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1.
Planta ; 254(3): 54, 2021 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34410495

RESUMO

MAIN CONCLUSION: The expression of full-length cDNAs encoding lavender AGAMOUS-like (LaAG-like) and SEPALLATA3-like (LaSEP3-like) transcription factors induces early flowering and impacts the leaf morphology at a strong expression level in Arabidopsis. Lavandula angustifolia is widely cultivated as an ornamental plant due to its attractive flower structure, and as a source of valuable essential oils for use in cosmetics, alternative medicines, and culinary products. We recently employed RNA-Seq and transcript profiling to describe a number of transcription factors (TFs) that potentially control flower development in this plant. In this study, we investigated the roles of two TFs, LaAGAMOUS-like (LaAG-like) and LaSEPALLATA3-like (LaSEP3-like), that exhibited substantial homology to Arabidopsis thaliana floral development genes, AGAMOUS and SEPALLATA3, respectively, in flowering initiation in Arabidopsis. We stably and constitutively expressed LaAG-like and LaSEP3-like cDNAs in separate Arabidopsis plants. All transgenic plants flowered earlier than the wild-type controls. However, plants that modestly overexpressed the gene were phenotypically normal, while those that strongly expressed the transgene developed curly leaves. We also assessed the expression of five endogenous flowering time regulating genes, from which high expression of Flowering Locus T (AtFT) mRNA in both LaAG-like (type-I and -II) and LaSEP3-like (type-I), and Leafy (AtLFY) mRNAs in LaSEP3-like (type-I) transgenic plants were detected, compared to wild-type controls. Our results suggest that with controlled expression, lavender AG-like and SEP3-like genes are potentially useful for the regulation of flowering time in commercial lavender species, and could be used for plant improvement studies through molecular genetics and targeted breeding programs.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis , Arabidopsis , Lavandula , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Flores/genética , Flores/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Lavandula/metabolismo , Proteínas de Domínio MADS/genética , Melhoramento Vegetal , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/metabolismo , Proteínas Repressoras
2.
Chem Biodivers ; 17(11): e2000532, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32965746

RESUMO

This study presented a micromorphological and phytochemical survey on Lavandula dentata L. cultivated at the Ghirardi Botanic Garden (Toscolano Maderno, BS, Italy). The morphological investigation revealed the presence of peltate, short- and medium-stalked capitate trichomes. The histochemical survey showed terpene production by peltates and medium-stalked capitates, hydrophilic secretions by short-stalked capitates. The phytochemical survey was developed on leaf and flower volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and on the essential oil (EO) from the flowering aerial parts. The VOC profiles represented an element of novelty and were dominated by oxygenated monoterpenes, among which 1,8-cineole and ß-pinene were the most abundant (77.40 %, 7.11 % leaves; 81.08 %, 10.46 % flowers). The EO of L. dentata was dominated by oxygenated monoterpenes with a high percentage of 1,8-cineole (69.08 %), followed by ß-pinene, trans-pinocarveol and myrtenal. Evaluations about the ecological role, the potential biological activity and the sensory attributes were proposed, based on literature contributions.


Assuntos
Lavandula/química , Óleos Voláteis/análise , Tricomas/química , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Flores/química , Flores/metabolismo , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Itália , Lavandula/metabolismo , Óleos Voláteis/química , Óleos Voláteis/isolamento & purificação , Folhas de Planta/anatomia & histologia , Folhas de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Microextração em Fase Sólida , Terpenos/análise , Terpenos/química , Terpenos/isolamento & purificação , Tricomas/metabolismo , Tricomas/ultraestrutura , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/química , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/isolamento & purificação
3.
Plant Physiol ; 183(4): 1638-1649, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32404411

