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1.
Parasitol Res ; 120(2): 461-480, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33409638

RESUMO

This study aimed to determine the integrative characterisation of nematodes from three species of edible flathead fishes (Scorpaeniformes: Platycephalidae) in New South Wales, Australia, and describe nematode communities within three species of flatheads. Tiger (Platycephalus richardsoni (Castelnau); n = 20) and sand flatheads (Platycephalus bassensis (Cuvier); n = 20), sourced from the Nelson Bay area, and dusky flathead (Platycephalus fuscus (Cuvier); n = 20) from the Manning River, Taree, were examined for the presence of nematodes. The nematodes were initially classified morphologically as 12 different morphotypes belonging to the families Anisakidae (Anisakis types I, II, and III, Contracaecum type II, Terranova types I and II), Raphidascarididae (Hysterothylacium types IV, VI, VIII, and H. zhoushanense larva), and Gnathostomatidae (Echinocephalus sp. larva), Capillariidae (Capillaria sp.), followed by genetic identification through sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS-1, 5.8S, ITS-2) regions. Phylogenetic analyses revealed the evolutionary relationship between the identified larval specimens in the present study with available GenBank larval and adult nematodes. Sand flathead was 90% infected with nematodes followed by tiger flathead at 85% and dusky flathead at 15%. Nematodes infecting estuarine dusky and oceanic sand and tiger flatheads contrasted markedly. The analysis of similarities (ANOSIM) showed significant differences (p < 0.001) in the composition of taxa within nematode communities between the three species of flatheads (global R = 0.208) with the highest difference being between sand and dusky flatheads (R = 0.308, p < 0.001). The findings of the present study provide a foundation for future investigations of the community composition, life cycles, and distribution of nematode populations in edible fish in Australia and explore and clarify their significance to public health.


Assuntos
Infecções por Ascaridida/veterinária , Ascaridoidea/isolamento & purificação , Biota , Perciformes/parasitologia , Alimentos Marinhos/parasitologia , Animais , Infecções por Ascaridida/parasitologia , Ascaridoidea/classificação , Ascaridoidea/genética , Ascaridoidea/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/classificação , Larva/genética , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , New South Wales , Filogenia , Especificidade da Espécie
2.
J Med Entomol ; 58(1): 222-240, 2021 01 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33432351

RESUMO

Given that accurately identifying pathogen vectors is vital for designing efficient mosquito control programs based on the proper surveillance of the epidemiologically important species, it has been suggested the complementary use of independently evolving genes and morphometric traits as a reliable approach for the characterization and delimitation of related species. Hence, we examined the spatial distribution of COI mtDNA and ITS2 rDNA variation from the historical perspective of Ochlerotatus caspius (Pallas, 1771) and O. dorsalis (Meigen, 1830), while simultaneously testing the utility of the two markers in integrative species delimitation when combined with phenotypic character analyses of larvae and adults. Despite the striking difference in haplotype diversity (high in COI mtDNA, low in ITS2 rDNA), no evident phylogeographic structure was apparent in the Palearctic O. caspius. The Holarctic O. dorsalis species was subdivided into two highly distinctive COI mtDNA phylogroups which corresponded to the Nearctic and Palearctic regions. Strong support for the independence of the two allopatric evolutionary lineages suggested that geographical barrier and climatic changes during Pleistocene caused vicariance of the ancestral range. COI mtDNA reliably distinguished O. caspius and O. dorsalis, while ITS2 rDNA yet again lacked the proper resolution for solving this problem. An integrative approach based on the larval and adult morphological traits have varying taxonomic applications due to their differential diagnostic values. Thus, by the implementation of an integrative taxonomic approach, we successfully detected species borders between the two epidemiologically relevant species and uncovered the presence of cryptic diversity within O. dorsalis.


Assuntos
Variação Genética , Ochlerotatus/classificação , Ochlerotatus/genética , Animais , DNA Espaçador Ribossômico/análise , Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/análise , Feminino , Marcadores Genéticos/genética , Haplótipos , Proteínas de Insetos/análise , Larva/classificação , Larva/enzimologia , Larva/genética , Masculino , Ochlerotatus/enzimologia , Filogeografia , Especificidade da Espécie
3.
Parasitol Res ; 119(10): 3359-3368, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32893331

