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1.
Naturwissenschaften ; 106(9-10): 52, 2019 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31482235

RESUMO

Parasitoid researchers have generally thought that the body size of the mother parasitoid does not affect the fitness performance of the progeny during the immature stage, as long as the progeny develop in the same environment. We reveal for the first time that this is not true for the parasitoid Echthrodelphax fairchildii (Hymenoptera: Dryinidae), which is parasitic on planthoppers. Large females ensured an increased survival rate for their progeny during the immature stage and a large body size at adult emergence. Maternal body size differentially affected the body sizes and survival rates of male and female progeny. Small females did not produce female progeny, and the survival rate of the female progeny increased more steeply with increasing maternal body size than that of the male progeny. Meanwhile, the body size of male progeny increased more steeply with increasing maternal body size. The influence of maternal body size on progeny survival to adult emergence has never been reported in insects before. In addition, large females were more likely to lay female eggs, suggesting that females control the sex ratio of progeny in response to their own body size.


Assuntos
Tamanho Corporal/fisiologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita/fisiologia , Vespas/anatomia & histologia , Vespas/fisiologia , Animais , Feminino , Larva/anatomia & histologia , Larva/fisiologia , Masculino , Oviposição/fisiologia , Taxa de Sobrevida
2.
J Chem Ecol ; 45(8): 693-707, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31367970

RESUMO

Crop domestication and selective breeding have altered plant defense mechanisms, influencing insect-plant interactions. A reduction in plant resistance/tolerance against herbivory is generally expected in domesticated species, however, limited efforts have been made to compare inducibility of plant defenses between wild and domesticated genotypes. In the present study, the inducibility of several plant defense mechanisms (e.g. defensive chemicals, trichomes, plant volatiles) were investigated, and the performance and preference of the herbivore Helicoverpa zea were measured in three different tomato genotypes; a) wild tomato, Solanum pimpinellifolium L. (accession LA 2093), b) cherry tomato, S. lycopersicum L. var. cerasiforme (accession Matts Wild Cherry), and c) cultivated tomato, S. lycopersicum L. var. Better Boy). Enhanced inducibility of defensive chemicals, trichomes, and plant volatiles in the cultivated tomato, and a higher level of constitutive plant resistance against herbivory in the wild genotype was observed. When comparing the responses of damaged vs. undamaged leaves, the percent reduction in larval growth was higher on damaged leaves from cultivated tomato, suggesting a higher induced resistance compared to other two genotypes. While all tomato genotypes exhibited increased volatile organic compound (VOCs) emissions in response to herbivory, the cultivated variety responded with generally higher levels of VOCs. Differences in VOC patterns may have influenced the ovipositional preferences, as H. zea female moths significantly preferred laying eggs on the cultivated versus the wild tomato genotypes. Selection of traits during domestication and selective breeding could alter allocation of resources, where plants selected for higher yield performance would allocate resources to defense only when attacked.


Assuntos
Lycopersicon esculentum/química , Mariposas/fisiologia , Solanum/química , Animais , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Catecol Oxidase/metabolismo , Feminino , Genótipo , Herbivoria , Larva/fisiologia , Lycopersicon esculentum/genética , Lycopersicon esculentum/metabolismo , Oviposição/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenóis/análise , Folhas de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/parasitologia , Proteínas de Plantas/análise , Análise de Componente Principal , Inibidores de Proteases/química , Solanum/genética , Solanum/metabolismo , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/química , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/metabolismo , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/farmacologia
3.
J Chem Ecol ; 45(8): 715-724, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31385154

RESUMO

Plants emit a specific blend of volatiles in response to herbivory and these volatiles, which often attract predators and parasitoids function as an indirect plant defense. The impact of plant volatiles in shaping herbivore defenses is unclear. Here, we report that specific plant volatiles induce immune responses in the polyphagous herbivore, Spodoptera litura. We characterized the hemocyte profile and established their functional significance with respect to ontogeny and exposure to specific plant volatiles. Fifth instar larvae showed the highest number and hemocytes diversity. We characterized seven different types of hemocytes, of which granulocytes performed phagocytosis, oenocytoids showed melanization activity, and plasmatocytes along with granulocytes and oenocytoids were found to be involved in encapsulation. Among the six volatiles tested, exposure to (E)-ß-ocimene caused the highest increase in total hemocytes number (THC) followed by linalool and (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate exposure. Although THC did not differ between these three volatile treatments, circulating hemocytes diversity varied significantly. (E)-ß-ocimene exposure showed higher number of plasmatocytes and phenol oxidase activity. The interaction of the parasitic wasp Bracon brevicornis with (E)-ß-ocimene exposed larvae was poor in terms of delayed paralysis and lower egg deposition. In choice assays, the wasp showed clear preference towards control larvae indicating (E)-ß-ocimene treatment renders the host unattractive. Hemocyte profiles post-parasitoid exposure and (E)-ß-ocimene treatment were similar indicating cue-based priming. When challenged with Bacillus thuringiensis, linalool exposure resulted in the highest survival as compared to other volatiles. Our results show that specific HIPVs can modulate cellular immunity of S. litura, revealing a new role for HIPVs in tri-trophic interactions.


