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1.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 372, 2019 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31358036

RESUMO

Myiasis is an infestation caused by larvae of Diptera in humans and other vertebrates. In domestic cats, Felis silvestris catus L. (Carnivora: Felidae), four dipteran families have been reported as agents of obligatory and facultative myiasis: Oestridae, Calliphoridae, Sarcophagidae and Muscidae. Among agents of obligatory myiasis, the most frequent genus is Cuterebra Clark (Oestridae) and the most frequent species is Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel) (Calliphoridae). Among the agents of facultative myiasis, the most frequent species is Lucilia sericata (Meigen) (Calliphoridae). A survey of myiasis in cats reported in literature shows that the cases are distributed worldwide and linked to the geographical range of the dipteran species. Factors favouring the occurrence of myiasis in cats are prowling in infested areas, poor hygiene conditions due to diseases and/or neglect, and wounds inflicted during territorial or reproductive competition. The aim of the review is to provide an extended survey of literature on myiasis in cats, as general information and possible development of guidelines for veterinarians, entomologists and other researchers interested in the field.


Assuntos
Animais Domésticos/parasitologia , Doenças do Gato/epidemiologia , Gatos/parasitologia , Miíase/veterinária , Animais , Doenças do Gato/parasitologia , Geografia , Guias como Assunto , Humanos , Larva/patogenicidade , Miíase/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Médicos Veterinários
2.
Mol Biotechnol ; 61(9): 663-673, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31228008

RESUMO

The prevalence of insect resistance against Bt toxins has led to the idea of enhancing demethylation from cell wall pectin by pectin methylesterase enzyme for overproduction of methanol which is toxic to insects pests. The AtPME and AnPME fragments ligated into pCAMBIA1301 vector were confirmed through restriction digestion with EcoR1 and BamH1. Excision of 3363 bp fragment from 11,850 bp vector confirmed the ligation of both fragments into pCAMBIA1301 vector. Transformation of pectin methylesterase-producing genes, i.e., AtPME and AnPME from Arabidopsis thaliana and Aspergillus niger cloned in plant expression vector pCAMBIA1301 under 35S promoter into cotton variety CEMB-33 harboring two Bt genes Cry1Ac and Cry2A, respectively, was done by using shoot apex-cut Agrobacterium-mediated transformation method. The plantlets were screened on MS medium supplemented with hygromycin on initial basis. Amplification of 412 and 543 bp, respectively, through gene-specific primer has been obtained which confirmed the successful introduction of pCAMBIA AtPME and AnPME genes into cotton variety CEMB 33. Relative expression of AtPME and AnPME genes through real-time PCR determined the expression level of both gene ranges between 3- and 3.5-fold in different transgenic cotton lines along with quantity of methanol ranging from 0.8 to 0.9% of maximum while 0.5% to 0.6% of minimum but no expression was obtained in negative non-transgenic control cotton plant with least quantity of methanol, i.e., 0.1%. Almost 100% mortality was observed in insect bioassay for Helicoverpa armigera on detached leaves bioassay and 63% for Pink Bollworm (Pectinophora gossypiella) on growing transgenic cotton bolls as compared to positive control transgenic cotton with double Bt genes where mortality was found to be 82% for H. armigera and 50% for P. gossypiella while 0% in negative control non-transgenic plants.


Assuntos
Hidrolases de Éster Carboxílico/genética , Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Gossypium/genética , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Metanol/toxicidade , Mariposas/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Agrobacterium/genética , Agrobacterium/metabolismo , Animais , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Aspergillus niger/genética , Aspergillus niger/metabolismo , Hidrolases de Éster Carboxílico/metabolismo , Parede Celular/química , Parede Celular/metabolismo , Parede Celular/parasitologia , Clonagem Molecular , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Expressão Gênica , Vetores Genéticos/química , Vetores Genéticos/metabolismo , Gossypium/parasitologia , Herbivoria/efeitos dos fármacos , Herbivoria/fisiologia , Inseticidas/química , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Larva/patogenicidade , Metanol/metabolismo , Mariposas/patogenicidade , Células Vegetais/metabolismo , Células Vegetais/parasitologia , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/parasitologia , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo , Transgenes
4.
PLoS One ; 14(4): e0209813, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31022202

