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1.
Pulm Med ; 2020: 9012187, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33381313

RESUMO

Background: Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) is currently not recommended in noncritically ill patients for the diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Indeed, the diagnosis is based on the RT-PCR test on a nasopharyngeal swab (NPS) and abnormal findings on the chest CT scan. However, the sensitivity of the NPS and the specificity of the chest CT scan are low. Results of BAL in case of negative NPS testing are underreported, especially in the subgroup of immunocompromised patients. Objectives: The added value of BAL in the management of unstable, but noncritically ill patients, suspected of having SARS-CoV-2 infection despite one previous negative NPS and the side effects of the procedure for the patients and the health-care providers, were assessed during the epidemic peak of the COVID-19 outbreak in Belgium. Methods: This multicentric study included all consecutive noncritically ill patients hospitalized with a clinical and radiological suspicion of SARS-CoV-2 infection but with a negative NPS. BAL was performed according to a predefined decisional algorithm based on their state of immunocompetence, the chest CT scan features, and their respiratory status. Results: Among the 55 patients included in the study, 14 patients were diagnosed with a SARS-CoV-2 infection. Interestingly, there was a relationship between the cycle threshold of the RT-PCR and the interval of time between the symptom onset and the BAL procedure (Pearson's correlation coefficient = 0.8, p = 0.0004). Therapeutic management was changed in 33 patients because another infectious agent was identified in 23 patients or because an alternative diagnosis was made in 10 patients. In immunocompromised patients, the impact of BAL was even more marked (change in therapy for 13/17 patients). No significant adverse event was noted for patients or health-care staff. All health-care workers remained negative for SARS-CoV-2 NPS and serology at the end of the study. Conclusions: In this real-life study, BAL can be performed safely in selected noncritically ill patients suspected of SARS-CoV-2 infection, providing significant clinical benefits that outweigh the risks.


Assuntos
Lavagem Broncoalveolar , /diagnóstico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Algoritmos , Bélgica , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
2.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0241323, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33141839

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic, progressive disease with a high morbidity and mortality. Some of the mechanisms of fibrosis development have been described using rodent models; however, the relevance of findings in these animal models is difficult to assess. New innovative models are needed that closely mimic IPF disease pathology. METHODS: To overcome this unmet need of investigating IPF with a relevant model, we utilized tree shrews, which are genetically, anatomically, and metabolically similar to primates and humans. Using human antibodies and primers, we investigated the role of macrophage phenotypic switching in normal and IPF subjects and bleomycin-injured tree shrews. RESULTS: Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cells from tree shrews expressed human markers, and there was recruitment of monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs) to the lung in IPF subjects and bleomycin-injured tree shrews. MDMs were polarized to a profibrotic phenotype in IPF and in bleomycin-injured tree shrews. Resident alveolar macrophages (RAMs) expressed proinflammatory markers regardless of bleomycin exposure. Tree shrews developed bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis with architectural distortion in parenchyma and widespread collagen deposition. CONCLUSION: The profibrotic polarization of macrophages has been demonstrated to be present in IPF subjects and in fibrotic mice. Although the lung macrophages have long been considered to be homogeneous, recent evidence indicates that these cells are heterogeneous during multiple chronic lung diseases. Here, we show new data that indicate a critical and essential role for macrophage-fibroblast crosstalk promoting fibroblast differentiation and collagen production. in the development and progression of fibrosis. The current data strongly suggest development of therapeutics that attenuate of the profibrotic activation of MDMs may mitigate macrophage-fibroblast interaction. These observations demonstrate that tree shrews are an ideal animal model to investigate the pathogenesis of IPF as they are genetically, anatomically, and metabolically closer to humans than the more commonly used rodent models.