RESUMO

In the context of climate change, determining the physiological mechanisms of drought-induced mortality in woody plants and identifying thresholds of drought survivorship will improve forecasts of forest and agroecosystem die-off. Here, we tested whether continuous measurements of branch diameter variation can be used to identify thresholds of hydraulic failure and physiological recoverability in lavender (Lavandula angustifolia and Lavandula × intermedia) plants exposed to severe drought. Two parameters of branch diameter variation were tested: the percentage loss of diameter and the percentage loss of rehydration capacity. In two greenhouse experiments with different growth conditions, we monitored variation in branch diameter in the two lavender species exposed to a series of drought/rewatering cycles that varied in drought-stress intensity. Water potential, stomatal conductance, loss of xylem hydraulic conductance, and electrolyte leakage were also measured. We observed that plants were not able to recover when percentage loss of diameter reached maximum values of 21.3% ± 0.6% during drought, regardless of species and growth conditions. A percentage loss of rehydration capacity of 100% was defined as the point of no recovery, and was observed with high levels of cellular damage as estimated by electrolyte leakage measured at 75.4% ± 9.3% and occurred beyond 88% loss of xylem hydraulic conductance. Our study demonstrates that lavender plants are not able to recover from severe drought when they have used up their elastic water storage. Additionally, drought-induced mortality in these species was not linked to xylem hydraulic failure but rather to high levels of cell damage.


Assuntos
Secas , Lavandula/anatomia & histologia , Lavandula/fisiologia , Eletrólitos/metabolismo , Lavandula/metabolismo , Xilema/anatomia & histologia , Xilema/metabolismo , Xilema/fisiologia
4.
Metabolomics ; 16(3): 31, 2020 02 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32103392

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Fine lavender and lavandin are perfume and medicinal plants originate from the South of France and are widely cultivated for their essential oils. Recently, cultivated plants suffered from a severe decline in France, due to the propagation of the yellow decline disease. This disease is caused by the stolbur phytoplasma, a bacterium transmitted by a sap-sucking insect, the planthopper. OBJECTIVES: In order to understand the complex relationships between host plant, pest, pathogen and environment responsible for the yellow decline of lavender, we use a metabolomic approach to highlight changes in chemical emissions from asymptomatic ("healthy") and symptomatic ("infected") plants. METHODS: Volatile compounds produced by fine lavender and lavandin were collected in the field using a dynamic headspace extraction approach. Afterwards, compounds trapped on Tenax adsorbent were thermodesorbed and analysed using an automated thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (ATD-GC-MS). Multivariate statistical analyses was performed using principal component analysis and partial least square discriminant analyses. RESULTS: The untargeted screening of volatiles allowed the separation of asymptomatic and symptomatic plants according to their emissions. The approach was sufficiently accurate so as to separate the emissions according to the different stages of infection. Twelve compounds were found to be deregulated metabolites of yellow disease infection, common to fine lavender (variety 7713) and lavandin (variety abrial). CONCLUSION: The metabolomic approach allowed for the effective identification of chemical variations between infected and healthy plants in a complex field environment.


Assuntos
Lavandula/química , Metabolômica , Doenças das Plantas , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/metabolismo , Análise Discriminante , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Lavandula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Lavandula/metabolismo , Análise de Componente Principal , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise
5.
Planta ; 251(2): 41, 2020 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31907678

RESUMO

MAIN CONCLUSION: Using RNA-Seq, we identified genes involved in floral development in lavenders and functionally characterized the floral repressor LaSVP. The molecular aspects of flower initiation and development have not been adequately investigated in lavender (Lavandula). In order to identify genes that control these processes, we employed RNA-Seq to obtain sequence information for transcripts originating from the vegetative shoot apical meristem (SAM) and developing inflorescence tissues of Lavandula angustifolia and Lavandula × intermedia plants, and assemble a comprehensive transcriptome of 105,294 contigs. Homology-based annotation provided gene ontology terms for the majority of transcripts, including over 100 genes homologous to those that control flower initiation and organ identity in Arabidopsis thaliana. Expression analysis revealed that most of these genes are differentially expressed during flower development. For example, LaSVP, a homolog of the floral repressor SHORT VEGETATIVE PHASE (SVP), was strongly expressed in vegetative SAM compared to developing flowers, implicating its potential involvement in flowering repression in lavender. To investigate LaSVP further, we constitutively expressed the gene in transformed A. thaliana plants, evaluating its effects on flower initiation and morphology. Expression of the LaSVP in A. thaliana delayed flowering and affected flower organ identity in a dosage-dependent manner. Two of the highest expressing lines produced sepals instead of petals and were sterile as they failed to develop proper seed pods. This study provides the foundation for future investigations aimed at elucidating flower initiation and development in lavender.