RESUMO

Neuroangiostrongyliasis, caused by Angiostrongylus cantonensis, has been reported in Hawai'i since the 1950's. An increase in cases is being reported primarily from East Hawai'i Island, correlated with the introduction of the semi-slug Parmarion martensi. Households in areas lacking infrastructure for water must use rainwater catchment as their primary domestic water supply, for which there is no federal, state, or county regulation. Despite evidence that slugs and snails can contaminate water and cause infection, regulatory bodies have not addressed this potential transmission route. This study evaluates: 1) the emergence of live, infective-stage A. cantonensis larvae from drowned, non-native, pestiforous gastropods; 2) larvae location in an undisturbed water column; 3) longevity of free-living larvae in water; and 4) effectiveness of rainwater catchment filters in blocking infective-stage larvae. Larvae were shed from minced and whole gastropods drowned in either municipal water or rainwater with ~94% of larvae recovered from the bottom of the water column 72-96 hours post drowning. Infective-stage larvae were active for 21 days in municipal water. Histological sectioning of P. martensi showed proximity of nematode larvae to the body wall of the gastropod, consistent with the potential for shedding of larvae in slime. Gastropod tissue squashes showed effectivity as a quick screening method. Live, infective-stage larvae were able to traverse rainwater catchment polypropylene sediment filters of 20 µm, 10 µm, 5 µm, and 1 µm filtration ratings, but not a 5 µm carbon block filter. These results demonstrate that live, infective-stage A. cantonensis larvae emerge from drowned snails and slugs, survive for extended periods of time in water, and may be able to enter a catchment user's household water supply. This study illustrates the need to better investigate and understand the potential role of contaminated water as a transmission route for neuroangiostrongyliasis.


Assuntos
Angiostrongylus cantonensis/fisiologia , Filtração/instrumentação , Gastrópodes/parasitologia , Infecções por Strongylida/transmissão , Água/parasitologia , Angiostrongylus cantonensis/patogenicidade , Animais , Vetores de Doenças , Hawaii , Humanos , Espécies Introduzidas , Larva/patogenicidade , Larva/fisiologia , Filtros Microporos , Projetos Piloto , Chuva , Infecções por Strongylida/parasitologia , Infecções por Strongylida/prevenção & controle , Fatores de Tempo
5.
Biomed Res Int ; 2019: 7805467, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30881997

RESUMO

The present study aimed to investigate the acaricidal properties of six essential oils. They were extracted from some plant species (Lamiaceae and Myrtaceae) using the technique of hydrodistillation with the Clevenger apparatus. The chemical compositions of the essential oils under study were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS). An Adult Immersion Test (AIT) and a Larval Immersion Test (LIT) were used to evaluate the acaricidal activity of these essential oils against the adults and larvae of Hyalomma scupense. GC-MS analysis showed the major constituents of each essential oil: 25.49% of α-thujone (lavender); 46.82% of carvacrol (oregano); 78.78% of carvacrol (thyme); 40.27% of 1,8-cineole (blue gum); 17.45% of p-cymene (river red gum); and 26.96% of 1,8-cineole (rosemary). The biotests on the essential oils revealed that they inhibit the reproduction of H. scupense engorged females at a rate of 100 % with doses of 0.781 µl/ml of rosemary, 1.562 µl/ml of thyme, 3.125 µl/ml of lavender and oregano, and 6.250 µl/ml of blue gum and river red gum. After a treatment that lasted for 24 hours, essential oils showed a larvicidal activity with respective values of lethal concentrations (LC): LC50, LC90, and LC95 (0.058, 0.358, and 0.600 µl/ml for thyme; 0.108, 0.495, and 0.761 µl/ml for rosemary; 0.131, 0.982, and 1.740 µl/ml for oregano; 0.155, 2.387, and 5.183 µl/ml for blue gum; 0.207, 1.653, and 2.978 µl/ml for river red gum; and 0.253, 2.212, and 4.092 µl/ml for lavender). This is the first report on the acaricidal activity of these essential oils against H. scupense. The results obtained showed that the essential oils with chemotype carvacrol, 1,8-cineole, α-thujone, and p-cymene are highly acaricidal, and they can be used for ticks control. However, further studies on their toxicity in nontarget organisms are required.