RESUMO

Acanthocephalans are multi-host endoparasites, many of which use freshwater amphipods as intermediate hosts for their larval stages (e.g., cystacanths) while adults live in the intestines of vertebrates, including waterfowl. In central Alberta, Canada, several co-occurring species of the acanthocephalan genus Polymorphus use the amphipod Gammarus lacustris Sars, 1863 as an intermediate host. We applied DNA barcoding and morphometric analysis to differentiate cystacanth larvae from G. lacustris sampled from 17 Albertan water bodies. We slide-mounted specimens and measured morphological traits relating to proboscis hooks. We sequenced the standard DNA barcoding region of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene (COI). Morphometric analysis suggested that the acanthocephalans we collected belonged to four morphologically different groups that keyed to Polymorphus contortus (Bremser, 1821) Travassos, 1926; P. marilis Van Cleave, 1939; P. paradoxus Connel et Corner, 1957; and P. strumosoides (Lundström, 1942) Amin, 2013. Our Bayesian tree based on COI sequences generally corroborated the morphological results and supported that the specimens assigned to P. cf. contortus and P. cf. strumosoides belong to two distinct species. In contrast, the Bayesian tree showed that specimens of P. cf. marilis were nested as a cluster within the P. cf. paradoxus clade. Similarly, small pairwise genetic distance (< 2%) between specimens identified as P. cf. contortus and P. cf. strumosoides suggests that they are conspecific. Future studies should use morphology and sequence data from adult acanthocephalans to assess the taxonomic identity of the cystacanth-based Polymorphus taxa. Our study is the first to provide genetic information for the four Polymorphus taxa and emphasizes the importance of applying multiple approaches to differentiate parasite species.


Assuntos
Acantocéfalos/classificação , Acantocéfalos/anatomia & histologia , Acantocéfalos/genética , Alberta , Anfípodes/parasitologia , Animais , Código de Barras de DNA Taxonômico , Água Doce/parasitologia , Genes de Helmintos/genética , Genes Mitocondriais/genética , Larva/anatomia & histologia , Larva/classificação , Larva/genética , Especificidade da Espécie
4.
Parasitol Res ; 119(10): 3285-3296, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32812144

RESUMO

The taxonomy of Hysterothylacium genus in Mediterranean waters remains incomplete and unresolved. The aim of the current study was to investigate the morphological and molecular identification of selected species of Hysterothylacium larvae in marine fish from the Tunisian Mediterranean coasts. A total of 192 marine fish samples were examined. In total, thirty-seven third-stage larvae of Hysterothylacium were morphologically identified as Hysterothylacium type V. In the present study, representatives of this type from the Mediterranean Sea were genetically characterized for the first time by sequencing the rDNA ITS (ITS1-5.8S-ITS2) regions and mtDNA cox2 gene. This study represents the first report of Hysterothylacium type V from the Mediterranean Sea. We also report Mullus barbatus, M. surmuletus, and Pagellus erythrinus as new hosts for this larval type. Based upon molecular and phylogenetic analyses considering the rDNA ITS regions, the Hysterothylacium type V described here was classified as a new genotype, named Genotype B. The valid genetic data of the described Hysterothylacium type V in the present study can be used to establish the phylogenetic relationships among Hysterothylacium species from the Mediterranean Sea and worldwide for future research.


Assuntos
Infecções por Ascaridida/veterinária , Ascaridoidea/classificação , Ascaridoidea/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Peixes/parasitologia , Animais , Infecções por Ascaridida/parasitologia , Ascaridoidea/anatomia & histologia , Ascaridoidea/genética , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , DNA Espaçador Ribossômico/genética , Peixes/classificação , Genes de Helmintos/genética , Genótipo , Larva/anatomia & histologia , Larva/classificação , Larva/genética , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Mar Mediterrâneo , Filogenia
5.
Parasitol Res ; 119(10): 3443-3450, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32813040

RESUMO

Feline lungworms infect the respiratory tract of wild and domestic cats, causing infection often associated with clinical disease. Until recently, Aelurostrongylus abstrusus has been considered the most relevant species of lungworm, while Troglostrongylus brevior was considered of less significance. Fecal samples of feral cats from Jerusalem, Israel, collected over a year, were examined for first stage lungworm larvae (L1) using the Baermann method. Positive samples were morphologically identified, and their species identity was molecularly confirmed. Forty of 400 (10.0%) cats were lungworm-positive, of which 38/40 (95.0%) shed Troglostrongylus brevior and 6/40 (15.0%) shed Aelurostrongylus abstrusus. Four cats (10.0%) had mixed infections with both lungworm species. L1 shedding was associated with clinical respiratory signs in 11 (19.0%) T. brevior shedding cats of a total of 58 cats manifesting respiratory signs, while 23/342 (6.7%) cats without respiratory signs were L1-positive (p = 0.006). Non-respiratory clinical signs were also found to be more prevalent in L1 shedders (p = 0.012). A young kitten ≤ 4 weeks of age shed T. brevior L1 larvae. DNA sequences of both lungworm species using the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) locus were > 99% similar to other sequences deposited in GenBank, suggesting that T. brevior and A. abstrusus ITS2 sequences are both highly conserved. In conclusion, L1 shedding in feral cats from Jerusalem were mostly caused by T. brevior with only a small proportion involving A. abstrusus, different from many studies from other geographical regions.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato/parasitologia , Metastrongyloidea/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Strongylida/veterinária , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Doenças do Gato/epidemiologia , Doenças do Gato/patologia , Gatos , Fezes/parasitologia , Israel/epidemiologia , Larva/classificação , Larva/genética , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Metastrongyloidea/classificação , Metastrongyloidea/genética , Metastrongyloidea/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Prevalência , Infecções por Strongylida/epidemiologia , Infecções por Strongylida/parasitologia , Infecções por Strongylida/patologia
6.
Parasitol Res ; 119(9): 2877-2883, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32748040

