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1.
Sci Data ; 9(1): 667, 2022 11 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36329035

RESUMO

We provide the first whole genome sequences from three specimens of the mountain hare subspecies the heath hare (Lepus timidus sylvaticus), along with samples from two mountain hares (Lepus timidus timidus) and two brown hares (Lepus europaeus) from Sweden. The heath hare has a unique grey winter pelage as compared to other mountain hares (white) and brown hares (mostly brown), and face regional extinction, likely due to competitive exclusion from the non-native brown hare. Whole genome resequencing from the seven hare specimens were mapped to the Lepus timidus pseudoreference genome and used for detection of 11,363,883 polymorphic nucleotide positions. The data presented here could be useful for addressing local adaptations and conservation status of mountain hares and brown hares in Sweden, including unique subspecies.


Assuntos
Lebres , Animais , Genoma , Lebres/genética , Polimorfismo Genético , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Suécia
2.
Viruses ; 14(11)2022 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36366520

RESUMO

European brown hare syndrome (EBHS) is one of the main causes of mortality in brown hares (Lepus europaeus) and mountain hares (Lepus timidus) in Europe. Since the mid-1990s, this highly lethal and contagious plague has been widespread in many European countries, contributing to a drastic decline in the number of free-living and farmed hares. A second lagovirus, able to infect some species of hares is rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus 2 (RHDV2; GI.2) recognised in 2010, a new viral emergence of RHDV (GI.1) which is known to be responsible for haemorrhagic disease in rabbits-RHD. The aim of this study was to evaluate the current EBHS epidemiological situation on the basis of the presence of antibodies to European brown hare syndrome virus (EBHSV) and anti-RHDV2 antibodies in sera collected from free-ranging hares in Central and Southeastern Poland in 2020-2021. Additionally, studies on the presence of EBHSV and RHDV2 antigens or their genetic material in the blood and internal organs taken from brown hares between 2014 - 2021 have been carried out. The results of the serological examination showed nearly 88% of tested blood samples were positive for EBHSV antibodies. No EBHSV was identified in the examined hares using virological and molecular tests. The positive results of EBHS serological studies confirmed the circulation and maintenance of EBHSV in free-living brown hares in Poland. However, no serological, virological or molecular evidence was obtained indicating that the brown hares tested had been in contact with RHDV2.


Assuntos
Infecções por Caliciviridae , Lebres , Vírus da Doença Hemorrágica de Coelhos , Lagomorpha , Lagovirus , Animais , Coelhos , Polônia/epidemiologia , Infecções por Caliciviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Caliciviridae/veterinária , Lagovirus/genética , Vírus da Doença Hemorrágica de Coelhos/genética
4.
BMJ Open ; 12(10): e062909, 2022 10 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36307160

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Healthcare professionals (HCPs) often recommend their patients to use a specific mHealth app as part of health promotion, disease prevention and patient self-management. There has been a significant growth in the number of HCPs downloading and using mobile health (mHealth) apps. Most mHealth apps that are available in app stores employ a 'star rating' system. This is based on user feedback on an app, but is highly subjective. Thus, the identification of quality mHealth apps which are deemed fit for purpose can be a difficult task for HCPs. Currently, there is no unified, validated standard guidelines for assessment of mHealth apps for patient safety, which can be used by HCPs. The Modified Enlight Suite (MES) is a quality assessment framework designed to provide a means for HCPs to evaluate mHealth apps before they are recommended to patients. MES was adapted from the original Enlight Suite for international use through a Delphi method, followed by preliminary validation process among a population predominantly consisting of medical students. This study aims to evaluate the applicability and validity of the MES, by HCPs, in low, middle and high income country settings. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: MES will be evaluated through a mixed-method study, consisting of qualitative (focus group) and quantitative (survey instruments) research, in three target countries: Malawi (low income), South Africa (middle income) and Ireland (high income). The focus groups will be conducted through Microsoft Teams (Microsoft, Redmond, Washington, USA) and surveys will be conducted online using Qualtrics (Qualtrics International, Seattle, Washington, USA). Participants will be recruited through the help of national representatives in Malawi (Mzuzu University), South Africa (University of Fort Hare) and Ireland (University College Cork) by email invitation. Data analysis for the focus group will be by the means of thematic analysis. Data analysis for the survey will use descriptive statistics and use Cronbach alpha as an indicator of internal consistency of the MES. The construct validity of the mHealth app will be assessed by computing the confirmatory factor analysis using Amos. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The study has received ethical approval from the Social Research Ethics Committee (SREC) SREC/SOM/03092021/1 at University College Cork, Ireland, Malawi Research Ethics Committee (MREC), Malawi MZUNIREC/DOR/21/59 and Inter-Faculty Research Ethics Committee (IFREC) of University of Fort Hare (REC-2 70 710-028-RA). The results of the study will be disseminated through the internet, peer-reviewed journals and conference presentations.