Assuntos
Fibrose Pulmonar Idiopática/patologia , Tupaiidae/fisiologia , Adulto , Animais , Lavagem Broncoalveolar , Diferenciação Celular/genética , Polaridade Celular , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Fibroblastos/patologia , Fibrose , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Fibrose Pulmonar Idiopática/genética , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Monócitos/patologia , Fenótipo , Capacidade Vital
3.
BMC Pulm Med ; 20(1): 301, 2020 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33198751

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) rapidly reached pandemic proportions. Given that the main target of SARS-CoV-2 are lungs leading to severe pneumonia with hyperactivation of the inflammatory cascade, we conducted a prospective study to assess alveolar inflammatory status in patients with moderate to severe COVID-19. METHODS: Diagnostic bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was performed in 33 adult patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection by real-time PCR on nasopharyngeal swab admitted to the Intensive care unit (ICU) (n = 28) and to the Intermediate Medicine Ward (IMW) (n = 5). We analyze the differential cell count, ultrastructure of cells and Interleukin (IL)6, 8 and 10 levels. RESULTS: ICU patients showed a marked increase in neutrophils (1.24 × 105 ml- 1, 0.85-2.07), lower lymphocyte (0.97 × 105 ml- 1, 0.024-0.34) and macrophages fractions (0.43 × 105 ml- 1, 0.34-1.62) compared to IMW patients (0.095 × 105 ml- 1, 0.05-0.73; 0.47 × 105 ml- 1, 0.28-1.01 and 2.14 × 105 ml- 1, 1.17-3.01, respectively) (p < 0.01). Study of ICU patients BAL by electron transmission microscopy showed viral particles inside mononuclear cells confirmed by immunostaining with anti-viral capsid and spike antibodies. IL6 and IL8 were significantly higher in ICU patients than in IMW (IL6 p < 0.01, IL8 p < 0.0001), and also in patients who did not survive (IL6 p < 0.05, IL8 p = 0.05 vs. survivors). IL10 did not show a significant variation between groups. Dividing patients by treatment received, lower BAL concentrations of IL6 were found in patients treated with steroids as compared to those treated with tocilizumab (p < 0.1) or antivirals (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Alveolitis, associated with COVID-19, is mainly sustained by innate effectors which showed features of extensive activation. The burden of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL6 and IL8 in the broncho-alveolar environment is associated with clinical outcome.


Assuntos
Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Inflamação/imunologia , Interleucina-6/imunologia , Interleucina-8/imunologia , Leucócitos/imunologia , Pulmão/imunologia , Macrófagos Alveolares/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Monofosfato de Adenosina/análogos & derivados , Monofosfato de Adenosina/uso terapêutico , Corticosteroides/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Alanina/análogos & derivados , Alanina/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus , Lavagem Broncoalveolar , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/citologia , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Combinação de Medicamentos , Feminino , Humanos , Hidroxicloroquina/uso terapêutico , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Interleucina-10/imunologia , Itália , Leucócitos Mononucleares/virologia , Lopinavir/uso terapêutico , Pulmão/citologia , Pulmão/virologia , Linfócitos/imunologia , Masculino , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neutrófilos/imunologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Respiração Artificial/métodos , Ritonavir/uso terapêutico , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/metabolismo , Taxa de Sobrevida , Vírion/metabolismo , Vírion/ultraestrutura
4.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(42): e22577, 2020 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33080692

RESUMO

RATIONALE: The new coronavirus pneumonia Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has become a global pandemic. Patients with critically COVID-19 usually require invasive respiratory support, and the airway management is particularly important and the prognosis is poor. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 64-year-old man with an anastomotic fistula after radical treatment of esophageal cancer and right-side encapsulated pyopneumothorax was admitted with cough and dyspnea. DIAGNOSIS: The patient was diagnosed with novel coronavirus pneumonia and right-side encapsulated pyopneumothorax by pharyngeal swab nucleic acid test in combination with chest computed tomography (CT). INTERVENTIONS: The patient was treated with antibiotics, antiviral and antibacterial medications, respiratory support, expectorant nebulization, and nutritional support. But he expressed progressive deterioration. Endotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation were performed since the onset of the type - respiratory failure on the 13th day of admission. The patient had persistent refractory hypercapnia after mechanical ventilation. Based on the treatment mentioned above, combined with repeated bronchoalveolar lavage by using N-acetylcysteine (NAC) inhalation solution, the patients refractory hypercapnia was gradually improved. OUTCOMES: The patient was cured and discharged after being given the mechanical ventilation for 26 days as well as 46 days of hospitalization, currently is surviving well. LESSONS: Patients with severe conditions of novel coronavirus pneumonia often encounter bacterial infection in their later illness-stages. They may suffer respiratory failure and refractory hypercapnia that is difficult to improve due to excessive mucus secretion leading to small airway obstruction. This study provided a new insight on the proper treatment severe COVID-19 patients. The use of reasonable antibiotics and symptomatic respiratory support and other treatment, timely artificial airway and repeated bronchoalveolar NAC inhalation solution lavage, expectorant and other airway management are essential for such patients.


