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1.
Oecologia ; 197(1): 71-88, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34435235

RESUMO

The boreal forest is one of the world's ecosystems most affected by global climate warming. The snowshoe hare, its predators, and their population dynamics dominate the mammalian component of the North American boreal forest. Our past research has shown the 9-11-year hare cycle to be predator driven, both directly as virtually all hares that die are killed by their predators, and indirectly through sublethal risk effects on hare stress physiology, behavior, and reproduction. We replicated this research over the entire cycle by measuring changes in predation risk expected to drive changes in chronic stress. We examined changes in hare condition and stress axis function using a hormonal challenge protocol in the late winter of 7 years-spanning all phases of the cycle from the increase through to the low (2014-2020). We simultaneously monitored changes in hare abundance as well as those of their primary predators, lynx and coyotes. Despite observing the expected changes in hare-predator numbers over the cycle, we did not see the predicted changes in chronic stress metrics in the peak and decline phases. Thus, the comprehensive physiological signature indicative of chronic predator-induced stress seen from our previous work was not present in this current cycle. We postulate that hares may now be increasingly showing behavior-mediated rather than stress-mediated responses to their predators. We present evidence that increases in primary productivity have affected boreal community structure and function. We speculate that climate change has caused this major shift in the indirect effects of predation on hares.


Assuntos
Lebres , Animais , Ecossistema , América do Norte , Comportamento Predatório , Estações do Ano , Taiga
2.
Turkiye Parazitol Derg ; 45(3): 171-175, 2021 08 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34346871

RESUMO

Objective: European hares (Lepus europaeus) are among the most important animals that are connected with humans in many countries and natural life. Hares are important for public health, since they carry many zoonotic diseases, such as Encephalitozoon cuniculi, Francisella tularensis and Toxoplasma gondii. The study aimed to determine the seroprevalence of Encephalitozoon cuniculi, Francisella tularensis and T. gondii and the potential zoonotic risk posed by hares that live in provinces of Turkey. Methods: Blood samples were collected from hares during the official hunting season. Serum samples were examined serologically by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for E. cuniculi, Sabin-Feldman dye test was used to examine T. gondii, while micro-agglutination test was used to examine F. tularensis. Results: Of the total of 42 hares examined, one (2.4%) was found positive for E. cuniculi, two (4.8%) were found positive for T. gondii and one (2.4%) was found positive for F. tularensis. Conclusion: Anti-T. gondii and anti-E. cuniculi antibodies were serologically detected in hares for the first time in Turkey. Furthermore, this is the first study reporting the seropositivity of F. tularensis infection in hares.


Assuntos
Encephalitozoon cuniculi , Francisella tularensis , Lebres , Toxoplasma , Animais , Humanos , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Zoonoses/epidemiologia
4.
Oecologia ; 197(2): 327-338, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34131817

RESUMO

Home range size of consumers varies with food quality, but the many ways of defining food quality hamper comparisons across studies. Ecological stoichiometry studies the elemental balance of ecological processes and offers a uniquely quantitative, transferrable way to assess food quality using elemental ratios, e.g., carbon (C):nitrogen (N). Here, we test whether snowshoe hares (Lepus americanus) vary their home range size in response to spatial patterns of C:N, C:phosphorus (P), and N:P ratios of two preferred boreal forage species, lowbush blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium) and red maple (Acer rubrum), in summer months. Boreal forests are N- and P-limited ecosystems and access to N- and P-rich forage is paramount to snowshoe hares' survival. Accordingly, we consider forage with higher C content relative to N and P to be lower quality than forage with lower relative C content. We combine elemental distribution models with summer home range size estimates to test the hypothesis that home range size will be smaller in areas with access to high, homogeneous food quality compared to areas of low, heterogeneous food quality. Our results show snowshoe hares had smaller home ranges in areas where lowbush blueberry foliage quality was higher or more spatially homogenous than in areas of lower, more heterogeneous food quality. By responding to spatial patterns of food quality, consumers may influence community and ecosystem processes by, for example, varying nutrient recycling rates. Our reductionist biogeochemical approach to viewing resources leads us to holistic insights into consumer spatial ecology.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Lebres , Animais , Herbivoria , Comportamento de Retorno ao Território Vital , Estações do Ano
5.
Glob Chang Biol ; 27(16): 3732-3740, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33993582

