Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 3.626
Filtrar
1.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 1162, 2023 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36670153

RESUMO

As essential pollinators of ecosystems and agriculture, honey bees (Apis mellifera) are host to a variety of pathogens that result in colony loss. Two highly prevalent larval diseases are European foulbrood (EFB) attributed to the bacterium Melissococcus plutonius, and Varroosis wherein larvae can be afflicted by one or more paralytic viruses. Here we used high-throughput sequencing and qPCR to detail microbial succession of larval development from six diseased, and one disease-free apiary. The disease-free larval microbiome revealed a variety of disease-associated bacteria in early larval instars, but later developmental stages were dominated by beneficial symbionts. Microbial succession associated with EFB pathology differed by apiary, characterized by associations with various gram-positive bacteria. At one apiary, diseased larvae were uniquely described as "melting and deflated", symptoms associated with Varroosis. We found that Acute Bee Paralysis Virus (ABPV) levels were significantly associated with these symptoms, and various gram-negative bacteria became opportunistic in the guts of ABPV afflicted larvae. Perhaps contributing to disease progression, the ABPV associated microbiome was significantly depleted of gram-positive bacteria, a likely result of recent antibiotic application. Our results contribute to the understanding of brood disease diagnosis and treatment, a growing problem for beekeeping and agriculture worldwide.


Assuntos
Bactérias , Ecossistema , Abelhas , Animais , Larva/microbiologia , Bactérias Gram-Positivas , Criação de Abelhas
2.
PLoS One ; 18(1): e0280675, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36689436

RESUMO

Soil-borne nematodes establish close associations with several bacterial species. Whether they confer benefits to their hosts has been investigated in only a few nematode-bacteria systems. Their ecological function, therefore, remains poorly understood. In this study, we isolated several bacterial species from rhabditid nematodes, molecularly identified them, evaluated their entomopathogenic potential on Galleria mellonella larvae, and measured immune responses of G. mellonella larvae to their infection. Bacteria were isolated from Acrobeloides sp., A. bodenheimeri, Heterorhabditis bacteriophora, Oscheius tipulae, and Pristionchus maupasi nematodes. They were identified as Acinetobacter sp., Alcaligenes sp., Bacillus cereus, Enterobacter sp., Kaistia sp., Lysinibacillus fusiformis, Morganella morganii subsp. morganii, Klebsiella quasipneumoniae subsp. quasipneumoniae, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. All bacterial strains were found to be highly entomopathogenic as they killed at least 53.33% G. mellonella larvae within 72h post-infection, at a dose of 106 CFU/larvae. Among them, Lysinibacillus fusiformis, Enterobacter sp., Acinetobacter sp., and K. quasipneumoniae subsp. quasipneumoniae were the most entomopathogenic bacteria. Insects strongly responded to bacterial infection. However, their responses were apparently little effective to counteract bacterial infection. Our study, therefore, shows that bacteria associated with soil-borne nematodes have entomopathogenic capacities. From an applied perspective, our study motivates more research to determine the potential of these bacterial strains as biocontrol agents in environmentally friendly and sustainable agriculture.


Assuntos
Infecções Bacterianas , Rabditídios , Rhizobiaceae , Animais , Solo , Insetos , Larva/microbiologia , Rabditídios/fisiologia , Fusobacterium nucleatum
3.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e263240, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36629539

RESUMO

Soils present high fungal diversity, including entomopathogenic species. These fungi are used in pest control, providing easy production, multiplication, application, and dispersion in the field. The objective of the present study was to evaluate entomopathogenic fungal diversity in soils from eucalyptus and soybean crops and natural forest areas. These fungi were isolated using the "Bait Method" with Tenebrio molitor (Linnaeus, 1758) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) larvae from 10 soil samples per area, collected at 10 cm deep in a zig-zag pattern. The isolated entomopathogenic fungi were cultivated in Petri dishes using PDA medium and their mycelia separated after seven days of incubation in a BOD-type chamber. Species of Aspergillus, Beauveria, Cordyceps, Fusarium, Metarhizium, Penicillium and Purpureocillium were identified. The "Bait Method" with T. molitor larvae is efficient to isolate entomopathogenic fungi with higher diversity from soils of the natural forest than the cultivated area.


