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1.
J Environ Manage ; 260: 110049, 2020 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32090806

RESUMO

A compliant tool (CalcPEFDairy) to determine the Product Environmental Footprint (PEF) of Dairy products has been developed following the Product Environmental Footprint Category Rules (PEFCR) v.6.3 guidance and the 2018 approved PEFCR for Dairy products. CalcPEFDairy is a new tool that simplifies and reduces the work for LCA practitioners when implementing the PEFCR for Dairy products. On contrary to traditional LCA software, CalcPEFDairy includes all the emission models needed to calculate farm and crop cultivation direct emissions and it also implements the specific calculation formulas stated in the PEFCR such as the Circular Footprint and Data Quality Requirement formulas. Moreover, the PEF compliant datasets provided by the Life Cycle Data Network are incorporated in the tool as source of secondary data. To demonstrate the accuracy of the tool a traditional dairy farm in Catalonia (Northwest of Spain) was assessed and the results compared with the European representative PEF compliant datasets for the production of raw milk, cheese and yoghurt. In addition to the environmental profile, CalcPEFDairy has determined the case study's environmental single score (ESS) for the production of raw milk (1.0 × 10-4) cheese (9.7 × 10-6) and yoghurt (1.4 × 10-5); these ESS results are within the range of the ESS obtained from the analysed EF-datasets. The data sets' average ESS for raw milk is 9.9 × 10-5 ± 1.1 × 10-5, while for cheese and yoghurt are 1.5 × 10-5 ± 3.1 × 10-6 and 1.9 × 10-5 ± 3.4 × 10-6 respectively. A 78% of the raw milk production ESS is attributed to the dairy farm activities while, the raw milk production stage affects in a 87.4% and 80.1% to the ESS for cheese and yoghurt respectively.


Assuntos
Queijo , Indústria de Laticínios , Animais , Pegada de Carbono , Laticínios , Leite , Espanha
2.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(3): 892-898, 2020 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31891506

RESUMO

This study described a simple, specific, and sensitive method using immunoaffinity magnetic purification coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography-fluorescence (HPLC-FL) detection for determination of bovine lactoferrin (bLf) in dairy products. BLf was selectively extracted from dairy products using immunoaffinity beads and then detected by HPLC-FL with its intrinsic fluorescence. During the analysis, standard solutions of bLf were pretreated with Tween 20, an anti-adsorptive agent, for blocking the nonspecific binding of bLf to polypropylene tubes. The calibration curve was linear over the range of 0.8-30 µg mL-1. The validated method was successfully applied to measure bLf at the intact level in dairy products.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Laticínios/análise , Imunoensaio/métodos , Lactoferrina/análise , Lactoferrina/isolamento & purificação , Magnetismo/métodos , Animais , Bovinos , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/instrumentação , Fluorescência
3.
Food Chem ; 313: 125930, 2020 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31923863

RESUMO

A method based on gas chromatography coupled with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) combined with QuEChERS extraction was developed to detect furfurals, including furfural, 2-acetylfuran, 5-methyl-2-furfural, and 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfural, in milk-based dairy products. Under the optimized conditions, good linearity was obtained with correlation coefficients (R2) above 0.999, and the recovery values from the spiked samples were 79.0%-115.0% with relative standard deviations (RSDs) less than 13.1%. The limits of detection (LODS) were in the range of 0.002-0.02 mg/kg. To investigate the effects of the production process on milk-based dairy products, 55 real samples were analysed. The higher contents of furfurals were observed when higher temperatures were used during heat treatment and fermentation. In addition, the Toxtree and T.E.S.T. software programs were used to predict the risks associated with these four furfurals. Ultimately, safe dairy intake levels were determined.