RESUMO

Aelurostrongylus abstrusus (Nematoda, Metastrongyloidea) causes verminous pneumonia in cats worldwide. This study evaluated the seroprevalence of A. abstrusus antibodies in 220 stray and free-roaming cats from insular (Mykonos, Crete, Skopelos) and continental (Thessaloniki, Attica) Greece. The results were compared with morphological and biomolecular identification of first-stage larvae (L1) in faeces. Positive cats were observed in all 5 areas: 13/97 (13.4%), 1/32 (3.1%), 7/26 (26.9%), 3/18 (16.7%) and 5/47 (10.6%) cats tested positive for A. abstrusus L1 by Baermann examination, and 33/97 (34.0%), 7/32 (21.9%), 6/26 (23.1%), 3/18 (16.7%) and 11/47 (23.4%) were seropositive, in Mykonos, Crete, Skopelos, Thessaloniki and Attica, respectively. Troglostrongylus brevior L1 were found in 12/97 (12.4%), 3/26 (11.5%) and 2/47 (4.3%) cats from Mykonos, Skopelos and Attica respectively. Six of the 220 cats (2.7%), i.e. 4/97 (4.1%) from Mykonos and 2/26 (7.7%) from Skopelos, shed L1 of both A. abstrusus and T. brevior. Sixty samples were ELISA-positive (27.3%, 95% CI: 21.5-33.7%), of which 21 (35%) tested copromicroscopically positive (19 monospecific infections and 2 mixed with Troglostrongylus brevior), and 5 were positive for T. brevior L1 only. Among seronegative cats (n = 140), L1 of A. abstrusus were additionally detected in 8 (5.7% out of 140) cats (i.e. 4 monospecific infections and 4 mixed with T. brevior), and in 6 (4.3% out of 140) cats, L1 of T. brevior as monospecific infection were detected. This study confirms the presence of lungworms in Greece and suggests that the number of cats infected with/exposed to metastrongylids is higher than detected by faecal examinations.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato/epidemiologia , Metastrongyloidea/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Strongylida/epidemiologia , Infecções por Strongylida/veterinária , Animais , Doenças do Gato/parasitologia , Gatos , Fezes/parasitologia , Grécia/epidemiologia , Larva/classificação , Metastrongyloidea/anatomia & histologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Infecções por Strongylida/parasitologia
7.
Parasitol Res ; 119(10): 3377-3390, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32638100

RESUMO

The hypersaline lagoons located in evaporation basins or salars (salt flats) in the Atacama Desert are extreme environments harbouring a specialised biota able to survive harsh conditions for life. The knowledge of the parasitic biodiversity of these extreme habitats is still scarce despite their functional importance in regulating relevant non-economic services like habitats of waterbirds. The present study is the first report on the cestode infection of Artemia franciscana Kellogg in Salar de Atacama lagoons in northern Chile. A total of 23 parasite larvae were isolated and identified as belonging to five cestode taxa of the order Cyclophyllidea: two species of the family Hymenolepididae, i.e. Flamingolepis sp. 1 and Flamingolepis sp. 2 (adults parasitic in flamingos); two species of Dilepididae, i.e. Fuhrmannolepis averini (adults parasitic in phalaropes) and Eurycestus avoceti (adult parasitic in charadriforms birds); and one species of Progynotaeniidae, i.e. Gynandrotaenia (?) stammeri (adult parasitic in flamingos). The cysticercoids of each species are described and figured. The study represents the first geographical record of the genera Eurycestus, Gynandrotaenia and Fuhrmannolepis in South America and the first report of Gynandrotaenia and Flamingolepis in A. franciscana in its native range. This survey also contributes to the knowledge of cestodes of Phoenicopteriformes and Charadriiformes and their life cycles in the Neotropical Region. A review of cestodes recorded in brine shrimps of the genus Artemia in the world is provided. Further studies on cestode fauna of aquatic birds and their intermediate hosts in hypersaline habitats of the Neotropical Region are needed to understand their functional role in such extreme and unique ecosystems.