Assuntos
Lebres , Aplicativos Móveis , Autogestão , Telemedicina , Humanos , Animais , Telemedicina/métodos , Inquéritos e Questionários
5.
Oecologia ; 200(3-4): 349-358, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36175692

RESUMO

Wind speed can have multifaceted effects on organisms including altering thermoregulation, locomotion, and sensory reception. While forest cover can substantially reduce wind speed at ground level, it is not known if animals living in forests show any behavioural responses to changes in wind speed. Here, we explored how three boreal forest mammals, a predator and two prey, altered their behaviour in response to average daily wind speeds during winter. We collected accelerometer data to determine wind speed effects on activity patterns and kill rates of free-ranging red squirrels (n = 144), snowshoe hares (n = 101), and Canada lynx (n = 27) in Kluane, Yukon from 2015 to 2018. All 3 species responded to increasing wind speeds by changing the time they were active, but effects were strongest in hares, which reduced daily activity by 25%, and lynx, which increased daily activity by 25%. Lynx also increased the number of feeding events by 40% on windy days. These results highlight that wind speed is an important abiotic variable that can affect behaviour, even in forested environments.


Assuntos
Lebres , Lynx , Sciuridae , Vento , Animais , Ecossistema , Lebres/fisiologia , Lynx/fisiologia , Comportamento Predatório/fisiologia , Sciuridae/fisiologia , Taiga
6.
Parasit Vectors ; 15(1): 310, 2022 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36042518

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ticks are responsible for transmitting several notable pathogens worldwide. Finland lies in a zone where two human-biting tick species co-occur: Ixodes ricinus and Ixodes persulcatus. Tick densities have increased in boreal regions worldwide during past decades, and tick-borne pathogens have been identified as one of the major threats to public health in the face of climate change. METHODS: We used species distribution modelling techniques to predict the distributions of I. ricinus and I. persulcatus, using aggregated historical data from 2014 to 2020 and new tick occurrence data from 2021. By aiming to fill the gaps in tick occurrence data, we created a new sampling strategy across Finland. We also screened for tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) and Borrelia from the newly collected ticks. Climate, land use and vegetation data, and population densities of the tick hosts were used in various combinations on four data sets to estimate tick species' distributions across mainland Finland with a 1-km resolution. RESULTS: In the 2021 survey, 89 new locations were sampled of which 25 new presences and 63 absences were found for I. ricinus and one new presence and 88 absences for I. persulcatus. A total of 502 ticks were collected and analysed; no ticks were positive for TBEV, while 56 (47%) of the 120 pools, including adult, nymph, and larva pools, were positive for Borrelia (minimum infection rate 11.2%, respectively). Our prediction results demonstrate that two combined predictor data sets based on ensemble mean models yielded the highest predictive accuracy for both I. ricinus (AUC = 0.91, 0.94) and I. persulcatus (AUC = 0.93, 0.96). The suitable habitats for I. ricinus were determined by higher relative humidity, air temperature, precipitation sum, and middle-infrared reflectance levels and higher densities of white-tailed deer, European hare, and red fox. For I. persulcatus, locations with greater precipitation and air temperature and higher white-tailed deer, roe deer, and mountain hare densities were associated with higher occurrence probabilities. Suitable habitats for I. ricinus ranged from southern Finland up to Central Ostrobothnia and North Karelia, excluding areas in Ostrobothnia and Pirkanmaa. For I. persulcatus, suitable areas were located along the western coast from Ostrobothnia to southern Lapland, in North Karelia, North Savo, Kainuu, and areas in Pirkanmaa and Päijät-Häme. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study conducted in Finland that estimates potential tick species distributions using environmental and host data. Our results can be utilized in vector control strategies, as supporting material in recommendations issued by public health authorities, and as predictor data for modelling the risk for tick-borne diseases.