RESUMO

Animal populations at northern latitudes may have cyclical dynamics that are degraded by climate change leading to trophic cascade. Hare populations at more southerly latitudes are characterized by dramatic declines in abundance associated with agricultural intensification. We focus on the impact of historical climatic and agricultural change on a mid-latitude population of mountain hares, Lepus timidus hibernicus. Using game bag records from multiple sites throughout Ireland, the hare population index exhibited a distinct regime shift. Contrary to expectations, there was a dynamical structure typical of northern latitude hare populations from 1853 to 1908, during which numbers were stable but cyclic with a periodicity of 8 years. This regime was replaced by dynamics more typical of southern latitude hare populations from 1909 to 1970, in which cycles were lost and numbers declined dramatically. Destabilization of the autumn North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) led to the collapse of similar cycles in the hare population, coincident with the onset of agricultural intensification (a shift from small-to-large farms) in the first half of the 20th century. Similar, but more recent regime shifts have been observed in Arctic ecosystems and attributed to anthropogenic climate change. The present study suggests such shifts may have occurred at lower latitudes more than a century ago during the very early 20th century. It seems likely that similar tipping points in the population collapse of other farmland species may have occurred similarly early but went undocumented. As northern systems are increasingly impacted by climate change and probable expansion of agriculture, the interaction of these processes is likely to disrupt the pulsed flow of resources from cyclic populations impacting ecosystem function.


Assuntos
Lebres , Agricultura , Animais , Regiões Árticas , Ecossistema , Irlanda , Dinâmica Populacional
6.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 28(37): 52093-52105, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34002308

RESUMO

The Spisská Magura mountain range, located in the Middle Spis, is one of the regions in Slovakia most contaminated by heavy metals resulting from mining and smelting activities. Heavy metals and other potentially toxic elements have accumulated in mountain areas via atmospheric transport. The influence of the daily range size of the European hare on its contamination by heavy metals was investigated in three habitat types (forest, woodland edge, meadow) in the Spisská Magura mountain range in the West Carpathians. Individual hares (n = 21) were traced and located by GPS following snowfall. Pair samples of their faeces (n = 64) and food (n = 64) were collected from feeding sites. The maps created were used for determination of the size of the daily range as being small or large. All hares that have a small daily range avoid meadows and open spaces due to the higher predation risk. However, individuals with a large daily range feed in all habitats, including meadows. Hares with a small daily range in a forest habitat ingested higher amounts of bio-elements Ca, Cr, S, and Mn as well as higher amounts of heavy metals Ba and Pb than hares with a large daily range. Moreover, dominant hares with a small daily range, with access to abundant food sources in a forest habitat, may gradually take on higher levels of bio-elements including heavy metals that are present in their food source. In contrast, in the woodland edge, hares with a small daily range had a smaller concentration of Ca, Cr, Mn, S, Ba, and Pb compared to hares with a large daily range. Caecotrophy plays a very significant role as far as the intake of nutrients and other elements is concerned. We found significant dependence between concentrations of the elements Cr, S, Ba, Pb, and Cd in the food of European hares and in their faeces.


Assuntos
Lebres , Metais Pesados , Animais , Ecossistema , Florestas , Humanos , Metais Pesados/análise , Mineração
8.
BMC Ecol Evol ; 21(1): 100, 2021 05 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34039261

