Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 10.787
Filtrar
1.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2562: 235-247, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36272080

RESUMO

Embryo grafts have been an experimental pillar in developmental biology, and particularly, in amphibian biology. Grafts have been essential in constructing fate maps of different cell populations and migratory patterns. Likewise, autografts and allografts in older larvae or adult salamanders have been widely used to disentangle mechanisms of regeneration. The combination of transgenesis and grafting has widened even more the application of this technique.In this chapter, we provide a detailed protocol for embryo transplants in the axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum ). The location and stages to label connective tissue, muscle, or blood vessels in the limb and blood cells in the whole animal. However, the potential of embryo transplants is enormous and impossible to cover in one chapter. Furthermore, we provide a protocol for blastema transplantation as an example of allograft in older larvae.


Assuntos
Ambystoma mexicanum , Extremidades , Animais , Ambystoma mexicanum/fisiologia , Extremidades/fisiologia , Tecido Conjuntivo , Larva/fisiologia
2.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 18346, 2022 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36319833

RESUMO

In Drosophila larvae, nociceptive mdIV sensory neurons detect diverse noxious stimuli and prompt a nociceptive rolling response. Intriguingly, the same neurons also regulate stereotyped larval movement. The channels responsible for transducing these stimuli into electric signals are not yet fully identified. Here we undertook genetic and electrophysiological analysis of Ppk19, a member of the Deg/ENaC family of cationic channels. ppk19 mutants exhibited an impaired nociceptive rolling response upon mechanical force and acid, but no impairment in response to noxious temperature and gentle touch. Mutants also exhibited defective larval movement. RNAi against ppk19 in mdIV neurons likewise produced larvae with defects in mechanical and acid nociception and larval movement, but no impairment in detection of heat and gentle touch. Cultured cells transfected with ppk19 produced currents in acid and hypotonic solution, suggesting that ppk19 encodes an ion channel that responds to acid and cell swelling. Taken together, these findings suggest that Ppk19 acts in mdIV neurons as a proton- and mechano-gated ion channel to mediate acid- and mechano-responsive nociception and larval movement.


Assuntos
Drosophila melanogaster , Drosophila , Animais , Drosophila melanogaster/genética , Prótons , Canais Iônicos , Larva/fisiologia , Células Receptoras Sensoriais
3.
Parasit Vectors ; 15(1): 414, 2022 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36348368

RESUMO

Mosquito species belonging to the genus Aedes have attracted the interest of scientists and public health officers because of their capacity to transmit viruses that affect humans. Some of these species were brought outside their native range by means of trade and tourism and then colonised new regions thanks to a unique combination of eco-physiological traits. Considering mosquito physiological and behavioural traits to understand and predict their population dynamics is thus a crucial step in developing strategies to mitigate the local densities of invasive Aedes populations. Here, we synthesised the life cycle of four invasive Aedes species (Ae. aegypti, Ae. albopictus, Ae. japonicus and Ae. koreicus) in a single multi-scale stochastic modelling framework which we coded in the R package dynamAedes. We designed a stage-based and time-discrete stochastic model driven by temperature, photo-period and inter-specific larval competition that can be applied to three different spatial scales: punctual, local and regional. These spatial scales consider different degrees of spatial complexity and data availability by accounting for both active and passive dispersal of mosquito species as well as for the heterogeneity of the input temperature data. Our overarching aim was to provide a flexible, open-source and user-friendly tool rooted in the most updated knowledge on the species' biology which could be applied to the management of invasive Aedes populations as well as to more theoretical ecological inquiries.