Assuntos
Borrelia , Cervos , Vírus da Encefalite Transmitidos por Carrapatos , Lebres , Ixodes , Animais , Borrelia/genética , Ecossistema , Finlândia/epidemiologia , Humanos
7.
J Vet Diagn Invest ; 34(5): 835-841, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35918905

RESUMO

Rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus 2 (RHDV2), a virulent and contagious viral pathogen that affects wild and domestic lagomorph populations, was identified in Wyoming, USA in December 2020. A surveillance program was developed involving full-carcass submission and liver analysis, although carcass quality as a result of predation and decomposition impeded analysis. To increase the number of submissions and provide flexibility to field staff, we evaluated 2 sample types: 77 dried blood on filter paper samples, 66 ear punch samples. At initial sampling, test specificity and sensitivity of the RT-rtPCR utilizing dried blood on filter paper and ear punch samples were both 100% compared to liver. Filter paper results were consistent over time; sensitivity stayed >96% through weeks 2, 4, and 6, with a maximum mean difference of 6.0 Ct from baseline liver Ct values (95% CI: 5.0-7.3) at 6 wk. Test sensitivity of the ear punch sample at 1, 3, 5, and 7 wk post-sampling remained at 100%, with a maximum mean difference of 5.6 Ct from baseline liver Ct values (95% CI: 4.3-6.9) at 5 wk. Filter paper and ear punch samples were suitable alternatives to liver for RHDV2 surveillance in wild lagomorph populations. Alternative sampling options provide more flexibility to surveillance programs, increase testable submissions, and decrease exposure of field personnel to zoonotic disease agents.


Assuntos
Infecções por Caliciviridae , Lebres , Vírus da Doença Hemorrágica de Coelhos , Animais , Infecções por Caliciviridae/veterinária , Vírus da Doença Hemorrágica de Coelhos/genética , Coelhos , Wyoming
8.
Arch Razi Inst ; 77(1): 333-343, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35891715

RESUMO

Glucocorticoids have a wide range of pharmacological activities. Generally speaking, the steroid drugs, such as dexamethasone (DEX) can have severe side effects on the histology of different organs. In fact, glucocorticoids have been known as powerful medicines which can cure inflammation and work with the immune system to treat a wide range of health problems. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the effects of DEX on the histological changes of the liver and kidney, as well as blood biochemical parameters. In total, 13 specific pathogen-free male Lepus Cuniculus rabbits aged 8-10 months old, with a mean weight of 1.12±0.13 kg were randomly divided into three groups. Group I (n=3) did not receive DEX, and they only received saline solution as a placebo (control). In Group II (n=5), the animals received 0.25 mg DEX/kg body weight/day for a period of 56 days, and the animals in Group III (n=5) received 0.5 mg DEX/kg body weight/day for 56 days. Blood was aspirated from the rabbit's marginal ear vein. All blood samples were centrifuged at 3000×g for 10 min to separate serum samples. Blood lipids and trace elements (zinc, copper, calcium, and iron) were measured. The microscopical analyses of the liver and kidney tissues were performed through the observation of the histological changes in the tissues. The results showed a significant (P≤0.05) decrease in the body and organ weight, as well as serum concentrations for the trace elements. On the other hand, lipid profile showed a significant increase (P≤0.05) in cholesterol, triglycerides, and low-density lipoprotein. However, a significant decrease was recorded in high-density lipoprotein in both treated groups with DEX, compared to the control group. The results of the histological evaluation showed some degrees of degeneration, necrosis, cell vacuolation, and lymphocyte infiltration in the kidney and liver tissues in the treatment groups.


Assuntos
Cuniculidae , Lebres , Oligoelementos , Animais , Peso Corporal , Dexametasona/farmacologia , Dexametasona/uso terapêutico , Glucocorticoides/farmacologia , Rim , Fígado , Masculino , Coelhos , Oligoelementos/farmacologia
9.
J Nat Prod ; 85(8): 2082-2089, 2022 08 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35834804

RESUMO

New bromoditerpenes having an α-methylene carbonyl structure, azuriaplysins A (1) and B (2), were isolated from the sea hare Aplysia kurodai. Their relative stereostructures were determined based on one- and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopic analysis. In addition, the absolute stereostructures were determined by the total synthesis of both enantiomers of azuriaplysins A (1) and B (2), the key points of which were bromocyclization of farnesol and optical resolution of a key intermediate. Azuriaplysin B (2) and its enantiomer exhibited moderate cytotoxicity against HeLa S3 cells.