Assuntos
Beauveria , Besouros , Eucalyptus , Hypocreales , Animais , Solo , Soja , Larva/microbiologia , Florestas , Controle Biológico de Vetores
4.
Parasit Vectors ; 16(1): 17, 2023 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36650591

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mosquito-borne diseases affect millions of people. Chemical insecticides are currently employed against mosquitoes. However, many cases of insecticide resistance have been reported. Entomopathogenic fungi (EPF) have demonstrated potential as a bioinsecticide. Here, we assessed the invasion of the EPF Beauveria bassiana into Aedes aegypti larvae and changes in the activity of phenoloxidase (PO) as a proxy for the general activation of the insect innate immune system. In addition, other cellular and humoral responses were evaluated. METHODS: Larvae were exposed to blastospores or conidia of B. bassiana CG 206. After 24 and 48 h, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was conducted on the larvae. The hemolymph was collected to determine changes in total hemocyte concentration (THC), the dynamics of hemocytes, and to observe hemocyte-fungus interactions. In addition, the larvae were macerated to assess the activity of PO using L-DOPA conversion, and the expression of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) was measured using quantitative Real-Time PCR. RESULTS: Propagules invaded mosquitoes through the midgut, and blastopores were detected inside the hemocoel. Both propagules decreased the THC regardless of the time. By 24 h after exposure to conidia the percentage of granulocytes and oenocytoids increased while the prohemocytes decreased. By 48 h, the oenocytoid percentage increased significantly (P < 0.05) in larvae exposed to blastospores; however, the other hemocyte types did not change significantly. Regardless of the time, SEM revealed hemocytes adhering to, and nodulating, blastospores. For the larvae exposed to conidia, these interactions were observed only at 48 h. Irrespective of the propagule, the PO activity increased only at 48 h. At 24 h, cathepsin B was upregulated by infection with conidia, whereas both propagules resulted in a downregulation of cecropin and defensin A. At 48 h, blastospores and conidia increased the expression of defensin A suggesting this may be an essential AMP against EPF. CONCLUSION: By 24 h, B. bassiana CG 206 occluded the midgut, reduced THC, did not stimulate PO activity, and downregulated AMP expression in larvae, all of which allowed the fungus to impair the larvae to facilitate infection. Our data reports a complex interplay between Ae. aegypti larvae and B. bassiana CG 206 demonstrating how this fungus can infect, affect, and kill Ae. aegypti larvae.


Assuntos
Aedes , Beauveria , Humanos , Animais , Controle Biológico de Vetores/métodos , Aedes/microbiologia , Hemócitos , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Esporos Fúngicos , Larva/microbiologia
5.
J Invertebr Pathol ; 196: 107870, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36493843

RESUMO

Larvae of the invasive pest Drosophila suzukii are susceptible to the Steinernema carpocapsae - Xenorhabdus nematophila complex and an assessment of the immune-regulatory system activation in this insect was performed to understand the response to the nematode infection. The expressions of 14 immune-related genes of different pathways (Imd, Toll, Jak-STAT, ProPO, JNK, TGF-ß) were analyzed using qRT-PCR to determine variations after nematode penetration (90 min and 4 h) and after bacterial release (14 h). Before the bacteria were present, the nematodes were not recognized by the immune system of the larvae and practically none of the analyzed pathways presented variations when compared with the non-infected larvae. However, after the X. nematophila were released, PGRP-LC was activated leading to the gene upregulation of antimicrobial peptides of both the Toll and Imd pathways. Interestingly, the cellular response was inactive during the infection course as Jak/STAT and pro-phenoloxidase genes remained unresponsive to the presence of both pathogens. These results illustrate how D. suzukii immune pathways responded differently to the nematode and bacteria along the infection course.


Assuntos
Rabditídios , Xenorhabdus , Animais , Drosophila , Larva/microbiologia , Xenorhabdus/genética , Simbiose , Rabditídios/genética
6.
J Invertebr Pathol ; 196: 107867, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36503887

RESUMO

European foulbrood (EFB) is a honey bee brood disease caused by the bacterium Melissococcus plutonius. Large-scale EFB outbreaks have been reported in several countries in recent decades, which entail costly sanitation measures of affected apiaries to restrict the spread of this contagious pathogen. To mitigate its impact, a better understanding of the population dynamics of the etiological agent is required. We here used multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) to infer the genetic diversity and geographical distribution of 160 M. plutonius isolates collected from EFB symptomatic honey bee colonies seven years apart. Isolates belonged to three clonal complexes (CCs) known worldwide and to 12 sequence types (STs), of which five were novel. Phylogenetic and clustering analyses showed that some of these novel sequence types have likely evolved locally during a period of outbreak, but most disappeared again. We further screened the isolates for melissotoxin A (mtxA), a putative virulence gene. The prevalence of STs in which mtxA was frequent increased over time, suggesting that this gene promotes spread. Despite the increased frequency of this gene in the population, the total number of cases decreased, which could be due to stricter control measures implemented before the second sampling period. Our results provide a better understanding of M. plutonius population dynamics and help identify knowledge gaps that limit efficient control of this emerging disease.