Assuntos
Ixodidae/efeitos dos fármacos , Óleos Voláteis/administração & dosagem , Theileriose/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Bovinos , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Ixodidae/patogenicidade , Lamiaceae/química , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Larva/patogenicidade , Lavandula/química , Myrtaceae/química , Óleos Voláteis/química , Origanum/química , Theileriose/parasitologia , Thymus (Planta)/química
6.
Mol Ecol ; 28(1): 33-34, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30672643

RESUMO

Ticks are simultaneously fascinating and disgusting. Anyone who has removed a bloated blood-filled tick from themselves or a pet understands the "yuck" factor they arouse. But ticks are also fascinating from a physiological perspective. Ticks are the ultimate sit-and-wait predators. Female ixodid ticks (hard ticks) consume a single meal during each life stage (larva, nymph and adult), which means only three lifetime meals over a 1- to 3-year lifespan. Most males do not feed as adults, so they only feed twice. Thus, prolonged starvation is a quintessential aspect of tick life history. Although ticks have been widely studied for their importance as disease vectors, the vast majority of research has focused on tick-host interactions. Ixodid ticks spend the overwhelming majority of their lives off their hosts, but little is known about these periods. A new study begins to fill in some of these knowledge gaps. In this issue of Molecular Ecology, Rosendale, Dunlevy, Marshall, and Benoit examine physiological, behavioural and transcriptomic changes occurring during long-term starvation of the American dog tick, Dermacentor variabilis. Their work provides insights into how ticks are able to go so long between meals and how they prepare for their next meal.


Assuntos
Dermacentor/genética , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Ixodes/genética , Larva/genética , Animais , Dermacentor/patogenicidade , Dermacentor/fisiologia , Doenças do Cão/genética , Cães , Ixodes/patogenicidade , Ixodes/fisiologia , Larva/patogenicidade , Larva/fisiologia , Ninfa/genética , Ninfa/patogenicidade , Ninfa/fisiologia
7.
J Helminthol ; 93(4): 447-452, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29669605

RESUMO

Many important studies on resistance reversion, anthelmintic efficacy and, especially, new molecules with antiparasitic effects are performed in laboratories using gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus) as the experimental model. This study aimed to evaluate the use of corticosteroids (dexamethasone and methylprednisolone acetate) in gerbils experimentally infected with different doses of infective larvae (sheathed or exsheathed) of Haemonchus contortus. In the first experiment, 28 gerbils were divided into seven groups infected by 2-6 × 103 larvae, with or without immunosuppression using corticosteroids. In the second experiment, eight gerbils were divided into two groups infected by 2 × 103 sheathed or exsheathed larvae. For the third assay, seven immunosuppressed gerbils were infected with 2 × 103 sheathed larvae and were killed 15 days post infection (PI). The highest number of parasites was recovered from methylprednisolone-immunosuppressed animals. We observed red and white blood cell alterations and biochemical parameters in infected animals that had undergone immunosuppression with methylprednisolone. We highlight that in the first and second experiments a satisfactory number of worms was recovered using sheathed larvae and immunocompetent animals. When exsheathed larvae were used, the number of worms recovered was unsatisfactory. A considerable larval burden was recovered from immunosuppressed gerbils 15 days PI, and body weight did not influence establishment of larvae.


Assuntos
Gerbillinae/parasitologia , Hemoncose/parasitologia , Haemonchus/patogenicidade , Imunossupressores/administração & dosagem , Corticosteroides/administração & dosagem , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Resistência a Múltiplos Medicamentos , Feminino , Hemoncose/imunologia , Haemonchus/efeitos dos fármacos , Imunossupressão/métodos , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Larva/patogenicidade , Masculino
8.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 120(Pt A): 921-944, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30172810

RESUMO

In the present study, enhanced pesticidal activity and biocompatibility of chitosan nanocomposite prepared with biocompatible polymer chitosan - insecticidal metabolites derived from potential fungal biopesticidal agent Nomuraea rileyi were studied. Insecticidal metabolites were isolated from the culture filtrate of fungal strain grown in sabouraud maltose yeast extract broth (SMYB) and the collected filtrate was extracted with ethyl acetate followed by purification using G-60 silica gel column. Chitosan nanocomposite was prepared with metabolites thus acquired by ionic gelation method. Synthesized nanocomposite was found to have high stability, uniformly dispersed particles with high loading and entrapment efficiency. Insecticidal activity was studied by determination of cumulative mortality against larval instars of Spodoptera litura and changes in biochemical composition of midgut, hemolymph macromolecules which revealed that the nanocomposite was effective against all the larval stages in terms of high mortality, drastic reduction of midgut and hemolymph macromolecules biochemical composition. Biocompatibility of nanocomposite was carried out by evaluation of developmental toxicity against zebrafish and in vitro hemolysis with peripheral blood cells. Chitosan nanocomposite treatment was not induced any toxic effect on the developmental stages of zebra fish. Hemolysis was also not recorded in the nanocomposite treatment. The observed results imply that insecticidal metabolites fabricated chitosan nanocomposite prepared in our present system is a promising candidates for pest control against economically important insect pests without affecting non-target organisms.