Assuntos
Laticínios/análise , Furaldeído/análise , Leite/química , Animais , Furaldeído/análogos & derivados , Furanos/análise , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Limite de Detecção , Temperatura Ambiente
4.
Int J Cancer ; 146(5): 1241-1249, 2020 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31116416

RESUMO

Although increasing dairy product intake has been associated with risk of several cancers, epidemiological studies on hepatocellular carcinoma are sparse and have yielded inconsistent results. We prospectively assessed the associations of dairy products (total, milk, butter, cheese and yogurt) and their major components (calcium, vitamin D, fats and protein) with the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma development among 51,418 men and 93,427 women in the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study and the Nurses' Health Study. Diets were collected at baseline and updated every 4 years using validated food frequency questionnaires. Multivariable hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using Cox proportional hazards regression model. During up to 32 years of follow-up, a total of 164 hepatocellular carcinoma cases were documented. After adjustment for most known hepatocellular carcinoma risk factors, higher total dairy product intake was associated with an increased risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (highest vs. lowest tertile, HR = 1.85, 95% CI: 1.19-2.88; ptrend = 0.009). For the same comparison, we observed significant positive associations of high-fat dairy (HR = 1.81, 95% CI: 1.19-2.76; ptrend = 0.008) and butter (HR = 1.58, 95% CI: 1.06-2.36; ptrend = 0.04) with hepatocellular carcinoma risk. There was a nonsignificant inverse association between yogurt intake and hepatocellular carcinoma risk (HR = 0.72, 95% CI: 0.49-1.05; ptrend = 0.26). Our data suggest that higher intake of high-fat dairy foods was associated with higher, whereas higher yogurt consumption might be associated with lower risk of developing hepatocellular carcinoma among U.S. men and women.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/epidemiologia , Laticínios/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
5.
Food Chem ; 304: 125418, 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31479994

RESUMO

Low and high protein dairy powders are prone to caking and sticking and can also be highly insoluble; with powder storage conditions an important factor responsible for such issues. The aim of this study focused on the bulk and surface properties of anhydrous and humidified spray-dried milk protein concentrate (MPC) powders (protein content ~40, 50, 60, 70 or 80%, w/w). Water sorption isotherms, polarized light and scanning electron micrographs showed crystallized lactose in low protein powders at high water activities. High protein systems demonstrated increased bulk diffusion coefficients compared to low protein systems. Glass transition temperatures, α-relaxation temperatures and structural strength significantly decreased with water uptake. CLSM measurements showed that humidified systems have slower real time water diffusion compared to anhydrous systems. Overall, the rate of water diffusion was higher for low protein powders but high protein powders absorbed higher levels of water under high humidity conditions.


Assuntos
Lactose/química , Proteínas do Leite/química , Pós/química , Água/química , Laticínios/análise , Difusão , Umidade , Propriedades de Superfície , Temperatura Ambiente
6.
Microb Cell Fact ; 18(1): 217, 2019 Dec 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31884954

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diacetyl provides the buttery aroma in products such as butter and margarine. It can be made via a harsh set of chemical reactions from sugarcane bagasse, however, in dairy products it is normally formed spontaneously from α-acetolactate, a compound generated by selected lactic acid bacteria in the starter culture used. Due to its bacteriostatic properties, it is difficult to achieve high levels of diacetyl by fermentation. Here we present a novel strategy for producing diacetyl based on whole-cell catalysis, which bypasses the toxic effects of diacetyl. RESULTS: By expressing a robust α-acetolactate synthase (ALS) in a metabolically optimized Lactococcus lactis strain we obtained a whole-cell biocatalyst that efficiently converted pyruvate into α-acetolactate. After process optimization, we achieved a titer for α-acetolactate of 172 ± 2 mM. Subsequently we used a two-stage production setup, where pyruvate was produced by an engineered L. lactis strain and subsequently used as the substrate for the biocatalyst. Using this approach, 122 ± 5 mM and 113 ± 3 mM α-acetolactate could be made from glucose or lactose in dairy waste, respectively. The whole-cell biocatalyst was robust and fully active in crude fermentation broth containing pyruvate. CONCLUSIONS: An efficient approach for converting sugar into α-acetolactate, via pyruvate, was developed and tested successfully. Due to the anaerobic conditions used for the biotransformation, little diacetyl was generated, and this allowed for efficient biotransformation of pyruvate into α-acetolactate, with the highest titers reported to date. The use of a two-step procedure for producing α-acetolactate, where non-toxic pyruvate first is formed, and subsequently converted into α-acetolactate, also simplified the process optimization. We conclude that whole cell catalysis is suitable for converting lactose in dairy waste into α-acetolactate, which favors resource utilization.


