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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33066255

RESUMO

Nutrition and health claims should be truthful and not misleading. We aimed to determine the use of nutrition and health claims in packaged foods sold in Mongolia and examine their credibility. A cross-sectional study examined the label information of 1723 products sold in marketplaces in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia. The claim data were analysed descriptively. In the absence of national regulations, the credibility of the nutrition claims was examined by using the Codex Alimentarius guidelines, while the credibility of the health claims was assessed by using the European Union (EU) Regulations (EC) No 1924/2006. Nutritional quality of products bearing claims was determined by nutrient profiling. Approximately 10% (n = 175) of products carried at least one health claim and 9% (n = 149) carried nutrition claims. The credibility of nutrition and health claims was very low. One-third of nutrition claims (33.7%, n = 97) were deemed credible, by having complete and accurate information on the content of the claimed nutrient/s. Only a few claims would be permitted in the EU countries by complying with the EU regulations. Approximately half of the products with nutrition claims and 40% of products with health claims were classified as less healthy products. The majority of nutrition and health claims on food products sold in Mongolia were judged as non-credible, and many of these claims were on unhealthy products. Rigorous and clear regulations are needed to prevent negative impacts of claims on food choices and consumption, and nutrition transition in Mongolia.


Assuntos
Rotulagem de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Embalagem de Alimentos , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Política Nutricional , Valor Nutritivo , Estudos Transversais , Saúde , Humanos , Legislação sobre Alimentos , Mongólia , Políticas , Prevalência
2.
Rev. esp. nutr. comunitaria ; 26(2): 0-0, abr.-jun. 2020. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-194451

RESUMO

FUNDAMENTOS: El término edulcorante ha tenido desde hace más de 40 años una gran presencia en la información científico-técnica, en la legislación alimentaria, así como en la información dirigida a los profesionales de la salud, alimentación, nutrición y dietética y, en los medios de comunicación. MÉTODOS: Se ha realizado un trabajo de análisis bibliográfico en las bases de datos PubMed, Science Direct, Bucea (Biblioteca Complutense de Madrid) y Google Académico. Se han consultado las bases de datos oficiales, la legislación y regulación vigente, tanto a nivel de la Unión Europea como de España. Además, se han analizado los datos en las encuestas de ingesta dietética de ámbito nacional. RESULTADOS: Existe legislación específica en la Unión Europea que regula la autorización de edulcorantes bajos en o sin calorías, no hay encuestas dietéticas en España que reflejen a nivel cuantitativo la presencia de edulcorantes bajos en o sin calorías en los productos alimenticios, a excepción del estudio ANIBES. CONCLUSIONES: Las autoridades de seguridad alimentaria y nutrición, en España y Unión Europea, deben seguir velando por la aprobación, regulación y monitorización de los edulcorantes bajos en o sin calorías


BACKGROUND: For more than 40 years, the term sweetener has had a great presence in scientific and technical information, in food legislation, as well as the information aimed at health, food, nutrition and dietetic professionals and in the media. METHODS: The analysis has been carried out in the databases PubMed, Science Direct, Bucea (Biblioteca Complutense de Madrid) and Google Académico. The official databases, legislation and regulations in force have been consulted, both at the level of the European Union and Spain. In addition, for the national dietary intake surveys have been analyzed the data. RESULTS: There is specific legislation in the European Union that regulates the authorisation of low and non-calorie sweeteners. There are no dietary surveys in Spain that quantitatively reflect the presence of low and non-calorie sweeteners in food products, with the exception of the ANIBES study. CONCLUSIONS: Food safety and nutrition authorities, European and Spanish level, must continue to ensure the approval, regulation and monitoring of low and non-calorie sweeteners


Assuntos
Humanos , Abastecimento de Alimentos/normas , Edulcorantes/normas , Legislação sobre Alimentos/normas , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Legislação sobre Alimentos/organização & administração , Adoçantes não Calóricos/normas
3.
Food Chem ; 331: 127303, 2020 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32562979

RESUMO

ß-phenylethylamine and tryptamine are biogenic amines (BA) often found in foods. In general, BA are assumed to be toxic and their accumulation in food is not recommended. However, present knowledge regarding the toxicity of ß-phenylethylamine and tryptamine is limited; more information is needed if qualitative and quantitative risk assessments of foods are to be successfully conducted. This study describes a real-time analysis of ß-phenylethylamine and tryptamine toxicity on a human intestinal epithelial cell line. Both BA caused cell necrosis and apoptosis, although the former was the main mode of action of ß-phenylethylamine, and the latter the main mode of action of tryptamine. Only tryptamine was cytotoxic at concentrations found in BA-rich foods. The results presented in this work may contribute to establish legal limits for ß-phenylethylamine and tryptamine in food.