Assuntos
Artemia/parasitologia , Aves/parasitologia , Cestoides/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Infecções por Cestoides/veterinária , Ambientes Extremos , Animais , Aves/classificação , Cestoides/classificação , Cestoides/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Cestoides/parasitologia , Chile , Ecossistema , Larva/classificação , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Estágios do Ciclo de Vida
8.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3608, 2020 07 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32681028

RESUMO

Invasive predators can exert strong selection on native populations. If selection is strong enough, populations could lose the phenotypic variation caused by adaptation to heterogeneous environments. We compare frog tadpoles prior to and 14 years following invasion by crayfish. Prior to the invasion, populations differed in their intrinsic developmental rate, with tadpoles from cold areas reaching metamorphosis sooner than those from warm areas. Following the invasion, tadpoles from invaded populations develop faster than those from non-invaded populations. This ontogenetic shift overwhelmed the intraspecific variation between populations in a few generations, to the point where invaded populations develop at a similar rate regardless of climate. Rapid development can have costs, as fast-developing froglets have a smaller body size and poorer jumping performance, but compensatory growth counteracts some costs of development acceleration. Strong selection by invasive species can disrupt local adaptations by dampening intraspecific phenotypic variation, with complex consequences on lifetime fitness.


Assuntos
Espécies Introduzidas , Larva/fisiologia , Aclimatação , Adaptação Fisiológica , Animais , Anuros/classificação , Anuros/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Anuros/fisiologia , Astacoidea/fisiologia , Tamanho Corporal , Clima , Larva/classificação , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento
9.
Parasitol Res ; 119(7): 2337-2342, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32500371

RESUMO

Philornis flies Meinert (Diptera: Muscidae) have been documented parasitizing over 250 bird species, some of which are endemic species threatened with extinction. Philornis parasitism is hypothesized to affect nestlings disproportionately more than adult birds because limited mobility and exposed skin of nestlings increase their vulnerability to parasitism. We used a comprehensive literature review and our recent fieldwork in the Dominican Republic, Puerto Rico, and Grenada to challenge the idea that parasitism by subcutaneous Philornis species is a phenomenon primarily found in nestlings, a fact that has not been quantified to date. Of the 265 reviewed publications, 125 (49%) reported incidences of parasitism by subcutaneous Philornis, but only 12 included the sampling of adult breeding birds. Nine of these publications (75%) reported Philornis parasitism in adults of ten bird species. During fieldwork in the Dominican Republic, Puerto Rico, and Grenada, we documented 14 instances of parasitism of adult birds of seven avian species. From literature review and fieldwork, adults of at least fifteen bird species across 12 families and four orders of birds were parasitized by at least five Philornis species. In both the published literature and fieldwork, incidences of parasitism of adult birds occurred predominantly in females and was frequently associated with incubation. Although our findings indicate that Philornis parasitism of adult birds is more common than widely presumed, parasite prevalence is still greater in nestlings. In the future, we recommend surveys of adult birds to better understand host-Philornis relationships across life stages. This information may be essential for the development of effective control measures of Philornis to ensure the long-term protection of bird species of conservation concern.


Assuntos
Aves/parasitologia , Muscidae/fisiologia , Animais , Aves/classificação , Feminino , Incidência , Larva/classificação , Larva/fisiologia , Masculino , Muscidae/classificação , Comportamento de Nidação , Prevalência , Índias Ocidentais/epidemiologia
10.
Parasit Vectors ; 13(1): 161, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32238178

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) biotyping is an innovative strategy, applied successfully for the identification of numerous arthropod families including mosquitoes. The effective mosquito identification using this emerging tool was demonstrated possible at different steps of their life-cycle, including eggs, immature and adult stages. Unfortunately, for species identification by MS, the euthanasia of the mosquito specimen is required. METHODS: To avoid mosquito euthanasia, the present study assessed whether aedine mosquitoes could be identified by MALDI-TOF MS biotyping, using their respective exuviae. In this way, exuviae from the fourth-instar and pupal stages of Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti were submitted to MALDI-TOF MS analysis. RESULTS: Reproducible and specific MS spectra according to aedine species and stage of exuviae were observed which were objectified by cluster analyses, composite correlation index (CCI) tool and principal components analysis (PCA). The query of our reference MS spectra database (DB) upgraded with MS spectra of exuviae from fourth-instar larvae and pupae of both Aedes species revealed that 100% of the samples were correctly classified at the species and stage levels. Among them, 93.8% (135/144) of the MS profiles reached the threshold log score value (LSV > 1.8) for reliable identification. CONCLUSIONS: The extension of reference MS spectra DB to exuviae from fourth-instar and pupal stages made now possible the identification of mosquitoes throughout their life-cycle at aquatic and aerial stages. The exuviae presenting the advantage to avoid specimen euthanasia, allowing to perform complementary analysis on alive mosquitoes.