Assuntos
Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/farmacologia , Vespas/fisiologia , Alcenos/farmacologia , Animais , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Hemócitos/citologia , Hemócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Hemócitos/metabolismo , Herbivoria , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Sistema Imunitário/efeitos dos fármacos , Sistema Imunitário/metabolismo , Larva/fisiologia , Monofenol Mono-Oxigenase/metabolismo , Monoterpenos/farmacologia , Oviposição/efeitos dos fármacos , Fagocitose/efeitos dos fármacos , Plantas/química , Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas/parasitologia , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/química , Vespas/imunologia
4.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 357, 2019 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31324262

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evaluating and improving mating success and competitive ability of laboratory-reared transgenic mosquito strains will enhance the effectiveness of proposed disease-control strategies that involve deployment of transgenic strains. Two components of the mosquito rearing process, larval diet quantity and aquatic environment - which are linked to physiological and behavioural differences in adults - are both relatively easy to manipulate. In mosquitoes, as for many other arthropod species, the quality of the juvenile habitat is strongly associated with adult fitness characteristics, such as longevity and fecundity. However, the influence of larval conditioning on mating performance is poorly understood. Here, we investigated the combined effects of larval diet amount and environmental water source on adult male mating success in a genetically modified strain of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes in competition with wild-type conspecifics. Importantly, this research was conducted in a field setting using low generation laboratory and wild-type lines. RESULTS: By controlling larval diet (high and low) and rearing water source (field-collected and laboratory water), we generated four treatment lines of a genetically modified strain of Ae. aegypti tagged with fluorescent sperm. Laboratory reared mosquitoes were then competed against a low generation wild-type colony in a series of laboratory and semi-field mating experiments. While neither food quantity nor larval aquatic environment were found to affect male mating fitness, the transgenic lines consistently outperformed wild-types in laboratory competition assays, an advantage that was not conferred to semi-field tests. CONCLUSIONS: Using a model transgenic system, our results indicate that differences in the experimental conditions of laboratory- and field-based measures of mating success can lead to variation in the perceived performance ability of modified strains if they are only tested in certain environments. While there are many potential sources of variation between laboratory and field lines, laboratory adaptation - which may occur over relatively few generations in this species - may directly impact mating ability depending on the context in which it is measured. We suggest that colony-hybridization with field material can potentially be used to mitigate these effects in a field setting. Release programs utilising mass-produced modified laboratory strains should incorporate comparative assessments of quality in candidate lines.


Assuntos
Aedes/fisiologia , Animais Geneticamente Modificados , Comportamento Sexual Animal , Aedes/genética , Animais , Feminino , Larva/fisiologia , Longevidade , Masculino , Reprodução , Espermatozoides/fisiologia
5.
J Insect Sci ; 19(4)2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31346626

RESUMO

Striacosta albicosta (Smith) is a key pest of maize and dry beans in North America. It has expanded its distribution from the western Great Plains of the United States to the Great Lakes region in the United States and Canada. There has been limited research on the baseline biological aspects of this insect under controlled conditions. The objective of this study was to detail the biological parameters of S. albicosta feeding on an artificial diet under laboratory conditions. Overall survival from neonate to adult at 26.6 ± 1°C was 36.72% and the total developmental time was approximately 110 d. Survival of the egg, larval, prepupal, and pupal stages were 75.71, 98.50, 51.78, and 95.10%, respectively. Average duration of the egg, larval, prepupal, and pupal stages was 4.64, 28.20, 41.50, and 25.91 d, respectively. During the larval stage, 92.50% of larvae developed through seven instars and the remaining through six instars. Larvae that developed through six and seven instars exhibited a mean growth ratio of 1.60 and 1.47, respectively; however, there was no difference in pupal weight. Eggs laid by field-mated moths showed a fertility of 75.71%, compared with 4.18% from laboratory-reared moths. These data suggest that S. albicosta develop primarily through seven instars and the most vulnerable developmental stage is the prepupa. Laboratory conditions strongly affected fertility success. Information presented here greatly expands our understanding of S. albicosta biology, which can be used to improve the efficiency of laboratory bioassays and management techniques for this critical crop pest.