Assuntos
Citotoxinas/toxicidade , Alimentos/efeitos adversos , Triptaminas/toxicidade , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Humanos , Mucosa Intestinal/citologia , Legislação sobre Alimentos , Fenetilaminas/toxicidade , Medição de Risco
4.
N Z Med J ; 133(1511): 71-85, 2020 03 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32161423

RESUMO

The hazardous and obesogenic food environment are major contributors to health loss in Aotearoa New Zealand. Here we consider the potential use of food taxes and subsidies to protect health in this country. We find that each one of the 14 recent systematic reviews on the tax and/or subsidy topic since 2015 in the scientific literature report that such interventions have favourable impacts from a health perspective. The New Zealand evidence we considered (n=12 studies since January 2010) is less definitive, but the pattern of results is consistent with the international evidence. Given this overall picture, the New Zealand Government should seriously consider such tax/subsidy interventions, potentially starting with a UK-style sugary drinks industry levy.


Assuntos
Alimentos , Legislação sobre Alimentos , Saúde Pública , Bebidas Adoçadas com Açúcar , Impostos/legislação & jurisprudência , Bebidas , Gorduras na Dieta , Açúcares da Dieta , Humanos , Nova Zelândia , Grupo com Ancestrais Oceânicos , Sódio na Dieta
5.
Demetra (Rio J.) ; 15(1): e39689, jan.- mar.2020. ilus
Artigo em Inglês, Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1097203

RESUMO

Inúmeros benefícios são atribuídos aos alimentos integrais, especialmente pela concentração de fibras nesses produtos. Sabe-se que biscoitos integrais compõem a dieta dos consumidores, sendo a rotulagem o principal meio de comunicação entre indústria produtora e consumidores, e que não existe legislação específica para essa categoria de alimentos. Assim, este trabalho objetivou verificar se as informações e/ou discursos nutricionais presentes nos rótulos de biscoitos integrais estão de acordo com a legislação geral de rotulagem, e também averiguar a percepção dos consumidores frente às alegações, bem como sua preferência e consumo desses produtos. O estudo foi realizado em três supermercados da cidade de Videira-SC e contemplou duas etapas: análise de rótulos por meio de check-list e aplicação de questionário com consumidores. Os resultados evidenciaram inadequações, destacando-se a utilização de informações não previstas em lei, que podem induzir o consumidor a erros. Quanto à percepção dos consumidores, estes majoritariamente acreditam que para um alimento ser considerado integral, deve conter no mínimo 50% dessa fonte de ingrediente, e os associam a benefícios à saúde. Verifica-se a necessidade de desenvolver ações que promovam educação nutricional, bem como rigidez, cumprimento das leis vigentes e novos planejamentos de normas técnicas específicas para alimentos integrais, a fim de estabelecer critérios quanto à determinação desse grupo de alimentos. (AU)


Countless benefits are attributed to whole grain foods, especially due to the concentration of dietary fiber in these products. It is widely known that whole grain cookies are part of the consumers' diet, that food labeling is the primary means of communication between producers and consumers, and that a relevant legislation for this class of food is required. Thus, the present study aimed to verify whether nutrition claims and/or terms displayed on the labels of whole grain cookies are in compliance with the applicable labeling legislation, and also to ascertain consumer's perception on these claims as well as their preference for and consumption of these products. The study was carried out in three supermarkets in the city of Videira-SC, split into two stages: label analysis through a checklist and administration of a questionnaire to consumers. Results showed non-compliances, especially the use of terms not foreseen by the law, which could mislead consumers. Regarding the perception of consumers, they mostly believe that a product may contain at least 50% of whole grains to be called a whole grain food, and associate them with health benefits. It is necessary to develop and promote nutrition education actions as well as constitutional rigidity and compliance with the applicable legislation, and new and relevant technical standards for whole grain foods in order to improve requirements for this class of food. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Educação Alimentar e Nutricional , Comportamento Alimentar , Rotulagem de Alimentos , Defesa do Consumidor , Alimentos Industrializados , Legislação sobre Alimentos
6.
Rev Saude Publica ; 54: 10, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32022139