Assuntos
Aedes/classificação , Proteínas de Insetos/genética , Aedes/química , Animais , Análise por Conglomerados , Proteínas de Insetos/química , Larva/química , Larva/classificação , Pupa/química , Pupa/classificação , Especificidade da Espécie , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz
11.
Acta Trop ; 205: 105393, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32061626

RESUMO

High-mountain summits in tropical regions are habitat islands that provide refugia for northern taxa and opportunities for speciation. These focal hotspots of biodiversity are also threatened by increasing anthropogenic pressures and changing climatic conditions. The largest species group of black flies, the Simulium vernum group, reaches its southern limit in the mountains of Southeast Asia, providing an opportunity to examine macrogenetic diversification at the southern edge of the group's range. We investigated the polytene chromosomes of two morphologically similar species in the S. vernum group, S. chomthongense Takaoka, Srisuka & Choochote, and S. khunklangense Takaoka & Srisuka, from their type localities near the summit of Doi Inthanon, Thailand's highest mountain. Chromosomal analyses of 112 larvae demonstrated reproductive isolation between S. chomthongense and S. khunklangense and revealed a cryptic species of S. chomthongense. The three species have the same fixed banding sequence in five of the six chromosome arms, but they are distinguished by the successive addition of overlapping inversions in the IIIL arm. The two cytospecies (A and B) of S. chomthongense s. l. are the third example of endemic or nearly endemic cryptic species pairs near the top of Doi Inthanon, suggesting the possibility of sympatric speciation and the importance of conserving high-elevation stream habitats.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Simuliidae/classificação , Simuliidae/genética , Animais , Variação Genética , Larva/classificação , Larva/genética , Cromossomos Politênicos , Especificidade da Espécie , Tailândia
12.
Parasitol Res ; 119(3): 841-845, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32036439

RESUMO

Currently, five invasive Aedes mosquito species are of concern in Europe according to the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control: Aedes aegypti, Ae. albopictus, Ae. atropalpus, Ae. japonicus, and Ae. koreicus. Among these, only Ae. albopictus was reported to occur in Romania, in Bucharest. The aim of this study was to update the knowledge on the distribution of this invasive mosquito species in Romania, by investigating new potential locations. Monitoring of Ae. albopictus was carried out between May 2017 and October 2018. Three types of traps (CDC-Gravid Traps, CDC miniature Light Traps, ovitraps) were placed in 53 localities in 13 counties at sites suitable for container-breeding mosquitoes. Collected adult mosquitoes were counted and identified according to morphological criteria. Larvae were found present in domestic containers and rain catch basins. Aedes albopictus adults and eggs were collected in 10 localities in eight counties across Romania. Our study confirms nine new localities and seven counties where Ae. albopictus became established in Romania, highlighting the need for surveillance to further assess the species' distribution and abundance, as well as the pathogen transmission risk related to that vector species.


Assuntos
Aedes/fisiologia , Espécies Introduzidas/estatística & dados numéricos , Mosquitos Vetores/fisiologia , Aedes/classificação , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Larva/classificação , Larva/fisiologia , Mosquitos Vetores/classificação , Óvulo/classificação , Óvulo/fisiologia , Romênia
13.
Malar J ; 19(1): 65, 2020 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32046734