Assuntos
Flores/metabolismo , Lavandula/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Flores/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/fisiologia , Lavandula/genética , Meristema/genética , Meristema/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/metabolismo
6.
Planta ; 251(1): 5, 2019 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31776766

RESUMO

MAIN CONCLUSION: We cloned eight transcription factors that activate lavender monoterpene synthase promoters. In this study, we employed the Yeast One-Hybrid (Y1H) assay system to identify transcription factors that control promoters for two Lavandula × intermedia monoterpene synthase genes, linalool synthase (LiLINS) and 1,8-cineole synthase (LiCINS). The bait sequences used in the assay were either a 768-bp LiLINS, or a 1087-bp LiCINS promoter. The prey included proteins expressed in L. × intermedia floral tissue. The assay identified 96 sequences encoding proteins that interacted with one or both promoters. To explore the nature of this interaction, the LiLINS and LiCINS promoter fragments were each fused to the E. coli gusA (GUS) reporter gene. The constructs were separately transformed into tobacco (Nicotiana benthamiana) leaves co-expressing individually a subset of ten representative transcription factors (TFs) predicted to control these promoters. Six TFs induced expression from both promoters, two activated LiCINS promoter alone, and two did not induce expression from either promoter. The TFs identified in this study belong to various groups including those containing conserved domains typical of MYB, bZIP, NAC, GeBP and SBP-related proteins.


Assuntos
Lavandula/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/fisiologia , Lavandula/enzimologia , Lavandula/genética , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , Tabaco/genética , Tabaco/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
7.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 313, 2019 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31307374

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Essential oils (EOs) of Lavandula angustifolia, mainly consist of monoterpenoids and sesquiterpenoids, are of great commercial value. The multi-flower spiciform thyrse of lavender not only determines the output of EOs but also reflects an environmental adaption strategy. With the flower development and blossom in turn, the fluctuation of the volatile terpenoids displayed a regular change at each axis. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the regulation of volatile terpenoids during the process of flowering is poorly understood in lavender. Here, we combine metabolite and RNA-Seq analyses of flowers of five developmental stages at first- and second-axis (FFDSFSA) and initial flower bud (FB0) to discover the active terpenoid biosynthesis as well as flowering-related genes. RESULTS: A total of 56 mono- and sesquiterpenoids were identified in the EOs of L. angustifolia 'JX-2'. FB0' EO consists of 55 compounds and the two highest compounds, ß-trans-ocimene (20.57%) and (+)-R-limonene (17.00%), can get rid of 74.71 and 78.41% aphids in Y-tube olfactometer experiments, respectively. With sequential and successive blossoms, temporally regulated volatiles were linked to pollinator attraction in field and olfaction bioassays. In three characteristic compounds of FFDSFSA' EOs, linalyl acetate (72.73%) and lavandulyl acetate (72.09%) attracted more bees than linalool (45.35%). Many transcripts related to flowering time and volatile terpenoid metabolism expressed differently during the flower development. Similar metabolic and transcriptomic profiles were observed when florets from the two axes were maintained at the same maturity grade. Besides both compounds and differentially expressed genes were rich in FB0, most volatile compounds were significantly correlated with FB0-specific gene module. Most key regulators related to flowering and terpenoid metabolism were interconnected in the subnetwork of FB0-specific module, suggesting the cross-talk between the two biological processes to some degree. CONCLUSIONS: Characteristic compounds and gene expression profile of FB0 exhibit ecological value in pest control. The precise control of each-axis flowering and regular emissions at transcriptional and metabolic level are important to pollinators attraction for lavender. Our study sheds new light on lavender maximizes its fitness from "gene-volatile terpenoid-insect" three layers.


Assuntos
Flores/genética , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Lavandula/genética , Terpenos/metabolismo , Acetatos/metabolismo , Animais , Ecossistema , Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Flores/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Insetos , Lavandula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Lavandula/metabolismo , Monoterpenos/metabolismo , Odorantes , Óleos Voláteis/metabolismo , Óleos Vegetais/metabolismo , Polinização , RNA de Plantas , Análise de Sequência de RNA
8.
Chem Biodivers ; 16(8): e1900280, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31211502

