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1.
Mar Drugs ; 18(11)2020 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33138151

RESUMO

Seaweed lectins, especially high-mannose-specific lectins from red algae, have been identified as potential antiviral agents that are capable of blocking the replication of various enveloped viruses like influenza virus, herpes virus, and HIV-1 in vitro. Their antiviral activity depends on the recognition of glycoprotein receptors on the surface of sensitive host cells-in particular, hemagglutinin for influenza virus or gp120 for HIV-1, which in turn triggers fusion events, allowing the entry of the viral genome into the cells and its subsequent replication. The diversity of glycans present on the S-glycoproteins forming the spikes covering the SARS-CoV-2 envelope, essentially complex type N-glycans and high-mannose type N-glycans, suggests that high-mannose-specific seaweed lectins are particularly well adapted as glycan probes for coronaviruses. This review presents a detailed study of the carbohydrate-binding specificity of high-mannose-specific seaweed lectins, demonstrating their potential to be used as specific glycan probes for coronaviruses, as well as the biomedical interest for both the detection and immobilization of SARS-CoV-2 to avoid shedding of the virus into the environment. The use of these seaweed lectins as replication blockers for SARS-CoV-2 is also discussed.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Lectinas/química , Manose/química , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Polissacarídeos/química , Alga Marinha/química , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico
2.
Molecules ; 25(18)2020 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32899754

RESUMO

The emergence of the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus has led to an unprecedented pandemic, which demands urgent development of antiviral drugs and antibodies; as well as prophylactic approaches, namely vaccines. Algae biotechnology has much to offer in this scenario given the diversity of such organisms, which are a valuable source of antiviral and anti-inflammatory compounds that can also be used to produce vaccines and antibodies. Antivirals with possible activity against SARS-CoV-2 are summarized, based on previously reported activity against Coronaviruses or other enveloped or respiratory viruses. Moreover, the potential of algae-derived anti-inflammatory compounds to treat severe cases of COVID-19 is contemplated. The scenario of producing biopharmaceuticals in recombinant algae is presented and the cases of algae-made vaccines targeting viral diseases is highlighted as valuable references for the development of anti-SARS-CoV-2 vaccines. Successful cases in the production of functional antibodies are described. Perspectives on how specific algae species and genetic engineering techniques can be applied for the production of anti-viral compounds antibodies and vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 are provided.


Assuntos
Antivirais/farmacologia , Produtos Biológicos/farmacologia , Chlamydomonas reinhardtii/genética , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Lectinas/farmacologia , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Antivirais/química , Antivirais/isolamento & purificação , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Produtos Biológicos/química , Produtos Biológicos/isolamento & purificação , Núcleo Celular/química , Núcleo Celular/genética , Núcleo Celular/metabolismo , Chlamydomonas reinhardtii/química , Chlamydomonas reinhardtii/metabolismo , Cloroplastos/química , Cloroplastos/genética , Cloroplastos/metabolismo , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Engenharia Genética/métodos , Humanos , Lectinas/química , Lectinas/isolamento & purificação , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/efeitos dos fármacos , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/patogenicidade , Pandemias , Polifenóis/química , Polifenóis/isolamento & purificação , Polissacarídeos/química , Polissacarídeos/isolamento & purificação , Vírus da SARS/efeitos dos fármacos , Vírus da SARS/patogenicidade , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/tratamento farmacológico , Vacinas Virais/biossíntese , Vacinas Virais/farmacologia
3.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4646, 2020 09 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32938911