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess if the commercialization of infant formulas, baby bottles, bottle nipples, pacifiers and nipple protectors is performed in compliance with the Norma Brasileira de Comercialização de Alimentos para Lactentes e Crianças de Primeira Infância e de Produtos de Puericultura Correlatos (NBCAL - Brazilian Code of Marketing of Infant and Toddlers Food and Childcare-related products). The commercial promotion of these products is prohibited by the Law 11,265. METHOD: Cross-sectional study conducted in 2017 through a census of all pharmacies, supermarkets and department stores that sold products covered by NBCAL in the South Zone of Rio de Janeiro. Health professionals trained at NBCAL used structured electronic form for direct observation of establishments and for interviews with their managers. We created indicators to evaluate commercial practices and performed descriptive analyses. RESULTS: A total of 352 commercial establishments were evaluated: 240 pharmacies, 88 supermarkets and 24 department stores, of which 88% sold products whose promotion is prohibited by NBCAL. Illegal commercial promotions were found in 20.3% of the establishments that sold the products we investigated: 52 pharmacies (21.9%), four supermarkets (7.5%) and seven department stores (33.3%). The most frequent commercial promotion strategies were discounts (13.2%) and special exposures (9.3%). The products with the highest prevalence of infractions of NBCAL were infant formulas (16.0%). We interviewed 309 managers of commercial establishments; 50.8% reported unfamiliarity with the law. More than three-quarters of the managers reported having been visited at the establishments by commercial representatives of companies that produce infant formulas. CONCLUSION: More than a fifth of commercial establishments promoted infant formulas, baby bottles and nipples, although this practice has been banned in Brazil for thirty years. We think it is necessary to train those managers. Government agencies must monitor commercial establishments in order to inhibit strategies of persuasion and induction to sales of these products, ensuring mothers' autonomy in the decision on the feeding of their children.


Assuntos
Publicidade Direta ao Consumidor , Fórmulas Infantis/legislação & jurisprudência , Marketing/legislação & jurisprudência , Substitutos do Leite/legislação & jurisprudência , Chupetas , Brasil , Aleitamento Materno , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Alimentos Infantis , Recém-Nascido , Legislação sobre Alimentos
7.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 75(6): 632-647, 2020 02 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32057379

RESUMO

There is strong evidence for a causal relationship between salt intake and blood pressure. Randomized trials demonstrate that salt reduction lowers blood pressure in both individuals who are hypertensive and those who are normotensive, additively to antihypertensive treatments. Methodologically robust studies with accurate salt intake assessment have shown that a lower salt intake is associated with a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease, all-cause mortality, and other conditions, such as kidney disease, stomach cancer, and osteoporosis. Multiple complex and interconnected physiological mechanisms are implicated, including fluid homeostasis, hormonal and inflammatory mechanisms, as well as more novel pathways such as the immune response and the gut microbiome. High salt intake is a top dietary risk factor. Salt reduction programs are cost-effective and should be implemented or accelerated in all countries. This review provides an update on the evidence relating salt to health, with a particular focus on blood pressure and cardiovascular disease, as well as the potential mechanisms.


Assuntos
Hipertensão/prevenção & controle , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Pressão Sanguínea , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/etiologia , Legislação sobre Alimentos
8.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(1): e1918436, 2020 01 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31940035