Assuntos
Aplysia , Lebres , Animais , Aplysia/química , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Estereoisomerismo
10.
Glob Chang Biol ; 28(21): 6228-6238, 2022 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35899554

RESUMO

Many ecological processes are profoundly influenced by abiotic factors, such as temperature and snow. However, despite strong evidence linking shifts in these ecological processes to corresponding shifts in abiotic factors driven by climate change, the mechanisms connecting population size to season-specific climate drivers are little understood. Using a 21-year dataset and a Bayesian state space model, we identified biologically informed seasonal climate covariates that influenced densities of snowshoe hares (Lepus americanus), a cold-adapted boreal herbivore. We found that snow and temperature had strong but conflicting season-dependent effects. Reduced snow duration in spring and fall and warmer summers were associated with lowered hare density, whereas warmer winters were associated with increased density. When modeled simultaneously and under two climate change scenarios, the negative effects of reduced fall and spring snow duration and warmer summers overwhelm the positive effect of warmer winters, producing projected population declines. Ultimately, the contrasting population-level impacts of climate change across seasons emphasize the critical need to examine the entire annual climate cycle to understand potential long-term population consequences of climate change.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Lebres , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , Estações do Ano , Neve
11.
Microbiol Spectr ; 10(4): e0014222, 2022 08 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35766511

RESUMO

Rabbit hemorrhagic disease (RHD) and European brown hare syndrome (EBHS) are highly contagious diseases caused by lagoviruses in the Caliciviridae family. These infectious diseases are associated with high mortality and a serious threat to domesticated and wild rabbits and hares, including endangered species such as riparian brush rabbits (Sylvilagus bachmani riparius). In the United States (U.S.), only isolated cases of RHD had been reported until Spring 2020. However, RHD caused by GI.2/rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV)2/b was unexpectedly reported in April 2020 in New Mexico and has subsequently spread to several U.S. states, infecting wild rabbits and hares and making it highly likely that RHD will become endemic in the U.S. Vaccines are available for RHD; however, there is no specific treatment for this disease. Lagoviruses encode a 3C-like protease (3CLpro), which is essential for virus replication and a promising target for antiviral drug development. We have previously generated focused small-molecule libraries of 3CLpro inhibitors and demonstrated the in vitro potency and in vivo efficacy of some protease inhibitors against viruses encoding 3CLpro, including caliciviruses and coronaviruses. Here, we report the development of the enzyme and cell-based assays for the 3CLpro of GI.1c/RHDV, recombinant GI.3P-GI.2 (RHDV2/b), and GII.1/European brown hare syndrome virus (EBHSV) as well as the identification of potent lagovirus 3CLpro inhibitors, including GC376, a protease inhibitor being developed for feline infectious peritonitis. In addition, structure-activity relationship study and homology modeling of the 3CLpro and inhibitors revealed that lagovirus 3CLpro share similar structural requirements for inhibition with other calicivirus 3CLpro. IMPORTANCE Rabbit hemorrhagic disease (RHD) and European brown hare syndrome (EBHS) are viral diseases that affect lagomorphs with significant economic and ecological impacts. RHD vaccines are available, but specific antiviral treatment for these viral infections would be a valuable addition to the current control measures. Lagoviruses encode 3C-like protease (3CLpro), which is essential for virus replication and an attractive target for antiviral drug discovery. We have screened and identified potent small-molecule inhibitors that block lagovirus 3CLpro in the enzyme- and cell-based assays. Our results suggest that these compounds have the potential for further development as antiviral drugs for lagoviruses.


Assuntos
Infecções por Caliciviridae , Lebres , Vírus da Doença Hemorrágica de Coelhos , Lagovirus , Animais , Antivirais/farmacologia , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Caliciviridae/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Caliciviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Caliciviridae/veterinária , Gatos , Vírus da Doença Hemorrágica de Coelhos/fisiologia , Peptídeo Hidrolases , Filogenia , Inibidores de Proteases , Coelhos
12.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 9310, 2022 06 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35661130