Assuntos
Genética Populacional , Abelhas , Animais , Larva/microbiologia , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus , Prevalência , Filogenia
7.
Microb Pathog ; 174: 105930, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36496059

RESUMO

Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease caused by Gram-negative bacteria of the genus Brucella. These pathogens cause long-lasting infections, a process in which Brucella modifications in the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and envelope lipids reduce pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP) recognition, thus hampering innate immunity activation. In vivo models are essential to investigate bacterial virulence, mice being the most used model. However, ethical and practical considerations impede their use in high-throughput screening studies. Although lacking the complexity of the mammalian immune system, insects share key-aspects of innate immunity with mammals, and Galleria mellonella has been used increasingly as a model. G. mellonella larvae have been shown useful in virulence analyses, including Gram-negative pathogens like Klebsiella pneumoniae and Legionella pneumophila. To assess its potential to study Brucella virulence, we first evaluated larva survival upon infection with representative Brucella species (i.e.B. abortus 2308W, B. microti CCM4915 and B. suis biovar 2) and mutants in the VirB type-IV secretion system (T4SS) or in the LPS-O-polysaccharide (O-PS). As compared to K.pneumoniae, the Brucella spp. tested induced a delayed and less severe mortality profile consistent with an escape of innate immunity detection. Brucella replication within larvae was affected by the lack of O-PS, which is reminiscent of their attenuation in natural hosts. On the contrary, replication was not affected by T4SS dysfunction and the mutant induced only slightly less mortality (not statistically significant) than its parental strain. We also evaluated G. mellonella to efficiently recognise Brucella and their LPS by quantification of the pro-phenoloxidase system and melanisation activation, using Pseudomonas LPS as a positive control. Among the brucellae, only B. microti LPS triggered an early-melanisation response consistent with the slightly increased endotoxicity of this species in mice. Therefore, G. mellonella represents a tool to screen for potential Brucella factors modulating innate immunity, but its usefulness to investigate other mechanisms relevant in Brucella intracellular life is limited.


Assuntos
Brucella , Mariposas , Animais , Camundongos , Mariposas/microbiologia , Lipopolissacarídeos , Larva/microbiologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Mamíferos
8.
PeerJ ; 10: e14491, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36570000

RESUMO

Background: Beauveria are entomopathogenic fungi of a broad range of arthropod pests. Many strains of Beauveria have been developed and marketed as biopesticides. Beauveria species are well-suited as the active ingredient within biopesticides because of their ease of mass production, ability to kill a wide range of pest species, consistency in different conditions, and safety with respect to human health. However, the efficacy of these biopesticides can be variable under field conditions. Two under-researched areas, which may limit the deployment of Beauveria-based biopesticides, are the type and amount of insecticidal compounds produced by these fungi and the influence of diet on the susceptibility of specific insect pests to these entomopathogens. Methods: To understand and remedy this weakness, we investigated the effect of insect diet and Beauveria-derived toxins on the susceptibility of diamondback moth larvae to Beauveria infection. Two New Zealand-derived fungal isolates, B. pseudobassiana I12 Damo and B. bassiana CTL20, previously identified with high virulence towards diamondback moth larvae, were selected for this study. Larvae of diamondback moth were fed on four different plant diets, based on different types of Brassicaceae, namely broccoli, cabbage, cauliflower, and radish, before their susceptibility to the two isolates of Beauveria was assessed. A second experiment assessed secondary metabolites produced from three genetically diverse isolates of Beauveria for their virulence towards diamondback moth larvae. Results: Diamondback moth larvae fed on broccoli were more susceptible to infection by B. pseudobassiana while larvae fed on radish were more susceptible to infection by B. bassiana. Furthermore, the supernatant from an isolate of B. pseudobassiana resulted in 55% and 65% mortality for half and full-strength culture filtrates, respectively, while the filtrates from two other Beauveria isolates, including a B. bassiana isolate, killed less than 50% of larvae. This study demonstrated different levels of susceptibility of the insects raised on different plant diets and the potential use of metabolites produced by Beauveria isolates in addition to their conidia.