Assuntos
Acetilcisteína/uso terapêutico , Manuseio das Vias Aéreas/métodos , Lavagem Broncoalveolar/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Acetilcisteína/administração & dosagem , Administração por Inalação , Anastomose Cirúrgica , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Humanos , Intubação Intratraqueal/métodos , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumotórax/complicações , Respiração Artificial
5.
Cell ; 183(5): 1354-1366.e13, 2020 11 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33065030

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has led to extensive morbidity and mortality throughout the world. Clinical features that drive SARS-CoV-2 pathogenesis in humans include inflammation and thrombosis, but the mechanistic details underlying these processes remain to be determined. In this study, we demonstrate endothelial disruption and vascular thrombosis in histopathologic sections of lungs from both humans and rhesus macaques infected with SARS-CoV-2. To define key molecular pathways associated with SARS-CoV-2 pathogenesis in macaques, we performed transcriptomic analyses of bronchoalveolar lavage and peripheral blood and proteomic analyses of serum. We observed macrophage infiltrates in lung and upregulation of macrophage, complement, platelet activation, thrombosis, and proinflammatory markers, including C-reactive protein, MX1, IL-6, IL-1, IL-8, TNFα, and NF-κB. These results suggest a model in which critical interactions between inflammatory and thrombosis pathways lead to SARS-CoV-2-induced vascular disease. Our findings suggest potential therapeutic targets for COVID-19.


Assuntos
/complicações , /genética , Trombose/complicações , Doenças Vasculares/complicações , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Lavagem Broncoalveolar , Proteína C-Reativa/análise , /patologia , Ativação do Complemento , Citocinas/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Inflamação/sangue , Inflamação/imunologia , Inflamação/virologia , Pulmão/patologia , Macaca mulatta , Macrófagos/imunologia , Masculino , Ativação Plaquetária , Trombose/sangue , Trombose/patologia , Transcriptoma , Doenças Vasculares/sangue , Doenças Vasculares/patologia
6.
Cir. pediátr ; 33(4): 160-165, oct. 2020. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-195125

RESUMO

OBJETIVOS: Analizar la eficacia diagnóstica del lavado broncoalveolar y su impacto en el manejo terapéutico en pacientes pediátricos. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Estudio retrospectivo incluyendo a los pacientes a los que se les realizó un lavado broncoalveolar por parte del Servicio de Cirugía Pediátrica entre 2009 y 2019. Se ha dividido la muestra en dos grupos: pacientes hemato-oncológicos y no hemato-oncológicos. Se han recogido variables demográficas, el resultado del lavado broncoalveolar y la actitud terapéutica posterior. RESULTADOS: Se realizaron 45 lavados broncoalveolares en 38 pacientes. El grupo hemato-oncológico constaba de 25 lavados broncoalveolares. Los pacientes tenían una edad media de 9,99 ± 2,34 años. El 80% de los pacientes tenían tratamiento antiinfeccioso previo al lavado broncoalveolar. El cultivo del lavado broncoalveolar fue positivo en el 52% de los casos. El resultado del lavado broncoalveolar influyó en un cambio de manejo terapéutico en un 24% (6/25). Se produjeron 3 complicaciones posoperatorias, todas leves. En el grupo no hemato-oncológico (n = 20) la edad media era de 6,70 ± 5,17 años. El lavado broncoalveolar fue positivo en el 25% y supuso un cambio de manejo en un 5% de los pacientes. Este grupo tuvo una tasa de complicación del 30%, dos pacientes requirieron ventilación mecánica. CONCLUSIONES: Según nuestros resultados, el lavado broncoalveolar en los pacientes hemato-oncológicos ayuda al diagnóstico microbiológico en procesos respiratorios infecciosos y es relativamente bien tolerado. En los no hemato-oncológicos, tiene una baja rentabilidad diagnóstico-terapéutica, con una tasa de complicaciones no desdeñable. Sería necesario individualizar el balance beneficio-riesgo en cada paciente