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Documentation of the species composition of Anopheles mosquitoes and characterization of larval breeding sites is of major importance for the implementation of larval control as part of malaria vector control interventions in Ethiopia. The aims of this study were to determine the Anopheles larval species composition, larval density, available habitat types and the effects of related environmental and physico-chemical parameters of habitats in the Ghibe River basin of southwestern Ethiopia. METHODS: Anopheles larvae were sampled from November 2014 to October 2016 on a monthly basis and 3rd and 4th instars were identified microscopically to species. The larval habitats were characterized based on habitat perimeter, water depth, intensity of light, water current, water temperature, water pH, water turbidity, distance to the nearest house, vegetation coverage, permanence of the habitat, surface debris coverage, emergent plant coverage, habitat type and substrate type. RESULTS: In total, 9277 larvae of Anopheles mosquitoes and 494 pupae were sampled from borrow pits, hoof prints, rain pools, pools at river edges, pools in drying river beds, rock pools, tire tracks and swamps. Anopheles larval density was highest in pools in drying river beds (35.2 larvae per dip) and lowest in swamps (2.1 larvae per dip) at Darge, but highest in rain pools (11.9 larvae per dip), borrow pits (11.2 larvae per dip) and pools at river edges (7.9 larvae per dip), and lowest in swamps (0.5 larvae per dip) at Ghibe. A total of 3485 late instar Anopheles mosquito larvae were morphologically identified. Anopheles gambiae sensu lato was the primary Anopheles mosquito found in all larval habitats except in swamps. Temperature at the time of sampling and emergent vegetation, were the most important variables for Anopheles mosquito larval density. Anopheles gambiae density was significantly associated with habitats that had smaller perimeters, were sunlit, had low vegetation cover, and a lack of emergent plants. Generally, Anopheles mosquito larval density was not significantly associated with water pH, water temperature, water turbidity, algal content, and larval habitat depth. CONCLUSION: Different species of Anopheles larvae were identified including An. gambiae s.l., the main malaria vector in Ethiopia. Anopheles gambiae s.l. is the most abundant species that bred in most of the larval habitat types identified in the study area. The density of this species was high in sunlit habitat, absence of emergent plants, lack of vegetation near habitat and habitats closer to human habitation. Rainfall plays a great role in determining the availability of breeding habitats. The presence of rain enable to create some of the habitat types, but alter the habitats formed at the edge of the rivers due to over flooding. Controlling the occurrence of mosquito larvae through larval source management during the dry season, targeting the pools in drying river bed and pools formed at the edge of the rivers as the water receded can be very crucial to interrupt the re-emergence of malaria vectors on the onset of rainy season.


Assuntos
Anopheles/classificação , Ecossistema , Malária/prevenção & controle , Mosquitos Vetores/classificação , Animais , Anopheles/fisiologia , Cruzamento , Etiópia , Feminino , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Larva/classificação , Larva/fisiologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Malária/transmissão , Masculino , Mosquitos Vetores/fisiologia , Pupa/classificação , Pupa/fisiologia , Chuva , Análise de Regressão , Rios , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Temperatura , Movimentos da Água , Áreas Alagadas
14.
Parasitol Res ; 119(3): 815-840, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32006229

RESUMO

Rat-tailed larvae of the syrphid species Palpada scutellaris (Fabricius, 1805) are documented causing an enteric human myiasis in Costa Rica. This is the first time that the genus Palpada is recorded as a human myiasis agent. We report a 68-year-old woman with intestinal pain and bloody diarrhea with several live Palpada larvae present in the stool. Using molecular techniques (DNA barcodes) and both electronic and optical microscopy to study the external morphology, the preimaginal stages of the fly were unambiguously identified. An identification key to all syrphid genera actually known as agents of human and animal myiases is provided for larvae, puparia, and adults. Moreover, a critical world review of more than 100 references of Syrphidae as myiasis agents is also given, with emphasis on the species with rat-tailed larvae.


Assuntos
Dípteros/fisiologia , Miíase/parasitologia , Animais , Costa Rica , Dípteros/classificação , Dípteros/citologia , Dípteros/ultraestrutura , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Humanos , Larva/classificação , Larva/citologia , Larva/fisiologia , Larva/ultraestrutura , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Miíase/patologia , Miíase/fisiopatologia
15.
Parasitol Res ; 119(3): 773-781, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31897786

RESUMO

We report Armillifer moniliformis species infecting the endemic Sri Lankan brown palm civet (Paradoxurus montanus) from the Knuckles Range Forest Conservation Area, Sri Lanka. Larval stages of A. moniliformis were found during the postmortem of three civet cats found dead. Morphological studies were done by a light microscope and a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Histopathological examination was conducted using tissue samples obtained from the liver. For the molecular analysis, DNA was extracted from the isolated third-stage larvae. The NADH dehydrogenase subunit 5 (ND5) and the second internal transcribed spacer region (ITS-2), a portion of the large subunit nuclear ribosomal DNA (28S), a portion of 18S ribosomal rRNA gene (18S), and cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene (COX1) were amplified using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Excysted third-stage larvae were observed in the lungs, omentum, the pleural cavity, the abdominal cavity, and the surface of the spleen and the pericardium. Around 88 third-stage larvae were isolated from three civet cats. First-stage larvae in the liver were surrounded by outer fibrous layer over the inner germinal layer and filled with clear fluid. Slight hemorrhage, leukocyte infiltration, and mild hepatocellular degeneration in the liver were observed. The SEM examination indicated the unique oral apparatus comprises the oval-shaped mouth opening in between two pairs of curved, retractile hamuli. The sequences obtained for ND5, ITS-2, 28S, 18S, and COX1 were 301, 382, 325, 414, and 644 bp in length respectively. Morphology, sequence similarity search, sequence alignment, and phylogenetic analysis identified this parasite as A. moniliformis.