RESUMO

The Iberian hare (Lepus granatensis) is an endemic species of the Iberian Peninsula and the only hare species found in Portugal, although also being present in some areas of Spain. The reduction of wild hare populations due to several ecological and sanitary factors, has been raising growing concerns in the recent years. Despite different helminth species were already described in Iberian hares in Portugal, to this date, no filarial worms have been identified in this species. Furthermore, only a few studies on lagomorphs' onchocercid worms are available, referring to other hosts species of hares and/or rabbits. In this study, we describe the presence of filarial worms in the blood vessels of two adult Iberian hares collected in 2019 in continental Portugal. Morphology and sequencing data from the 12S rRNA, coxI, 18S rRNA, myoHC, hsp70 and rbp1 genes, showed that the filaroid species were genetically related with Micipsella numidica. However, the extension of the genetic differences found with M. numidica suggests that the filaroids specimens under study belong to a new species, that we provisionally named Micipsella iberica n. sp.. The body location of this putative new parasite species and its physiological implications indicate that it may constitute a potential menace to the already fragile Iberian hare justifying, therefore, further investigation regarding the morphological characterization, prevalence and real clinical impact of this new parasite in hares.


Assuntos
Filarioidea , Lebres , Animais , Europa (Continente) , Filarioidea/genética , Lebres/genética , Portugal , RNA Ribossômico , Coelhos
13.
Zoology (Jena) ; 152: 126014, 2022 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35561437

RESUMO

The study of insular variation has fascinated generations of biologists and has been central to evolutionary biology at least since the time of Wallace and Darwin. In this context, using 3D geometric morphometrics, I investigate whether the population of mountain hares (Lepus timidus Linnaeus, 1758) introduced in 1857 on the Swedish island of Hallands Väderö shows distinctive traits in cranial size and shape. I find that size divergence follows the island rule, but is very small. In contrast, shape differences, compared to the mainland population, are almost as large as interspecific differences among lineages separated by hundreds of thousands of years of a largely independent evolutionary history. Even if, contrary to what is documented in the scientific literature, mountain hares were present in HV before 1857, the evolutionary history of this population could not have start earlier than the end of the last glaciation (i.e., at least one order of magnitude more recently than the separation of L. timidus from other hare species in this study). My results, thus, suggest that the insular population is a significant evolutionary unit and a potentially important component of the diversity of Swedish mountain hares. This is interesting for evolutionary biologists, but even more relevant for conservationists trying to protect the disappearing population of southern Swedish L. timidus, threatened by changes in climate and the environment, as well as by disease and the introduced European hare (Lepus europaeus Pallas, 1778). Island populations of mountain hares, thus, represent a potential source for future reintroductions on the mainland and, as my research shows, an important component of variability to maximize the preservation of the evolutionary potential in a species facing huge environmental changes.


Assuntos
Lebres , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Clima , DNA Mitocondrial , Lebres/genética
14.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 69(4): 1684-1690, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35366052

RESUMO

Myxomatosis is an emergent disease in the Iberian hare (Lepus granatensis). In this species, the disease is caused by a natural recombinant virus (ha-myxoma virus [MYXV]) identified for the first time in 2018 and has since been responsible for a large number of outbreaks in Spain and Portugal. The ha-MYXV, which harbours a 2.8 Kb insert-disrupting gene M009L, can also infect and cause disease in wild and domestic rabbits, despite being less frequently identified in rabbits. During the laboratory investigations of wild leporids found dead in Portugal carried out within the scope of a Nacional Surveillance Plan (Dispatch 4757/17, MAFDR), co-infection events by classic (MYXV) and naturally recombinant (ha-MYXV) strains were detected in both one Iberian hare and one European wild rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus algirus). These two cases were initially detected by a multiplex qPCR detection of MYXV and ha-MYXV and subsequently confirmed by conventional PCR and sequencing of the M009L gene, which contains an ha-MYXV-specific insertion. To our knowledge, this is the first documented report of co-infection by classic MYXV and ha-MYXV strains either in Iberian hare or in European wild rabbit. It is also the first report of infection of an Iberian hare by a classic MYXV strain. These findings highlight the continuous evolution of the MYXV and the frequent host range changes that justify the nonstop monitoring of the sanitary condition of wild Leporidae populations in the Iberian Peninsula.