Assuntos
Aedes , Humanos , Animais , Aedes/fisiologia , Larva/fisiologia , Espécies Introduzidas , Dinâmica Populacional , Temperatura , Mosquitos Vetores/fisiologia
4.
J Insect Sci ; 22(6)2022 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36398851

RESUMO

Detritivorous insects that flourish in decaying environments encounter microorganisms throughout their life cycle. However, it is not clear whether the microbial composition of the decaying environment affects the microbial composition of the insect gut, or whether the opposite is true, with the microorganisms that are adapted to the insect's digestive system being dispersed by the insects to new habitats, thereby becoming more and more common in the environment. To test these questions the fungal composition of the black soldier fly (BSF) (Stratiomyidae; Hermetia illucens Linnaeus) larval gut and its surrounding decaying environment (household compost bins) were analyzed using amplicon sequencing. Constancy in the dominance of the genus Candida (Debaryomycetaceae) in most of the environments and larval guts was found. This finding may suggest a 'core' structure to the fungal community of the BSF. In locations where nutrient composition of the environment had higher fiber content, the Candida was not dominant and the most common fungi were the genus Gibberella (Nectriaceae) and the family Dipodascaceae. The later was dominant also in the larval gut and the former was replaced with Meyerozyma (Debaryomycetaceae), which may suggest a selection process by the insect's gut. Little is known about the ecological interactions of insects with eukaryotic microorganisms, such as yeast-like fungi. As their metabolic complexity and ability is intense, they have the potential to dramatically affect the physiological condition of the insect.


Assuntos
Dípteros , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Animais , Dípteros/fisiologia , Larva/fisiologia
5.
Naturwissenschaften ; 109(6): 57, 2022 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36342544

RESUMO

Burrow builders are often classified as ecosystem engineers because their digging activities regulate the availability of resources for other organisms. As antlion larvae prefer to construct their traps in bare sandy or loose soil, they could benefit from burrowing activities. We investigated the role of burrow builders as ecosystem engineers for antlions (Myrmeleontidae) in a tropical semideciduous forest in Mexico. The number of traps of antlion larvae was recorded on 30 sampling quadrats (45 cm) at the entrance of burrows (of unidentified builders) and on 30 paired off-burrow quadrats. Additionally, the percentage of bare soil was estimated for the 60 quadrats sampled. Of the 30 quadrats at the entrance of burrows, a total of 336 traps were recorded, with 21 (70%) of them having at least one trap, while for the 30 off-burrows quadrats, only two (6.6%) of them had traps, just three in total. The percentage of bare soil and the abundance of traps were significantly greater in quadrats at the entrance of burrows compared to quadrats without burrows. The abundance of traps at the entrance of burrows was positively affected by the percentage of bare soil. The few traps in the off-burrows quadrats suggested that, in addition to the limited bare soil, ground compactness probably limits the establishment of antlion larvae. Otherwise, when digging, burrow builders create small patches of bare sandy soils that are used by these insects. We concluded that the ecosystem engineering effect of burrow builders is an important structuring element for antlion populations in the tropical semideciduous forest studied.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Florestas , Animais , Insetos , Solo , Larva/fisiologia
6.
Vet Res ; 53(1): 87, 2022 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36273217

RESUMO

Muscle larvae of Trichinella spiralis parasitize the host intestinal epithelium. The mechanisms of exosomes participating in the invasion of T. spiralis muscle larvae are unclear. Hence, the purpose of this study was to explore the effect of exosomes derived from T. spiralis infective larvae (TsExos) on the barrier function of porcine small intestinal epithelial cells (IPEC-J2). First, TsExos were successfully obtained, and their ingestion by epithelial cells was validated. Furthermore, the optimal induction condition was determined by the CCK8 kit, and we found that exposure to 150 µg/mL TsExos for 12/24 h decreased the viability of IPEC-J2 cells by 30%. Based on this outcome, the effects of TsExos on cell biological processes and tight junctions were studied. After coincubation of TsExos and IPEC-J2 cells, the results showed a significant increase in the content of FITC-dextran and in the levels of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and reactive oxygen species (ROS). The rate of apoptosis increased by 12.57%, and nuclear pyknosis and nuclear rupture were observed. After the cells were induced by TsExos, the expression of IL-1 was upregulated, but the expression of IL-10, TGF-ß, TLR-5, MUC-1 and MUC-2 was downregulated. TsExo induction also led to a decrease in the levels of ZO-1, CLDN-3, and OCLN. In conclusion, TsExos are involved in several cellular biological processes, and they function by disrupting physiological and biochemical processes, hyperactivating innate immunity, and damaging tight junctions.