RESUMO

A headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) method combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) was developed and optimized for the extraction and the analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from lavandin and fine lavender roots. Optimal parameters to extract volatile molecules from ground and intact roots were determined using a divinylbenzene-carboxen-polydimethylsiloxane (DVB/CAR/PDMS) coating fiber at 70 °C for 60 min. A total of 99 VOCs, including 40 monoterpenoids, 15 sesquiterpenoids, 1 diterpenoid and 2 coumarins were detected. The main compounds detected in lavandin roots were fenchol, borneol, and coumarin. Performances of the optimized SPME GC/MS method were evaluated via the comparison of VOC emissions between roots from different cultivars of fine lavender (7713 and maillette) and lavandin (abrial and grosso). Chemometric analysis, using partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), suggests fifteen significant features as potential discriminatory compounds. Among them, ß-phellandrene allows discrimination between lavender and lavandin varieties.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Lavandula/química , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Análise Discriminante , Lavandula/metabolismo , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Extratos Vegetais/química , Raízes de Plantas/química , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Microextração em Fase Sólida , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/isolamento & purificação
9.
Planta ; 249(1): 251-256, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30269192

RESUMO

MAIN CONCLUSION: The first draft genome for a member of the genus Lavandula is described. This 870 Mbp genome assembly is composed of over 688 Mbp of non-gap sequences comprising 62,141 protein-coding genes. Lavenders (Lavandula: Lamiaceae) are economically important plants widely grown around the world for their essential oils (EOs), which contribute to the cosmetic, personal hygiene, and pharmaceutical industries. To better understand the genetic mechanisms involved in EO production, identify genes involved in important biological processes, and find genetic markers for plant breeding, we generated the first de novo draft genome assembly for L. angustifolia (Maillette). This high-quality draft reveals a moderately repeated (> 48% repeated elements) 870 Mbp genome, composed of over 688 Mbp of non-gap sequences in 84,291 scaffolds with an N50 value of 96,735 bp. The genome contains 62,141 protein-coding genes and 2003 RNA-coding genes, with a large proportion of genes showing duplications, possibly reflecting past genome polyploidization. The draft genome contains full-length coding sequences for all genes involved in both cytosolic and plastidial pathways of isoprenoid metabolism, and all terpene synthase genes previously described from lavenders. Of particular interest is the observation that the genome contains a high copy number (14 and 7, respectively) of DXS (1-deoxyxylulose-5-phosphate synthase) and HDR (4-hydroxy-3-methylbut-2-enyl diphosphate reductase) genes, encoding the two known regulatory steps in the plastidial isoprenoid biosynthetic pathway. The latter generates precursors for the production of monoterpenes, the most abundant essential oil constituents in lavender. Furthermore, the draft genome contains a variety of monoterpene synthase genes, underlining the production of several monoterpene essential oil constituents in lavender. Taken together, these findings indicate that the genome of L. angustifolia is highly duplicated and optimized for essential oil production.


Assuntos
Lavandula/metabolismo , Óleos Voláteis/metabolismo , Terpenos/metabolismo , Lavandula/genética
10.
Planta ; 249(1): 271-290, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29948128

RESUMO

MAIN CONCLUSION: Using RNA-Seq, we cloned and characterized a unique monoterpene synthase responsible for the formation of a scent-determining S-linalool constituent of lavender oils from Lavandula × intermedia. Several species of Lavandula produce essential oils (EOs) consisting mainly of monoterpenes including linalool, one of the most abundant and scent-determining oil constituents. Although R-linalool dominates the EOs of lavenders, varying amounts (depending on the species) of the S-linalool enantiomer can also be found in these plants. Despite its relatively low abundance, S-linalool contributes a sweet, pleasant scent and is an important constituent of lavender EOs. While several terpene synthase genes including R-linalool synthase have been cloned from lavenders many important terpene synthases including S-linalool synthase have not been described from these plants. In this study, we employed RNA-Seq and other complementary sequencing data to clone and functionally characterize the sparsely expressed S-linalool synthase cDNA (LiS-LINS) from Lavandula × intermedia. Recombinant LiS-LINS catalyzed the conversion of the universal monoterpene precursor geranyl diphosphate to S-linalool as the sole product. Intriguingly, LiS-LINS exhibited very low (~ 30%) sequence similarity to other Lavandula terpene synthases, including R-linalool synthase. However, the predicted 3D structure of this protein, including the composition and arrangement of amino acids at the active site, is highly homologous to known terpene synthase proteins. LiS-LINS transcripts were detected in flowers, but were much less abundant than those corresponding to LiR-LINS, paralleling enantiomeric composition of linalool in L. × intermedia oils. These data indicate that production of S-linalool is at least partially controlled at the level of transcription from LiS-LINS. The cloned LiS-LINS cDNA may be used to enhance oil composition in lavenders and other plants through metabolic engineering.