Assuntos
Beauveria , Mariposas , Animais , Humanos , Mariposas/microbiologia , Agentes de Controle Biológico/farmacologia , Controle Biológico de Vetores/métodos , Insetos/microbiologia , Larva/microbiologia
9.
BMC Genomics ; 23(1): 837, 2022 Dec 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36536278

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: European foulbrood is a significant bacterial brood disease of Apis sp. and can cause severe and devastating damages in beekeeping operations. Nevertheless, the epidemiology of its causative agent Melissococcus plutonius has been begun to uncover but the underlying mechanisms of infection and cause of disease still is not well understood. Here, we sought to provide insight into the infection mechanism of EFB employing RNAseq in in vitro reared Apis mellifera larvae of two developmental stages to trace transcriptional changes in the course of the disease, including Paenibacillus alvei secondary infected individuals. RESULTS: In consideration of the progressing development of the larva, we show that infected individuals incur a shift in metabolic and structural protein-encoding genes, which are involved in metabolism of crucial compounds including all branches of macronutrient metabolism, transport protein genes and most strikingly chitin and cuticle associated genes. These changes underpin the frequently observed developmental retardation in EFB disease. Further, sets of expressed genes markedly differ in different stages of infection with almost no overlap. In an earlier stage of infection, a group of regulators of the melanization response cascade and complement component-like genes, predominantly C-type lectin genes, are up-regulated while a differential expression of immune effector genes is completely missing. In contrast, late-stage infected larvae up-regulated the expression of antimicrobial peptides, lysozymes and prominent bacteria-binding haemocyte receptor genes compared to controls. While we clearly show a significant effect of infection on expressed genes, these changes may partly result from a shift in expression timing due to developmental alterations of infection. A secondary infection with P. alvei elicits a specific response with most of the M. plutonius associated differential immune effector gene expression missing and several immune pathway genes even down-regulated. CONCLUSION: We conclude that with progressing infection diseased individuals undergo a systemic response with a change of metabolism and their activated immune defence repertoire. Moreover, larvae are capable of adjusting their response to a secondary invasion in late stage infections.


Assuntos
Bacillus , Infecções Bacterianas , Animais , Abelhas , Larva/microbiologia , Transcriptoma
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(23)2022 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36498843

RESUMO

Staphylococcus aureus implant-associated infections are difficult to treat because of the ability of bacteria to form biofilm on medical devices. Here, the efficacy of Sb-1 to control or prevent S. aureus colonization on medical foreign bodies was investigated in a Galleria mellonella larval infection model. For colonization control assays, sterile K-wires were implanted into larva prolegs. After 2 days, larvae were infected with methicillin-resistant S. aureus ATCC 43300 and incubated at 37 °C for a further 2 days, when treatments with either daptomycin (4 mg/kg), Sb-1 (107 PFUs) or a combination of them (3 x/day) were started. For biofilm prevention assays, larvae were pre-treated with either vancomycin (10 mg/kg) or Sb-1 (107 PFUs) before the S. aureus infection. In both experimental settings, K-wires were explanted for colony counting two days after treatment. In comparison to the untreated control, more than a 4 log10 CFU and 1 log10 CFU reduction was observed on K-wires recovered from larvae treated with the Sb-1/daptomycin combination and with their singular administration, respectively. Moreover, pre-infection treatment with Sb-1 was found to prevent K-wire colonization, similarly to vancomycin. Taken together, the obtained results demonstrated the strong potential of the Sb-1 antibiotic combinatory administration or the Sb-1 pretreatment to control or prevent S. aureus-associated implant infections.


Assuntos
Bacteriófagos , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina , Mariposas , Infecções Estafilocócicas , Animais , Staphylococcus aureus , Infecções Estafilocócicas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Vancomicina/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Biofilmes , Mariposas/microbiologia , Larva/microbiologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana
11.
J Parasitol ; 108(6): 539-544, 2022 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36374284

