adults associated to this larva correspond to the blue form of the species and are also discussed and illustrated. The larva of N. confundens is similar to other Neoneura larvae, showing 1 premental seta and a well-marked nodus in caudal lamellae, but it can be differentiated by having fringed posterior margin in all tibiae and in middle and hind tarsi, among other characters. A key to known larvae of Neoneura and new records extending the species range in the southern cone are provided.


Assuntos
Larva/anatomia & histologia , Odonatos/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Tamanho Corporal , Feminino , Larva/classificação , Masculino , Odonatos/classificação , América do Sul , Tíbia
9.
BMC Evol Biol ; 19(1): 180, 2019 09 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31533610

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Marine invertebrates are abundant and diverse on the continental shelf in Antarctica, but little is known about their parasitic counterparts. Endoparasites are especially understudied because they often possess highly modified body plans that pose problems for their identification. Asterophila, a genus of endoparasitic gastropod in the family Eulimidae, forms cysts in the arms and central discs of asteroid sea stars. There are currently four known species in this genus, one of which has been described from the Antarctic Peninsula (A. perknasteri). This study employs molecular and morphological data to investigate the diversity of Asterophila in Antarctica and explore cophylogenetic patterns between host and parasite. RESULTS: A maximum-likelihood phylogeny of Asterophila and subsequent species-delimitation analysis uncovered nine well-supported putative species, eight of which are new to science. Most Asterophila species were found on a single host species, but four species were found on multiple hosts from one or two closely related genera, showing phylogenetic conservatism of host use. Both distance-based and event-based cophylogenetic analyses uncovered a strong signal of coevolution in this system, but most associations were explained by non-cospeciation events. DISCUSSION: The prevalence of duplication and host-switching events in Asterophila and its asteroid hosts suggests that synchronous evolution may be rare even in obligate endoparasitic systems. The apparent restricted distribution of Asterophila from around the Scotia Arc may be an artefact of concentrated sampling in the area and a low obvious prevalence of infection. Given the richness of parasites on a global scale, their role in promoting host diversification, and the threat of their loss through coextinction, future work should continue to investigate parasite diversity and coevolution in vulnerable ecosystems.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Gastrópodes/classificação , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Estrelas-do-Mar/parasitologia , Animais , Regiões Antárticas , Geografia , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Larva/anatomia & histologia , Filogenia , Especificidade da Espécie
10.
Arthropod Struct Dev ; 52: 100881, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31473469

RESUMO

The morphology of the prognathous, host-seeking first-instar larvae of Stylops advarians was examined to advance our understanding of their adaptations to reach immature bee hosts, a process requiring temporal phoresy on an adult bee. Sensory structures on the larval head, including eye spots and two pairs of olfactory pits, evidently assist recognition of an adult bee and eventual detection of a permanent host within a nest cell. First-instar larvae utilize various features of their appendages to travel securely on their phoretic host. Flexible adhesive tarsi of the pro- and mesothoracic legs allow them to embark and be retained on a flying bee. The tips of the pair of caudal filaments appear modified for a similar purpose. Spinulae of two lengths, and arranged in distinct patterns, cover the posterior edges of the thoracic and abdominal segments both dorsally and ventrally. These projections can cause lodging of larvae in the plumose hairs of the phoretic host, and may lock into the exine of pollen collected by the foraging bee. Discovery of a first-instar larva partially packed into a pollen load and in the crop of Andrena milwaukeensis demonstrates that Stylops is adapted to travel with a phoretic host both externally and internally.