Assuntos
Alquil e Aril Transferases/metabolismo , Hidroliases/metabolismo , Lavandula/metabolismo , Odorantes , Óleos Voláteis/metabolismo
11.
Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand) ; 64(14): 1-7, 2018 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30511615

RESUMO

Medicinal and aromatic plants play a significant role in drug discovery. Lavandula stoechas L. has been used as folk medicine to treat various diseases. The aim of this work is to investigate the phytochemisty of Lavandula stoechas with biological activities. An aerial part of the plant was extracted with methanol. Another sample of plant was boiled in water then aqueous part was extracted with ethyl acetate. Identification and quantification of phenolic compounds, organic acids and flavonoids in methanol extract were carried out by High Performance Liquid Chromatography/Time of Flight/Mass Spectrometry, HPLC-TOF/MS. Rosmarinic acid was found as a chief compound (80.9%). The essential oil was generated by steam distillation and identified by GC-MS. The main constituents were camphor (48.1%) and fenchone (30.5%). The essential oil exhibited good insecticidal activity on Sitophilus granarius and Sitophilus oryzae pests as 43.3% and 62.9% mortality, respectively. However, the methanol extract has only insecticidal activity against S. granaries (50.0%). The antioxidant activities were investigated using assays of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH•) radical scavenging, reducing power (FRAP), and 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonate) (ABTS•+) radical scavenging on both extracts. In addition, total phenolic contents were determined. Total phenolic content of EtOAc extract was found as 2.18 g GAE (Gallic acid equivalent) phenolic compounds/kg plant. Whereas, total phenolic of methanol was 3.33 g GAE/kg plant. EtOAc extract revealed the considerable DPPH• scavenging, ABTS•+ scavenging and reducing power activities with the values of 28.71 (IC50, µg/ml), 8.72 (IC50, µg/ml) and 6.99 (µmol trolox equivalent/mg extract) respectively.


Assuntos
Lavandula/metabolismo , Metaboloma , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Besouros/efeitos dos fármacos , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Óleos Voláteis/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Padrões de Referência
12.
Am J Bot ; 105(4): 741-748, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29727470

RESUMO

PREMISE OF THE STUDY: The ecological and evolutionary significance of natural epigenetic variation (i.e., not based on DNA sequence variants) variation will depend critically on whether epigenetic states are transmitted from parents to offspring, but little is known on epigenetic inheritance in nonmodel plants. METHODS: We present a quantitative analysis of transgenerational transmission of global DNA cytosine methylation (= proportion of all genomic cytosines that are methylated) and individual epigenetic markers (= methylation status of anonymous MSAP markers) in the shrub Lavandula latifolia. Methods based on parent-offspring correlations and parental variance component estimation were applied to epigenetic features of field-growing plants ('maternal parents') and greenhouse-grown progenies. Transmission of genetic markers (AFLP) was also assessed for reference. KEY RESULTS: Maternal parents differed significantly in global DNA cytosine methylation (range = 21.7-36.7%). Greenhouse-grown maternal families differed significantly in global methylation, and their differences were significantly related to maternal origin. Methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP) markers exhibited significant transgenerational transmission, as denoted by significant maternal variance component of marker scores in greenhouse families and significant mother-offspring correlations of marker scores. CONCLUSIONS: Although transmission-related measurements for global methylation and MSAP markers were quantitatively lower than those for AFLP markers taken as reference, this study has revealed extensive transgenerational transmission of genome-wide global cytosine methylation and anonymous epigenetic markers in L. latifolia. Similarity of results for global cytosine methylation and epigenetic markers lends robustness to this conclusion, and stresses the value of considering both types of information in epigenetic studies of nonmodel plants.