RESUMO

The human betacoronaviruses HKU1 and OC43 (subgenus Embecovirus) arose from separate zoonotic introductions, OC43 relatively recently and HKU1 apparently much longer ago. Embecovirus particles contain two surface projections called spike (S) and haemagglutinin-esterase (HE), with S mediating receptor binding and membrane fusion, and HE acting as a receptor-destroying enzyme. Together, they promote dynamic virion attachment to glycan-based receptors, specifically 9-O-acetylated sialic acid. Here we present the cryo-EM structure of the ~80 kDa, heavily glycosylated HKU1 HE at 3.4 Å resolution. Comparison with existing HE structures reveals a drastically truncated lectin domain, incompatible with sialic acid binding, but with the structure and function of the esterase domain left intact. Cryo-EM and mass spectrometry analysis reveals a putative glycan shield on the now redundant lectin domain. The findings further our insight into the evolution and host adaptation of human embecoviruses, and demonstrate the utility of cryo-EM for studying small, heavily glycosylated proteins.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/química , Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Hemaglutininas Virais/química , Proteínas Virais de Fusão/química , Betacoronavirus/classificação , Sítios de Ligação , Domínio Catalítico , Microscopia Crioeletrônica , Glicosilação , Células HEK293 , Hemaglutininas Virais/metabolismo , Hemaglutininas Virais/ultraestrutura , Humanos , Lectinas/química , Lectinas/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas , Modelos Moleculares , Ácido N-Acetilneuramínico/metabolismo , Polissacarídeos/química , Domínios Proteicos , Proteínas Virais de Fusão/metabolismo , Proteínas Virais de Fusão/ultraestrutura
4.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 16(6): e1007447, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32511232

RESUMO

The K* algorithm provably approximates partition functions for a set of states (e.g., protein, ligand, and protein-ligand complex) to a user-specified accuracy ε. Often, reaching an ε-approximation for a particular set of partition functions takes a prohibitive amount of time and space. To alleviate some of this cost, we introduce two new algorithms into the osprey suite for protein design: fries, a Fast Removal of Inadequately Energied Sequences, and EWAK*, an Energy Window Approximation to K*. fries pre-processes the sequence space to limit a design to only the most stable, energetically favorable sequence possibilities. EWAK* then takes this pruned sequence space as input and, using a user-specified energy window, calculates K* scores using the lowest energy conformations. We expect fries/EWAK* to be most useful in cases where there are many unstable sequences in the design sequence space and when users are satisfied with enumerating the low-energy ensemble of conformations. In combination, these algorithms provably retain calculational accuracy while limiting the input sequence space and the conformations included in each partition function calculation to only the most energetically favorable, effectively reducing runtime while still enriching for desirable sequences. This combined approach led to significant speed-ups compared to the previous state-of-the-art multi-sequence algorithm, BBK*, while maintaining its efficiency and accuracy, which we show across 40 different protein systems and a total of 2,826 protein design problems. Additionally, as a proof of concept, we used these new algorithms to redesign the protein-protein interface (PPI) of the c-Raf-RBD:KRas complex. The Ras-binding domain of the protein kinase c-Raf (c-Raf-RBD) is the tightest known binder of KRas, a protein implicated in difficult-to-treat cancers. fries/EWAK* accurately retrospectively predicted the effect of 41 different sets of mutations in the PPI of the c-Raf-RBD:KRas complex. Notably, these mutations include mutations whose effect had previously been incorrectly predicted using other computational methods. Next, we used fries/EWAK* for prospective design and discovered a novel point mutation that improves binding of c-Raf-RBD to KRas in its active, GTP-bound state (KRasGTP). We combined this new mutation with two previously reported mutations (which were highly-ranked by osprey) to create a new variant of c-Raf-RBD, c-Raf-RBD(RKY). fries/EWAK* in osprey computationally predicted that this new variant binds even more tightly than the previous best-binding variant, c-Raf-RBD(RK). We measured the binding affinity of c-Raf-RBD(RKY) using a bio-layer interferometry (BLI) assay, and found that this new variant exhibits single-digit nanomolar affinity for KRasGTP, confirming the computational predictions made with fries/EWAK*. This new variant binds roughly five times more tightly than the previous best known binder and roughly 36 times more tightly than the design starting point (wild-type c-Raf-RBD). This study steps through the advancement and development of computational protein design by presenting theory, new algorithms, accurate retrospective designs, new prospective designs, and biochemical validation.