Assuntos
Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/parasitologia , Pentastomídeos/citologia , Pentastomídeos/genética , Viverridae/parasitologia , Animais , Proteínas de Artrópodes/genética , Larva/classificação , Larva/citologia , Larva/genética , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/patologia , Pentastomídeos/classificação , Pentastomídeos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Filogenia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , RNA Ribossômico/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA
16.
J Parasitol ; 106(1): 46-52, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31990623

RESUMO

Recently, the heteroxenous eyeworm, Oxyspirura petrowi, has gained attention due to its prevalence in the declining game bird, Northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus), but the intermediate hosts of many nematodes remain unknown. However, identifying the intermediate host of O. petrowi with traditional techniques would be difficult and time-consuming, especially considering there are more than 80 potential orthopteran hosts just in Texas. To screen a large number of samples quickly and effectively, primers for nested PCR (nPCR) were developed using the internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) region. Then the nPCR was used to identify which of the 35 species collected from the Order Orthoptera were potential intermediate hosts of O. petrowi. With this technique, 18 potential intermediate hosts were identified. Later, we collected live specimens of species that tested positive to confirm the presence of larvae, but larvae were not found in the live specimens, nor in the extra tissue of the species that had tested positive for O. petrowi DNA. Despite this, this study demonstrated that nPCR is more sensitive than traditional techniques and can be a valuable tool in determining the intermediate hosts of parasites.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves/transmissão , Insetos Vetores/parasitologia , Ortópteros/parasitologia , Infecções por Spirurida/veterinária , Thelazioidea/genética , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Doenças das Aves/parasitologia , Colinus/parasitologia , DNA de Helmintos/química , DNA de Helmintos/isolamento & purificação , Gafanhotos/classificação , Gafanhotos/genética , Gafanhotos/parasitologia , Gryllidae/classificação , Gryllidae/genética , Gryllidae/parasitologia , Larva/classificação , Larva/genética , Ortópteros/classificação , Ortópteros/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Infecções por Spirurida/parasitologia , Infecções por Spirurida/transmissão , Thelazioidea/classificação , Thelazioidea/isolamento & purificação
17.
Parasitol Res ; 119(1): 327-331, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31758297

RESUMO

So far, neither the feline lungworms Aelurostrongylus abstrusus and Troglostrongylus brevior nor the canine lungworm Angiostrongylus vasorum was reported in wildlife or intermediate hosts from Austria. The slug Arion vulgaris represents an invasive species in Europe and serves as intermediate host for several lungworm species. This study aimed to analyse the occurrence of metastrongyloid lungworm larvae in slugs in Vienna, Austria. Therefore, 193 A. vulgaris were collected in the central Prater park in summer 2016. Specimens were artificially digested, analysed microscopically for lungworm larvae, and species were confirmed via PCR and sequencing. Out of 193, five slugs were positive to lungworms (2.6%), one for A. vasorum, two for A. abstrusus (genotypes A and B) and one for T. brevior, and one slug had a mixed infection of A. abstrusus and T. brevior larvae. The current study is the first evidence on the endemicity of these metastrongyloid lungworm species in Austria.


Assuntos
Gastrópodes/microbiologia , Metastrongyloidea/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Strongylida/epidemiologia , Infecções por Strongylida/microbiologia , Animais , Áustria/epidemiologia , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Coinfecção/microbiologia , Larva/classificação , Larva/citologia , Larva/genética , Metastrongyloidea/classificação , Metastrongyloidea/citologia , Metastrongyloidea/genética , Parques Recreativos
18.
Parasitol Int ; 75: 102039, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31843686