Assuntos
Citosina/metabolismo , Metilação de DNA , Epigênese Genética , Lavandula/genética , Metilação de DNA/genética , Epigênese Genética/genética , Marcadores Genéticos/genética , Variação Genética/genética , Lavandula/metabolismo
13.
Sci Total Environ ; 622-623: 655-663, 2018 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29223892

RESUMO

A procedure based on microwave assisted extraction for the determination of 6 pharmaceuticals in samples of Lavandula dentata, Salicornia ramosissima and Juncus sp. by liquid chromatography-quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry (LC-QTOF/MS) was optimized and validated. Best results were obtained using microwave assisted extraction of 1.0g of homogeneous lyophilized samples and 5mL of a mixture ACN:H2O (1:1 v/v) as extracting solvent. Analytical recoveries ranged from 60 to 107% with relative standard deviation (RSD) lower than 15%. Limits of quantitation (LOQ) for the 6 pharmaceuticals flumequine (FLM), carbamazepine (CBZ), ciprofloxacin (CPR), enrofloxacin (ENR), diclofenac (DCL), and ibuprofen (IBU) were in the range 20.8-125ngg-1. The method was satisfactory applied for an uptake study in Lavandula dentata samples finding quantifying concentrations of FLM and CBZ in roots, leaf and stem.


Assuntos
Lavandula/metabolismo , Preparações Farmacêuticas/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida , Espectrometria de Massas
14.
J Plant Physiol ; 192: 1-12, 2016 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26796423

RESUMO

This study evaluates the responses of Lavandula dentata under drought conditions to the inoculation with single autochthonous arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus (five fungal strains) or with their mixture and the effects of these inocula with a native Bacillus thuringiensis (endophytic bacteria). These microorganisms were drought tolerant and in general, increased plant growth and nutrition. Particularly, the AM fungal mixture and B. thuringiensis maximized plant biomass and compensated drought stress as values of antioxidant activities [superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase APX)] shown. The AMF-bacteria interactions highly reduced the plant oxidative damage of lipids [malondialdehyde (MDA)] and increased the mycorrhizal development (mainly arbuscular formation representative of symbiotic functionality). These microbial interactions explain the highest potential of dually inoculated plants to tolerate drought stress. B. thuringiensis "in vitro" under osmotic stress does not reduce its PGPB (plant growth promoting bacteria) abilities as indole acetic acid (IAA) and ACC deaminase production and phosphate solubilization indicating its capacity to improve plant growth under stress conditions. Each one of the autochthonous fungal strains maintained their particular interaction with B. thuringiensis reflecting the diversity, intrinsic abilities and inherent compatibility of these microorganisms. In general, autochthonous AM fungal species and particularly their mixture with B. thuringiensis demonstrated their potential for protecting plants against drought and helping plants to thrive in semiarid ecosystems.


Assuntos
Bacillus thuringiensis/fisiologia , Lavandula/microbiologia , Micorrizas/fisiologia , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Biomassa , Desidratação , Secas , Lavandula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Lavandula/metabolismo , Lavandula/ultraestrutura , Micorrizas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Estresse Oxidativo , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia , Raízes de Plantas/ultraestrutura , Brotos de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Brotos de Planta/metabolismo , Brotos de Planta/microbiologia , Brotos de Planta/ultraestrutura , Simbiose
15.
J Korean Acad Nurs ; 46(6): 769-779, 2016 Dec.
Artigo em Coreano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28077825

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study was an experimental study to compare the inhalation effects of aroma essential oil on the quality of sleep (QOS) for shift nurses after working nights. METHODS: The participants were 60 healthy adults who didn't have any disease. As an experimental treatment, the participants in the experimental group were asked to inhale essential oil for 3 minutes at a distance of approximately 10 cm fromt heir nose and then they were asked to sleep with the aroma stone beside their head (within a 30 cm distance). QOS were measured four times on Pretest, Day 1, Day 2, and Day 3 after they slept. To measure QOS, Perceived QOS (Numeric Rating Scale), the Verran & Synder-Halpern (VSH) Sleep Scale were used, and number of awakenings (NoA) was measured by Actigraph. RESULTS: There were no significant differences in the homogeneity tests for general characteristics and dependent variables prior to the experiments, except for VSH of subjective sleep quality. Also, there was no significant interaction between group and time. The VSH of the experimental group was higher than the control group (F=6.39, p=.002). The NoA between the experimental group and the control group was significantly different after experimental treatment 3rd day (F=13.35, p=.001). CONCLUSION: The findings show that the inhalation of aroma essential oil had effects to increase the quality of sleep. Therefore, the inhalation of aroma essential oil could be applied to general nursing interventions to improve the quality of sleep.