Assuntos
Lactatos/metabolismo , Lactococcus lactis/metabolismo , Ácido Pirúvico/metabolismo , Acetolactato Sintase/genética , Acetolactato Sintase/metabolismo , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Catálise , Laticínios/análise , Fermentação , Glucose/metabolismo , Lactococcus lactis/genética , Lactose/metabolismo , Resíduos
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31683501

RESUMO

It is well known that periodontal disease is highly related to dietary habits. As coffee is a typical beverage consumed worldwide, the relationship between coffee and periodontal disease was analyzed in this study using the data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Survey (KNHANES) 2013-2015. Complex-samples chi square tests were performed for the comparison of the demographic characteristics of the 6528 study subjects and coffee components. Poisson linear regression analysis was performed for the analysis of the periodontal condition and coffee component effects, while complex-samples logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the demographic characteristics and coffee component effects. Over the years, the proportion of people drinking coffee with syrup or drinking a coffee mix containing both syrup and cream has decreased significantly. The results of the analysis, conducted by integrating the study subjects' demographic characteristics and the coffee components, showed that the prevalence of periodontal disease was 0.83-times lower when drinking coffee with cream than when drinking black coffee. Coffee is the world's second largest trade commodity following oil, and about 70%-80% of the world's population drinks coffee. Drinking coffee with milk or cream can have a beneficial impact on periodontal disease.


Assuntos
Café , Doenças Periodontais/epidemiologia , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Laticínios , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Prevalência , República da Coreia/epidemiologia
8.
Anticancer Res ; 39(11): 6197-6208, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31704848

RESUMO

AIM: This cross-sectional study aimed to evaluate the associations between low and high-fat dairy food (DF) intake and breast density (BD). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 775 premenopausal and 771 postmenopausal women recruited during screening mammography completed a food frequency questionnaire. Adjusted linear regression models were used to assess the associations. RESULTS: As frequency quartiles of high-fat DF consumption increased, the adjusted mean of absolute BD increased from 31.5 to 36.1 cm2 for all women (ptrend=0.0034) and from 42.4 to 50.1 cm2 for premenopausal women (ptrend=0.0047). Conversely, as frequency quartiles of low-fat DF consumption increased, the adjusted mean of absolute BD decreased from 34.7 to 29.6 cm2 for all women (ptrend=0.001) and from 49.7 to 40.7 cm2 for premenopausal women (ptrend=0.0012). CONCLUSION: A higher intake of high-fat and low-fat DF is respectively associated with higher and lower BD, particularly in premenopausal women.


Assuntos
Densidade da Mama , Neoplasias da Mama/etiologia , Laticínios/efeitos adversos , Gorduras na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Prognóstico , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários
9.
BMJ ; 367: l6204, 2019 11 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31776125