Assuntos
Exossomos , Trichinella spiralis , Suínos , Animais , Trichinella spiralis/fisiologia , Interleucina-10/metabolismo , Interleucina-10/farmacologia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Receptor 5 Toll-Like/metabolismo , Mucosa Intestinal , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Larva/fisiologia , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/farmacologia , Lactato Desidrogenases/metabolismo , Interleucina-1/metabolismo
7.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 17858, 2022 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36284199

RESUMO

The development of new biopesticides to control the western corn rootworm (WCR), Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, is urgent due to resistance evolution to various control methods. We tested an air-dried non-live preparation of Chromobacterium species Panama (Csp_P), against multiple corn rootworm species, including Bt-resistant and -susceptible WCR strains, northern (NCR, D. barberi Smith & Lawrence), and southern corn rootworm (SCR, D. undecimpunctata howardi Barber), in diet toxicity assays. Our results documented that Csp_P was toxic to all three corn rootworms species based on lethal (LC50), effective (EC50), and molt inhibition concentration (MIC50). In general, toxicity of Csp_P was similar among all WCR strains and ~ 3-fold less toxic to NCR and SCR strains. Effective concentration (EC50) was also similar among WCR and SCR strains, and 5-7-fold higher in NCR strains. Molt inhibition (MIC50) was similar among all corn rootworm strains except NCR diapause strain that was 2.5-6-fold higher when compared to all other strains. There was no apparent cross-resistance between Csp_P and any of the currently available Bt proteins. Our results indicate that Csp_P formulation was effective at killing multiple corn rootworm strains including Bt-resistant WCR and could be developed as a potential new management tool for WCR control.


Assuntos
Bacillus thuringiensis , Besouros , Animais , Bacillus thuringiensis/genética , Larva/fisiologia , Chromobacterium , Agentes de Controle Biológico/farmacologia , Agentes de Controle Biológico/metabolismo , Endotoxinas/metabolismo , Controle Biológico de Vetores , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Besouros/fisiologia , Zea mays/genética
8.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 16(10): e0010881, 2022 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36315477

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pyruvate kinase widely exists in many parasites and plays an important role in the energy production for the parasites. Pyruvate kinase might be a potential drug target for killing the parasites. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the biological characteristics and roles of T. spiralis pyruvate kinase M (TsPKM) in sugar metabolism, larval molting and development of T. spiralis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: TsPKM has two functional domains of pyruvate kinase and the tertiary structure of TsPKM is tetramer which has the enzyme active site constituted by 8 amino-acid residues (Arg71, Asn73, Asp110, Phe241, Lys267, Glu269, Asp293 and Thr325). Recombinant TsPKM (rTsPKM) was expressed and purified. The rTsPKM had good immunogenicity. RT-PCR and Western blot showed that TsPKM was transcribed and expressed at various developmental stages in T. spiralis lifecycle. Immunofluorescence test showed that TsPKM was principally located in the cuticle, muscle, stichosome, intestine and the intrauterine embryos of female adults. rTsPKM catalyzed the reaction of phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) and adenosine diphosphate (ADP) to produce pyruvic acid and adenosine triphosphate (ATP). TsPKM played an important role in the metabolism and energy production of T. spiralis. After silencing of TsPKM gene by specific dsRNA-TsPKM2, protein expression and enzyme activity of TsPKM decreased by 50.91 and 26.06%, respectively. After treatment with RNAi, natural TsPKM enzyme activity, larval molting, sugar metabolism, growth and development of T. spiralis were significantly reduced. CONCLUSIONS: TsPKM participates in the larval molting, sugar metabolism, growth and development of T. spiralis and it might be a candidate target of therapeutic drug of trichinellosis.