Assuntos
Biologia Computacional , Engenharia de Proteínas/métodos , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-raf/química , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas p21(ras)/química , Algoritmos , Computadores , Humanos , Interferometria , Lectinas/química , Ligantes , Modelos Estatísticos , Linguagens de Programação , Ligação Proteica , Domínios Proteicos , Software
5.
Food Chem ; 329: 127183, 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32521427

RESUMO

Combined effects of pH and thermal treatments on black kidney bean lectin (BKBL) were investigated by response surface methodology (RSM). Low-pH (1.0, 2.0, 3.0) incubation decreased hemagglutination activity (HA) and IgE-binding capacity, but the activities would be restored when the lectin was treated by pH shifting to 7.2. Conformational structure analyses indicated that low-pH induced protein unfolding and pH-shifting treatment resulted in a limited structural rearrangement. Mild heating, such as 60 °C for 3 min, slightly increased the HA and IgE-binding activities of pH shifted BKBL, but no obvious effects in the pH 1.0 incubated BKBL. High-temperature and long-time treatment might induce the protein aggregation, further decreased HA and IgE-binding capacities. RSM results showed both IgE-binding capacity and HA were the lowest under the combination of pH 1.0 incubation with 80 °C heating for 15 min or pH shifting from 1.0 to 7.2 with 100 °C heating for 10 min.


Assuntos
Imunoglobulina E/metabolismo , Lectinas/química , Phaseolus/metabolismo , Dicroísmo Circular , Temperatura Alta , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Lectinas/metabolismo , Agregados Proteicos , Conformação Proteica em alfa-Hélice , Estrutura Terciária de Proteína , Espectrometria de Fluorescência
6.
Food Chem ; 321: 126680, 2020 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32247181

RESUMO

Seed phytic acid reduces mineral bioavailability by chelating minerals. Consumption of common bean seeds with the low phytic acid 1 (lpa1) mutation improved iron status in human trials but caused adverse gastrointestinal effects, presumably due to increased stability of lectin phytohemagglutinin L (PHA-L) compared to the wild type (wt). A hard-to-cook (HTC) defect observed in lpa1 seeds intensified this problem. We quantified the HTC phenotype of lpa1 common beans with three genetic backgrounds. The HTC phenotype in the lpa1 black bean line correlated with the redistribution of calcium particularly in the cell walls, providing support for the "phytase-phytate-pectin" theory of the HTC mechanism. Furthermore, the excess of free cations in the lpa1 mutation in combination with different PHA alleles affected the stability of PHA-L lectin.


Assuntos
Cálcio/química , Lectinas/química , Phaseolus/química , Ácido Fítico/química , Fito-Hemaglutininas/química , Culinária , Dureza , Temperatura Alta , Mutação , Phaseolus/genética , Sementes/química , Sementes/genética
7.
J Biosci Bioeng ; 130(2): 128-136, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32265131

RESUMO

The N- and O-linked oligosaccharides from fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe not only contain large amounts of d-mannose (Man) but also contain large amounts of d-galactose (Gal). Although the galactomannans of S. pombe are mainly composed of α1,2- or α1,3-linked Gals, some of the terminal α1,2-linked Gals are found to be linked to pyruvylated ß1,3-linked galactose (PvGal). We have determined the structural characteristics of the N-glycans and O-glycans in three Schizosaccharomyces species (S. japonicus, S. octosporus, and S. cryophilus) using lectin blot, 1H NMR spectroscopy, and size-fractionation high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and found that the galactosylation of oligosaccharides was a common feature in fission yeasts. In addition, each of the terminal Galα1,2-, Galß1,3- and non-substituted Man residues exhibited distinct characteristics. A BLAST search of gene databases in Schizosaccharomyces identified genes homologous to pvg1 encoding pyruvyltransferase of S. pombe. These genes, when expressed in an S. pombe pvg1Δ strains, led to the pyruvylation of non-reducing terminal ß-linked Gal, suggesting the biosynthetic pathway of PvGal-containing oligosaccharides is highly conserved in fission yeasts.