RESUMO

This is the first study to empirically evaluate the mortality of Amblyomma mixtum larvae caused by native entomopathogenic fungi (EPF) from cattle farm soils and the impact of the physicochemical conditions of those soils on the ability of EPF to kill ticks. The efficacy of 25 EPF strains isolated from cattle farms soils in Veracruz, Mexico, against A. mixtum ticks was evaluated using a larval immersion test. Physicochemical analyses of the soils where the EPF were isolated were carried out, and the results were correlated with the obtained mortality. The MaV25 strain showed a mortality of 36.55% (P < 0.05), followed by MaV57 with 27.30%, MaV08 with 26.21%, and MaV31 with 24.32% (P < 0.05). Nitrogen and potassium are nutritional components of soils that seem to be associated with mortality caused by the evaluated fungal strains. This is the first study in Mexico where the effect of EPF against A. mixtum is evaluated and also is the first study in the world that uses native strains from livestock soils against larvae of this tick. It is necessary to determine the virulence characteristics of EPF on A. mixtum to improve knowledge of fungus-tick interactions (Metarhizium anisopliae-A. mixtum).


Assuntos
Beauveria , Carrapatos , Bovinos , Animais , Fazendas , Amblyomma , Controle Biológico de Vetores/métodos , México , Larva/microbiologia , Solo
12.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 19812, 2022 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36396669

RESUMO

The microbial rearing quality influences the survival of marine larvae. Microbially matured water treatment systems (MMS) provide a more favourable rearing water microbiome than flow-through systems (FTS). It has previously been hypothesised, but not investigated, that initial rearing in MMS leaves a protective legacy effect in Atlantic cod larvae (Gadus morhua). We tested this hypothesis through a crossover 2 × 2 factorial experiment varying the rearing water treatment system (MMS vs FTS) and the microbial carrying capacity (+ /- added organic matter). At 9 days post-hatching, we switched the rearing water treatment system. By comparing switched and unswitched rearing tanks, we evaluated if legacy effects had been established in the larvae or their surrounding rearing water bacterial community. We analysed the bacterial communities with flow cytometry and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. We found no evidence that the initial rearing condition left a legacy effect in the communities by evaluating the bacterial community diversity and structure. Instead, the present rearing condition was the most important driver for differences in the rearing water microbiota. Furthermore, we found that MMS with high microbial carrying capacity appeared to seed a stable bacterial community to the rearing tanks. This finding highlights the importance of keeping a similar carrying capacity between the inlet and rearing water. Moreover, we reject the hypothesis that the initial rearing condition leaves a protective legacy effect in larvae, as the larval survival and robustness were linked to the present rearing condition. In conclusion, our results highlight the importance of maintaining a beneficial microbial rearing environment from hatching and throughout the larval rearing period.


Assuntos
Gadus morhua , Animais , Gadus morhua/genética , Larva/microbiologia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Aquicultura/métodos , Bactérias/genética
13.
Microbiol Spectr ; 10(5): e0232122, 2022 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36197291

RESUMO

Larvae of black soldier flies, Hermetia illucens, are increasingly used for biological conversion of animal and plant wastes into ingredients of animal feeds on an industrial scale. The presence of pathogenic microorganisms in harvested larvae may be a serious problem for wide-scale adoption of this technology. Fortunately, black soldier fly larvae may have some antimicrobial properties. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a bacterium associated with various environments that can be pathogenic to humans and farmed animals. We tested whether black soldier fly larvae suppress MRSA on potato substrate. Autoclaved potatoes containing black soldier fly larvae (P+BSFL), potatoes inoculated with MRSA and containing black soldier fly larvae (P+MRSA+BSFL), and potatoes inoculated with MRSA (P+MRSA) were incubated in glass jars. Substrate samples were taken after 3 and 7 days of incubation and plated on Trypticase soy agar (TSA) and Staphylococcus medium 110 agar (SA) to quantify total bacteria and MRSA, respectively. DNA was extracted from potato substrates on both days and sequenced to assess bacterial and fungal diversity using 515F/806R and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) 1/2 primers, respectively, and QIIME 2.0 software. Both total bacterial and MRSA-specific CFU were reduced in the presence of black soldier fly larvae, with a larger reduction for the latter. Twenty-five bacterial genera and 3 fungal genera were detected. Twenty bacterial genera were shared among the treatments and the days, but their relative abundances often varied. Among the most abundant genera, only Enterococcus and Lactococcus were universally present. Our findings confirm antimicrobial properties of black soldier fly larvae. IMPORTANCE Larvae of black soldier flies, Hermetia illucens, may be used to provide an environmentally sustainable and economically viable method for biological conversion of animal and plant wastes into ingredients of animal feeds on an industrial scale. However, contamination of harvested larvae by pathogenic microorganisms inhabiting decaying substrates may be a serious problem for wide-scale adoption of this technology. Fortunately, black soldier fly larvae may have some antimicrobial properties, including suppression of several common pathogens. Our study showed that such a suppression applies to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, which is a ubiquitous bacterium pathogenic to animals (including humans).