Assuntos
Parasitos , Trichinella spiralis , Triquinelose , Animais , Feminino , Camundongos , Trichinella spiralis/genética , Piruvato Quinase/genética , Larva/fisiologia , Muda , Triquinelose/parasitologia , Parasitos/metabolismo , Açúcares , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Proteínas de Helminto/genética
9.
Mol Ecol ; 31(22): 5649-5652, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36217577

RESUMO

How organisms that are part of the same trophic network respond to environmental variability over small spatial scales has been studied in a multitude of systems. Prevailing theory suggests a large role for plasticity in key traits among interacting species that allows matching of life cycles or life-history traits across environmental gradients, for instance insects tracking host-plant phenology across variable environments (Posledovich et al. 2018). A key aspect that remains understudied is the extent of intrapopulation variability in plasticity and whether stressful conditions canalize plasticity to an optimal level, or alternatively if variation in plasticity indeed could increase fitness in itself via alternative strategies. In a From the Cover article in this issue of Molecular Ecology, Kahilainen et al. (2022) investigate this issue in a classical insect study system, the metapopulation of the Glanville fritillary butterfly (Melitea cinxia) in the Åland archipelago of Finland. The authors first establish how a key host plant responds to water limitation, then quantify among-family variation in larval growth and development across control and water-limited host plants. Finally, they use RNA sequencing to gain mechanistic insights into some of these among-family differences in larval performance in response to host-plant variation, finding results suggesting the existence of heritable, intrapopulation variability in ecologically relevant plasticity. This final step represents a critically important and often overlooked component of efforts to predict sensitivity of biological systems to changing environmental conditions, since it provides a key metric of adaptive resilience present in the system.


Assuntos
Borboletas , Animais , Borboletas/fisiologia , Água , Larva/fisiologia , Estágios do Ciclo de Vida , Fenótipo
10.
Curr Biol ; 32(21): 4631-4644.e5, 2022 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36182701

RESUMO

In many animals, there is a direct correspondence between the motor patterns that drive locomotion and the motor neuron innervation. For example, the adult C. elegans moves with symmetric and alternating dorsal-ventral bending waves arising from symmetric motor neuron input onto the dorsal and ventral muscles. In contrast to the adult, the C. elegans motor circuit at the juvenile larval stage has asymmetric wiring between motor neurons and muscles but still generates adult-like bending waves with dorsal-ventral symmetry. We show that in the juvenile circuit, wiring between excitatory and inhibitory motor neurons coordinates the contraction of dorsal muscles with relaxation of ventral muscles, producing dorsal bends. However, ventral bending is not driven by analogous wiring. Instead, ventral muscles are excited uniformly by premotor interneurons through extrasynaptic signaling. Ventral bends occur in anti-phasic entrainment to activity of the same motor neurons that drive dorsal bends. During maturation, the juvenile motor circuit is replaced by two motor subcircuits that separately drive dorsal and ventral bending. Modeling reveals that the juvenile's immature motor circuit is an adequate solution to generate adult-like dorsal-ventral bending before the animal matures. Developmental rewiring between functionally degenerate circuit solutions, which both generate symmetric bending patterns, minimizes behavioral disruption across maturation.


Assuntos
Caenorhabditis elegans , Neurônios Motores , Animais , Caenorhabditis elegans/fisiologia , Neurônios Motores/fisiologia , Interneurônios/fisiologia , Locomoção/fisiologia , Larva/fisiologia
11.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 17324, 2022 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36243749