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Animal mitochondria play a central role in energy production in the cells through the oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) pathway. Recent studies of selection on different mitochondrial OXPHOS genes have revealed the adaptive implications of amino acid changes in these subunits. In hares, climatic variation and/or introgression were suggested to be at the origin of such adaptation. Here we looked for evidence of positive selection in three mitochondrial OXPHOS genes, using tests of selection, protein structure modelling and effects of amino acid substitutions on the protein function and stability. We also used statistical models to test for climate and introgression effects on sites under positive selection. RESULTS: Our results revealed seven sites under positive selection in ND4 and three sites in Cytb. However, no sites under positive selection were observed in the COX1 gene. All three subunits presented a high number of codons under negative selection. Sites under positive selection were mapped on the tridimensional structure of the predicted models for the respective mitochondrial subunit. Of the ten amino acid replacements inferred to have evolved under positive selection for both subunits, six were located in the transmembrane domain. On the other hand, three codons were identified as sites lining proton translocation channels. Furthermore, four codons were identified as destabilizing with a significant variation of Δ vibrational entropy energy between wild and mutant type. Moreover, our PROVEAN analysis suggested that among all positively selected sites two fixed amino acid replacements altered the protein functioning. Our statistical models indicated significant effects of climate on the presence of ND4 and Cytb protein variants, but no effect by trans-specific mitochondrial DNA introgression, which is not uncommon in a number of hare species. CONCLUSIONS: Positive selection was observed in several codons in two OXPHOS genes. We found that substitutions in the positively selected codons have structural and functional impacts on the encoded proteins. Our results are concordantly suggesting that adaptations have strongly affected the evolution of mtDNA of hare species with potential effects on the protein function. Environmental/climatic changes appear to be a major trigger of this adaptation, whereas trans-specific introgressive hybridization seems to play no major role for the occurrence of protein variants.


Assuntos
Lebres , Animais , China , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Genes Mitocondriais , Lebres/genética , Filogenia
9.
J Vet Diagn Invest ; 33(4): 728-731, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33797311

RESUMO

An outbreak of rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus 2 (RHDV2)-associated disease occurred in the southwestern United States following its first detection in New Mexico in March 2020. The disease spread throughout several states and was diagnosed for the first time in California on May 11, 2020, in a black-tailed jackrabbit (Lepus californicus). The following day, the California Department of Food and Agriculture (CDFA) issued an order banning the entrance into California of several lagomorph species and their products from any state in which the disease had been detected in the last 12 mo. RHDV2 is a threat to wild lagomorph species in California, including the endangered riparian brush rabbit (Sylvilagus bachmani riparius). Therefore, the California Department of Fish and Wildlife (CDFW) started tracking any mortality event in wild lagomorph populations. As of August 9, 2020, RHDV2 had been detected in wild and domestic lagomorphs of several counties in southern California that were submitted to the California Animal Health and Food Safety laboratory system by the CDFA or the CDFW. These positive cases included 2 additional black-tailed jackrabbits and 3 desert cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus audubonii). In addition, the infection spilled over to domestic populations, whereby it was confirmed on July 10, 2020, in a domestic rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus).


Assuntos
Infecções por Caliciviridae/veterinária , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Vírus da Doença Hemorrágica de Coelhos , Coelhos/virologia , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Infecções por Caliciviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Caliciviridae/virologia , Lebres/virologia , Sudoeste dos Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
10.
Viruses ; 13(4)2021 04 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33924254

RESUMO

In late 2019, the first herpesvirus in the genus Lepus, named leporid gammaherpesvirus 5 (LeHV-5) was described. At the time, herpetic typical lesions were observed in hares infected by the myxoma virus, which is known to induce immunosuppression. Though the real impact of LeHV-5 is still poorly understood, since it affects reproduction, it poses an additional threat to the already fragile populations of Iberian hare, demanding prevalence investigations. In this article, we describe the first quantitative molecular method for LeHV-5 detection, using either Taqman or the EvaGreen systems. This method has excellent sensitivity and specificity, it is able to detect 2.1 copies of LeHV-5 DNA and was validated with an internal control targeting the 18S rRNA gene, allowing monitoring extraction and PCR amplification efficiencies.


Assuntos
Gammaherpesvirinae/isolamento & purificação , Lebres/virologia , Infecções por Herpesviridae , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/métodos , Animais , Infecções por Herpesviridae/diagnóstico , Infecções por Herpesviridae/veterinária
11.
Oecologia ; 195(4): 949-957, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33743069