OBJECTIVE: To analyze bronchoalveolar lavage diagnostic effectiveness and impact on therapeutic management in pediatric patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Retrospective study of patients undergoing bronchoalveolar lavage at the pediatric surgery department from 2009 to 2019. The sample was divided into two groups: hemato-oncological patients and non-hemato-oncological patients. Demographic variables, bronchoalveolar lavage result, and subsequent therapeutic attitude were collected. RESULTS: 45 bronchoalveolar lavages were carried out in 38 patients. The hemato-oncological group consisted of 25 bronchoalveolar lavages. Patient mean age was 9.99 ± 2.34 years. 80% of patients had received anti-infective treatment prior to bronchoalveolar lavage. Bronchoalveolar lavage culture was positive in 52% of cases. Bronchoalveolar lavage results translated into therapeutic management change in 24% of cases (6/25). 3 postoperative complications were recorded, all mild. In the non-hemato-oncological group (n = 20), mean age was 6.70 ± 5.17 years. Bronchoalveolar lavage was positive in 25% of cases, and translated into management change in 5% of patients. Complication rate in this group was 30%. 2 patients required mechanical ventilation. CONCLUSIONS: According to our results, bronchoalveolar lavage in hemato-oncological patients helps achieve microbiological diagnosis in infectious respiratory conditions and is relatively well-tolerated. In non-hemato-oncological patients, diagnostic and therapeutic usefulness is low, and complication rate is not negligible. The risk-benefit balance should be individually considered in each patient


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Análise Custo-Benefício , Lavagem Broncoalveolar/métodos , Infecções Oportunistas/terapia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Lavagem Broncoalveolar/estatística & dados numéricos , Respiração Artificial/métodos , Broncoscopia , Infecções Respiratórias/microbiologia
10.
N Engl J Med ; 383(17): 1635-1644, 2020 10 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32897035

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Autoimmune pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (aPAP) is a rare disease characterized by progressive surfactant accumulation and hypoxemia. It is caused by disruption of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) signaling, which pulmonary alveolar macrophages require to clear surfactant. Recently, inhaled GM-CSF was shown to improve the partial pressure of arterial oxygen in patients with aPAP. METHODS: In a double-blind, placebo-controlled, three-group trial, we randomly assigned patients with aPAP to receive the recombinant GM-CSF molgramostim (300 µg once daily by inhalation), either continuously or intermittently (every other week), or matching placebo. The 24-week intervention period was followed by an open-label treatment-extension period. The primary end point was the change from baseline in the alveolar-arterial difference in oxygen concentration (A-aDo2) at week 24. RESULTS: In total, 138 patients underwent randomization; 46 were assigned to receive continuous molgramostim, 45 to receive intermittent molgramostim, and 47 to receive placebo. Invalid A-aDo2 data for 4 patients (1 in each molgramostim group and 2 in the placebo group) who received nasal oxygen therapy during arterial blood gas measurement were replaced by means of imputation. For the primary end point - the change from baseline in the A-aDo2 at week 24 - improvement was greater among patients receiving continuous molgramostim than among those receiving placebo (-12.8 mm Hg vs. -6.6 mm Hg; estimated treatment difference, -6.2 mm Hg; P = 0.03 by comparison of least-squares means). Patients receiving continuous molgramostim also had greater improvement than those receiving placebo for secondary end points, including the change from baseline in the St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire total score at week 24 (-12.4 points vs. -5.1 points; estimated treatment difference, -7.4 points; P = 0.01 by comparison of least-squares means). For multiple end points, improvement was greater with continuous molgramostim than with intermittent molgramostim. The percentages of patients with adverse events and serious adverse events were similar in the three groups, except for the percentage of patients with chest pain, which was higher in the continuous-molgramostim group. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with aPAP, daily administration of inhaled molgramostim resulted in greater improvements in pulmonary gas transfer and functional health status than placebo, with similar rates of adverse events. (Funded by Savara Pharmaceuticals; IMPALA ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02702180.).