Assuntos
Traços de História de Vida , Mariposas/fisiologia , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Dieta , Feminino , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/fisiologia , Mariposas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Óvulo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Óvulo/fisiologia , Pupa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Pupa/fisiologia , Reprodução
6.
J Chem Ecol ; 45(8): 708-714, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31313135

RESUMO

Plants are able to sense their environment and respond appropriately to different stimuli. Vibrational signals (VS) are one of the most widespread yet understudied ways of communication between organisms. Recent research into the perception of VS by plants showed that they are ecologically meaningful signals involved in different interactions of plants with biotic and abiotic agents. We studied changes in the concentration of alkaloids in tobacco plants induced by VS produced by Phthorimaea operculella (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), a generalist caterpillar that naturally feeds on the plant. We measured the concentration of nicotine, nornicotine, anabasine and anatabine in four treatments applied to 11-weeks old tobacco plant: a) Co = undamaged plants, b) Eq = Playback equipment attached to the plant without VS, c) Ca = Plants attacked by P. operculella herbivory and d) Pl = playback of VS of P. operculella feeding on tobacco. We found that nicotine, the most abundant alkaloid, increased more than 2.6 times in the Ca and Pl treatments as compared with the Co and Eq treatments, which were similar between them. Nornicotine, anabasine and anatabine were mutually correlated and showed similar concentration patterns, being higher in the Eq treatment. Results are discussed in terms of the adaptive significance of plant responses to ecologically important VS stimuli.


Assuntos
Alcaloides/análise , Lepidópteros/fisiologia , Tabaco/química , Alcaloides/metabolismo , Anabasina/análise , Animais , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Herbivoria , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Larva/fisiologia , Modelos Lineares , Nicotina/análogos & derivados , Nicotina/análise , Análise de Componente Principal , Piridinas/análise , Tabaco/metabolismo , Tabaco/parasitologia , Vibração
7.
Bioengineered ; 10(1): 292-305, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31284815

RESUMO

In the present study, Probit, Cauchy Fractional and three types of Log methods, i.e., Logit, Log-log, and Complementary log-log were employed to model the feeding deterrence of the lesser grain borer, Rhyzopertha dominica (F) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae), when fed latex protein, crude flavonoid fraction, 3-O-rutinosides of quercetin, kaempferol and isorhamnetin, isolated from Calotropis procera (Ait.) (Gentianales: Asclepiadaceae). A nutritional study with treated flour discs at sub-lethal concentrations indicated that the tested natural products negatively affected the feeding behavior of the lesser grain borer, causing high feeding deterrent indices. Our results assure that Probit, Logit and Clog-log model the feeding deterrent indices with high goodness of fit. The models aim to support the management of the test insect when fed grains treated with sub-lethal doses of the tested phytochemicals in order to develop a viable, precise and long-term strategy to minimize the excessive reliance on the chemical pesticides currently in use.


Assuntos
Produtos Biológicos/farmacologia , Calotropis/química , Besouros/efeitos dos fármacos , Quempferóis/farmacologia , Modelos Estatísticos , Quercetina/análogos & derivados , Quercetina/farmacologia , Animais , Besouros/fisiologia , Grão Comestível/parasitologia , Comportamento Alimentar/efeitos dos fármacos , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Glicosídeos/farmacologia , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Larva/fisiologia , Componentes Aéreos da Planta/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Triticum/parasitologia
8.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 305: 108256, 2019 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31299548

RESUMO

Acanthocephalans of the genus Corynosoma are known as intestinal parasites, mainly of pinnipeds. Human corynosomiasis has been reported as an infrequent foodborne disease in Hokkaido, the northernmost island of Japan. Potential sources of the human infection are marine fish, because they are paratenic hosts of these parasites. In this study, the prevalence and intensity of larval Corynosoma in commercial fish from 17 fishing ports of Hokkaido were examined from April 2016 to January 2019. Out of a total of 1217 fish examined, 122 (10.0%) were infected with cystacanth larvae. The infected fish assemblage was composed of 7 families and 13 species from all the coastal seas of Hokkaido (the Pacific Ocean, Okhotsk Sea, and Japan Sea), showing that commercial fish can be source of human infection when eaten raw. Flatfish of the family Pleuronectidae showed the highest intensity of cystacanths, ranging from 1 to 56. A DNA barcoding system was developed in this study, based on the standard mitochondrial cox1 sequences of morphologically identified adults of Corynosoma spp. from pinnipeds in Hokkaido. By using the DNA barcoding, most of the fish-derived cystacanths were identified as either C. strumosum or C. villosum, and furthermore, a clinical isolate from human as C. villosum. Both of the species were commonly detected from various fish of Hokkaido, irrespective of the coastal seas. Flatfish frequently harbored C. villosum. Considering the wide range of commercial fish in Hokkaido and the advanced transportation system of fresh fish, there is a possibility that human corynosomiasis will occur everywhere in Japan.