RESUMO

Determining the factors driving cyclic dynamics in species has been a primary focus of ecology. For snowshoe hares (Lepus americanus), explanations of their 10-year population cycles most commonly feature direct predation during the peak and decline, in combination with their curtailment in reproduction. Hares are thought to stop producing third and fourth litters during the cyclic decline and do not recover reproductive output for several years. The demographic effects of these reproductive changes depend on the consistency of this pattern across cycles, and the relative contribution to population change of late-litter versus early litter juveniles. We used monitoring data on snowshoe hares in Yukon, Canada, to examine the contribution of late-litter juveniles to the demography of their cycles, by assigning litter group for individuals caught in autumn based on body size and capture date. We found that fourth-litter juveniles occur consistently during the increase phase of each cycle, but are rare and have low over-winter survival (0.05) suggesting that population increase is unlikely to be caused by their occurrence. The proportion of third-litter juveniles captured in the autumn remains relatively constant across cycle phases, while over-winter survival rates varies particularly for earlier-litter juveniles (0.14-0.39). Juvenile survival from all litters is higher during the population increase and peak, relative to the low and decline. Overall, these results suggest that the transition from low phase to population growth may stem in large part from changes in juvenile survival as opposed to increased reproductive output through the presence of a 4th litter.


Assuntos
Lebres , Animais , Canadá , Humanos , Dinâmica Populacional , Comportamento Predatório , Yukon
12.
J Wildl Dis ; 57(2): 423-428, 2021 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33626569

RESUMO

Myxoma virus (MYXV) causes morbidity and mortality in European wild rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) worldwide, and recently in Iberian hares (Lepus granatensis) in Spain. We aimed to assess the presence of MYXV-specific DNA in ixodid ticks collected from both hosts. A total of 417 ticks harvested from 30 wild lagomorphs, including wild rabbits and Iberian hares were collected from southern Spain. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and PCR-sequencing were used to detect virus exposure and presence, respectively. Antibodies to MYXV were detected in 68% (17/25) of wild rabbits and in 67% (2/3) of Iberian hares. We detected MYXV DNA in 50.7% of pools of two different tick species (nymphs and adults of Rhipicephalus pusillus, and nymphs of Hyalomma lusitanicum) parasitizing rabbits and hares. The obtained partial sequence of the viral major envelope protein gene showed a mutation (G383A) within the MYXV_gp026 locus between the rabbit strain and Iberian hare strain (recently isolated in tissues of infected hares from Spain). However, in our study, the viral DNA presence was detected for the first time using tick DNA as the PCR-template, but the possible role of ticks as vectors of MYXV still needs to be elucidated.


Assuntos
Lebres/virologia , Myxoma virus/genética , Mixomatose Infecciosa/virologia , Coelhos/virologia , Substituição de Aminoácidos , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , DNA Viral/isolamento & purificação , Feminino , Masculino , Myxoma virus/isolamento & purificação , Mixomatose Infecciosa/epidemiologia , Mixomatose Infecciosa/transmissão , Filogenia , Espanha/epidemiologia , Carrapatos/virologia , Proteínas do Envelope Viral
13.
J Wildl Dis ; 57(1): 178-183, 2021 01 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33635992

RESUMO

Hematology and serum biochemistry reference intervals were estimated for the Iberian hare (Lepus granatensis). Most parameters differed significantly between hunted and livetrapped Iberian hares. Significant differences were found for sex (red blood cell count, mean corpuscular volume, total protein, albumin, uric acid, triglycerides, cholesterol, chloride) and age classes (red blood cell count, hematocrit, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, glucose, calcium, and sodium). Sex- and age-specific reference intervals were estimated for these parameters. Red blood cell count, hemoglobin concentration, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, urea, and potassium show seasonal variations, with the lowest values in summer and the highest in winter. Creatinine, calcium, sodium, and phosphorus achieve their highest values in summer and stable baseline values throughout the rest of the year. These reference intervals can be used as baseline to monitor health, physiology, ecology, and nutrition of Iberian hare populations.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/sangue , Lebres/fisiologia , Animais , Glicemia , Proteínas Sanguíneas , Cálcio/sangue , Cloretos/sangue , Colesterol/sangue , Contagem de Eritrócitos , Índices de Eritrócitos , Feminino , Lebres/sangue , Hematócrito/veterinária , Masculino , Potássio/sangue , Valores de Referência , Estações do Ano , Albumina Sérica , Sódio/sangue , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Ureia/sangue , Ácido Úrico/sangue
14.
PLoS One ; 16(2): e0247174, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33596263