Assuntos
Quitosana/química , Inseticidas/química , Nanocompostos/química , Praguicidas/química , Spodoptera/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Quitosana/farmacologia , Fungos/química , Insetos/efeitos dos fármacos , Insetos/patogenicidade , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Larva/patogenicidade , Praguicidas/farmacologia , Spodoptera/patogenicidade
9.
Infect Immun ; 86(12)2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30249744

RESUMO

Ascaris lumbricoides (roundworm) is the most common helminth infection globally and a cause of lifelong morbidity that may include allergic airway disease, an asthma phenotype. We hypothesize that Ascaris larval migration through the lungs leads to persistent airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) and type 2 inflammatory lung pathology despite resolution of infection that resembles allergic airway disease. Mice were infected with Ascaris by oral gavage. Lung AHR was measured by plethysmography and histopathology with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) and periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) stains, and cytokine concentrations were measured by using Luminex Magpix. Ascaris-infected mice were compared to controls or mice with allergic airway disease induced by ovalbumin (OVA) sensitization and challenge (OVA/OVA). Ascaris-infected mice developed profound AHR starting at day 8 postinfection (p.i.), peaking at day 12 p.i. and persisting through day 21 p.i., despite resolution of infection, which was significantly increased compared to controls and OVA/OVA mice. Ascaris-infected mice had a robust type 2 cytokine response in both the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid and lung tissue, similar to that of the OVA/OVA mice, including interleukin-4 (IL-4) (P < 0.01 and P < 0.01, respectively), IL-5 (P < 0.001 and P < 0.001), and IL-13 (P < 0.001 and P < 0.01), compared to controls. By histopathology, Ascaris-infected mice demonstrated early airway remodeling similar to, but more profound than, that in OVA/OVA mice. We found that Ascaris larval migration causes significant pulmonary damage, including AHR and type 2 inflammatory lung pathology that resembles an extreme form of allergic airway disease. Our findings indicate that ascariasis may be an important cause of allergic airway disease in regions of endemicity.


Assuntos
Ascaríase/fisiopatologia , Hipersensibilidade/parasitologia , Pulmão/patologia , Hipersensibilidade Respiratória/parasitologia , Animais , Ascaríase/imunologia , Ascaris/patogenicidade , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/imunologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Interleucina-13/imunologia , Interleucina-4/imunologia , Interleucina-5/imunologia , Larva/patogenicidade , Pulmão/parasitologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Ovalbumina , Células Th2/imunologia
10.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 99(4): 940-944, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30062994

RESUMO

Dermatobia hominis is a fly endemic to and widely distributed throughout the Americas; it is found from the southern regions of Mexico to Argentina. However, because of widespread travel, myiasis has become common in countries where neither the disease nor the species that cause this infection are endemic. Central Mexico, for instance, is not a region where myiasis is endemic. We, thus, describe three cases of D. hominis myiasis: two autochthonous cases from the southern part of Mexico and one imported from Costa Rica. In addition, morphological and genetic identification was performed on the maggots extracted from the patients.


Assuntos
DNA Intergênico/genética , Dípteros/genética , Larva/genética , Miíase/diagnóstico , Filogenia , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , Criança , Costa Rica , DNA Intergênico/isolamento & purificação , Dípteros/classificação , Dípteros/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Dípteros/patogenicidade , Feminino , Humanos , Larva/classificação , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/patogenicidade , México , Tipagem Molecular , Miíase/parasitologia , Miíase/patologia , Miíase/cirurgia , Viagem
11.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 99(4): 1028-1032, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30141392

RESUMO

A 69-year-old male dentist in Caracas, Venezuela, was referred to our Cornea Clinic with a history of pain, photophobia, and blurred vision on his left eye. Routine biomicroscopic examination with a slit lamp showed a worm in the corneal stroma of his left eye. The worm was surgically removed and was identified morphologically as Gnathostoma binucleatum.