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine the association of consumption of dairy foods with risk of total and cause specific mortality in women and men. DESIGN: Three prospective cohort studies with repeated measures of diet and lifestyle factors. SETTING: Nurses' Health Study, Nurses' Health Study II, and the Health Professionals Follow-up Study, in the United States. PARTICIPANTS: 168 153 women and 49 602 men without cardiovascular disease or cancer at baseline. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Death confirmed by state vital records, the national death index, or reported by families and the postal system. During up to 32 years of follow-up, 51 438 deaths were documented, including 12 143 cardiovascular deaths and 15 120 cancer deaths. Multivariable analysis further adjusted for family history of cardiovascular disease and cancer, physical activity, overall dietary pattern (alternate healthy eating index 2010), total energy intake, smoking status, alcohol consumption, menopausal status (women only), and postmenopausal hormone use (women only). RESULTS: Compared to the lowest category of total dairy consumption (average 0.8 servings/day), the multivariate pooled hazard ratio for total mortality was 0.98 (95% confidence interval 0.96 to 1.01) for the second category of dairy consumption (average 1.5 servings/day), 1.00 (0.97 to 1.03) for the third (average 2.0 servings/day), 1.02 (0.99 to 1.05) for the fourth (average 2.8 servings/day), and 1.07 (1.04 to 1.10) for highest category (average 4.2 servings/day; P for trend <0.001). For the highest compared to the lowest category of total dairy consumption, the hazard ratio was 1.02 (0.95 to 1.08) for cardiovascular mortality and 1.05 (0.99 to 1.11) for cancer mortality. For subtypes of dairy products, whole milk intake was significantly associated with higher risks of total mortality (hazard ratio per 0.5 additional serving/day 1.11, 1.09 to 1.14), cardiovascular mortality (1.09, 1.03 to 1.15), and cancer mortality (1.11, 1.06 to 1.17). In food substitution analyses, consumption of nuts, legumes, or whole grains instead of dairy foods was associated with a lower mortality, whereas consumption of red and processed meat instead of dairy foods was associated with higher mortality. CONCLUSION: These data from large cohorts do not support an inverse association between high amount of total dairy consumption and risk of mortality. The health effects of dairy could depend on the comparison foods used to replace dairy. Slightly higher cancer mortality was non-significantly associated with dairy consumption, but warrants further investigation.


Assuntos
Laticínios/efeitos adversos , Dieta/mortalidade , Adulto , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos
10.
Se Pu ; 37(10): 1084-1089, 2019 Oct 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31642287

RESUMO

The trade volume of imported dairy products is increasing with the increase of per capita consumption of dairy products, thus it is the great significant thing to control the quality of dairy products from other countries. The investigation finds that the proline content of imported liquid milk ultra high temperature instantaneous sterilization (UHT) milk (commonly known as normal temperature milk) is significantly higher than that of domestic UHT milk, that a risk of overheating and adding reconstituted milk exists for the imported UHT milk. Although it is currently unable to regulate the source and processing technology of imported dairy products, some certain indicators that reflect the process conditions are often used to monitor the quality of dairy products in the field of heat treatment process control of dairy products. Proline is produced during the processing of dairy products and is a marker that reflects the processing conditions. This paper briefly describes the research status of nine markers used to evaluate in the processing of dairy products at home and abroad, with the aim of providing a theoretical basis for improving the regulatory system for the processing of dairy products in China, and to protect consumer rights.


Assuntos
Laticínios/análise , Manipulação de Alimentos , Leite/química , Animais , Biomarcadores , China , Temperatura Alta , Controle de Qualidade
11.
J Dairy Sci ; 102(12): 10779-10789, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31606218

RESUMO

Whole milk powder (WMP) is a universal raw material component that can overcome the problem of seasonality of raw milk. It can be used to provide high-nutritional products to remote areas experiencing a raw milk shortage. Its long shelf life depends on the conditions of storage and transportation, which are recommended to be carried out in a range from 0 to 10°C. At higher temperatures, the quality of WMP deteriorates because of a substantial increase in the degradation of fat and protein fractions. A range of low negative temperatures for storage have not been systematically investigated. Previous studies have shown that freezing WMP results in protein denaturation, crystallization of lactose, and extraction of free fat, all of which reduce the quality characteristics of the product, including deterioration of solubility, quick rancidification, and microbiological changes. However, these previous studies did not simulate the possible situations of transportation and storage of milk powder at low negative temperatures that occur in practice. Given the volume of transportation, distances and climatic characteristics of transportation routes play an important role in WMP preservation. In this study, we simulated storage and transport of WMP at -20°C. The samples were periodically thawed to 10 and 20°C and examined for physicochemical, functional-technological, thermodynamic, microbiological, and organoleptic parameters. Based on our results, storage of WMP at -20°C for 40 d did not have a significant effect on its qualitative characteristics. We observed some compaction of product structure and clustering or clumping, which was reversible by slight mechanical impact. Artificial contamination of the packaging surface with yeast and molds, followed by thawing of the samples, indicated the absence of the contaminants, which was explained by possible redistribution of moisture in the system.