Assuntos
Dípteros , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina , Solanum tuberosum , Animais , Humanos , Larva/microbiologia , Ágar , Dípteros/microbiologia , Bactérias
14.
Molecules ; 27(20)2022 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36296626

RESUMO

Herein, we report the synthesis of spinel cobalt oxide nanorods (Co3O4 NRs) by a modified co-precipitation approach and examine their larvicidal activity against Culex pipiens. The structure and morphology of the as-prepared Co3O4 NRs were emphasized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDAX), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). It was found that Co3O4 nanostructures have a face-centered spinel cubic crystal structure with a mean crystallite size of 38 nm. These nanostructures have a rod like shape with a mean diameter of 30 nm and an average length of 60 nm. The TGA measurements revealed the high stability of the formed spinel cubic structure at 400 °C. The optical behavior indicates the direct transition of electrons through an optical band gap in the range of 2.92-3.08 eV. These unique chemical and physical properties of Co3O4 NRs enabled them to be employed as a strong agent for killing the C. pipiens. A comparison study was employed between the as-prepared Co3O4 and the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium brunneum as a control agent of C. pipiens larvae. The results revealed that the as-prepared nanorods have higher mortality against C. pipiens larvae compared with the well-known M. brunneum.


Assuntos
Culex , Metarhizium , Nanotubos , Animais , Larva/microbiologia , Nanotubos/química , Esporos Fúngicos
15.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 5360, 2022 09 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36097154

RESUMO

Evidence for microbial degradation of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) has previously been reported, but little is known about the degrading strains and enzymes. Here, we isolate a PVC-degrading bacterium from the gut of insect larvae and shed light on the PVC degradation pathway using a multi-omic approach. We show that the larvae of an insect pest, Spodoptera frugiperda, can survive by feeding on PVC film, and this is associated with enrichment of Enterococcus, Klebsiella and other bacteria in the larva's gut microbiota. A bacterial strain isolated from the larval intestine (Klebsiella sp. EMBL-1) is able to depolymerize and utilize PVC as sole energy source. We use genomic, transcriptomic, proteomic, and metabolomic analyses to identify genes and proteins potentially involved in PVC degradation (e.g., catalase-peroxidase, dehalogenases, enolase, aldehyde dehydrogenase and oxygenase), and propose a PVC biodegradation pathway. Furthermore, enzymatic assays using the purified catalase-peroxidase support a role in PVC depolymerization.


Assuntos
Cloreto de Polivinila , Proteômica , Animais , Bactérias , Catalase , Larva/microbiologia , Peroxidases , Spodoptera
16.
Virulence ; 13(1): 1614-1630, 2022 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36121102

RESUMO

To investigate the role of adrenergic signalling (AS) in the host immune response and Porphyromonas gingivalis virulence, we compared norepinephrine (NE) and isoproterenol (ISO) responses in Galleria mellonella. P. gingivalis infection was evaluated by survival; humoral immune responses (i.e. melanization and cecropin and gloverin mRNA expression); cellular immune responses (i.e. haemocyte count, nodulation by histology); and P. gingivalis recovery (CFU/mL). P. gingivalis was cultivated in the presence of ISO (PgISO) or NE and injected into the larvae for survival evaluation. Finally, we co-injected ISO and PgISO to evaluate the concomitant effects on the immune response and bacterial virulence. None of the ligands were toxic to the larvae; ISO increased haemocyte number, even after P. gingivalis infection, by mobilizing sessile haemocytes in a ß-adrenergic-specific manner, while NE showed the opposite effect. ISO treatment reduced larval mortality and the number of recovered bacteria, while NE increased mortality and showed no effect on bacterial recovery. ISO and NE had similar effects on melanization and decreased the expression of cecropin. Although co-cultivation with NE and ISO increased the gene expression of bacterial virulence factors in vitro, only the injection of PgISO increased larval death, which was partially reversed by circulating ISO. Therefore, α- and ß-adrenergic signalling had opposite effects after P. gingivalis infection. Ultimately, the catecholamine influence on the immune response overcame the effect of more virulent strains. The effect of AS directly on the pathogen found in vitro did not translate to the in vivo setting.