Assuntos
Gnathostoma/isolamento & purificação , Gnatostomíase/parasitologia , Larva/patogenicidade , Fotofobia/parasitologia , Idoso , Animais , Córnea/parasitologia , Córnea/cirurgia , Feminino , Água Doce/parasitologia , Gnathostoma/patogenicidade , Gnatostomíase/diagnóstico por imagem , Gnatostomíase/patologia , Gnatostomíase/cirurgia , Humanos , Masculino , Fotofobia/diagnóstico por imagem , Fotofobia/patologia , Fotofobia/cirurgia , Texas , Viagem , Venezuela
12.
Parasitol Res ; 117(11): 3481-3486, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30091027

RESUMO

Toxocariasis is an important, but neglected, worldwide zoonosis. It is considered a primarily soil-transmitted disease, but food-borne transmission has been associated with the consumption either of raw or undercooked meat of paratenic hosts, including birds. Despite the number of experimental studies carried out to evaluate the behavior of Toxocara spp. larvae in birds, their role in the dispersion of eggs into the environment remains unclear. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the potential of broiler chickens to release Toxocara canis eggs into the environment, and the infectivity of eggs after passage through the intestine. Forty commercial broiler chickens, aged 60 days, were randomly distributed into three groups. Groups 1 (n = 16) and 2 (n = 16) were orally infected with 5000 embryonated and 5000 unembryonated T. canis eggs, respectively. Group 3 (n = 8) served as a control. Following infection, fecal samples from each chicken were examined using a centrifuge-sedimentation technique. At 24-h, 72-h, and 7-day post-infection (PI), four chickens each from the G1 and G2 groups, and two from the G3 group were killed. After euthanasia, the intestinal content and liver were collected for recovery of T. canis larvae. Results revealed that broiler chickens have the potential to disperse both embryonated and unembryonated T. canis eggs, following 2- to 6-h PI. In addition, the eggs shed into the feces of the G2 birds, after incubation in laboratorial conditions, were infective when they were tested in a bioassay using mice. In conclusion, broiler chickens have the potential of dispersing Toxocara spp. eggs into the environment and the eggs passed through the intestine are infective after being incubated in experimental conditions.


Assuntos
Galinhas/parasitologia , Intestinos/parasitologia , Larva/patogenicidade , Óvulo/citologia , Toxocara canis/patogenicidade , Toxocaríase/parasitologia , Animais , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Fígado/parasitologia , Camundongos , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/parasitologia , Solo/parasitologia
13.
BMC Genomics ; 19(1): 592, 2018 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30086708

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anisakis simplex sensu stricto and Anisakis pegreffii are sibling species of nematodes parasitic on marine mammals. Zoonotic human infection with third stage infective larvae causes anisakiasis, a debilitating and potentially fatal disease. These 2 species show evidence of hybridisation in geographical areas where they are sympatric. How the species and their hybrids differ is still poorly understood. RESULTS: Third stage larvae of Anisakis simplex s.s., Anisakis pegreffii and hybrids were sampled from Merluccius merluccius (Teleosti) hosts captured in waters of the FAO 27 geographical area. Specimens of each species and hybrids were distinguished with a diagnostic genetic marker (ITS). RNA was extracted from pools of 10 individuals of each taxon. Transcriptomes were generated using Illumina RNA-Seq, and assembled de novo. A joint assembly (here called merged transcriptome) of all 3 samples was also generated. The inferred transcript sets were functionally annotated and compared globally and also on subsets of secreted proteins and putative allergen families. While intermediary metabolism appeared to be typical for nematodes in the 3 evaluated taxa, their transcriptomes present strong levels of differential expression and enrichment, mainly of transcripts related to metabolic pathways and gene ontologies associated to energy metabolism and other pathways, with significant presence of excreted/secreted proteins, most of them allergens. The allergome of the 2 species and their hybrids has also been thoroughly studied; at least 74 different allergen families were identified in the transcriptomes. CONCLUSIONS: A. simplex s.s., A. pegreffi and their hybrids differ in gene expression patterns in the L3 stage. Strong parent-of-origin effects were observed: A. pegreffi alleles dominate in the expression patterns of hybrids albeit the latter, and A. pegreffii also display significant differences indicating that hybrids are intermediate biological entities among their parental species, and thus of outstanding interest in the study of speciation in nematodes. Analyses of differential expression based on genes coding for secreted proteins suggests that co-infections presents different repertoires of released protein to the host environment. Both species and their hybrids, share more allergen genes than previously thought and are likely to induce overlapping disease responses.