Assuntos
Coinfecção , Lebres , Myxoma virus , Animais , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Coinfecção/veterinária , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Myxoma virus/genética , Filogenia , Coelhos
15.
Immunogenetics ; 74(5): 475-485, 2022 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35419618

RESUMO

Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are one of the most ancient and widely studied innate immune receptors responsible for host defense against invading pathogens. Among the known TLRs, TLR7 and TLR8 sense and recognize single-stranded (ss) RNAs with a dynamic evolutionary history. While TLR8 was lost in birds and duplicated in turtles and crocodiles, TLR7 is duplicated in some birds, but in other tetrapods, there is only one copy. In mammals, with the exception of lagomorphs, TLR7 and TLR8 are highly conserved. Here, we aim to study the evolution of TLR7 and TLR8 in mammals, with a special focus in the order Lagomorpha. By searching public sequence databases, conducting evolutionary analysis, and evaluating gene expression, we were able to confirm that TLR8 is absent in hares but widely expressed in the European rabbit. In contrast, TLR7 is absent in the European rabbit and quite divergent in hares. Our results suggest that, in lagomorphs, more in particular in leporids, TLR7 and TLR8 genes have evolved faster than in any other mammalian group. The long history of interaction with viruses and their location in highly dynamic telomeric regions might explain the pattern observed.


Assuntos
Lebres , Lagomorpha , Animais , Lebres/metabolismo , Coelhos , Receptor 7 Toll-Like/genética , Receptor 8 Toll-Like/genética
16.
ScientificWorldJournal ; 2022: 3050710, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35264913

RESUMO

The study was carried out to assess the population size and distribution of diurnal large wild mammals in the southern Great Rift Valley, Ethiopia. The study area was stratified into four habitat types: riverine forest, ground-water forest, grassland, and bushland. Samples of animals were surveyed through the transect method. The total number of individuals belonging to the 15 species observed was 1681 and 1245 during the wet and dry seasons, respectively. Burchell's zebra (Equus burchellii), Anubis baboon (Papio anubis), Vervet monkey (Chlorocebus pygerythrus), and Grant's gazelle (Nanger granti) were the most abundant species, while Abyssinian hare (Lepus habessinicus) and Bush duiker (Sylvicapra grimmia) were the least abundant species. The highest number of species has been supported by the bushland habitat, followed by open grassland, riverine forest, and ground-water forest in both seasons. Despite the park being home to various types of mammalian species, there is a need for conservation actions by the park management and other concerned bodies for the survival of those species in the area.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens , Animais , Antílopes , Chlorocebus aethiops , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Demografia , Equidae , Etiópia , Lebres , Papio anubis , Densidade Demográfica
17.
Lett Appl Microbiol ; 74(6): 1008-1015, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35263446

RESUMO

This is the first report of acute deaths in five European brown hares (Lepus europaeus) attributed to mucoid and necrotizing typhlocolitis caused by genetically different Cronobacter (C.) turicensis strains in northeastern Austria. As this opportunistic pathogen is mainly known for causing disease in immunocompromised humans and neonates, this previously unrecognized potential for a spill over from a wildlife reservoir to humans warrants further attention.


Assuntos
Cronobacter , Lebres , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Humanos , Recém-Nascido
18.
mBio ; 13(2): e0346121, 2022 04 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35352978

RESUMO

Myxoma virus (MYXV) is naturally found in rabbit Sylvilagus species and is known to cause lethal myxomatosis in European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus). In 2019, an MYXV strain (MYXV strain Toledo [MYXV-Tol]) causing myxomatosis-like disease in Iberian hares (Lepus granatensis) was identified. MYXV-Tol acquired a recombinant region of ∼2.8 kb harboring several new genes, including a novel host range gene (M159) that we show to be an orthologous member of the vaccinia virus C7 host range family. Here, to test whether M159 alone has enabled MYXV to alter its host range to Iberian hares, several recombinant viruses were generated, including an MYXV-Tol ΔM159 (knockout) strain. While MYXV-Tol underwent fully productive infection in hare HN-R cells, neither the wild-type MYXV-Lau strain (lacking M159) nor vMyxTol-ΔM159 (deleted for M159) was able to infect and replicate, showing that the ability of MYXV-Tol to infect these cells and replicate depends on the presence of M159. Similar to other C7L family members, M159 was shown to be expressed as an early/late gene but was translocated into the nucleus at later time points, indicating that further studies are needed to elucidate its role in the nucleus. Finally, in rabbit cells, the M159 protein did not contribute to increased replication but was able to upregulate the replication levels of MYXV in nonpermissive and semipermissive human cancer cells, suggesting that the M159-targeted pathway is conserved across mammalian species. Altogether, these observations demonstrate that the M159 protein plays a critical role in determining the host specificity of MYXV-Tol in hare and human cells by imparting new host range functions. IMPORTANCE The coevolution of European rabbit populations and MYXV is a textbook example of an arms race between a pathogen and a host. Recently, a recombinant MYXV (MYXV-Tol) crossed the species barrier by jumping from leporid species to another species, causing lethal myxomatosis-like disease. Given the highly pathogenic nature of this new virus in hares and the incidences of other poxvirus cross-species spillovers into other animals, including humans, it is important to understand how and why MYXV-Tol was able to become virulent in a new host species. The results presented clearly demonstrate that M159 is the key factor allowing MYXV-Tol replication in hare cells by imparting new host range functions. These results have the potential to improve current knowledge about the virulence of poxviruses and provide a platform to better understand the new MYXV-Tol, rendering the virus capable of leaping into a new host species.