RESUMO

Importance: The Smart Snacks in School standards (hereafter, Smart Snacks) were issued in 2013 with the aim of improving students' dietary intake behaviors. Goals of Smart Snacks included reducing total energy intake, consumption of solid fats and added sugars, and sodium intake. Smart Snacks standards were required to be implemented by the start of the 2014 to 2015 school year at all US schools participating in federal child nutrition programs. Objective: To examine the association of state laws that specifically direct schools to implement Smart Snacks with student dietary consumption outcomes. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cross-sectional study used nationally representative data collected in the 2014 to 2015 school year as part of the School Nutrition and Meal Cost Study. Students in grades 1 through 12 (ages approximately 6-18 years) were randomly selected from 310 public schools in 30 US states and the District of Columbia. Analytic weights were applied and all percentages reported are weighted. Analyses were conducted from March 1, 2018, to December 12, 2019. Exposures: State laws requiring schools to implement Smart Snacks. Main Outcomes and Measures: A 24-hour recall was used to assess student dietary intake as daily kilocalories consumed as (a) total energy, (b) solid fats and added sugars combined, (c) solid fats, or (d) added sugars. Milligrams of daily sodium consumption were also computed. Results: Among 1959 students (mean [SD] age, 11.9 [3.5] years; 1014 [50.9%] boys), 420 students (22.5%) attended school in a state with Smart Snacks laws, and 528 students (26.1%) consumed snacks obtained at school. In covariate-adjusted models, total energy intake did not vary based on state law. Adjusted mean daily kilocalories from solid fats and added sugars was significantly lower among students in states with laws (508.7 [95% CI, 463.0 to 554.4] kcal) than among students in states without laws (562.5 [95% CI, 534.3 to 590.8] kcal; difference, -53.9 [95% CI, -104.5 to -3.2] kcal; P = .04). Consumption of sodium did not differ by state law. Kilocalories from solid fats contributed more to the difference than kilocalories from added sugars (-37.7 [95% CI -62.8 to -12.6] kcal vs -16.2 [95% CI, -51.3 to 19.0] kcal). Conclusions and Relevance: These findings suggest that students in states with laws requiring schools to implement Smart Snacks had better dietary intake than students in states without laws, consuming a mean of 53.9 fewer kilocalories from solid fats and added sugars per day, after adjusting for covariates. State-level policy mechanisms may support schools' implementation of federal standards in ways that are associated with healthier diets among children and adolescents.


Assuntos
Gorduras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Sacarose na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Ingestão de Energia , Lanches , Adolescente , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Promoção da Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Humanos , Legislação sobre Alimentos , Masculino , Instituições Acadêmicas/legislação & jurisprudência , Governo Estadual , Estados Unidos
9.
Nutrients ; 12(2)2020 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31991603

RESUMO

The Australia New Zealand Food Standards Code does not regulate on-pack claims describing the amount of whole grain in foods. In July 2013, The Grains & Legumes Nutrition CouncilTM (GLNC) established a voluntary Code of Practice for Whole Grain Ingredient Content Claims (the Code) providing guidance for whole grain claims, with cut-off values and suggested wording ≥8 g, ≥16 g, and ≥24 g per manufacturer serve (contains; high and very high in whole grain), based on a 48 g whole grain daily target intake. The aim of this impact assessment was to report the uptake of the Code by manufacturers, changes in numbers of whole grain products, and claims on-pack since 2013, including compliance. The impact assessment was undertaken in August 2019, comparing current registered manufacturers ("users") and their products to the total number of products in the market deemed eligible for registration through GLNC product audits since 2013. Reporting included breakfast cereals, bread products, crispbreads, crackers, rice/corn cakes, rice, pasta, noodles, couscous, other grains (e.g., quinoa, buckwheat, freekeh), and grain-based muesli bars. As of 30 June 2019, there were 33 registered users and 531 registered products in Australia and New Zealand representing 43% of the eligible manufacturers and 65% of the eligible whole grain foods. Three-quarters (78% and 74%) of the eligible breakfast cereals and bread products were registered with the Code in 2019, followed by 62% of grain-based muesli bars. Only 39% of crispbread, crackers, rice/corn cakes, and rice, pasta, noodles, couscous, and other grains were registered. From 2013 there has been a 71% increase in the number of whole grain foods making claims, demonstrating strong uptake by industry, with clearer, more consistent, and compliant on-pack communication regarding whole grain content.