Assuntos
Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros , Óleos Voláteis/uso terapêutico , Privação do Sono/tratamento farmacológico , Tolerância ao Trabalho Programado , Adulto , Aromaterapia , Feminino , Humanos , Inalação , Lavandula/química , Lavandula/metabolismo , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
16.
Nat Prod Res ; 30(5): 608-12, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25868521

RESUMO

Herbs adapted to diverse climates exhibit distinct variability to fluctuating temperatures and demonstrate various metabolic and physiological adaptations to harsh environments. In this research, Rumex dentatus L. and Lavandula officinalis L. were collected before snowfall in September-November to evaluate variability in major phytoconstituents to diverse seasonal regime. LC-MS was used for simultaneous determination of eight anthraquinone derivatives in R. dentatus, i.e. emodin, physcion, chrysophanol, physcion glucoside, endocrocin, emodin glucoside, chrysophanol glucoside and chromone derivatives and monoterpenes in L. officinalis i.e. (Z)-ß-ocimene, (E)-ß-ocimene, terpene alcohol, terpin-4-ol, acetate ester-linalyl acetate and bicyclic sesquiterpene (E)-caryophyllene. The correlation analysis confirmed significant variation in anthraquinone glucoside and terpene content within Rumex and Lavender, respectively, and altitude was established as the determinant factor in secondary metabolism of both herbs. The study concludes the propagation of herbs in bioclimatic belts which favour accumulation of major constituents and validate their greater pharmacological activity.


Assuntos
Antraquinonas/metabolismo , Lavandula/metabolismo , Rumex/metabolismo , Estações do Ano , Terpenos/metabolismo , Adaptação Fisiológica , Clima , Índia , Temperatura
17.
Nat Prod Commun ; 10(7): 1269-72, 2015 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26411027

RESUMO

Lavandin is a well-known aromatic plant cultivated mainly for its valuable essential oil. Nonetheless, little attention has been paid so far to the quantification of other natural products such as polyphenols. Accordingly, we examined the effect of increasing doses of UV-B radiation on the main phenolic content, antioxidant activity and estimated biomass of one year old lavandin pots compared with pots grown outdoors. Significantly higher total phenolic content and concentration of main polyphenols have been found in outdoor plants. Rosmarinic acid has been described as the major phenolic compound in methanolic extracts (max. 25.9 ± 9.7 mg/g(-1) DW). Furthermore, we found that increasing doses of UV-B promote the plant growth of this species as well as the accumulation of phenolic compounds although with less antioxidant capacity in scavenging DPPH radicals. On the other hand, our results showed a remarkable variability among individual plants regarding the content of major phenolic acids. The application of UV-B doses during plant growth could be a method to promote biomass in this species along with the promotion of higher content of valuable secondary metabolites.


Assuntos
Cinamatos/metabolismo , Lavandula/efeitos da radiação , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Biomassa , Lavandula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Lavandula/metabolismo , Raios Ultravioleta
18.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 95: 113-20, 2015 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26254184

RESUMO

The metabolic cross-talk between the mevalonate (MVA) and the methylerythritol phosphate (MEP) pathways in developing spike lavender (Lavandula latifolia Med) was analyzed using specific inhibitors and on the basis of (13)C-labeling experiments. The presence of mevinolin (MEV), an inhibitor of the MVA pathway, at concentrations higher than 0.5 µM significantly reduced plant development, but not the synthesis of chlorophylls and carotenoids. On the other hand, fosmidomycin (FSM), an inhibitor of the MEP pathway, at concentrations higher than 20 µM blocked the synthesis of chlorophyll, carotenoids and essential oils, and significantly reduced stem development. Notably, 1.2 mM MVA could recover the phenotype of MEV-treated plants, including the normal growth and development of roots, and could partially restore the biosynthesis of photosynthetic pigments and, to a lesser extent, of the essential oils in plantlets treated with FSM. Spike lavender shoot apices were also used in (13)C-labeling experiments, where the plantlets were grown in the presence of [U-(13)C6]glucose. GC-MS-analysis of 1,8-cineole and camphor indicated that the C5-precursors, isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) and dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP) of both monoterpenes are predominantly biosynthesized via the methylerythritol phosphate (MEP) pathway. However, on the basis of the isotopologue profiles, a minor contribution of the MVA pathway was evident that was increased in transgenic spike lavender plants overexpressing the 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase (HMGR), the first enzyme of the MVA pathway. Together, these findings provide evidence for a transport of MVA-derived precursors from the cytosol to the plastids in leaves of spike lavender.