Assuntos
Acantocéfalos/isolamento & purificação , Peixes/parasitologia , Acantocéfalos/classificação , Acantocéfalos/genética , Acantocéfalos/fisiologia , Animais , Código de Barras de DNA Taxonômico , Peixes/classificação , Helmintíase Animal , Ilhas , Japão , Larva/genética , Larva/fisiologia
9.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 18(4): 435-443, jul. 2019. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1008258

RESUMO

Volatiles compounds are involved in defensive induction against insects, playing an important role in insect-plant interaction being induced by response to mechanical damage. However, they could decrease according to the domestication degree in cultivated plants. Currently, it has been established that secondary metabolites are reduced due to the domestication process in murtilla. Hence, the follow question emerges: Are volatile organic compounds induced by mechanical damage reduced in cultivated murtilla plants in relation to wild plants? Two cultivated ecotypes and their respective wild counterparts were sampled. Volatiles compounds were obtained using Porapak-Q columns and analyzed by gas chromatography. Results showed that compounds as 2-hexanone, α-pinene, 2-thujene, 3-thujene and 1,8- cineole were more abundant in wild plants exposed to a mechanical damage than cultivated plants. Hence, these compounds have been associated to induced defense, these results suggest that domestication reduced the induction of defensive volatiles in cultivated murtilla in response to mechanical damage.


Los compuestos volátiles están implicados en la defensa inducida contra insectos, desempeñando un papel importante en esta interacción. Sin embargo, estos compuestos podrían disminuir según el grado de domesticación. Actualmente, se ha reportado que algunos metabolitos secundarios son reducidos en plantas de murtilla domesticadas. Por lo tanto, surge la siguiente pregunta de investigación: ¿Los compuestos orgánicos volátiles inducidos por el daño mecánico son reducidos en plantas cultivadas de murtilla en comparación con plantas silvestres? Para dos ecotipos cultivados y sus respectivas contrapartes silvestres, los compuestos volátiles fueron capturados usando columnas de Porapak-Q y las muestras analizadas por cromatografía gaseosa. Los resultados mostraron que compuestos tales como 2- hexanona, α-pineno, 2-tujeno, 3-tujeno y 1,8-cineol fueron más abundantes en plantas silvestres expuestas a daño mecánico que en cultivadas. Debido a que estos compuestos se han asociado a defensa inducida, estos resultados sugieren que la domesticación reduce la inducción de volátiles en plantas cultivadas sometidas a daño mecánico.


Assuntos
Animais , Óleos Voláteis/metabolismo , Myrtaceae/metabolismo , Myrtaceae/microbiologia , Domesticação , Insetos/fisiologia , Sesquiterpenos/análise , Sesquiterpenos/metabolismo , Óleos Voláteis/química , Myrtaceae/química , Monoterpenos/análise , Monoterpenos/metabolismo , Meio Selvagem , Larva/fisiologia , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas
10.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 543, 2019 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31221089

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cysticercosis is an emerging and neglected tropical disease (NTD) that poses a serious public health concern worldwide. Disseminated cysticercosis (DCC) is an uncommon manifestation of cysticercosis, also found in China. CASE PRESENTATION: We report three cases of DCC in patients living in China, with different clinical and radiological presentations. All three patients had DCC with active ocular cysticercosis, including one patient with widespread DCC caused by direct ingestion of Taenia solium eggs. The intravitreal cysticercus cyst in this patient was completely extracted entirely by 23-gauge pars plana vitrectomy, and the cyst was oval in shape on the flat mount preparation. CONCLUSION: The clinical presentation of DCC is highly sophisticated. The diagnosis depended on the typical radiological presentations, biopsy and flat mount preparations of the cyst.


Assuntos
Cisticercose/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Adulto , Albendazol/uso terapêutico , Animais , Anticorpos/sangue , Anticorpos/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Antiprotozoários/uso terapêutico , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Cisticercose/tratamento farmacológico , Cisticercose/parasitologia , Feminino , Humanos , Larva/fisiologia , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Taenia solium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Taenia solium/isolamento & purificação , Vitrectomia , Adulto Jovem
11.
Parasitol Int ; 72: 101936, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31153919

RESUMO

Insectivorous birds serve as definitive hosts for trematodes of the genus Leucochloridium. The parasites exclusively use amber snails of the family Succineidae as intermediate hosts. A pulsating and colorful display of the larval broodsac in the snail's eyestalk seems to be a caterpillar mimic for attracting birds. A colored design of the broodsac is very useful for parasite identification. In Japan, characteristic broodsacs from amber snails have been recorded from 1980's, but their taxonomic discrimination from Asian, European, and North American species has not been achieved. In this study, old scientific records, sighting information on broodsacs from the general public, and direct molecular evidence by DNA barcoding clearly showed that at least three species of Leucochloridium are distributed in Japan. A vertical-striped broodsac found from Succinea sp. in Okinawa, the subtropical island of Japan, were treated as Leucochloridium sp., but being almost identical to that of Leucochloridium passeri in neighboring Taiwan. The European species of Leucochloridium perturbatum and Leucochloridium paradoxum were frequently detected from Succinea lauta in Hokkaido, the northernmost island of Japan. The former species was common in inland areas of Hokkaido, whereas the latter species was frequently seen in the coastal areas. A possible explanation for the parasite distribution pattern is that principal definitive hosts (migratory or resident birds) differ in each parasite. The conspecificity of Leucochloridium variae in North America and L. perturbatum in Europe and the Far East is also discussed.