Assuntos
Anisakis/genética , Gadiformes/parasitologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Proteínas de Helminto/genética , Alérgenos/genética , Animais , Anisakis/isolamento & purificação , Anisakis/patogenicidade , Cruzamento , Metabolismo Energético , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Larva/genética , Larva/patogenicidade , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Análise de Sequência de RNA/métodos , Fatores de Virulência/genética
14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 19(7)2018 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30036973

RESUMO

The crustacean Daphnia pulex is one of the best model organisms for studying inducible defense mechanisms due to their inducible morphology in response to the predator Chaoborus larvae. In this study, multiple developmental stages of D. pulex were exposed to C. flavicans larvae and transcriptome profiles of samples from late embryo to fifth instar were sequenced by the RNA-seq technique to investigate the genetic background underlying inducible defenses. In comparison, differentially expressed genes between defensive and normal morphs were identified, including 908 genes in late embryo, 1383 genes in the first-third (1⁻3) instar, and 1042 genes in fourth-fifth (4⁻5) instar. Gene ontology enrichment analysis showed that structural constituents of the cuticle and structural molecule activity genes were prominent up-regulated genes in late embryos. Down-regulated genes in late embryos and 1⁻3 instar comprised metabolic process, hydrolase activity, and peptidase activity gene classes. Pathway analysis indicated that small molecule neurotransmitter pathways were potentially involved in the development of inducible defenses. The characterization of genes and pathways in multiple developmental stages can improve our understanding of inducible defense responses of D. pulex to predation at the molecular level.


Assuntos
Cladóceros/genética , Daphnia/genética , Larva/patogenicidade , Comportamento Predatório , Transcriptoma/genética , Animais , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Receptores de Neurotransmissores/genética
15.
J Vis Exp ; (135)2018 05 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29889203

RESUMO

During the pathogenic infection of Drosophila melanogaster, hemocytes play an important role in the immune response throughout the infection. Thus, the goal of this protocol is to develop a method to visualize the pathogen invasion in a specific immune compartment of flies, namely hemocytes. Using the method presented here, up to 3 × 106 live hemocytes can be obtained from 200 Drosophila 3rd instar larvae in 30 min for ex vivo infection. Alternatively, hemocytes can be infected in vivo through injection of 3rd instar larvae followed by hemocyte extraction up to 24 h post-infection. These infected primary cells were fixed, stained, and imaged using confocal microscopy. Then, 3D representations were generated from the images to definitively show pathogen invasion. Additionally, high-quality RNA for qRT-PCR can be obtained for the detection of pathogen mRNA following infection, and sufficient protein can be extracted from these cells for Western blot analysis. Taken together, we present a method for definite reconciliation of pathogen invasion and confirmation of infection using bacterial and viral pathogen types and an efficient method for hemocyte extraction to obtain enough live hemocytes from Drosophila larvae for ex vivo and in vivo infection experiments.


Assuntos
Drosophila melanogaster/genética , Hemócitos/metabolismo , Larva/patogenicidade , Animais
16.
Plant Signal Behav ; 13(7): e1489668, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29947577

RESUMO

Tobacco hornworm (Manduca sexta, THW) is a voracious pest of tomato and potato. StZFP2 is a Q-type C2H2 zinc finger transcription factor (TF) that is induced upon wounding and infestation. Previous work has shown that Q-type C2H2 TFs are involved in stress responses and when over expressed, can enhance protection against drought, salinity or pathogen infection. Twelve transgenic lines (S1-S12) were tested that over-express StZFP2. Feeding S6 or S8 to THW significantly lowered larval weight (21-37%) as well as increased expression of StPIN2 in comparison to untransformed Kennebec. The increase in StPIN2, a classic marker for insect defense in potato, is consistent with the decreases in larval weight gain.