Assuntos
Oligossacarídeos/química , Polissacarídeos/química , Schizosaccharomyces/química , Lectinas/química , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Estrutura Molecular , Oligossacarídeos/metabolismo , Schizosaccharomyces/genética , Proteínas de Schizosaccharomyces pombe/genética
8.
BMC Bioinformatics ; 21(1): 42, 2020 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32019496

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Glycans are complex sugar chains, crucial to many biological processes. By participating in binding interactions with proteins, glycans often play key roles in host-pathogen interactions. The specificities of glycan-binding proteins, such as lectins and antibodies, are governed by motifs within larger glycan structures, and improved characterisations of these determinants would aid research into human diseases. Identification of motifs has previously been approached as a frequent subtree mining problem, and we extend these approaches with a glycan notation that allows recognition of terminal motifs. RESULTS: In this work, we customised a frequent subtree mining approach by altering the glycan notation to include information on terminal connections. This allows specific identification of terminal residues as potential motifs, better capturing the complexity of glycan-binding interactions. We achieved this by including additional nodes in a graph representation of the glycan structure to indicate the presence or absence of a linkage at particular backbone carbon positions. Combining this frequent subtree mining approach with a state-of-the-art feature selection algorithm termed minimum-redundancy, maximum-relevance (mRMR), we have generated a classification pipeline that is trained on data from a glycan microarray. When applied to a set of commonly used lectins, the identified motifs were consistent with known binding determinants. Furthermore, logistic regression classifiers trained using these motifs performed well across most lectins examined, with a median AUC value of 0.89. CONCLUSIONS: We present here a new subtree mining approach for the classification of glycan binding and identification of potential binding motifs. The Carbohydrate Classification Accounting for Restricted Linkages (CCARL) method will assist in the interpretation of glycan microarray experiments and will aid in the discovery of novel binding motifs for further experimental characterisation.


Assuntos
Biologia Computacional/métodos , Lectinas/química , Polissacarídeos/química , Algoritmos , Motivos de Aminoácidos , Humanos
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(3)2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32024082

RESUMO

The greatest challenges for therapeutic efficacy of many macromolecular drugs that act on intracellular are delivery to key organs and tissues and delivery into cells and subcellular compartments. Transport of drugs into critical cells associated with disease, including those in organs protected by restrictive biological barriers such as central nervous system (CNS), bone, and eye remains a significant hurdle to drug efficacy and impacts commercial risk and incentives for drug development for many diseases. These limitations expose a significant need for the development of novel strategies for macromolecule delivery. RTB lectin is the non-toxic carbohydrate-binding subunit B of ricin toxin with high affinity for galactose/galactosamine-containing glycolipids and glycoproteins common on human cell surfaces. RTB mediates endocytic uptake into mammalian cells by multiple routes exploiting both adsorptive-mediated and receptor-mediated mechanisms. In vivo biodistribution studies in lysosomal storage disease models provide evidence for the theory that the RTB-lectin transports corrective doses of enzymes across the blood-brain barrier to treat CNS pathologies. These results encompass significant implications for protein-based therapeutic approaches to address lysosomal and other diseases having strong CNS involvement.


Assuntos
Barreira Hematoencefálica/metabolismo , Sistema Nervoso Central/metabolismo , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Lectinas/química , Substâncias Macromoleculares/metabolismo , Animais , Transporte Biológico , Humanos , Distribuição Tecidual
11.
Cancer Immunol Res ; 8(4): 565-577, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32102837