Assuntos
Lavandula/metabolismo , Brotos de Planta/metabolismo , Terpenos/metabolismo , Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA-Redutases NADP-Dependentes/genética , Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA-Redutases NADP-Dependentes/metabolismo , Lavandula/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Brotos de Planta/genética
19.
J Korean Acad Nurs ; 45(3): 367-77, 2015 Jun.
Artigo em Coreano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26159138

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of essential oil on oxidative stress, immunity, and skin condition in atopic dermatitis (AD) induced mice. METHODS: This study was a 3×3 factorial design. Factors were oil type (Lavender, Thyme, and 2:1 mixture of lavender and thyme oil [blending oil]) and treatment period (0 day, 7 days, and 21 days). The samples were 45 mice with AD and randomly assigned to nine groups of five mice per group. The dependent variables such as superoxide radical, IgE, degranulated mast cells, and epidermal thickness were measured. Data were collected from February to April in 2014. Descriptive statistics, One-way ANOVA, Two-way ANOVA, and Tukey's HSD test were performed using the SPSS WIN 20.0 program. RESULTS: Dependent variables were not statistically significantly different by the three oil types (p>.05). Essential oils such as lavender, thyme, and blending oil were all effective in reducing AD symptoms and especially 2:1 blending oil were most effective. There were statistically significant differences by the three treatment periods in all dependent variables (p<.001). There were statistically significant interactions between oil types and treatment periods in all dependent variables (p<.01). For decreasing superoxide radical, degranulated mast cells, and epidermal thickness, 2:1 mixed oil should be applied for at least 21 days. Otherwise to reduce IgE, 2:1 mixed oil should be used for at least 7 days. CONCLUSION: These findings provide bases for developing effective interventions for AD patients to manage their AD symptoms.


Assuntos
Dermatite Atópica/tratamento farmacológico , Imunidade , Lavandula/química , Estresse Oxidativo , Óleos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Thymus (Planta)/química , Animais , Dermatite Atópica/induzido quimicamente , Dermatite Atópica/patologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Imunidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Imunoglobulina E/sangue , Lavandula/metabolismo , Mastócitos/citologia , Mastócitos/metabolismo , Camundongos , Óleos Voláteis/química , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Óleos Voláteis/uso terapêutico , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Cloreto de Picrila/toxicidade , Óleos Vegetais/química , Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia , Oxigênio Singlete/metabolismo , Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Pele/patologia , Thymus (Planta)/metabolismo
20.
Metab Eng ; 23: 136-44, 2014 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24685653

RESUMO

Transgenic Lavandula latifolia plants overexpressing the linalool synthase (LIS) gene from Clarkia breweri, encoding the LIS enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of linalool were generated. Most of these plants increased significantly their linalool content as compared to controls, especially in the youngest leaves, where a linalool increase up to a 1000% was observed. The phenotype of increased linalool content observed in young leaves was maintained in those T1 progenies that inherit the LIS transgene, although this phenotype was less evident in the flower essential oil. Cross-pollination of transgenic spike lavender plants allowed the generation of double transgenic plants containing the DXS (1-deoxy-d-xylulose-5-P synthase), coding for the first enzyme of the methyl-d-erythritol-4-phosphate pathway, and LIS genes. Both essential oil yield and linalool content in double DXS-LIS transgenic plants were lower than that of their parentals, which could be due to co-suppression effects linked to the structures of the constructs used.


Assuntos
Lavandula , Monoterpenos/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Monoterpenos Acíclicos , Clarkia/enzimologia , Clarkia/genética , Eritritol/análogos & derivados , Eritritol/genética , Eritritol/metabolismo , Hidroliases/biossíntese , Hidroliases/genética , Lavandula/genética , Lavandula/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/biossíntese , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/metabolismo , Fosfatos Açúcares/genética , Fosfatos Açúcares/metabolismo , Transgenes
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