Assuntos
Distribuição Animal , Ecologia , Caramujos/parasitologia , Trematódeos/classificação , Animais , Aves/parasitologia , Código de Barras de DNA Taxonômico , DNA de Helmintos/genética , Europa (Continente) , Japão , Larva/fisiologia , Oocistos , Trematódeos/fisiologia
12.
Exp Appl Acarol ; 78(2): 231-246, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31152319

RESUMO

Ticks are haematophagous arthropods that exert direct and indirect effects on their hosts. Their global importance as reservoirs and vectors of diseases of veterinary and public health importance is well recognized. However, the level of understanding of their role in disease epidemiology varies from one country to the other based on available data. Information on ticks infesting dogs across Nigeria and the public health significance is scarce. Therefore, this study aimed to provide information on ixodid ticks infesting dogs in Nigeria. Ticks were collected from 608 owned dogs presented to veterinary clinics and hospitals in 10 out of 36 states of Nigeria over a 14-month period and identified using taxonomic descriptions and morphological keys. In all, 1196 ticks belonging to three genera were identified. Rhipicephalus (including the subgenus Boophilus) ticks were collected from dogs from all the states surveyed and accounted for 95.2% of the ticks collected, followed by Haemaphysalis (3.7%) and Amblyomma species (1.2%). The brown dog tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato was the only tick identified in all the climatic zones of Nigeria. There is a statistically significant association between tick infection rate and rainy season, female animals, local and cross breed against exotic animals, total lack of control practice by dog owners, frequency of the control and with traditional methods of tick control but not the age of the dogs. The epidemiological and public health implications of these findings were discussed.


Assuntos
Distribuição Animal , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Ixodidae/fisiologia , Saúde Pública , Infestações por Carrapato/veterinária , Animais , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Cães , Feminino , Ixodidae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/fisiologia , Masculino , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Ninfa/fisiologia , Prevalência , Infestações por Carrapato/epidemiologia , Infestações por Carrapato/parasitologia
13.
Exp Appl Acarol ; 78(2): 295-314, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31154548

RESUMO

The peanut red spider mite, Tetranychus ogmophallos Ferreira and Flechtmann (Acari: Tetranychidae), is an important pest of peanut in Brazil and is considered a quarantine pest in other countries. This study investigates the development, reproduction, survival and life table parameters of T. ogmophallos on five peanut cultivars-three with high levels of oleic acid [high oleic] and recently released: Granoleico, IAC OL 3 and IAC 503; and two regular and previously used by farmers: Runner IAC 886, IAC Tatu ST 3-and two breeding lines (L. 8008 and L. 322) in the growth chamber. There were differences between the developmental times of all immature stages, the oviposition period, fecundity and adult longevity of T. ogmophallos reared on the peanut cultivars and breeding lines. The longest duration of the immature stage and lowest fecundity occurred on cultivars Granoleico and Runner IAC 886, and breeding line L. 322, which also displayed the lowest intrinsic rate of increase (r), finite rate of increase (λ) and net reproductive rate (R0) and the shortest mean generation time (T). The highest fitness occurred on the IAC Tatu ST, IAC OL 3, IAC 503 and L. 8008. Our study shows that peanut cultivars belonging to the group with high oleic trait and recently released (IAC OL 3 and IAC 503) are susceptible to T. ogmophallos, except Granoleico, which is resistant. The regular and previously used cultivar Runner IAC 886 and breeding line L. 322 are resistant to the peanut red spider mite.


Assuntos
Antibiose , Arachis/fisiologia , Tetranychidae/fisiologia , Animais , Arachis/genética , Brasil , Feminino , Fertilidade , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/fisiologia , Tábuas de Vida , Longevidade , Masculino , Ninfa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ninfa/fisiologia , Oviposição , Tetranychidae/crescimento & desenvolvimento
14.
Biol Bull ; 236(3): 186-198, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31167091