RESUMO

Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNA) are emerging as crucial regulators of cell biology. However, the role of lncRNAs in the development and function of polymorphonuclear myeloid-derived suppressor cells (PMN-MDSC) remains unclear. Here, we identified that the lncRNA F730016J06Rik (AK036396) was highly expressed in PMN-MDSCs and that lncRNA AK036396 knockdown promoted the maturation and decreased the suppressive function of PMN-MDSCs. Ficolin B (Fcnb), the expression of which could be assessed as a surrogate for PMN-MDSC development, was the predicted target gene of lncRNA AK036396 based on microarray results. LncRNA AK036396 knockdown attenuated Fcnb protein stability in a manner dependent on the ubiquitin-proteasome system. Moreover, Fcnb inhibition downregulated the suppressive function of PMN-MDSCs. In addition, the expression of human M-ficolin, which is an ortholog of mouse Fcnb, was increased and positively correlated with arginase1 (ARG1) expression. This suppressive molecule is released by MDSCs, and its production is commonly used to represent the suppressive activity of MDSCs in patients with lung cancer, suggesting clinical relevance for these findings. These results indicate that lncRNA AK036396 can inhibit maturation and accelerate immunosuppression of PMN-MDSCs by enhancing Fcnb protein stability.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Colo/imunologia , Lectinas/química , Lectinas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pulmonares/imunologia , Células Supressoras Mieloides/imunologia , Neutrófilos/imunologia , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , Animais , Arginase/sangue , Arginase/imunologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Técnicas de Cocultura , Neoplasias do Colo/genética , Neoplasias do Colo/metabolismo , Neoplasias do Colo/patologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Imunossupressão , Lectinas/genética , Lectinas/imunologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estabilidade Proteica , RNA Longo não Codificante/imunologia
12.
Molecules ; 25(2)2020 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31936166

RESUMO

Lectins mediate adhesion of pathogens to host tissues, filling in a key role in the first steps of infection. Belonging to the opportunistic pathogen Burkholderia cenocepacia, BC2L-C is a superlectin with dual carbohydrate specificity, believed to mediate cross-linking between bacteria and host cells. Its C-terminal domain binds to bacterial mannosides while its N-terminal domain (BCL2-CN) recognizes fucosylated human epitopes. BC2L-CN presents a tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-) fold previously unseen in lectins with a novel fucose binding mode. We report, here, the production of a novel recombinant form of BC2L-CN (rBC2L-CN2), which allowed better protein stability and unprecedented co-crystallization with oligosaccharides. Isothermal calorimetry measurements showed no detrimental effect on ligand binding and data were obtained on the binding of Globo H hexasaccharide and l-galactose. Crystal structures of rBC2L-CN2 were solved in complex with two blood group antigens: H-type 1 and H-type 3 (Globo H) by X-ray crystallography. They provide new structural information on the binding site, of importance for the structural-based design of glycodrugs as new antimicrobials with antiadhesive properties.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Grupos Sanguíneos/química , Burkholderia cenocepacia/química , Lectinas/química , Oligossacarídeos/química , Antígenos de Diferenciação/química , Antígenos Glicosídicos Associados a Tumores/química , Sítios de Ligação , Burkholderia cenocepacia/genética , Burkholderia cenocepacia/metabolismo , Cristalografia por Raios X , Epitopos/química , Fucose/química , Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Manosídeos/química , Modelos Moleculares , Ligação Proteica , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/química
13.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 98: 354-363, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31945483