Assuntos
Doenças Autoimunes/tratamento farmacológico , Fator Estimulador de Colônias de Granulócitos e Macrófagos/administração & dosagem , Proteinose Alveolar Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Administração por Inalação , Adulto , Doenças Autoimunes/fisiopatologia , Doenças Autoimunes/terapia , Lavagem Broncoalveolar , Método Duplo-Cego , Esquema de Medicação , Tolerância ao Exercício , Feminino , Fator Estimulador de Colônias de Granulócitos e Macrófagos/efeitos adversos , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oxigênio/sangue , Proteinose Alveolar Pulmonar/fisiopatologia , Proteinose Alveolar Pulmonar/terapia , Troca Gasosa Pulmonar , Proteínas Recombinantes/administração & dosagem , Proteínas Recombinantes/efeitos adversos , Teste de Caminhada
11.
Rev Mal Respir ; 37(8): 652-661, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32888730

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was previously considered as the standard diagnostic procedure to investigate pneumonia occurring in immunocompromised patients, and it is probably still widely used. However, the development of new microbiological diagnostic tools, applicable to samples obtained non-invasively, leads to questioning of the predominant place of BAL in this situation. BACKGROUND: The available studies agree on the acceptable tolerance of BAL performed in immunocompromised patients. Although imperfect, the diagnostic yield of BAL in immunocompromised patients is well established, but it may vary between studies depending on the underlying disease. However, it must also be compared to the yield of non-invasive microbiological tools, now widely available and effective. The position of BAL remains important both for the diagnosis of fungal infections (invasive aspergillosis, pneumocystis pneumonia) and non-infectious lung diseases both of which occur frequently in immunocompromised patients. CONCLUSION: The place of BAL in the diagnostic work-up of pneumonia occurring in immunocompromised patients must be considered in the framework of a structured consideration, taking into account the diagnostic performance of non invasive microbiological tests and the broad spectrum of lung diseases occurring in this context.


Assuntos
Lavagem Broncoalveolar , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido , Pneumonia/diagnóstico , Lavagem Broncoalveolar/métodos , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/química , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/microbiologia , Broncoscopia/métodos , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Pneumonia/etiologia , Pneumonia/imunologia , Pneumonia/microbiologia , Pneumonia por Pneumocystis/diagnóstico , Pneumonia por Pneumocystis/microbiologia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes
12.
Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi ; 22(9): 984-989, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32933631

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To study the influencing factors for the clinical effect of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) in children with Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia (MPP) and atelectasis. METHODS: A total of 75 children with MPP and atelectasis were divided into a good response group with 51 children and a poor response group with 24 children according to the clinical effect of BAL treatment. LASSO logistic regression analysis was used to investigate the factors influencing the clinical effect of BAL treatment. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve and restricted cubic spline model analysis were used to evaluate the value of the course of the disease at the time of BAL treatment in predicting the clinical effect of BAL treatment. RESULTS: Compared with the good response group, the poor response group had a significantly lower percentage of lymphocytes in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, a significantly higher proportion of children with atelectasis of two or more lung lobes or stenosis of the bronchial cavity or opening caused by inflammation, and a significantly longer course of the disease at the time of BAL treatment and azithromycin treatment (P<0.05). The LASSO logistic regression analysis showed that a prolonged course of the disease at the time of BAL treatment (OR=1.23), atelectasis of two or more lung lobes (OR=11.99), and stenosis of the bronchial cavity or opening caused by inflammation (OR=5.31) were independent risk factors for poor clinical effect of BAL treatment (P<0.05). The ROC curve analysis showed that the course of disease of ≥11.5 days at the time of BAL treatment suggested a poor clinical effect of BAL treatment, with a sensitivity of 91.7% and a specificity of 54.9%. The restricted cubic spline model analysis showed that there was a non-linear dose-response relationship between the course of disease at the time of BAL treatment and the clinical effect of BAL treatment (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Early BAL treatment may have a good clinical effect in children with MPP and atelectasis. Atelectasis of two or more lung lobes and inflammation-induced stenosis of the bronchial cavity or opening shown under bronchoscope may indicate a poor clinical effect of BAL treatment.


Assuntos
Pneumonia por Mycoplasma , Atelectasia Pulmonar , Lavagem Broncoalveolar , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar , Criança , Humanos , Mycoplasma pneumoniae
18.
Physiol Meas ; 41(8): 085008, 2020 09 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32736369