RESUMO

Differences in hatching dates can shape intraspecific interactions through size-mediated priority effects (SMPE), a phenomenon where bigger, early hatched individuals gain advantage over smaller, late hatched ones. However, it remains unclear to what extent and how SMPE are affected by key environmental factors such as warming and predation risk imposed by top predators. We studied effects of warming (low and high temperature) and predation risk (presence and absence of predator cues of perch) on SMPE in life history and physiological traits in the cannibalistic damselfly Ischnura elegans. We induced SMPE in the laboratory by manipulating hatching dates, creating following groups: early and late hatchlings reared in separate containers, and mixed phenology groups where early and late hatchlings shared the same containers. We found strong SMPE for survival and emergence success, with the highest values in early larvae of mixed phenology groups and the lowest values in late larvae of mixed phenology groups. Neither temperature nor predator cues affected SMPE for these two traits. The other life history traits (development rate and mass at emergence) did not show SMPE, but were affected by temperature and predator cues. A tendency for SMPE was found for protein content, in the high temperature treatment. The other physiological traits (phenoloxidase activity and fat content) showed fixed expressions across treatments, indicating decoupling between physiology and life history. The results underline that SMPEs are trait-dependent, and only weakly or not affected by temperature and predation risk.


Assuntos
Odonatos , Comportamento Predatório , Animais , Canibalismo , Larva/fisiologia , Monofenol Mono-Oxigenase , Odonatos/fisiologia
12.
Elife ; 112022 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36200757

RESUMO

Mechanical nociception is an evolutionarily conserved sensory process required for the survival of living organisms. Previous studies have revealed much about the neural circuits and sensory molecules in mechanical nociception, but the cellular mechanisms adopted by nociceptors in force detection remain elusive. To address this issue, we study the mechanosensation of a fly larval nociceptor (class IV da neurons, c4da) using a customized mechanical device. We find that c4da are sensitive to mN-scale forces and make uniform responses to the forces applied at different dendritic regions. Moreover, c4da showed a greater sensitivity to localized forces, consistent with them being able to detect the poking of sharp objects, such as wasp ovipositor. Further analysis reveals that high morphological complexity, mechanosensitivity to lateral tension and possibly also active signal propagation in dendrites contribute to the sensory features of c4da. In particular, we discover that Piezo and Ppk1/Ppk26, two key mechanosensory molecules, make differential but additive contributions to the mechanosensitivity of c4da. In all, our results provide updates into understanding how c4da process mechanical signals at the cellular level and reveal the contributions of key molecules.


Being able to sense harm is essential for survival. Animals have to be able to tell the difference between a gentle touch and a dangerous pressure. They do this using nerve cells called mechanical nociceptors which switch on when the body feels a potentially painful pressure, such as a sharp object poking the skin. Once activated, the nerves send outputs to other parts of the central nervous system which coordinate the motions needed to escape the source of the pain. One popular model to understand harm-sensing is the larvae of fruit flies which automatically roll back and forth when they sense the pointy sting of a wasp. This process is initiated by sensory nerve cells called class IV dendritic arborization neurons (or c4da for short) which sit under the fly's skin. However, it is still not fully understood how these mechanical nociceptors detect the poking forces of the wasp's tail. To investigate, Liu, Wu et al. built a device that could poke sections of fly larvae under a microscope so they could see how different types of pressure affected the activity and shape of c4da cells. This revealed that c4da nerves were most sensitive to sharp objects that illicit a more localized force, which may explain why these cells are so good at responding to wasp attacks. Further analysis showed that this sensitivity was due to the high number of branches, or dendrites, protruding from the body of c4da nerves. Liu, Wu et al. discovered that the dendrites were coated in a touch-sensitive protein that can sense and amplify both squashing and pulling, resulting in a signal that activates c4da nerves to send outputs to other parts of the central nervous system. This mechanism increases the likelihood that a c4da cell will detect a mechanical pressure even if it is far away from the body of the nerve. These findings shed light on how sensory cells like c4da are optimized to carry out specific roles. This could be important for understanding other nerve systems which sense mechanical pressure, such as those involved in touch or auditory processes. However, further work is needed to see whether the molecules and mechanism identified by Liu, Wu et al. are also present in humans.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Drosophila , Drosophila , Animais , Drosophila/metabolismo , Nociceptores/metabolismo , Proteínas de Drosophila/metabolismo , Drosophila melanogaster/fisiologia , Larva/fisiologia , Canais Iônicos , Canais Epiteliais de Sódio
13.
Wound Repair Regen ; 30(6): 707-725, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36301622