RESUMO

In female mammals, reproduction, and in particular lactation, is the energetically most exigent life-history phase. Reproduction is strongly controlled by body reserves and food availability, so females with better body condition or food supply are believed to have higher reproductive output. Additionally, the growth and mortality of young mammals depends on their postnatal development. Therefore, the degree of precociality affects energetic demands for both mothers and young. To study the reproductive performance of the precocial European hare (Lepus europaeus), we analysed relationships between six predictor variables describing maternal and environmental effects and nine response variables relating to reproduction from 217 captive females. We compared the data with those of precocial and altricial mammal species from an extensive literature search. For hares, we found: (1) Heavier females had heavier litters at birth. (2) In summer and spring, total litter mass was larger than in winter. (3) At the end of lactation, the litters of multiparous females were heavier than those of primiparous females. (4) Both older females and females giving birth for the first time had relatively high leveret mortality during lactation. Comparing our results with the literature for other mammals revealed that the body condition (i.e., body mass) of females before birth is predictive of reproductive parameters in both precocial and altricial species. In the precocial hare, female body condition is no longer predictive of reproductive parameters at the end of lactation, whereas in altricial species, female body condition remains predictive of reproduction (litter mass at the end of lactation, offspring mortality) until the end of lactation. We conclude that these effects are caused by precocial offspring feeding on solid food soon after birth and, thus, being less dependent on the mother's body condition during lactation than altricial offspring. In line with this, precociality might have evolved as a way of buffering offspring against maternal effects.


Assuntos
Herança Materna/fisiologia , Reprodução/fisiologia , Animais , Feminino , Lebres , Lactação/fisiologia , Tamanho da Ninhada de Vivíparos/fisiologia
16.
Parasitology ; 148(6): 740-746, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33536088

RESUMO

Parasite surveys were conducted for 1­2 years in the Kruger National Park (KNP), South Africa on blue wildebeest, impalas, greater kudus, common warthogs and scrub hares. The host associations of some of the gastrointestinal nematode species infecting ≥60% of at least one of the five host species, were determined. These were Agriostomum gorgonis, Cooperia acutispiculum, Cooperia connochaeti, Cooperia hungi, Cooperia neitzi, Cooperioides hamiltoni, Gaigeria pachyscelis, Haemonchus bedfordi, Haemonchus krugeri, Haemonchus vegliai, Impalaia tuberculata, Longistrongylus sabie, Strongyloides papillosus, Trichostrongylus deflexus and Trichostrongylus thomasi. Although the prevalence of Trichostrongylus falculatus did not exceed 50% in any host species, it was present in all five hosts. Nematodes in the KNP range from those exhibiting strict host associations to generalists. Nematode-host associations may be determined by host feeding patterns and habitat use. Eight ixodid tick species were commonly collected from the same animals and in 2­3 year long surveys from plains zebras and helmeted guinea fowls: Amblyomma hebraeum, Amblyomma marmoreum, Hyalomma truncatum, Rhipicephalus appendiculatus, Rhipicephalus decoloratus, Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi, Rhipicephalus simus and Rhipicephalus zambeziensis. Host specificity was less pronounced in ixodid tick species than in nematodes and the immature stages of five tick species infested all host species examined.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens/parasitologia , Ixodidae/classificação , Infecções por Nematoides/veterinária , Infestações por Carrapato/veterinária , Animais , Antílopes/classificação , Antílopes/parasitologia , Equidae/parasitologia , Galliformes/parasitologia , Lebres/parasitologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Infecções por Nematoides/epidemiologia , Infecções por Nematoides/parasitologia , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Suínos/parasitologia , Infestações por Carrapato/epidemiologia , Infestações por Carrapato/parasitologia
17.
Fertil Steril ; 115(3): 588-589, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33509627

Assuntos
Lebres , Tartarugas , Animais , Humanos
18.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 163: 111971, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33503565