RESUMO

Alveolar echinococcosis, caused by the larval stages of the tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis (Leuckart, 1863), is of increasing concern in the northern hemisphere. Most cases of alveolar echinococcosis (excluding Alaska) appear to be linked with European and Asian genotypes that highlight the need for a more precise delimiting of their actual distribution and tracing historical episodes of their translocations and introductions into new areas. We have herein summarized previous available research studies, which mentioned firstly described geographic M1/M2 variants of E. multilocularis using molecular tools (established by sequencing of mitochondrial genes cox1, 366 bp and nad1, 471 bp), in an attempt to consolidate their correct affiliations with the geographic origin in sense of the original description from the early 1990´s. Since 2009, inverted designations (M1 named as M2 and vice versa) are being prevailing in research literature (we found ten erroneous vs. three correct classifications) that might bias genetic interpretation of comparative data in specific cases. When comparing M1/M2 profiles to those obtained from mitochondrial evidences over the last decades, the phylogenetic analysis revealed that the M1 strain (originally described from China, Alaska, North America) grouped with the Asian clade of E. multilocularis more recently established, whereas the M2 strain (described from the German vole) had a specific structure, in cox1 clustering with the North American clade. It is presumed that events of intercontinental expansion and isolation covering glacial and interglacial periods during the late Pleistocene have likely accounted for the transmission of this discrete genotype from Beringia into endemic area of western and central Europe via circumpolar movements of foxes.


Assuntos
Equinococose/parasitologia , Echinococcus multilocularis/classificação , Genótipo , Animais , Echinococcus multilocularis/genética , Echinococcus multilocularis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Humanos , Larva/classificação , Larva/genética , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento
19.
FEMS Microbiol Ecol ; 96(2)2020 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31860060

RESUMO

Koinobiont parasitoids regulate the physiology of their hosts, possibly interfering with the host gut microbiota and ultimately impacting parasitoid development. We used the parasitoid Cotesia flavipes to investigate if the regulation of the host would also affect the host gut microbiota. We also wondered if the effects of parasitization on the gut microbiota would depend on the host-parasitoid association by testing the permissive Diatraea saccharalis and the non-permissive Spodoptera frugiperda hosts. We determined the structure and potential functional contribution of the gut microbiota of the fore-midgut and hindgut of the hosts at different stages of development of the immature parasitoid. The abundance and diversity of operational taxonomic units of the anteromedial (fore-midgut) gut and posterior (hindgut) region from larvae of the analyzed hosts were affected by parasitization. Changes in the gut microbiota induced by parasitization altered the potential functional contribution of the gut microbiota associated with both hosts. Our data also indicated that the mechanism by which C. flavipes interferes with the gut microbiota of the host does not require a host-parasitoid coevolutionary history. Changes observed in the potential contribution of the gut microbiota of parasitized hosts impact the host's nutritional quality, and could favor host exploitation by C. flavipes.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Mariposas/microbiologia , Mariposas/parasitologia , Vespas/fisiologia , Animais , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita/fisiologia , Larva/classificação , Larva/microbiologia , Larva/parasitologia , Mariposas/classificação , Mariposas/fisiologia
20.
Biomedica ; 39(4): 785-797, 2019 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31860188

RESUMO

Introducción. Aedes albopictus es vector de arbovirus, como Flavivirus, Alphavirus, Bunyavirus, Phlebovirus, Orbivirus y Picornavirus. Muchos son agentes etiológicos de enfermedades en humanos. Actualmente, A. albopictus se encuentra en expansión geográfica por su adaptación a diversos ambientes y tipos de criaderos. En Colombia, este mosquito fue reportado por primera vez en 1998 y, hasta el momento, se ha registrado en 10 departamentos. Objetivo. Determinar la presencia de A. albopictus en Yopal, Casanare. Materiales y métodos. En una búsqueda activa de larvas de A. aegypti en la zona industrial de Yopal, se observaron por primera vez mosquitos adultos de A. albopictus. Por lo anterior, se realizó la inspección en el intradomicilio y el peridomicilio de las viviendas en ocho localidades del municipio, en la cual se recolectaron larvas y pupas al inspeccionar hábitats larvarios, y hembras adultas, mediante capturas sobre atrayente humano protegido. Resultados. Se identificaron 755 larvas de mosquitos, 71,5 % de A. aegypti, 24,8 % de A. albopictus, 3,2 % de Culex quinquefasciatus y 0,8 % de C. coronator y C. nigripalpus. Se capturaron 37 mosquitos adultos de A. albopictus. Los depósitos con mayor abundancia de este vector fueron las llantas. Conclusión. Ante la presencia de A. albopictus se sugiere intensificar el sistema de vigilancia entomológica para detectar nuevas poblaciones dentro del departamento y en las áreas cercanas. Se debe poner atención a los criaderos artificiales de las zonas cercanas a los parqueaderos de vehículos de transporte de alimentos, insumos y maquinaria, procedentes de áreas con presencia del vector.


Assuntos
Aedes/classificação , Mosquitos Vetores/classificação , Animais , Colômbia , Humanos , Larva/classificação , Especificidade da Espécie , Clima Tropical
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