RESUMO

Xenopus tropicalis tadpoles have the capacity for scarless regeneration of appendages including the limb and tail. Following injury, transcriptional programs must be activated and inactivated with high spatial and temporal resolution to result in a properly patterned appendage. Functional studies have established that histone-modifying enzymes that act to close chromatin are required for regeneration, but the genomic regions sensitive to these activities are not fully established. Here we show that early inhibition of HDAC or EZH2 activity results in incomplete tail regeneration. To identify how each of these perturbations impacts chromatin accessibility, we applied an assay for transposase-accessible chromatin (ATAC-seq) to HDAC or EZH2-inhibited regenerating tadpoles. We find that neither perturbation results in a global increase in chromatin accessibility, but that both inhibitors have targeted effects on chromatin accessibility and gene expression. Upon HDAC inhibition, regulatory regions neighbouring genes associated with neuronal regeneration are preferentially accessible, whereas regions associated with immune response and apoptosis are preferentially accessible following EZH2 inhibition. Together, these results suggest distinct roles for these two chromatin-closing activities in appendage regeneration.


Assuntos
Cromatina , Cicatrização , Animais , Regeneração/fisiologia , Extremidades , Larva/fisiologia
14.
Elife ; 112022 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36305588

RESUMO

Learning which stimuli (classical conditioning) or which actions (operant conditioning) predict rewards or punishments can improve chances of survival. However, the circuit mechanisms that underlie distinct types of associative learning are still not fully understood. Automated, high-throughput paradigms for studying different types of associative learning, combined with manipulation of specific neurons in freely behaving animals, can help advance this field. The Drosophila melanogaster larva is a tractable model system for studying the circuit basis of behaviour, but many forms of associative learning have not yet been demonstrated in this animal. Here, we developed a high-throughput (i.e. multi-larva) training system that combines real-time behaviour detection of freely moving larvae with targeted opto- and thermogenetic stimulation of tracked animals. Both stimuli are controlled in either open- or closed-loop, and delivered with high temporal and spatial precision. Using this tracker, we show for the first time that Drosophila larvae can perform classical conditioning with no overlap between sensory stimuli (i.e. trace conditioning). We also demonstrate that larvae are capable of operant conditioning by inducing a bend direction preference through optogenetic activation of reward-encoding serotonergic neurons. Our results extend the known associative learning capacities of Drosophila larvae. Our automated training rig will facilitate the study of many different forms of associative learning and the identification of the neural circuits that underpin them.


Assuntos
Condicionamento Operante , Drosophila , Animais , Condicionamento Operante/fisiologia , Drosophila/fisiologia , Larva/fisiologia , Drosophila melanogaster/fisiologia , Condicionamento Clássico/fisiologia
15.
Vet Parasitol ; 311: 109805, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36150240

RESUMO

Anisakis spp. (Nematoda, Anisakidae) are parasites known by their economic and health impacts, as their L3 larval stages infect a variety of fish species, many of them commercial species, sometimes causing zoonotic episodes due to consumption of raw or undercooked fish. The aim of this study is to determine the infection process and the potential impact of A. simplex s.l. L3 on gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata L.), one of the most important fish species in Mediterranean aquaculture, by periodic histological monitoring of the infection process. For this, fish were experimentally infected with A. simplex s.l. L3 and periodically analysed for L3 larvae, collecting samples at different time points (hours post ingestion, hpi): 3, 6, 12, 18, 24, 36, 48, 72, 96, 120, 144, 168 and 192, up to 6 months post infection (mpi). All samples were observed under a stereomicroscope and later fixed for histological examination. A. simplex s.l. L3 were only found on the visceral surface and mesenteric tissue, but never free or encapsulated in muscle. Chronological events were found to occur faster than those reported in previous studies. They were first observed 6 hpi in the coelomic cavity, being present up to 48 hpi. While the earliest evidence of fibrocytes surrounding A. simplex s.l. L3 larvae were observed at 18 hpi, complete spiral encapsulation occurred by 72 hpi. Alive parasites were observed up to 6 mpi. Although the infection of gilthead seabream by Anisakis spp. larvae is feasible, it seems unlikely, especially in aquaculture given the hygienically controlled feeding systems. In the event of infection, the transmission would be unlikely due to the poor condition in which specimens of Anisakis spp. are found. Furthermore, since no larvae were detected in the fish's muscle, human infection seems improbable.