Assuntos
Abelhas/parasitologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Insetos/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Insetos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Insetos/fisiologia , Insetos/ultraestrutura , Larva/anatomia & histologia , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/fisiologia , Larva/ultraestrutura , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura
11.
Naturwissenschaften ; 106(9-10): 52, 2019 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31482235

RESUMO

Parasitoid researchers have generally thought that the body size of the mother parasitoid does not affect the fitness performance of the progeny during the immature stage, as long as the progeny develop in the same environment. We reveal for the first time that this is not true for the parasitoid Echthrodelphax fairchildii (Hymenoptera: Dryinidae), which is parasitic on planthoppers. Large females ensured an increased survival rate for their progeny during the immature stage and a large body size at adult emergence. Maternal body size differentially affected the body sizes and survival rates of male and female progeny. Small females did not produce female progeny, and the survival rate of the female progeny increased more steeply with increasing maternal body size than that of the male progeny. Meanwhile, the body size of male progeny increased more steeply with increasing maternal body size. The influence of maternal body size on progeny survival to adult emergence has never been reported in insects before. In addition, large females were more likely to lay female eggs, suggesting that females control the sex ratio of progeny in response to their own body size.


Assuntos
Tamanho Corporal/fisiologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita/fisiologia , Vespas/anatomia & histologia , Vespas/fisiologia , Animais , Feminino , Larva/anatomia & histologia , Larva/fisiologia , Masculino , Oviposição/fisiologia , Taxa de Sobrevida
12.
Aquat Toxicol ; 216: 105280, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31518776

RESUMO

1,1-Trichloro-2-(p-chlorophenyl)-2-(o-chlorophenyl) ethane (o,p'-DDT) and 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis (p-chlorophenyl)-ethylene (p,p'-DDE) cause thyroid disruption, but the underlying mechanisms of these disturbances in fish remain unclear. To explore the potential mechanisms of thyroid dysfunction caused by o,p'-DDT and p,p'-DDE, thyroid hormone and gene expression levels in the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis were measured, and the developmental toxicity were recorded in zebrafish larvae. Zebrafish embryos/larvae were exposed to o,p'-DDT (0, 0.28, 2.8, and 28 nM; or 0, 0.1, 1, and 10 µg/L) and p,p'-DDE (0, 1.57, 15.7, and 157 nM; or 0, 0.5, 5, and 50 µg/L) for 7 days. The genes related to thyroid hormone synthesis (crh, tshß, tg, nis and tpo) and thyroid development (nkx2.1 and pax8) were up-regulated in both the o,p'-DDT and p,p'-DDE exposure groups. Zebrafish embryos/larvae exposed to o,p'-DDT showed significantly increased total whole-body T4 and T3 levels, with the expression of ugt1ab and dio3 being significantly down-regulated. However, the p,p'-DDE exposure groups showed significantly lowered whole-body total T4 and T3 levels, which were associated with up-regulation and down-regulation expression of the expression of dio2 and ugt1ab, respectively. Interestingly, the ratio of T3 to T4 was significantly decreased in the o,p'-DDT (28 nM) and p,p'-DDE (157 nM) exposure groups, suggesting an impairment of thyroid function. In addition, reduced survival rates and body lengths and increased malformation rates were recorded after treatment with either o,p'-DDT or p,p'-DDE. In summary, our study indicates that the disruption of thyroid states was different in response to o,p'-DDT and p,p'-DDE exposure in zebrafish larvae.


Assuntos
DDT/toxicidade , Diclorodifenil Dicloroetileno/toxicidade , Embrião não Mamífero/efeitos dos fármacos , Glândula Tireoide/patologia , Peixe-Zebra/embriologia , Animais , Embrião não Mamífero/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Larva/anatomia & histologia , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Larva/metabolismo , Glândula Tireoide/efeitos dos fármacos , Glândula Tireoide/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Peixe-Zebra/genética
13.
Arthropod Struct Dev ; 51: 37-40, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31376469

RESUMO

The knobbed setae on a small caterpillar in 45-55 million years old [Eocene] Baltic amber were studied and characterized as urticating, with evidence of liquid release implying the production of poisons. It is presumed that the caterpillar had been disturbed just prior to falling into the resin, as some of its setae showed defensive responses. The swollen tips of the setae are equipped with "trip hairs" and when disturbed, the tips release liquid deposits, some of which contain rod-like bodies. These setal responses to a disturbance are the first report of poisonous setal defense mechanisms in a fossil insect.