RESUMO

Sporadic fluctuations in food availability may affect larval biology and post-metamorphic development in many marine invertebrates. In an experimental study in the laboratory, we investigated whether different regimes (1, 3, and 5 days) of initial starvation or feeding affect the survival and duration of the last planktotrophic larval stage (i.e., megalopa) of the neotropical mangrove fiddler crab Leptuca cumulanta. Newly metamorphosed crabs originating from megalopae starved for 1 and 3 days were cultured through the first 5 juvenile stages to further evaluate whether prior nutritional experience affects the post-larval performance of this species. All megalopae that were starved continuously died, while 80% of the larvae that were fed constantly metamorphosed successfully into the juvenile stage. Megalopae initially starved for 3 and 5 days exhibited lower survival (55% and 30% of larval metamorphosis, respectively) than larvae starved for only 1 day (85%) or fed constantly. The starvation periods (1, 3, and 5 days) also significantly prolonged the mean megalopal stage duration (12.8, 13.9, and 14.3 days, respectively) compared to the continuous feeding regime (10.6 days). Survival of the megalopae subjected to different periods of initial feeding (1, 3, and 5 days) was significantly lower (15.0%, 57.5%, and 62.5%, respectively) than survival of the larvae fed constantly. The mean megalopal stage duration, by contrast, did not vary among megalopae initially fed for 3 and 5 days or fed continuously (10.4 days). The larval starvation did not affect survival and carapace shape of juveniles, but it did alter their intermolt period, growth, and body size. These carryover effects were stronger in the first juvenile crab stage than in other juvenile stages. Our results indicate that the timing and duration of the starvation or feeding regime experienced by the megalopae may affect their successful survival and developmental period until metamorphosis to juvenile life. In addition, the preceding larval starvation associated with a prolonged larval period may also affect early juvenile performance in specific crab stages of L. cumulanta.


Assuntos
Braquiúros/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Privação de Alimentos , Metamorfose Biológica , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Braquiúros/fisiologia , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/fisiologia
15.
J Chem Ecol ; 45(7): 638-648, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31227972

RESUMO

Although the production of phytohormones has been commonly associated with production of plant defence and stress-related traits, few studies have simultaneously investigated this phenomenon across several plant species that grow along large-scale ecological gradients. To address these knowledge gaps, we performed a common garden experiment with six Cardamine species, which collectively encompass an elevational gradient of 2000 m. We quantified constitutive and Pieris brassicae caterpillars-induced phytohormones and chemical defences in leaves. We found a correlated expression of phytohormone production and the subsequent induction of chemical defences, and this correlated expression reduced herbivore performance. Furthermore, we found that abiotic conditions associated with the optimal elevation range of each species influenced the production of phytohormones and chemical defences, as well as plant growth and productivity. In particular, we found that plant species adapted to milder abiotic conditions at low elevations grew faster, were more productive and produced greater levels of chemical defences. In contrast, plant species adapted to harsher abiotic conditions at high elevations tended to produce greater levels of defence-related oxylipins. Overall, these findings highlight the importance of disentangling the role of phytohormones in mediating plant adaptations to shifting biotic and abiotic conditions.


Assuntos
Cardamine/química , Glucosinolatos/química , Himenópteros/fisiologia , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/química , Animais , Cardamine/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Glucosinolatos/farmacologia , Herbivoria , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita/efeitos dos fármacos , Himenópteros/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Larva/fisiologia , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
16.
Parasitol Res ; 118(8): 2361-2367, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31218416

RESUMO

Untreated, traumatic, or wound myiases can cause severe consequences to animal health and welfare as well as economic losses to livestock productions. For healing myiasis-caused wounds, disinfectant such as creolin is wrongly but currently used in association with insecticides. Though effective, creolin is highly toxic to the patients, is inadequate with respect to the repellent effect, and may delay the healing of treated wounds. In this uncontrolled study, the efficacy of the patented plant-derived formulation 1 Primary Wound Dressing© (1-PWD), composed of neem oil (Azadirachta indica A. Juss.) and the oily extract of Hypericum perforatum (L.) flowers, has been investigated. Forty-four domestic animals of different species suffering from wound myiasis lasting for up to 25 days, at different parts of the body, were enrolled in the study. No systemic or local antibiotic or disinfectants' treatment was administered. Larvae recovered on open wounds and adults reared from mature larvae were identified as Wohlfahrtia magnifica. All the treated wounds healed in a range of 10 to 32 days without further infestation. None of the recruited animals presented bacterial complications. Data herein presented indicate that the tested natural plant-derived formulation is able to manage the infestation caused by W. magnifica larvae and the healing process of traumatic infested wounds in several domestic animal species, without any side effect on the living tissue and without the need to use local or systemic chemical or other products.