Assuntos
Anisaquíase , Anisakis , Ascaridoidea , Doenças dos Peixes , Dourada , Animais , Humanos , Anisaquíase/veterinária , Anisaquíase/parasitologia , Larva/fisiologia , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia
16.
J Exp Biol ; 225(19)2022 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36172812

RESUMO

Antlion larvae are fluid-feeding ambush predators that feed on arthropods trapped in their funnel-shaped pits built in sandy habitats; however, details are lacking about their feeding mechanism. Here, we tested the hypothesis that the antlion, Myrmeleon crudelis, has adaptations that facilitate fluid feeding in sandy habitats. We measured contact angles of water droplets and used the capillary-rise technique to assess mouthpart wettability. A structural organization was discovered that provides a hydrophobic-hydrophilic wetting dichotomy that simultaneously supports self-cleaning and fluid uptake and is enabled by antiparallel movements of the maxillae. The mouthparts also are augmented by their mechanical properties, including maxillae and mandible tips that might be heavily sclerotized, as determined by confocal microscopy, which likely facilitates piercing prey. Our findings provide insight into how antlion larvae have overcome the challenges of fluid feeding in sandy habitats, which probably contributed to their success and widespread distribution.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica , Insetos , Larva , Boca , Animais , Ecossistema , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Larva/fisiologia , Boca/fisiologia , Comportamento Predatório/fisiologia , Areia
17.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 15767, 2022 09 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36131078

RESUMO

Crawling insects, when starved, tend to have fewer head wavings and travel in straighter tracks in search of food. We used the Drosophila melanogaster larva to investigate whether this flexibility in the insect's navigation strategy arises during early olfactory processing and, if so, how. We demonstrate a critical role for Keystone-LN, an inhibitory local neuron in the antennal lobe, in implementing head-sweep behavior. Keystone-LN responds to odor stimuli, and its inhibitory output is required for a larva to successfully navigate attractive and aversive odor gradients. We show that insulin signaling in Keystone-LN likely mediates the starvation-dependent changes in head-sweep magnitude, shaping the larva's odor-guided movement. Our findings demonstrate how flexibility in an insect's navigation strategy can arise from context-dependent modulation of inhibitory neurons in an early sensory processing center. They raise new questions about modulating a circuit's inhibitory output to implement changes in a goal-directed movement.


Assuntos
Insulinas , Neurônios Receptores Olfatórios , Animais , Drosophila/fisiologia , Drosophila melanogaster/fisiologia , Larva/fisiologia , Odorantes , Condutos Olfatórios , Neurônios Receptores Olfatórios/fisiologia , Percepção
18.
J Exp Biol ; 225(20)2022 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36172880

RESUMO

Deoxygenation and warming affect adult fish physiology in all aquatic ecosystems, but how these stressors impact the energetics of sensitive developing stages is largely unknown. Addressing this knowledge gap, we investigated chronic and acute effects of two stressors (high temperature and hypoxia) in yolk-sac larval (48-168 hpf) zebrafish (Danio rerio) energy budgets measuring, oxygen consumption rate, growth rate (absolute and specific), % net conversion efficiency, net cost of growth and scaling relationships. Embryos and larvae were raised under four chronic treatments: (1) control (28°C and PO2 21 kPa, T28O21), (2) high temperature (31°C and PO2 21 kPa, T31O21), (3) hypoxia (28°C and PO2 11 kPa, T28TO11) and (4) high temperature and hypoxia (31°C and PO2 11 kPa, T31O11). From each chronic treatment, larvae were acutely exposed to the same combinations of stressors for 1 h in a respirometer. At hatching, larvae from chronic high temperature (T31O21 and T31O11) treatments were larger (higher dry mass and standard length) than controls (T28O21 and T28O11), but by the end of the yolk-sac stage, increased metabolic demands diverted energy away from growth, increasing net cost of growth and lowering % net conversion efficiency. Control metabolic scaling relationships were significant and differed from 0.75, but metabolic levels were lower in acute hypoxia and high temperature/hypoxia. Thus, high temperature dominated larval energetics, acting synergistically with hypoxia to increase cumulative energetic costs and making allostasis difficult compared with older stages.