Assuntos
Laticínios , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Leite , Animais , Bovinos , Congelamento , Leite/química , Pós , Temperatura Ambiente
13.
Lancet ; 394(10207): 1410, 2019 10 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31631850
14.
J Med Microbiol ; 68(12): 1771-1786, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31613203

RESUMO

Introduction. There is an ever present need to isolate and characterize indigenous bacterial strains with potential probiotic health benefits for humans.Aim. Lactobacillus fermentum of dairy origin was focused because of its propensity to adhere to the intestinal glycoprotein, mucin.Methodology. The lactobacillus strains were screened for mucin adhesion, resistance to low pH and bile, autoaggregation, hydrophobicity, and survival in an in vitro digestion model. The cholesterol-lowering and oxalate-degrading effects of selected strains were also determined. Safety was assessed for haemolytic, mucinolytic and gelatinase activity, biogenic amine production, antibiotic resistance and phenol resistance. Expression of the 32-mmub adhesion-related gene was also measured following strain exposure to simulated gastrointestinal tract (GIT) digestion.Results. The selected mucin-adhesive strains were tolerant to acid (pH 3.0) and bile (0.25 %) and demonstrated >85 % survival following simulated human digestion in the presence of milk. The digestive treatment did not affect the adhesive potential of PL20, and PL27, regardless of the food matrix. The simulated digestion had less effect on their adhesion than on the type strain and it also did not correlate with the mmub gene expression level as determined by qPCR. The selected strains exhibited cholesterol removal (36-44 %) and degraded oxalate (66-55 %). Neither of these strains exhibited undesirable characteristics.Conclusion. These preliminary findings suggest a functionality in the two strains of L. fermentum with high colonization potential on GIT mucosal membranes and possible health-promoting effects. This prima facie evidence suggests the need for further studies to test these probiotic candidates as live biotherapeutic agents in vivo.


Assuntos
Aderência Bacteriana , Laticínios/microbiologia , Digestão , Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Lactobacillus fermentum/fisiologia , Mucinas/metabolismo , Ácidos e Sais Biliares/farmacologia , Determinação da Acidez Gástrica , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Lactobacillus fermentum/efeitos dos fármacos , Lactobacillus fermentum/isolamento & purificação , Probióticos
15.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 35(5): 1478-1489, sept./oct. 2019. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1049029

RESUMO

In Brazil's food industry, dairy production is one of the most important sectors, whose most relevant byproduct is whey. Due to the difficulties of reuse and environmental impacts caused when discarded as effluent in water bodies, an alternative for its final destination would be the application of this residue in the soil. The purpose of this study was to determine chemical changes and mobility and distribution of solutes in the soil after applications of whey rates, as well as to analyze the leachate collected after each application. The test was carried out in a laboratory, in PVC columns filled with soil. The treatments consisted of 2 x 2 samples of a typical dystrophic Red-Yellow Oxisol (Oxisol) and a typical dystrophic fluvic Inceptisol (Inceptisol), sampled in the layers 0- 20 and 20-40 cm. Each experimental unit consisted of 11 PVC rings (diameter of 6.6 cm, height of 7 cm). The columns were arranged in a randomized complete block design with five replications. Four whey rates were applied, corresponding to a soil pore volume of 0.2, at intervals of six days. The leachate was collected 24 and 120 hours after each application to measure pH, electrical conductivity (EC), chemical oxygen demand (COD), contents of total N, N-NH4+, N-NO3-, Na, K, Ca, and Mg. Six days after the last whey application, the columns were opened and the soil of each ring was analyzed for pH, EC, total N, N-NH4+, N-NO3-, Na, K, Ca, and Mg. The high electrolyte concentrations of whey resulted in a general increase in soil EC. The increase of N-NH4+ and N-NO3- in the soil was high due to mineralization. High concentrations of K, Na and Ca caused displacement of Mg from the exchange complex. It was concluded that from an environmental standpoint, whey soil application is a viable alternative, given that problems of salinization and leaching of undesirable elements are avoided by an adequate management.