Assuntos
Cecropinas , Mariposas , Adrenérgicos , Animais , Imunidade Inata , Isoproterenol/farmacologia , Larva/microbiologia , Norepinefrina/farmacologia , Porphyromonas gingivalis , RNA Mensageiro , Virulência , Fatores de Virulência
17.
Can Vet J ; 63(9): 935-942, 2022 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36060490

RESUMO

European foulbrood (EFB) disease is an economically important bacterial disease of honey bee larvae caused by enteric infection with Melissococcus plutonius. In this study, we investigated 3 clinical outbreaks of EFB disease in commercial beekeeping operations in western Canada in the summer of 2020 and characterized the Melissococcus plutonius isolates cultured from these outbreaks according to genetic multi-locus sequence type and i n vitro larval pathogenicity. We isolated M. plutonius sequence type 19 from EFB outbreaks in British Columbia and Alberta, and a novel M. plutonius sequence type 36 from an EFB outbreak in Saskatchewan. In vitro larval infection with each M. plutonius isolate was associated with decreased larval survival in vitro by 58.3 to 70.8% (P < 0.001) compared to non-infected controls. Further elucidation of mechanisms of virulence of M. plutonius, paired with epidemiologic investigation, is imperative to improve EFB management strategies and mitigate risks of EFB outbreaks in western Canada.


Enquête sur des isolats de Melissococcus plutonius provenant de trois éclosions de loque e uropéenne dans des exploitations apicoles commerciales de l'Ouest canadien. La loque européenne (EFB) est une maladie bactérienne économiquement importante des larves d'abeilles mellifères causée par une infection entérique par Melissococcus plutonius. Dans cette étude, nous avons enquêté sur trois éclosions cliniques de la maladie EFB dans des exploitations apicoles commerciales dans l'ouest du Canada à l'été 2020 et caractérisé les isolats de Melissococcus plutonius cultivés à partir de ces éclosions selon le typage génomique multilocus et la pathogénicité larvaire in vitro. Nous avons isolé le type de séquence 19 de M. plutonius des éclosions d'EFB en Colombie-Britannique et en Alberta, et une nouvelle séquence de type 36 de M. plutonius d'une éclosion d'EFB en Saskatchewan. L'infection larvaire in vitro avec chaque isolat de M. plutonius était associée à une diminution de la survie larvaire in vitro de 58,3 à 70,8 % (P < 0,001) par rapport aux témoins non infectés. Une élucidation plus poussée des mécanismes de virulence de M. plutonius, associée à une enquête épidémiologique, est impérative pour améliorer les stratégies de gestion de l'EFB et atténuer les risques d'épidémies d'EFB dans l'Ouest canadien.(Traduit par Dr Serge Messier).


Assuntos
Criação de Abelhas , Enterococcaceae , Alberta , Animais , Abelhas , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Enterococcaceae/genética , Larva/microbiologia
18.
Am Nat ; 200(4): 584-597, 2022 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36150195

RESUMO

AbstractThe level of detail on host communities needed to understand multihost parasite invasions is an unresolved issue in disease ecology. Coarse community metrics that ignore functional differences between hosts, such as host species richness, can be good predictors of invasion outcomes. Yet if host species vary in the extent to which they maintain and transmit infections, then explicitly accounting for those differences may be important. Through controlled mesocosm experiments and modeling, we show that interspecific differences between host species are important for community-wide infection dynamics of the multihost fungal parasite of amphibians (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis [Bd]), but only up to a point. The most abundant host species in our system, fire salamander larvae (Salamandra salamandra), did not maintain or transmit infections. Rather, two less abundant "auxiliary" host species, Iberian tree frog (Hyla molleri) and spiny toad (Bufo spinosus) larvae, maintained and transmitted Bd. Frogs had the highest mean rates of Bd shedding, giving them the highest contributions to the basic reproduction number, R0. Toad contributions to R0 were substantial, however, and when examining community-level patterns of infection and transmission, the effects of frogs and toads were similar. Specifying more than just host species richness to distinguish salamanders from auxiliary host species was critical for predicting community-level Bd prevalence and transmission. Distinguishing frogs from toads, however, did not improve predictions. These findings demonstrate limitations to the importance of host species identities in multihost infection dynamics. Host species that exhibit different functional traits, such as susceptibility and infectiousness, may play similar epidemiological roles in the broader community.