Assuntos
Comércio/tendências , Indústria Alimentícia/tendências , Rotulagem de Alimentos/tendências , Legislação sobre Alimentos/tendências , Valor Nutritivo , Recomendações Nutricionais/tendências , Grãos Integrais , Austrália , Comportamento de Escolha , Comércio/legislação & jurisprudência , Comportamento do Consumidor , Indústria Alimentícia/legislação & jurisprudência , Rotulagem de Alimentos/legislação & jurisprudência , Humanos , Recomendações Nutricionais/legislação & jurisprudência , Fatores de Tempo
10.
Lancet ; 395(10219): 226-239, 2020 01 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31791690

RESUMO

This final report of the Lancet Commission into liver disease in the UK stresses the continuing increase in burden of liver disease from excess alcohol consumption and obesity, with high levels of hospital admissions which are worsening in deprived areas. Only with comprehensive food and alcohol strategies based on fiscal and regulatory measures (including a minimum unit price for alcohol, the alcohol duty escalator, and an extension of the sugar levy on food content) can the disease burden be curtailed. Following introduction of minimum unit pricing in Scotland, alcohol sales fell by 3%, with the greatest effect on heavy drinkers of low-cost alcohol products. We also discuss the major contribution of obesity and alcohol to the ten most common cancers as well as measures outlined by the departing Chief Medical Officer to combat rising levels of obesity-the highest of any country in the west. Mortality of severely ill patients with liver disease in district general hospitals is unacceptably high, indicating the need to develop a masterplan for improving hospital care. We propose a plan based around specialist hospital centres that are linked to district general hospitals by operational delivery networks. This plan has received strong backing from the British Association for Study of the Liver and British Society of Gastroenterology, but is held up at NHS England. The value of so-called day-case care bundles to reduce high hospital readmission rates with greater care in the community is described, along with examples of locally derived schemes for the early detection of disease and, in particular, schemes to allow general practitioners to refer patients directly for elastography assessment. New funding arrangements for general practitioners will be required if these proposals are to be taken up more widely around the country. Understanding of the harm to health from lifestyle causes among the general population is low, with a poor knowledge of alcohol consumption and dietary guidelines. The Lancet Commission has serious doubts about whether the initiatives described in the Prevention Green Paper, with the onus placed on the individual based on the use of information technology and the latest in behavioural science, will be effective. We call for greater coordination between official and non-official bodies that have highlighted the unacceptable disease burden from liver disease in England in order to present a single, strong voice to the higher echelons of government.


Assuntos
Alcoolismo/epidemiologia , Hepatopatias/epidemiologia , Hepatopatias/prevenção & controle , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Bebidas Alcoólicas/economia , Alcoolismo/complicações , Alcoolismo/terapia , Comércio , Redes Comunitárias/organização & administração , Comorbidade , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Legislação sobre Alimentos , Hepatopatias/diagnóstico , Hepatopatias/etiologia , Transplante de Fígado/estatística & dados numéricos , Obesidade/complicações , Pacotes de Assistência ao Paciente , Escócia , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
11.
Nutr. clín. diet. hosp ; 40(1): 62-73, 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-194635

RESUMO

INTRODUCCIÓN: Los germinados son alimentos listos para el consumo cuyo uso está bastante extendido y de los que es necesario garantizar su inocuidad. OBJETIVOS: Nuestros objetivos fueron conocer la Nor - mativa Europea que regula la Seguridad Alimentaria de los mismos y evaluar la calidad microbiológica de algunos tipos de germinados. METODOLOGÍA: La Normativa Europea estudiada recoge la evolución relativa a la Seguridad Alimentaria de hortalizas, incluyendo las semillas germinadas. En 2005 se establece únicamente la investigación de Salmonella y a partir de 2013 plantea criterios de calidad microbiológica para los germinados; dicha Normativa esta transpuesta a la Reglamentación Española. Para el estudio microbiológico se utilizaron 5 tipos diferentes de germinados adquiridos en el comercio, que se analizaron directamente (control), después de su lavado con agua destilada y tras su tratamiento con un desinfectante. Se realizaron recuentos de bacterias aerobias mesófilas totales, Escherichia coli y Listeria monocytogenes y se investigó la presencia de Salmonella spp. RESULTADOS: Los recuentos de bacterias aerobias mesófilas totales en los controles estuvieron comprendidos entre 1,0 X 108 a 2,0 X 109 ufc/g; en los lavados, fueron de 6,0 X 107 a 1,1 X 109 ufc/g y en los tratados de 1,0 X 107 a 6,8 X 108 ufc/g. La reducción de la carga bacteriana por el lavado fue de 24 % (ajo) a 50 % (brócoli) y en el caso del tratamiento con el desinfectante de 59 % (ajo) a 90 % (alfalfa). Los recuentos de Escherichia coli y Listeria monocytogenes fueron inferiores a 10 ufc/g en todas las muestras y en el caso de Salmonella spp. hubo ausencia en 25 g en todas las muestras analizadas. CONCLUSIONES: Los recuentos de Escherichia coli y Listeria monocytogenes son inferiores a lo indicado en la normativa y no se encontró presencia de Salmonella spp. En conclusión los germinados analizados se consideran alimentos seguros