RESUMO

This study investigates the concentration of heavy metals in the macroalgae, seagrasses, mangroves, and crabs collected from Hare Island, Gulf of Mannar Marine Biosphere Reserve. The concentration of heavy metals ranged between 0.06 (Hg)-259 (Fe) µg/g in macroalgae, 0.09 (Pb)-377 (Fe) µg/g in seagrasses, 0.112 (Cd)-122 (Fe) µg/g in mangroves, and 0.11 (Cd) -240 (Fe) µg/g in crabs. The levels of heavy metals in the analyzed samples were found below the maximum residual limits (MRLs) prescribed by various National and International agencies. The result suggests that exposure to the analyzed metals through macroalgae consumption does not cause potential health risks to consumers (target hazard quotient (THQ), estimated exposure dose (EED), and hazard index (HI) <1). Hence, this study concludes that macroalgae that grow in the Gulf of Mannar regions are safe for human consumption and are suitable to prepare food supplements and bioceutical products.


Assuntos
Braquiúros , Lebres , Metais Pesados , Alga Marinha , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Monitoramento Ambiental , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Humanos , Índia , Ilhas , Metais Pesados/análise , Medição de Risco , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
19.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 68(3): 1275-1282, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32786107

RESUMO

Myxomatosis is an infectious disease caused by the myxoma virus (MYXV), which has very high mortality rates in European wild rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus). While sporadic cases of myxomatosis have also been reported in some hare species, these lagomorphs are considered to have a low susceptibility to MYXV infection. In the present study, we describe the spatiotemporal evolution and main epidemiological findings of novel hare MYXV (ha-MYXV or MYXV-Tol) epidemics in Iberian hares (Lepus granatensis) in Spain. In the period 2018-2020, a total of 487 hares from 372 affected areas were confirmed to be MYXV-infected by PCR. ha-MYXV outbreaks were detected in most of the Spanish regions where the Iberian hare is present. The spatial distribution was not homogeneous, with most outbreaks concentrated in the southern and central parts of Spain. Consecutive outbreaks reported in the last two years suggest endemic circulation in Spain of this emerging virus. A retrospective study carried out just after the first epidemic period (2018-2019) revealed that the virus could have been circulating since June 2018. The number of outbreaks started to rise in July, peaked during the first half of August and October and then decreased sharply until January 2019. The apparent mean mortality rate was 55.4% (median: 70%). The results indicated high susceptibility of the Iberian hare to ha-MYXV infection, but apparent resistance in the sympatric hare species present in Spain and less infectivity in European rabbits. The novel ha-MYXV has had significant consequences on the health status of Iberian hare populations in Spain, which is of animal health and conservation concern. The present study contributes to a better understanding of ha-MYXV emergence and will provide valuable information for the development of control strategies. Further research is warranted to assess the impact of this emerging virus on wild lagomorph populations and to elucidate its ecological implications for Iberian Mediterranean ecosystems.


Assuntos
Epidemias/veterinária , Monitoramento Epidemiológico/veterinária , Lebres , Myxoma virus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Poxviridae/veterinária , Infecções Tumorais por Vírus/veterinária , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Infecções por Poxviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Poxviridae/virologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Espanha/epidemiologia , Infecções Tumorais por Vírus/epidemiologia , Infecções Tumorais por Vírus/virologia
20.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 162: 111838, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33220913

RESUMO

In this study, reef-associated surface sediment samples were collected from Hare Island in the Gulf of Mannar Marine Biosphere Reserve, Bay of Bengal and analyzed for heavy metal concentration. The sediment quality was evaluated based on the geochemical, biological, and ecological hazard indices. The mean concentration of heavy metals in the sediments ranged from 0.02 (Cd) to 26,262.87 mg/kg (Fe). Except for Cd and Hg, all other elements were found to be below the sediment quality guidelines and contamination level. The biological and ecological hazard (BEHI) revealed that most sediment samples (80%) fell under the low-risk category with 9% probability of toxicity to the marine flora and fauna. The overall contamination level of heavy metals in Hare Island suggested that the sediment could be grouped under low-risk category. Hence, this study recommends the need for a routine monitoring program in this region to maintain a clean and sustainable ecosystem in future.


Assuntos
Lebres , Metais Pesados , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Recifes de Corais , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental , Sedimentos Geológicos , Índia , Ilhas , Metais Pesados/análise , Medição de Risco , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
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