Assuntos
Dípteros/fisiologia , Hypericum/química , Inseticidas/administração & dosagem , Miíase/veterinária , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Sarcofagídeos/fisiologia , Adulto , Animais , Animais Domésticos/parasitologia , Feminino , Humanos , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/fisiologia , Gado/parasitologia , Masculino , Miíase/tratamento farmacológico , Miíase/parasitologia , Sarcofagídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Sarcofagídeos/crescimento & desenvolvimento
17.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2654, 2019 06 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31201326

RESUMO

Animal locomotion requires spatiotemporally coordinated contraction of muscles throughout the body. Here, we investigate how contractions of antagonistic groups of muscles are intersegmentally coordinated during bidirectional crawling of Drosophila larvae. We identify two pairs of higher-order premotor excitatory interneurons present in each abdominal neuromere that intersegmentally provide feedback to the adjacent neuromere during motor propagation. The two feedback neuron pairs are differentially active during either forward or backward locomotion but commonly target a group of premotor interneurons that together provide excitatory inputs to transverse muscles and inhibitory inputs to the antagonistic longitudinal muscles. Inhibition of either feedback neuron pair compromises contraction of transverse muscles in a direction-specific manner. Our results suggest that the intersegmental feedback neurons coordinate contraction of synergistic muscles by acting as delay circuits representing the phase lag between segments. The identified circuit architecture also shows how bidirectional motor networks could be economically embedded in the nervous system.


Assuntos
Retroalimentação Fisiológica , Locomoção/fisiologia , Rede Nervosa/fisiologia , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados , Proteínas de Drosophila/genética , Drosophila melanogaster/fisiologia , Interneurônios/fisiologia , Larva/fisiologia , Microscopia Eletrônica , Modelos Animais , Contração Muscular/fisiologia , Músculos/inervação , Músculos/fisiologia , Optogenética
18.
Exp Appl Acarol ; 78(1): 79-91, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31093856

RESUMO

The ornithophilic tick species Ixodes frontalis (Panzer) is spatially distributed in Europe, Asia and northern Africa. It can serve as a carrier of different bacteria and viruses, but little is known of its actual vector competence. In addition, adult females of this species are associated with the avian "tick-related syndrome" (TRS). Like most ornithophilic tick species, I. frontalis is usually collected from bird nests or directly from their hosts. Reports of I. frontalis being collected with the flagging method are scarce. In Germany, the species is considered as very rare. In the few reports that are available, the majority of ticks has been discovered on migrating birds. Therefore, knowledge of the actual distribution of this species in Germany was strictly limited. In this study, we report the finding of 1084 individuals of I. frontalis collected with the flagging method in urban areas and gardens in several regions of Germany. Furthermore, the species was discovered on 35 dead Eurasian blackbirds (Turdus merula) from all over Germany. Finally, we report of five new possible cases of TRS, three in free-ranging birds and two in captive birds, including a Harris's hawk (Parabuteo unicinctus) kept for falconry.


Assuntos
Distribuição Animal , Doenças das Aves/parasitologia , Ixodes/fisiologia , Aves Canoras , Infestações por Carrapato/veterinária , Animais , Feminino , Alemanha , Ixodes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/fisiologia , Masculino , Ninfa/fisiologia , Infestações por Carrapato/parasitologia
19.
Exp Appl Acarol ; 78(1): 93-112, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31115732

RESUMO

The relict tick Haemaphysalis concinna has a fragmented and focal distribution in Central Europe and Asia. Although in the majority of neighboring countries the occurrence of this tick species is well-documented (i.e., in Germany, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Ukraine), to-date its occurrence in Poland has been registered only once, in 1953 in Troszyn in North-Western Pomerania, close to the German-Polish border. In the present study we report the first documented finding of H. concinna in Western Poland, confirmed both by collection of juvenile ticks from rodent hosts and questing ticks from vegetation. Trapping of rodents took place in the summer of 2018 in three locations in Western Poland (Slonin, Nowy Mlyn 1, Nowy Mlyn 2). Rodents were inspected for ectoparasites, which were detached and fixed in 70% ethanol. All the collected ticks were assigned to species and developmental stages using appropriate morphological keys, and representative individuals were genotyped by molecular methods. A total of 1482 feeding ticks were collected from 106 rodents from three sites. The common tick Ixodes ricinus was found in abundance on small rodents at all three sites; Dermacentor reticulatus ticks were identified at two sites in small numbers and, finally, numerous juvenile H. concinna (n = 427) were found at one of our study sites (Nowy Mlyn 2). The highest prevalence and abundance of H. concinna were recorded on voles, Microtus agrestis and M. oeconomus, from this site in August. Additionally, questing nymphs and adult H. concinna were collected locally from vegetation (n = 20). Genotyping and phylogenetic analysis confirmed the species as H. concinna. A new focus of H. concinna has been described in Western Poland. Our long-term field work monitoring the expansion of the distribution of D. reticulatus in Poland, during which all collected ticks are identified, suggests that H. concinna is still very rare in the country.