INTRODUCTION: Sprouts are ready-to-eat foods, and their use is quite widespread, consequently it is necessary to guarantee their safety. OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study were to know the European Regulations about Food Safety of sprouts and to evaluate the microbiological quality of some types of sprouts. METHODS: The European Regulation reflects the evolution related to Food Safety of vegetables, including sprouted seeds. In 2005, only Salmonella was established to be investigated in sprouts, and in 2013, the European Union proposed microbiological quality criteria for sprouts and that Regulation was transposed to the Spanish Regulations. For the microbiological study, five different types of commercial sprouts were chosen; they were directly analyzed (control), after distilled water washing and after treatment with a disinfectant. Total mesophilic aerobic bacteria, Escherichia coli and Listeria monocytogenes were counted and presence of Salmonella spp. was determined. RESULTS: Counts of total mesophilic aerobic bacteria were between 1.0 X 108 to 2.0 X 109 cfu/g in control samples; in the washed ones, from 6.0 X 107 to 1.1 X 109 cfu/g, and, in the treated ones, from 1.0 X 107 to 6.8 X 108 cfu/g. The reduction of bacterial load by washing was from 24 % (garlic) to 50 % (broccoli) and in the case of treatment with the disinfectant from 59 % (garlic) to 90 % (alfalfa). Escherichia coli and Listeria monocytogenes counts were lower than 10 cfu/g in all samples, and there was absence of Salmonella spp. in 25 g of all the samples analyzed. CONCLUSIONS: Escherichia coli and Listeria monocytogenes counts were lower than those indicated in the Regulations, and no presence of Salmonella spp was found. In conclusion, the analyzed sprouts are considered safe and innocuous foods


Assuntos
Humanos , Abastecimento de Alimentos/normas , Microbiologia de Alimentos/normas , Legislação sobre Alimentos , Plantas Comestíveis/embriologia , Plantas Comestíveis/microbiologia , Listeria monocytogenes/isolamento & purificação , Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , Salmonella/isolamento & purificação , Europa (Continente) , Carga Bacteriana
12.
Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr ; 60(2): 298-309, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30421981

RESUMO

The U.S. Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act (DSHEA) established the regulatory framework for dietary supplements as foods through the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). DSHEA outlined the legal definition, labeling requirements, and process for adverse event reporting for dietary supplements. FDA also issued formal guidance on current Good Manufacturing Practice to ensure that processes for preparation, packaging, labeling, and storage of supplements and ingredients are documented and meet specifications to ensure purity, composition, and strength. However, efficacy of dietary supplements is not required under U.S. law. Despite regulations to improve the marketplace, many challenges remain; as a result, the quality and safety of products available can be highly variable, especially for botanical and herbal products. The ability of regulators to successfully carry out their mission is hampered by the sheer number of products and manufacturing facilities and a lack of analytical methods for all ingredients and products in the marketplace, this is especially difficult for herbal and botanical dietary supplements. Safety issues continue to exist such as adulteration and contamination, especially with specific product types (i.e. body building, sexual enhancement). Thus, a need remains for continued efforts and improved techniques to assess the quality of dietary supplements, especially with regard to purity, bioavailability, and safety. This review will highlight the existing American regulatory framework for dietary supplements and will describe the remaining regulatory barriers to ensuring that safe and high-quality dietary supplements are offered in the marketplace.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais , Legislação sobre Alimentos , Estados Unidos , United States Food and Drug Administration
13.
Braz. J. Vet. Res. Anim. Sci. (Online) ; 57(1): e156883, 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1122162