Assuntos
Alostase , Peixe-Zebra , Animais , Peixe-Zebra/fisiologia , Ecossistema , Larva/fisiologia , Hipóxia
19.
J Chem Ecol ; 48(9-10): 718-729, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35972714

RESUMO

Insect herbivores have evolved a broad spectrum of adaptations in response to the diversity of chemical defences employed by plants. Here we focus on two species of New Guinean Asota and determine how these specialist moths deal with the leaf alkaloids of their fig (Ficus) hosts. As each focal Asota species is restricted to one of three chemically distinct species of Ficus, we also test whether these specialized interactions lead to similar alkaloid profiles in both Asota species. We reared Asota caterpillars on their respective Ficus hosts in natural conditions and analyzed the alkaloid profiles of leaf, frass, caterpillar, and adult moth samples using UHPLC-MS/MS analyses. We identified 43 alkaloids in our samples. Leaf alkaloids showed various fates. Some were excreted in frass or found in caterpillars and adult moths. We also found two apparently novel indole alkaloids-likely synthesized de novo by the moths or their microbiota-in both caterpillar and adult tissue but not in leaves or frass. Overall, alkaloids unique or largely restricted to insect tissue were shared across moth species despite feeding on different hosts. This indicates that a limited number of plant compounds have a direct ecological function that is conserved among the studied species. Our results provide evidence for the importance of phytochemistry and metabolic strategies in the formation of plant-insect interactions and food webs in general. Furthermore, we provide a new potential example of insects acquiring chemicals for their benefit in an ecologically relevant insect genus.


Assuntos
Alcaloides , Ficus , Mariposas , Animais , Nova Guiné , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Larva/fisiologia , Mariposas/fisiologia , Herbivoria , Insetos , Plantas , Metaboloma
20.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 14702, 2022 08 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36038763

RESUMO

The soybean looper, Chrysodeixis includens, is a primary soybean pest that reduces crop productivity. This work examined control of C. includens populations with methanolic extract of Serjania erecta, a native Cerrado plant, while minimizing risks to pollinators, natural enemies and the environment. Serjania erecta specimens were collected, identified, and subjected to methanol extraction. Bioassays were performed using newly hatched and second-instar caterpillars and different extract concentrations on the diet surface to obtain IC50 values. Two replicates, containing 10 caterpillars, were established in triplicate. The IC50 values were 4.15 and 6.24 mg of extract mL-1 for first-instar and second-instar caterpillars, respectively. These growth inhibition results informed the extract concentrations assessed in subsequent development inhibition assays, in which the pupal weight was higher under the control than under the treatments. Extract treatments increased the duration of the larval, pupal and total development. The potential of different concentrations of S. erecta extract to inhibit the enzymes carboxylesterases was also evaluated. Carboxylesterases activity decreased by 41.96 and 43.43% at 7.8 and 15.6 µg mL-1 extract, respectively. At 31.3 µg mL-1 extract, enzymatic activity was not detected. Overall, S. erecta leaf methanolic extract showed inhibitory potential against carboxylesterases.


Assuntos
Mariposas , Sapindaceae , Animais , Hidrolases de Éster Carboxílico/farmacologia , Larva/fisiologia , Mariposas/fisiologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Pupa , Soja
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...