Assuntos
Lycopersicon esculentum/metabolismo , Lycopersicon esculentum/parasitologia , Manduca/patogenicidade , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/metabolismo , Solanum tuberosum/metabolismo , Solanum tuberosum/parasitologia , Animais , Larva/patogenicidade , Lycopersicon esculentum/genética , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/parasitologia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/parasitologia , Solanum tuberosum/genética
18.
Korean J Parasitol ; 56(2): 199-203, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29742876

RESUMO

The cutaneous myiasis has been rarely reported in the Republic of Korea. We intended to describe here a case of furuncular cutaneous myiasis caused by Cordylobia anthropophaga larvae in a Korean traveler returned from Central Africa. A patient, 55-year-old man, had traveled to Equatorial Guinea, in Central Africa for a month and just returned to Korea. Physical examinations showed 2 tender erythematous nodules with small central ulceration on the left buttock and thigh. During skin biopsy, 2 larvae came out from the lesion. C. anthropophaga was identified by paired mouth hooks (toothed, spade-like, oral hooklets) and 2 posterior spiracles, which lack a distinct chitinous rim. Although rarely described in Korea until now, cutaneous myiasis may be encountered more frequently with increasing international travel and exchange workers to tropical areas.


Assuntos
Dípteros/patogenicidade , Larva/patogenicidade , Miíase/parasitologia , Dermatopatias Parasitárias/parasitologia , Pele/parasitologia , Doença Relacionada a Viagens , Viagem , África Central , Animais , Americanos Asiáticos , Dípteros/anatomia & histologia , Humanos , Larva/anatomia & histologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Miíase/patologia , Miíase/terapia , Dermatopatias Parasitárias/patologia , Dermatopatias Parasitárias/terapia , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 1367, 2018 04 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29636464

RESUMO

The puzzling diversity of flowers is primarily shaped by selection and evolutionary change caused by the plant's interaction with animals. The contribution of individual animal species to net selection, however, may vary depending on the network of interacting organisms. Here we document that in the buckler mustard, Biscutella laevigata, the crab spider Thomisus onustus reduces bee visits to flowers but also benefits plants by feeding on florivores. Uninfested plants experience a trade-off between pollinator and spider attraction as both bees and crab spiders are attracted by the floral volatile ß-ocimene. This trade-off is reduced by the induced emission of ß-ocimene after florivore infestation, which is stronger in plant populations where crab spiders are present than where they are absent, suggesting that plants are locally adapted to the presence of crab spiders. Our study demonstrates the context-dependence of selection and shows how crab spiders impact on floral evolution.


Assuntos
Alcenos/metabolismo , Abelhas/efeitos dos fármacos , Brassicaceae/metabolismo , Flores/metabolismo , Odorantes/análise , Aranhas/efeitos dos fármacos , Adaptação Fisiológica , Alcenos/farmacologia , Animais , Abelhas/fisiologia , Brassicaceae/parasitologia , Ecossistema , Flores/parasitologia , Cadeia Alimentar , Larva/patogenicidade , Larva/fisiologia , Mariposas/patogenicidade , Mariposas/fisiologia , Polinização/fisiologia , Comportamento Predatório/efeitos dos fármacos , Aranhas/fisiologia
20.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 5192, 2018 03 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29581469

RESUMO

Strongyloides spp., gastrointestinal nematode parasites of humans and other animals, have genetically identical parasitic and free-living adult life cycle stages. This is an almost unique feature amongst nematodes and comparison of these two stages can provide insights into the genetic basis and evolution of Strongyloides nematode parasitism. Here, we present RNAseq data for S. venezuelensis, a parasite of rodents, and identify genes that are differentially expressed in parasitic and free-living life cycle stages. Comparison of these data with analogous RNAseq data for three other Strongyloides spp., has identified key protein-coding gene families with a putative role in parasitism including WAGO-like Argonautes (at the genus level) and speckle-type POZ-like coding genes (S. venezuelensis-S. papillosus phylogenetic subclade level). Diverse gene families are uniquely upregulated in the parasitic stage of all four Strongyloides species, including a distinct upregulation of genes encoding cytochrome P450 in S. venezuelensis, suggesting some diversification of the molecular tools used in the parasitic life cycle stage among individual species. Together, our results identify key gene families with a putative role in Strongyloides parasitism or features of the parasitic life cycle stage, and deepen our understanding of parasitism evolution among Strongyloides species.


Assuntos
Filogenia , Strongyloides/genética , Estrongiloidíase/genética , Transcriptoma/genética , Animais , Proteínas de Helminto/classificação , Proteínas de Helminto/genética , Humanos , Larva/genética , Larva/patogenicidade , Estágios do Ciclo de Vida/genética , Ratos Wistar , Roedores/parasitologia , Strongyloides/patogenicidade , Estrongiloidíase/parasitologia , Simbiose/genética
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