RESUMO

The quality of raw milk depends on initial microbial contamination and conditions of storage until industry processing. Considering the influence of time and storage temperature on raw milk microbiota, the objective of this work was to quantify and monitor the multiplication of these groups under different conditions. For this purpose, 41 samples of raw milk were collected immediately after milking, stored in the following storage conditions: 25 °C/2 h; 35 °C/2 h; 7 °C/24 h; 7 °C/48 h and 7 °C/60 h and analyses of aerobic mesophilic, psychrotrophic and proteolytic psychrotrophic microorganisms. The milk samples analyzed in the study had an initial mean count of mesophilic aerobes of 5.38 Log CFU/mL at Time Zero. The milk stored at 25 °C/2 h and 35 °C/2 h kept the mesophilic aerobic counts within the limits established by the legislation (5.48 Log CFU/mL), with an increase in counts of psychrotrophic and proteolytic microorganisms. When stored at 7 °C/24 h and 7 °C/48 h, the count of mesophiles exceeded the established parameters. A significant increase in the count of proteolytic psychrotrophs and psychrotrophs was also observed during storage at 7 °C from 24 h. The results of this study indicate that the temperature of 7 °C is not suitable for the milk conservation, since it was not able to control the microbial multiplication. Thus, the results contribute to the change in milk storage temperature proposed by the new Brazilian legislation.(AU)


A qualidade do leite cru depende da contaminação microbiana inicial e das condições de armazenamento até o processamento na indústria. Considerando a influência do tempo e da temperatura de armazenamento na microbiota do leite cru, o objetivo deste trabalho foi quantificar e monitorar a multiplicação desses grupos de microrganismos sob diferentes condições. Para tanto, foram coletadas 41 amostras de leite cru imediatamente após a ordenha, armazenadas nas seguintes condições de armazenamento: 25 °C/2 h; 35 °C/2 h; 7 °C/24 h; 7 °C/48 h e 7 °C/60 h para análise de microrganismos psicrotróficos, aeróbios mesófilos, psicrotróficos e proteolíticos. As amostras de leite analisadas no estudo apresentaram uma contagem média inicial de aeróbios mesófilos de 5.38 Log UFC/mL no Tempo Zero. O leite armazenado a 25 °C/2 h e 35 °C/2 h manteve as contagens aeróbias mesófilas dentro dos limites estabelecidos pela legislação (5,48 Log UFC/mL), com aumento nas contagens de microrganismos psicrotróficos e proteolíticos. Quando armazenado a 7 °C/24 h e 7 °C/48 h a contagem de mesófilos excedeu os parâmetros estabelecidos. Um aumento significativo na contagem de psicrotróficos e psicrotróficos proteolíticos também foi observado durante o armazenamento a 7 °C a partir das 24 h. Os resultados deste estudo indicam que a temperatura de 7 °C não é adequada para a conservação do leite, uma vez que não foi capaz de controlar a multiplicação microbiana. Assim, os resultados contribuem para a mudança na temperatura de armazenamento de leite proposta pela nova legislação brasileira.(AU)


Assuntos
Leite/microbiologia , Armazenamento de Alimentos/normas , Microbiota , Alimentos Crus/microbiologia , Legislação sobre Alimentos/normas , Peptídeo Hidrolases , Brasil
15.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 71(6): 2075-2084, Nov.-Dec. 2019. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1055143

RESUMO

Objetivou-se com este estudo desenvolver e validar uma ferramenta semiológica para diagnóstico do nível de adoção e conformidade das boas práticas agropecuárias em fazendas de produção de leite, segundo requisitos preconizados pela Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) e pela International Dairy Federation (IDF). A ferramenta foi testada em 62 fazendas de produção de leite, em seis diferentes regiões do estado do Rio Grande do Sul, como parte das ações do Projeto Protambo - "Transferência de tecnologias para o desenvolvimento da atividade leiteira no RS com base nas boas práticas agropecuárias" - da Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária, Embrapa, entre janeiro de 2014 e março de 2017. A validação da ferramenta não apontou divergências estatisticamente significativas entre avaliadores, satisfazendo o parâmetro de exatidão para métodos de medições exigidos pela ISO/IEC 17025. Foi evidenciado um espaço de variação que mostrou desenvolvimento de métrica, em que se obteve consistência (coerência) de medição. O teste t-Student aproximado para a comparação de médias de não conformidades nas BPA mostrou melhora significativa no grupo tratamento (diagnóstico seguido de plano de ajuste) quando comparado ao controle (diagnóstico sem plano de ajuste subsequente). Essa nova abordagem semiológica contribui para a adoção das BPA em fazendas leiteiras, para a melhoria da qualidade do leite e da segurança na cadeia produtiva de lácteos.(AU)