Assuntos
Âmbar , Fósseis/anatomia & histologia , Mariposas/anatomia & histologia , Sensilas/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Larva/anatomia & histologia , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Mariposas/crescimento & desenvolvimento
14.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 408, 2019 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31434579

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In Europe, the tapeworm Dibothriocephalus latus (syn. Diphyllobothrium latum) is a well-known etiological agent of human diphyllobothriosis, which spreads by the consumption of raw fish flesh infected by plerocercoids (tapeworm's larval stage). However, the process of parasite establishment in both intermediate and definitive hosts is poorly understood. This study was targeted mainly on the scolex (anterior part) of the plerocercoid of this species, which facilitates penetration of the parasite in intermediate paratenic fish hosts, and subsequently its attachment to the intestine of the definitive host. METHODS: Plerocercoids were isolated from the musculature of European perch (Perca fluviatilis) caught in Italian alpine lakes. Parasites were examined using confocal microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Immunofluorescence tagging was held on whole mount larvae. RESULTS: The organisation of the central and peripheral nervous system was captured in D. latus plerocercoids, including the ultrastructure of the nerve cells possessing large dense neurosecretory granules. Two types of nerve fibres run from the body surface toward the nerve plexus located in the parenchyma on each side of bothria. One type of these fibres was found to be serotoninergic and possessed large subtegumental nerve cell bodies. A well-developed gland apparatus, found throughout the plerocercoid parenchyma, produced heterogeneous granules with lucent core packed in a dense layer. Three different types of microtriches occurred on the scolex and body surface of plerocercoids of D. latus: (i) uncinate spinitriches; (ii) coniform spinitriches; and (iii) capilliform filitriches. Non-ciliated sensory receptors were observed between the distal cytoplasm of the tegument and the underlying musculature. CONCLUSIONS: Confocal laser scanning microscopy and electron microscopy (SEM and TEM) showed the detailed microanatomy of the nervous system in the scolex of plerocercoids, and also several differences in the larval stages compared with adult D. latus. These features, i.e. well-developed glandular system and massive hook-shaped uncinate spinitriches, are thus probably required for plerocercoids inhabiting fish hosts and also for their post-infection attachment in the human intestine.


Assuntos
Diphyllobothrium/anatomia & histologia , Larva/ultraestrutura , Animais , Diphyllobothrium/ultraestrutura , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Larva/anatomia & histologia , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Sistema Nervoso/ultraestrutura , Alimentos Marinhos/parasitologia
15.
Ticks Tick Borne Dis ; 10(6): 101259, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31320285

RESUMO

Recent studies have reported several larvae of an unidentified Amblyomma species on passerine birds in Atlantic rainforest fragments in southeastern Brazil. These larvae yielded a unique 16S rRNA haplotype designated as Amblyomma sp. haplotype Nazaré, which showed nucleotide identity levels of 91% to Amblyomma parkeri Fonseca & Aragão, 1952 and 88% to Amblyomma longirostre (Koch, 1844). Herein, we describe Amblyomma sp. haplotype Nazaré as a new species, Amblyomma romarioi n. sp. Martins, Luz & Labruna, through a formal description of the male and female adult stages. Amblyomma romarioi is morphologically and genetically most closely related to A. parkeri, A. longirostre and Amblyomma geayi Neumann, 1899. Among males, the rectangular basis capituli and rounded coxa I spurs separates A. romarioi from A. parkeri, A. longirostre, and A. geayi, which have basis capituli triangular or slightly hexagonal, and pointed coxa I spurs. Among females, the V-shaped genital aperture and coxa I rounded spurs of A. romarioi contrasts to the U-shaped genital aperture and coxa I pointed spurs in A. parkeri, A. longirostre, and A. geayi. Larvae of A. romarioi have been collected on 24 species of passerines. The few records of nymphs and adults were on the black-fronted titi monkey Callicebus nigrifrons (Spix, 1823). The current distribution of A. romarioi is restricted to the Brazilian Atlantic rainforest, southeastern Brazil, in areas with altitude between 363 and 1600 m, within the distribution of C. nigrifrons. We discuss ecological features of Amblyomma romarioi, comparatively to A. parkeri, A. longirostre and A. geayi. The present study increases the Brazilian tick fauna to 74 species.