Assuntos
Distribuição Animal , Arvicolinae , Ixodidae/fisiologia , Doenças dos Roedores/epidemiologia , Infestações por Carrapato/veterinária , Animais , Dermacentor/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Dermacentor/fisiologia , Feminino , Ixodes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ixodes/fisiologia , Ixodidae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/fisiologia , Masculino , Ninfa/fisiologia , Polônia , Doenças dos Roedores/parasitologia , Infestações por Carrapato/epidemiologia , Infestações por Carrapato/parasitologia
20.
Exp Appl Acarol ; 78(2): 181-202, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31119415

RESUMO

Juvenile Dermacentor reticulatus ticks inhabit nests and burrows of their rodent hosts and cannot be collected from vegetation. To detect vertical transmission of Babesia canis in D. reticulatus, we studied larvae and nymphs collected from rodents. However, the molecular techniques used for detection of pathogen DNA are sensitive enough to detect not only pathogens vectored by ticks but also those taken up with current or previous blood meals ('meal contamination') or just present in the environment and on the tick or host surface ('environmental contaminations'). Thus, an additional aim of our study was to evaluate the extent of such contamination while studying feeding ticks collected from rodents. Juvenile D. reticulatus were collected from 140 rodents: 91 bank voles trapped in two forest sites in the Mazury Lake District and 49 rodents (Apodemus and Microtus spp.) from an open habitat near the town of Bialobrzegi in Central Poland. Altogether 504 D. reticulatus ticks, comprising 266 individually evaluated nymphs and 238 larvae assigned to 50 larval pools, were studied for the presence of Babesia, Bartonella and Rickettsia spp. DNA. Statistical analyses were conducted to (1) evaluate the effect of rodent host factors (species, sex and age) on prevalence of infection in ticks, and (2) to compare the frequency of positive samples between groups of pathogen-positive and pathogen-negative rodent hosts. To complete the last aim, blood samples obtained from 49 rodents from Bialobrzegi were studied for the presence of Babesia and Bartonella DNA. Infestation of rodent hosts with juvenile ticks ranged between 46 and 78%, with a mean abundance of 3.6 ticks/rodent for D. reticulatus and 4.8 ticks/rodent for Ixodes ricinus. The highest prevalence of PCR-positive D. reticulatus samples was obtained for Rickettsia spp. (28%) and R. raoultii was identified in 22 sequenced PCR products. Babesia DNA was detected in 20 (7.5%), including B. microti in 18 (6.8%) and B. canis in two (0.8%) of 266 D. reticulatus nymphs that were analyzed. Babesia microti DNA was also detected in four pools of D. reticulatus larvae (4/50 pools = 8%). The detection success of B. microti in D. reticulatus was associated with the species of the rodent hosts of the ticks (much higher for typical B. microti-host-species such as Microtus spp. than for Apodemus spp.) and host age (3 × higher in ticks collected from adult hosts in comparison to juvenile ones). Moreover, the DNA of B. microti was detected in 68% of D. reticulatus nymphs collected from B. microti-positive rodents in comparison to only 1.6% of nymphs collected from B. microti-negative rodents. Bartonella DNA was detected in 18% of D. reticulatus tick samples (38% of larval pools, 14% of nymphs). Again, host factors played important roles for 'tick positivity'-the highest prevalence of positive ticks was on Apodemus spp., which are regarded as Bartonella reservoirs. Bartonella DNA was detected in 42% of nymphs and 57% of larval pools collected from Bartonella-positive rodents in comparison to 28% of nymphs and 11% of larvae collected from Bartonella-negative rodents. Vertical transmission of B. canis in D. reticulatus ticks was confirmed in the field. Additionally, we demonstrated that 'meal contamination' generates a confounding signal in molecular detection of pathogen DNA extracted from ticks collected from infected hosts and must be taken into account in evaluating the competence of tick species as vectors.


Assuntos
Vetores Artrópodes , Arvicolinae , Dermacentor , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/veterinária , Murinae , Doenças dos Roedores/transmissão , Fatores Etários , Animais , Vetores Artrópodes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Vetores Artrópodes/microbiologia , Vetores Artrópodes/fisiologia , Babesia/isolamento & purificação , Babesiose/transmissão , Bartonella/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Bartonella/transmissão , Infecções por Bartonella/veterinária , DNA Bacteriano/análise , Dermacentor/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Dermacentor/microbiologia , Dermacentor/fisiologia , Feminino , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/microbiologia , Larva/fisiologia , Masculino , Ninfa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ninfa/microbiologia , Ninfa/fisiologia , Polônia/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Rickettsia/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Rickettsia/transmissão , Infecções por Rickettsia/veterinária , Doenças dos Roedores/microbiologia , Doenças dos Roedores/parasitologia , Fatores Sexuais , Especificidade da Espécie , Infestações por Carrapato/parasitologia , Infestações por Carrapato/veterinária
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