Assuntos
Lebres , Myxoma virus , Vírus , Animais , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Myxoma virus/genética , Proteínas , Coelhos , Virulência/genética , Replicação Viral
19.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 5003, 2022 03 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35322061

RESUMO

Animal migration contributes largely to the seasonal dynamics of High Arctic ecosystems, linking distant habitats and impacting ecosystem structure and function. In polar deserts, Arctic hares are abundant herbivores and important components of food webs. Their annual migrations have long been suspected, but never confirmed. We tracked 25 individuals with Argos satellite telemetry to investigate the existence of migration in a population living at Alert (Ellesmere Island, Nunavut, Canada). During fall, 21 hares undertook directional, long-distance movements in a southwestern direction towards Lake Hazen. Daily movement rates averaged 1.3 ± 0.5 km, 4.3 ± 1.6 km, and 1.7 ± 0.9 km before, during, and after relocation, respectively. Straight-line and minimum cumulative distances traveled averaged 98 ± 18 km (range: 72-148 km) and 198 ± 62 km (range: 113-388 km), respectively. This is the first report of large-scale seasonal movements in Arctic hares and, surprisingly, in any lagomorph species. These movements may be part of an annual migratory pattern. Our results redefine our understanding of the spatial ecology of Arctic hares, demonstrate unsuspected mobility capacities in lagomorphs, and open new perspectives regarding the ecological dynamics of the northern polar deserts.


Assuntos
Lebres , Lagomorpha , Migração Animal , Animais , Regiões Árticas , Canadá , Ecossistema , Estações do Ano
20.
Sci Total Environ ; 823: 153677, 2022 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35122841

RESUMO

Glyphosate is the most used herbicide worldwide. It is a small and highly polar pesticide whose physicochemical properties makes its analytical determination difficult. Here, a procedure based on liquid chromatography-high resolution tandem mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS/MS) was developed for glyphosate determination in samples of gastric content from wildlife. Iberian hare (Lepus granatensis), a herbivorous mammal species, strongly associated to agrosystems was selected as model species. The procedure involves direct analysis of sample without derivatization or instead of neither further cleaning steps. The procedure was validated by inter-day accuracy and precision studies with gastric content of hare spiked with glyphosate at ecologically relevant concentrations for the species (0.1-6 µg/g), and with 1 µg/g of isotopically labelled internal standard (glyphosate-2-13C,15N). Finally, glyphosate residues in hunted animals from pesticide-treated and pesticide-free areas (n = 75 and 28, respectively), as well as from hares found dead in the field (n = 11) were analysed. The linearity of both standards in extraction solutions and procedural calibration curves with spiked samples was similar, both with determination coefficients (r2) higher than 0.99. Satisfactory recoveries in spiked samples were achieved within the range of 95% to 118% (CV ≤ 20%). The limit of detection of glyphosate in hare gastric content was 0.03 µg/g. Prevalence of glyphosate in hunted animals from pesticide-treated areas ranged between 9 and 22%, increasing to 45% in animals found dead. The glyphosate concentrations detected in the gastric content of hares ranged from 0.11 to 16 µg/g. No residues were detected in animals from pesticide-free areas. In practice, the developed methodology may be particularly useful in the context of research and other work on the exposure in wildlife of one of the most used pesticides nowadays.


Assuntos
Lebres , Resíduos de Praguicidas , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Glicina/análogos & derivados , Glicina/análise , Resíduos de Praguicidas/análise , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos
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