Assuntos
Haplorrinos/parasitologia , Ixodidae/classificação , Passeriformes/parasitologia , Animais , Brasil , Feminino , Ixodidae/anatomia & histologia , Ixodidae/fisiologia , Ixodidae/ultraestrutura , Larva/anatomia & histologia , Larva/classificação , Larva/fisiologia , Masculino , Ninfa/anatomia & histologia , Ninfa/classificação , Ninfa/fisiologia , Filogenia , RNA Mitocondrial/análise , RNA Ribossômico 16S/análise
16.
Neotrop Entomol ; 48(5): 834-852, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31290088

RESUMO

Mythimna (Pseudaletia) sequax Franclemont, 1951 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidade) is the most important armyworm in the American tropics and subtropics. In this study, we describe the external morphology of the immatures and adults, based on larvae fed on quicuio grass (Pennisetum clandestinum Hochst. ex Chiov - Poaceae). The external morphology of the eggs, larvae, pupae, and adults is described and illustrated. Important taxonomic structures of the larvae are described, including hypopharynx, spinneret, and mandible. Adult structures that allow the differentiation of the species, such as male genitalia and scent brushes, are also described. The results are compared and discussed based on morph functionality and with publications on the congeneric species.


Assuntos
Mariposas/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Feminino , Larva/anatomia & histologia , Masculino , Óvulo , Pupa/anatomia & histologia
17.
PLoS One ; 14(7): e0218899, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31291291

RESUMO

Genetic incompatibilities constitute the final stages of reproductive isolation and speciation, but little is known about incompatibilities that occur within recent adaptive radiations among closely related diverging populations. Crossing divergent species to form hybrids can break up coadapted variation, resulting in genetic incompatibilities within developmental networks shaping divergent adaptive traits. We crossed two closely related sympatric Cyprinodon pupfish species-a dietary generalist and a specialized molluscivore-and measured expression levels in their F1 hybrids to identify regulatory variation underlying the novel craniofacial morphology found in this recent microendemic adaptive radiation. We extracted mRNA from eight day old whole-larvae tissue and from craniofacial tissues dissected from 17-20 day old larvae to compare gene expression between a total of seven F1 hybrids and 24 individuals from parental species populations. We found 3.9% of genes differentially expressed between generalists and molluscivores in whole-larvae tissues and 0.6% of genes differentially expressed in craniofacial tissue. We found that 2.1% of genes were misregulated in whole-larvae hybrids whereas 19.1% of genes were misregulated in hybrid craniofacial tissues, after correcting for sequencing biases. We also measured allele specific expression across 15,429 heterozygous sites to identify putative compensatory regulatory mechanisms underlying differential expression between generalists and molluscivores. Together, our results highlight the importance of considering misregulation as an early indicator of genetic incompatibilities in the context of rapidly diverging adaptive radiations and suggests that compensatory regulatory divergence drives hybrid gene misregulation in developing tissues that give rise to novel craniofacial traits.


Assuntos
Quimera , Especiação Genética , Genética Populacional , Peixes Listrados/genética , Larva/genética , Animais , Cruzamentos Genéticos , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Proteínas de Peixes/genética , Proteínas de Peixes/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Fluxo Gênico , Heterozigoto , Peixes Listrados/anatomia & histologia , Peixes Listrados/classificação , Peixes Listrados/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/anatomia & histologia , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Masculino , Fenótipo , Isolamento Reprodutivo , Crânio/anatomia & histologia , Crânio/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Crânio/metabolismo , Simpatria
18.
Exp Appl Acarol ; 78(4): 485-504, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31292771

RESUMO

Morphology-based identification of Allothrombium spp., in view of the limited knowledge of intraspecific variation, hinders the recognition of species borders and affects the views on the actual distribution of species. Therefore, identification will benefit from reference to molecular methods. The separate species identity of specimens putatively representing Allothrombium fuliginosum and A. pulvinum, both reported as widely distributed in the Palaearctic region and considered as potential biological control agents, was checked using morphological and molecular analyses. The representatives of various Allothrombium spp. collected in the Palaearctic were included in the analysis in order to ascertain the distance between species. The results of the morphological examination, supported by statistical inference, along with the comparison of COI and/or ITS2 sequences, weaken the hypothesis of synoccurrence of both species in the Palaearctic region. Hence, we hypothesize that A. fuliginosum is widely distributed in the Palaearctic, whereas A. pulvinum should be regarded a Nearctic species.