Entre os setores da indústria alimentícia, o segmento de laticínios é um dos mais importantes do Brasil, sendo o soro de leite o seu maior subproduto. Devido às dificuldades de reaproveitamento e aos impactos ambientais causados, quando descartado como efluente em corpos de água, uma alternativa para a sua destinação final seria a aplicação desse resíduo no solo. Objetivou-se com este trabalho determinar alterações químicas e a mobilidade e distribuição de solutos no solo após aplicação fracionada de soro de leite, assim como a caracterização dos percolados recolhidos após cada aplicação. O ensaio, em laboratório, foi conduzido em colunas de PVC preenchidas com solo. Os tratamentos corresponderam a um fatorial 2 x 2, sendo amostras de um Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo distrófico típico (LVAd) e de um Cambissolo Flúvico Tb distrófico (CYbd), coletados em duas profundidades: 0­20 e 20­40 cm. Cada unidade experimental foi constituída de 11 anéis de PVC, com 6,6 cm de diâmetro interno e 7 cm de altura. As colunas foram dispostas em um delineamento experimental em blocos casualizados, com cinco repetições. Foram realizadas quatro aplicações de soro de leite, correspondentes a 0,2 volume de poros de solo, a cada intervalo de seis dias. O percolado foi recolhido após 24 e 120 horas de cada aplicação sendo realizadas as seguintes determinações: pH, condutividade elétrica (CE), demanda química de oxigênio (DQO), teores de N total, N-NH4+, N-NO3-, Na, K, Ca e Mg. Após seis dias da última aplicação de soro de leite, as colunas foram desmontadas e o solo de cada anel analisado. As análises compreenderam: pH em água, CE (1:5), N total, N-NH4+, N-NO3-, Na, K, Ca e Mg. As elevadas concentrações eletrolíticas do soro de leite provocaram aumento generalizado da CE no solo. Houve incremento maior do nitrogênio assimilável (N-NH4+ e N-NO3-) no solo em decorrência de processos de mineralização. Elevadas concentrações de K, Na e Ca causaram deslocamento de Mg do complexo de troca. Conclui-se que a aplicação de soro de leite no solo é uma alternativa viável do ponto de vista ambiental, desde que seja feito um correto manejo, a fim de evitar problemas de salinização e perdas por lixiviação de elementos indesejáveis.


Assuntos
Usos do Solo , Percolação , Laticínios , Soro do Leite
16.
Nutrients ; 11(9)2019 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31533272

RESUMO

The incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) has increased in the US over the last several years. The consumption of low-fat dairy foods has been linked with decreasing the risk of DM but studies have yet to show a clear correlation. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials (RCTs) evaluating the effects of dairy intake on homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), waist circumference, and body weight. In MEDLINE and Embase, we identified and reviewed 49 relevant RCTs: 30 had appropriate data format for inclusion in the meta-analysis. Using the Review Manager 5 software, we calculated the pooled standardized mean differences comparing dairy dietary interventions to control for our outcomes of interest. For HOMA-IR (794 individuals), we found a mean difference of -1.21 (95% CI -1.74 to -0.67; p-value < 0.00001; I2 = 92%). For waist circumference (1348 individuals), the mean difference was -1.09 cm (95% CI 1.68 to -0.58; p-value < 0.00001; I2 = 94%). For body weight (2362 individuals), the dairy intake intervention group weighed 0.42 kg less than control (p-value < 0.00001; I2 = 92%). Our findings suggest that dairy intake, especially low-fat dairy products, has a beneficial effect on HOMA-IR, waist circumference, and body weight. This could impact dietary recommendations to reduce DM risk.