RESUMO

L-type lectins (LTLs) belong to the lectin family and are characterized by a conserved structural motif in their carbohydrate recognition domain. LTLs are homologous to leguminous lectins. In this study, we identified and functionally characterized an LTL from kuruma shrimp Marsupenaeus japonicus. We designated this LTL as MjLTL2. MjLTL2 contains a signal peptide, a Lectin_leg domain, a coiled coil, and transmembrane domain. MjLTL2 is distributed in hemocytes, heart, hepatopancreas, gill, stomach, and intestine; higher expression levels are seen in hemocytes and the hepatopancreas than in other tissues. MjLTL2 was upregulated following challenge of shrimp with Vibrio anguillarum and white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). MjLTL2 can agglutinate several bacteria without Ca2+. In addition, MjLTL2 could bind to several Gram-positive and -negative bacteria by binding to their lipopolysaccharide and peptidoglycan. However, MjLTL2 could not enhance the clearance of V. anguillarum in vivo. In the presence of WSSV infection, MjLTL2 knockdown by RNA interference resulted in a 7-day lower cumulative mortality of M. japonicus. Moreover, less VP19, VP24, VP26, and VP28 mRNAs were extracted from the hemocytes of MjLTL2 knockdown shrimp than from the control. These results suggest that MjLTL2 is involved in immune responses in shrimp.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Artrópodes/metabolismo , Lectinas/metabolismo , Penaeidae/imunologia , Testes de Aglutinação , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Proteínas de Artrópodes/química , Proteínas de Artrópodes/genética , Resistência à Doença/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Imunidade Inata , Lectinas/química , Lectinas/genética , Penaeidae/classificação , Penaeidae/genética , Filogenia , Polissacarídeos Bacterianos/metabolismo , Alinhamento de Sequência , Taxa de Sobrevida , Distribuição Tecidual , Vibrio/fisiologia , Replicação Viral , Vírus da Síndrome da Mancha Branca 1/fisiologia
14.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 56(3): 360-363, 2020 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31825399

RESUMO

A crystalline biohybrid with a 4 : 1 protein : cucurbituril mass ratio is presented. This result was achieved by engineering additional cucurbit[7]uril (Q7) binding sites into a ß-propeller protein. In contrast to the parent protein, Q7-controlled assembly of the engineered variant occurred in solution, as evidenced by NMR and SAXS measurements.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/química , Hidrocarbonetos Aromáticos com Pontes/química , Imidazóis/química , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Sítios de Ligação , Hidrocarbonetos Aromáticos com Pontes/metabolismo , Imidazóis/metabolismo , Lectinas/química , Lectinas/genética , Lectinas/metabolismo , Ressonância Magnética Nuclear Biomolecular , Ralstonia solanacearum/metabolismo , Espalhamento a Baixo Ângulo , Difração de Raios X
15.
Microbiol Res ; 230: 126330, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31541842

RESUMO

Glycoconjugates found on cell walls of Candida species are fundamental for their pathogenicity. Laborious techniques have been employed to investigate the sugar composition of these microorganisms. Herein, we prepared a nanotool, based on the fluorescence of quantum dots (QDs) combined with the specificity of Cramoll lectin, to evaluate glucose/mannose profiles on three Candida species. The QDs-Cramoll conjugates presented specificity and bright fluorescence emission. The lectin preserved its biological activity after the conjugation process mediated by adsorption interactions. The labeling of Candida species was analyzed by fluorescence microscopy and quantified by flow cytometry. Morphological analyses of yeasts labeled with QDs-Cramoll conjugates indicated that C. glabrata (2.7 µm) was smaller when compared to C. albicans (4.0 µm) and C. parapsilosis sensu stricto (3.8 µm). Also, C. parapsilosis population was heterogeneous, presenting rod-shaped blastoconidia. More than 90% of cells of the three species were labeled by conjugates. Inhibition and saturation assays indicated that C. parapsilosis had a higher content of exposed glucose/mannose than the other two species. Therefore, QDs-Cramoll conjugates demonstrated to be effective fluorescent nanoprobes for evaluation of glucose/mannose constitution on the cell walls of fungal species frequently involved in candidiasis.