Assuntos
Distribuição Animal , Ácaros/classificação , Animais , Proteínas de Artrópodes/análise , Ásia , DNA Ribossômico/análise , Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/análise , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Larva/anatomia & histologia , Larva/classificação , Larva/genética , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ácaros/anatomia & histologia , Ácaros/genética , Ácaros/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ninfa/anatomia & histologia , Ninfa/classificação , Ninfa/genética , Ninfa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Filogenia , Análise de Sequência de DNA
19.
PLoS One ; 14(7): e0219716, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31295323

RESUMO

The Dendropsophus decipiens clade comprises four species: D. berthalutzae, D. decipiens, D. haddadi, and D. oliveirai. Tadpoles of these species were described, but data on their internal morphology are lacking. We provide the first description of the buccopharyngeal anatomy, chondrocranial morphology, and cranial, hyoid and hyobranchial musculature of the tadpole of D. decipiens. Larvae of D. decipiens are characterized by the absence of lingual papillae, presence of fan-like papilla on the buccal floor, presence of a single-element suprarostral cartilage, presence of a small triangular process at the basis of the processus muscularis, m. levator mandibulae lateralis inserted on the nasal sac, and m. subarcualis rectus II-IV with a single, continuous slip. Tadpoles are likely macrophagous, although not as specialized as those of other species of the genus, suggesting some degree of diversification on the feeding habits within Dendropsophus.


Assuntos
Anuros/anatomia & histologia , Larva/anatomia & histologia , Mandíbula/anatomia & histologia , Boca/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Músculos/anatomia & histologia , Filogenia , Crânio/anatomia & histologia
20.
Neotrop Entomol ; 48(5): 822-833, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31197677

RESUMO

The Kalotermitidae Cryptotermes brevis (Walker) presents colonies that lack a true worker caste. They have totipotent worker-like individuals named pseudergates. Few studies have characterized the morphology of immature instars, including pseudergates. In order to identify these instars and characterize the pseudergates, we conducted a comparison between morphometric and morphological variations among immature individuals of C. brevis colonies. Juvenile hormone analog (JHA) was used in the first instar nymphs to induce regressive molts and compare morphological differences between nymphs and pseudergates. Results showed the existence of three larval instars and four nymphal instars. These immatures were morphologically characterized. Individuals classified as third instar larvae presented white body, 10 to 12 antennal articles, absent or small non-pigmented compound eyes, and absence of wing buds. Pseudergates presented pigmented abdomen and sclerotized cuticle, 10 to 12 antennal articles, and absent or small compound eyes, and few specimens had large pigmented compound eyes and absence of wing buds. First instar nymphs had pigmented abdomen and sclerotized cuticle, 10 to 12 antennal articles, both large non-pigmented and pigmented compound eyes, the presence of wing buds. Bioassays using JHA on first instar nymphs resulted in a large percentage of nymph-soldier intercastes. We concluded that abdomen pigmentation and sclerotized cuticle are good characters to differentiate pseudergates from larvae and the absence of wing buds is a good character to differentiate pseudergates from nymphs. Our findings not only contribute to the basic biological and morphological information of this species but also help to identify correctly pseudergates in further studies that involve applied bioassays.


Assuntos
Isópteros/classificação , Animais , Isópteros/anatomia & histologia , Hormônios Juvenis , Larva/anatomia & histologia , Ninfa/anatomia & histologia , Asas de Animais/anatomia & histologia
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