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Patients with the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) often have airway secretions that severely compromise ventilation. This study investigates electrical impedance tomography (EIT) monitoring of a therapeutic bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) in a patient with COVID-19. APPROACH: A patient with COVID-19 developed acute respiratory distress syndrome requiring mechanical ventilation. He received regional BAL to remove mucus in the small airways (20 ml × 5). Regional ventilation changes before BAL, 30 min after and in the following days, were monitored with EIT. MAIN RESULTS: Regional ventilation worsened shortly after BAL and improved in the following days. The improvement of the oxygenation did not exactly match the ventilation improvement, which indicated a possible ventilation/perfusion mismatch. SIGNIFICANCE: Therapeutic BAL might improve regional ventilation for COVID-19 and EIT could be a useful tool at the bedside to monitor the ventilation treatment of COVID-19.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Lavagem Broncoalveolar/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Impedância Elétrica/uso terapêutico , Monitorização Fisiológica/métodos , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Respiração Artificial/métodos , Idoso , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico por imagem , /etiologia , Tomografia/métodos
19.
Life Sci ; 261: 118257, 2020 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32822712

RESUMO

AIMS: The aim of this study was to verify the impact of periodontitis in the course of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in C57Bl/6J mice. MAIN METHODS: The animals were randomly divided into four groups (n = 8): Basal, Periodontitis (P), COPD and COPD+P. COPD was induced by orotracheal instillation of 30 µl of cigarette extract 3 times/week for 7 weeks. Periodontitis was induced by ligation technique for 22 days. Euthanasia was performed on 51st day. The analyzes were total/differential cells and cytokines recovered from bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), total/differential blood cell count, platelets, total marrow cell count, airway collagen deposition, alveolar enlargement analyzed by mean linear intercept (Lm), mucus and bone crest reabsorption. One-way ANOVA followed by the Student-Newman-Keuls was used. KEY FINDINGS: The association COPD+P decreased macrophages (p = 0,0351), TNF-α (p = 0,0071) and INF-γ (p = 0,0004) in BAL, when compared to the COPD group maintaining emphysema levels by alveolar enlargement (p < .05) reorganization of collagen fibers (p = .001) and also mean linear intercept (lm) (p = .001) and mucus (p = .0001). The periodontitis group caused TNF-α increase (p = 0, 0001) in BAL. SIGNIFICANCE: Periodontitis, per se, does not alter any of the parameters analyzed, except for increased TNF-α in BAL. However, its association with COPD caused macrophages TNF-α and INF-γ alterations, when compared to the COPD group maintaining emphysema levels by alveolar enlargement and reorganization of collagen fibers. It seems that periodontitis is influencing the course of Th1 profile cell, and cytokines and pulmonary alterations. Further studies are needed to clarify the regulatory process underlying these two diseases.


Assuntos
Citocinas/metabolismo , Inflamação/patologia , Periodontite/complicações , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/fisiopatologia , Animais , Lavagem Broncoalveolar , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Macrófagos/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Enfisema Pulmonar/fisiopatologia , Distribuição Aleatória , Células Th1/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
20.
Klin Lab Diagn ; 65(7): 454-457, 2020 Jun 04.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32762185

RESUMO

The aim of the work was to determine and compare the structure of microorganisms isolated from bronchoalveolar lavage from patients in the ICU of Clinics in 2016 and 2019. This work presents the results of a bacteriological examination of 229 samples from 139 patients for 2016 and 387 samples from 218 patients for 2019. The predominant microorganism in 2016 was Acinetobacter baumanii - 75 (26.2%). Less common were Klebsiella pneumoniae - 55 (19.2%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa - 35 (12.2%), Escherichia coli - 19 (6.6%). In 2019, the prevailing microorganism was K.pneumoniae - 158 (19.1%). As in 2016, A.baumanii - 115 (13.9%) and P. aeruginosa - 57 (6.9%) were most often found, but unlike 2016, in 2019 there was a high incidence of such pathogens as Enterococcus faecalis - 52 (6.3%), Candida albicans - 43 (5.2%), Staphylococcus aureus and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia - 40 (4.8%). One of the features is the presence of polymicrobial associations. In 2016, microorganisms isolated in monoculture predominated (53.4%), while in 2019 the frequency of occurrence of monocultures decreased and amounted to 24.7%. At the same time, a two-component association prevailed (31.5%). Thus, in ICU it is necessary to regularly monitor nosocomial pathogens not only to make the right decision when choosing antimicrobial therapy, but also to identify new potential nosocomial pathogens.


Assuntos
Lavagem Broncoalveolar , Infecção Hospitalar , Klebsiella pneumoniae , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Irrigação Terapêutica , Antibacterianos , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Klebsiella pneumoniae/isolamento & purificação , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/isolamento & purificação , Staphylococcus aureus
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