Assuntos
Candida/química , Corantes Fluorescentes/química , Glucose/análise , Lectinas/química , Manose/análise , Microscopia de Fluorescência/métodos , Candida/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Candida/isolamento & purificação , Candida/metabolismo , Candidíase/diagnóstico , Candidíase/microbiologia , Parede Celular/química , Parede Celular/metabolismo , Glucose/metabolismo , Humanos , Manose/metabolismo , Microscopia de Fluorescência/instrumentação , Nanopartículas/química , Pontos Quânticos/química
16.
Arch Insect Biochem Physiol ; 103(1): e21623, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31579962

RESUMO

Cytolytic activity against invading microorganisms is one of the innate forms of immunity in invertebrates. A serine protease-associated sialic acid-specific cytolytic lectin was purified using glutaraldehyde-fixed ox erythrocytes from the larval extract of blowfly (Chrysomya megacephala). The purified lectin lysed vertebrate erythrocytes with effective haemolysis of ox red blood cells (RBCs) in an isotonic medium. The degree of haemolytic (HL) activity of the purified cytolytic lectin depended on its concentration, pH, temperature, and calcium ions. It was sensitive to ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid. The native molecular mass of the C-type lectin was 260 ± 26 kDa, comprising four different polypeptide subunits of 75 kDa (pI ~8), 69 kDa (pI ~7.0), 61 kDa (pI ~5.3), and 55 kDa (pI ~4.6). The association between the C-type lectin and serine protease was confirmed by MALDI-TOF-MS analysis that revealed its homology in the same spectral peak as well as the proteases and phenylmethylsulphonyl fluoride inhibition of HL activity. Haemolysis inhibition by N-acetylneuraminic acid and other sugars revealed the properties of the lectin. The purified lectin distorted the integrity of ox RBCs and Paenalcaligenes hermetiae. This in vitro study documents the presence of a cytolytic system in blowfly (C. megacephala) larvae for the clearance of invading microbial pathogens in their feeding niche.


Assuntos
Lectinas/química , Alcaligenaceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Bovinos , Dípteros/química , Hemólise , Proteínas de Insetos/química , Larva/química , Lectinas/farmacologia , Lectinas Tipo C/química , Serina Proteases/química
17.
Molecules ; 24(24)2019 Dec 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31835851

RESUMO

The Photorhabdus species is a Gram-negative bacteria of the family Morganellaceae that is known for its mutualistic relationship with Heterorhabditis nematodes and pathogenicity toward insects. This study is focused on the characterization of the recombinant lectin PLL3 with an origin in P. laumondii subsp. laumondii. PLL3 belongs to the PLL family of lectins with a seven-bladed ß-propeller fold. The binding properties of PLL3 were tested by hemagglutination assay, glycan array, isothermal titration calorimetry, and surface plasmon resonance, and its structure was determined by X-ray crystallography. Obtained data revealed that PLL3 binds similar carbohydrates to those that the other PLL family members bind, with some differences in the binding properties. PLL3 exhibited the highest affinity toward l-fucose and its derivatives but was also able to interact with O-methylated glycans and other ligands. Unlike the other members of this family, PLL3 was discovered to be a monomer, which might correspond to a weaker avidity effect compared to homologous lectins. Based on the similarity to the related lectins and their proposed biological function, PLL3 might accompany them during the interaction of P. laumondii with both the nematode partner and the insect host.


Assuntos
Lectinas/química , Lectinas/metabolismo , Photorhabdus/metabolismo , Proteínas de Bactérias/química , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Sítios de Ligação , Calorimetria , Cristalografia por Raios X , Frutose/metabolismo , Lectinas/genética , Estrutura Secundária de Proteína , Proteínas Recombinantes/química , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo , Ressonância de Plasmônio de Superfície
18.
Mar Drugs ; 18(1)2019 Dec 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31877692