Assuntos
Glicemia/metabolismo , Laticínios , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/prevenção & controle , Dieta com Restrição de Gorduras , Gorduras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Resistência à Insulina , Insulina/sangue , Valor Nutritivo , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/fisiopatologia , Gorduras na Dieta/metabolismo , Ingestão de Energia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Recomendações Nutricionais , Circunferência da Cintura , Perda de Peso , Adulto Jovem
17.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(32): 33451-33465, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31522404

RESUMO

Household consumption has been identified to have an essential role in influencing ultimately the environmental pressures generated by human activities. This study assesses the indirect environmental footprint of the Spanish households applying a combination of consumer expenditure surveys with environmentally extended multi-regional input-output analysis. A total of fourteen environmental impact categories are studied from 2006 to 2015. All the impact categories present a similar trend, particularly affected by the economic crisis. The impacts decreased from 2008 to 2013 and finally slightly started rising again from 2014 to 2015. Results show that the dominant categories influencing the indirect environmental footprint in 2015 are (1) food and beverages, (2) housing, and (3) furnishings. From the intensity perspective, housing, transport, and food and beverages appear to be the most intensive consumption clusters in the Spanish household indirect environmental footprint. In relation to the indirect water impacts embodied in the Spanish households' imports, the largest amount is from European countries and the highest virtual water (59%) corresponds to food and agriculture, in particular from wheat, fruit, vegetables, and dairy products. The findings obtained in relation to the sources generating indirect impacts from household consumption could aid the implementation of future mitigation policies.


Assuntos
Política Ambiental , Agricultura , Bebidas , Laticínios , Meio Ambiente , Características da Família , Frutas , Humanos , Formulação de Políticas , Espanha , Verduras
18.
Curr Microbiol ; 76(12): 1407-1416, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31555856

RESUMO

The study provides phenotypic and molecular analyses of the antibiotic resistance in 20 Lactobacillus strains including 11 strains newly isolated from fermented plant material. According to the results of disc diffusion method, 90% of tested lactobacilli demonstrated sensitivity to clindamycin and 95% of strains were susceptible to tetracycline, erythromycin, and rifampicin. Ampicillin and chloramphenicol were found to inhibit all bacteria used in this study. The vast majority of tested strains revealed phenotypic resistance to vancomycin, ciprofloxacin, and aminoglycosides. Most of Lactobacillus strains showed high minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of cefotaxime, ceftriaxone, and cefazolin and therefore were considered resistant to cephalosporins. All the strains exhibited multidrug resistance. The occurrence of resistance genes was associated with phenotypic resistance, with the exception of phenotypically susceptible strains that contained genes for tetracycline (tetK, tetL) and erythromycin (ermB, mefA) resistance. The vanX gene for vancomycin resistance was among the most frequently identified among the lactobacilli (75% of strains), but the occurrence of the parC gene for ciprofloxacin resistance was sporadic (20% of strains). Our results mainly evidence the intrinsic nature of the resistance to aminoglycosides in lactobacilli, though genes for enzymatic modification of streptomycin aadA and aadE were found in 20% of tested strains. The occurrence of extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL) was unknown in Lactobacillus, but our results revealed the blaTEM gene in 80% of strains, whereas blaSHV and blaOXA-1 genes were less frequent (20% and 15% of strains, respectively).


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Lactobacillus/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Laticínios/microbiologia , Eritromicina/farmacologia , Lactobacillus/classificação , Lactobacillus/genética , Lactobacillus/metabolismo , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Tetraciclina/farmacologia , Vancomicina/farmacologia
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