Assuntos
Quitridiomicetos , Animais , Anuros , Batrachochytrium , Bufonidae/microbiologia , Larva/microbiologia , Urodelos
19.
J Environ Manage ; 323: 116295, 2022 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36150354

RESUMO

The environmental pollution caused by silkworm (Bombyx mori) excrement is prominent, and rich in refractory cellulose is the bottleneck restricting the efficient recycling of silkworm excrement. This study was performed to investigate the effects of housefly larvae vermicomposting on the biodegradation of cellulose in silkworm excrement. After six days, a 58.90% reduction of cellulose content in treatment groups was observed, which was significantly higher than 11.5% of the control groups without housefly larvae. Three cellulose-degrading bacterial strains were isolated from silkworm excrement, which were identified as Bacillus licheniformis, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, and Bacillus subtilis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. These three bacterial stains had a high cellulose degradation index (HC value ranged to between 1.86 and 5.97 and FPase ranged from 5.07 U/mL to 7.31 U/mL). It was found that housefly larvae increased the abundance of cellulose-degrading bacterial genus (Bacillus and Pseudomonas) by regulating the external environmental conditions (temperature and pH). Carbohydrate metabolism was the bacterial communities' primary function during vermicomposting based on the PICRUSt. The results of Tax4Fun indicated that the abundance of endo-ß-1,4-glucanase and exo-ß-1,4-glucanase increased rapidly and maintained at a higher level in silkworm excrement due to the addition of housefly larvae, which contributed to the accelerated degradation of cellulose in silkworm excrement. The finding of this investigation showed that housefly larvae can significantly accelerate the degradation of cellulose in silkworm excrement by increasing the abundance of cellulose-degrading bacterial genera and cellulase.


Assuntos
Bombyx , Moscas Domésticas , Animais , Bacillus subtilis/metabolismo , Bombyx/genética , Bombyx/metabolismo , Bombyx/microbiologia , Celulose/metabolismo , Glucana 1,4-beta-Glucosidase/metabolismo , Moscas Domésticas/genética , Moscas Domésticas/metabolismo , Larva/metabolismo , Larva/microbiologia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
20.
J Invertebr Pathol ; 194: 107827, 2022 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36108793

RESUMO

Aedes aegypti transmits arbovirus, which is a public health concern. Certain filamentous fungi have the potential to control the disease. Here, the effects of Metarhizium anisopliae s.l. CG 153, Beauveria bassiana s.l. CG 206 and Schinus molle L. were investigated against Aedes aegypti larvae. In addition, the effect of essential oil on fungal development was analyzed. Fungal germination was assessed after combination with essential oil at 0.0025 %, 0.0075 %, 0.005 %, or 0.01 %; all of the oil concentrations affected germination except 0.0025 % (v/v). Larvae were exposed to 0.0025 %, 0.0075 %, 0.005 %, or 0.01 % of the essential oil or Tween 80 at 0.01 %; however, only the essential oil at 0.0025 % achieved similar results as the control. Larvae were exposed to fungi at 107 conidia mL-1 alone or in combination with the essential oil at 0.0025 %. Regardless of the combination, M. anisopliae reduced the median survival time of mosquitoes more than B. bassiana. The cumulative survival of mosquitoes exposed to M. anisopliae alone or in combination with essential oil was 7.5 % and 2 %, respectively, and for B. bassiana, it was 75 % and 71 %, respectively. M. anisopliae + essential oil had a synergistic effect against larvae, whereas B. bassiana + essential oil was antagonistic. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy, and histopathology confirmed that the interaction of M. anisopliae was through the gut and hemocoel. In contrast, the mosquito's gut was the main route for invasion by B. bassiana. Results from gas chromatography studies demonstrated sabinene and bicyclogermacrene as the main compounds of S. molle, and the in-silico investigation found evidence that both compounds affect a wide range of biological activity. For the first time, we demonstrated the potential of S. molle and its interaction with both fungal strains against A. aegypti larvae. Moreover, for the first time, we reported that S. molle might be responsible for significant changes in larval physiology. This study provides new insights into host-pathogen interplay and contributes to a better understanding of pathogenesis in mosquitoes, which have significant consequences for biological control strategies.


Assuntos
Aedes , Anacardiaceae , Beauveria , Metarhizium , Óleos Voláteis , Aedes/microbiologia , Animais , Beauveria/fisiologia , Larva/microbiologia , Metarhizium/fisiologia , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Controle Biológico de Vetores/métodos , Polissorbatos/farmacologia
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...