RESUMO

Often, even the most effective antineoplastic drugs currently used in clinic do not efficiently allow complete healing due to the related toxicity. The reason for the toxicity lies in the lack of selectivity for cancer cells of the vast majority of anticancer agents. Thus, the need for new potent anticancer compounds characterized by a better toxicological profile is compelling. Lectins belong to a particular class of non-immunogenic glycoproteins and have the characteristics to selectively bind specific sugar sequences on the surface of cells. This property is exploited to exclusively bind cancer cells and exert antitumor activity through the induction of different forms of regulated cell death and the inhibition of cancer cell proliferation. Thanks to the extraordinary biodiversity, marine environments represent a unique source of active natural compounds with anticancer potential. Several marine and freshwater organisms, ranging from the simplest alga to the most complex vertebrate, are amazingly enriched in these proteins. Remarkably, all studies gathered in this review show the impressive anticancer effect of each studied marine lectin combined with irrelevant toxicity in vitro and in vivo and pave the way to design clinical trials to assess the real antineoplastic potential of these promising proteins. It provides a concise and precise description of the experimental results, their interpretation as well as the experimental conclusions that can be drawn.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Organismos Aquáticos , Lectinas/farmacologia , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Produtos Biológicos/farmacologia , Água Doce , Humanos , Lectinas/química
19.
Molecules ; 24(23)2019 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31756927

RESUMO

Clitocybe nebularis lectin (CNL) is present in fruiting bodies of clouded agaric along with several similar isolectins that are all small and stable proteins. It is a beta-trefoil type lectin forming homodimers that are essential for its functionality. It binds specifically N,N'-diacetyllactosediamine (GalNAcß1-4GlcNAc, LacDiNac) and human blood group A determinant-containing glycan epitopes. Its most probable function is to defend fruiting bodies against predators and parasites. In addition, an endogenous regulatory function is possible for CNL, as indicated by its interaction with fungal protease inhibitors sharing the beta-trefoil fold. CNL is toxic to insects, nematodes and amoebae, as well as to leukemic T-cell lines. Bivalent carbohydrate binding is essential for the toxicity of CNL, against both invertebrates and cancer-derived cell lines. In addition, CNL exhibits potent immunostimulation of human dendritic cells, resulting in a strong T helper cell type 1 response. Based on its unique characteristics, CNL is a promising candidate for applications in human and veterinary medicine as well as in agriculture, for plant protection.


Assuntos
Agaricales/química , Proteínas Fúngicas/química , Lactose/análogos & derivados , Lectinas/química , Animais , Lactose/química
20.
Analyst ; 144(24): 7378-7389, 2019 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31670365

RESUMO

The development of carbohydrate-binding ligands is crucial for expanding knowledge on the glycocode and for achieving systematic carbohydrate targeting. Amongst such ligands, carbohydrate-binding peptides (CBPs) are attractive for use in bioanalytical and biomedical systems due to their biochemical and physicochemical properties; moreover, given the biological significance of lectin-carbohydrate interactions, these ligands offer an opportunity to study peptide sequence and binding characteristics to inform on natural target/ligand interactions. Here, a high-throughput microarray screening technique is described for the identification and study of CBPs, with a focus on polysialic acid (PSA), a polysaccharide found on neural stem cells. The chemical and biological uniqueness of PSA suggests that an ability to exclusively target this glycan may promote a number of diagnostic and therapeutic applications. PSA-binding peptides from phage display screening and from epitope mapping of an scFv for oligosialic acid were screened in an optimized microarray format with three ligand density conditions. Hypothesis-driven mutations were additionally applied to select peptides to modulate peptide affinity and selectivity to PSA. Peptide compositional and positional analyses revealed the significance of various residues for PSA binding and suggested the importance of basic residue positioning for PSA recognition. Furthermore, selectivity studies performed directly on microarrays with chondroitin sulfate A (CS-A) demonstrated the value of screening for both affinity and selectivity in the development of CBPs. Thus, the integrated approach described, with attention to design strategy, screening, and peptide characterization, successfully identified novel PSA-binding ligands and offers a platform for the identification and study of additional polysaccharide-binding peptides.


Assuntos
Lectinas/análise , Peptídeos/análise , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Ensaios de Triagem em Larga Escala/métodos , Lectinas/química , Lectinas/metabolismo , Ligantes , Análise em Microsséries/métodos , Biblioteca de Peptídeos , Peptídeos/química , Peptídeos/metabolismo , Ligação Proteica , Ácidos Siálicos/metabolismo
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