This study reports the development and validation of a novel diagnostic tool, based on the FAO and IDF ¨Guide to Good Dairy Farming Practice¨. Sixty-two dairy farms over six different regions within the State of Rio Grande do Sul were selected, evaluated and ranked, from January 2014 to March 2017; as part of the PROTAMBO- Dairying Technology Transfer Project (EMBRAPA). Results indicated that the proposed diagnostic tool was significantly consistent among different field evaluators, meeting trueness validation parameter for ISO/IEC 17025 validation requirement. Binomial distribution of probabilities of positive changes showed significant kind of metric evolution for the treatment group when compared to the control, in addition to significant consistency. Approximated t-Student test for comparison of the means of GAP non-compliances demonstrated significant improvements for the treatment group relative to the control. This novel approach could assist in overcoming existing and emerging GAP challenges to maximize dairy quality.(AU)


Assuntos
Qualidade dos Alimentos , Leite/microbiologia , Boas Práticas de Fabricação , Indústria Agropecuária , Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Legislação sobre Alimentos
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31731577

RESUMO

Food marketing has been identified as a contributing factor in childhood obesity, prompting global health organizations to recommend restrictions on unhealthy food marketing to children. Chile has responded to this recommendation with a restriction on child-directed marketing for products that exceed certain regulation-defined thresholds in sugars, saturated fats, sodium, or calories. Child-directed strategies are allowed for products that do not exceed these thresholds. To evaluate changes in marketing due to this restriction, we examined differences in the use of child-directed strategies on breakfast cereal packages that exceeded the defined thresholds vs. those that did not exceed the thresholds before (n = 168) and after (n = 153) the restriction was implemented. Photographs of cereal packages were taken from top supermarket chains in Santiago. Photographed cereals were classified as "high-in" if they exceeded any nutrient threshold described in the regulation. We found that the percentage of all cereal packages using child-directed strategies before implementation (36%) was significantly lower after implementation (21%), p < 0.05. This overall decrease is due to the decrease we found in the percentage of "high-in" cereals using child-directed strategies after implementation (43% before implementation, 15% after implementation), p < 0.05. In contrast, a greater percentage of packages that did not qualify as "high-in" used child-directed strategies after implementation (30%) compared with before implementation (8%), p < 0.05. The results suggest that the Chilean food marketing regulation can be effective at reducing the use of child-directed marketing for unhealthy food products.


Assuntos
Desjejum , Grão Comestível , Legislação sobre Alimentos , Marketing/métodos , Criança , Chile , Ingestão de Energia , Feminino , Rotulagem de Alimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Marketing/legislação & jurisprudência , Valor Nutritivo , Prevalência
17.
Rev Saude Publica ; 53: 90, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31644771

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The new regulatory framework for dietary supplements in Brazil prompted this analysis of the current outlook of these products and the challenges posed by the new guidelines. METHODS: We conducted a qualitative, observational and descriptive study of dietary supplements commercialized in Brazilian online stores with the help of the Google® search tool. We considered the ingredients on the labels, the effects attributed to these products and the commercial claims used as a means of promoting them to assess the necessary changes for the legal framework in the new guidelines. Finally, with the help of a database, we compared the effects declared by the manufacturers and attributed to certain ingredients with the scientific evidence described in literature. RESULTS: In total, we purchased 44 dietary supplements from Brazilian online stores (n = 7). Of the samples studied, 34.2% could not be classified in the category Dietary Supplements, as recommended by the new regulation of the Brazilian Health Regulatory Agency due to the presence of prohibited substances; 16% of products should be commercialized as medicines. Regarding the commercial appeals, 97.7% had banned expressions. Numerous claims of effects attributed to certain products were characterized as consumer fraud because they have no scientific evidence. CONCLUSIONS: The necessary changes represent a major regulatory and production challenge due to the wide range of dietary supplements and markets, an effort that aims to protect the consumers' health. Some previous gaps in the regulatory framework were not fully solved.


Assuntos
Comércio/legislação & jurisprudência , Suplementos Nutricionais , Rotulagem de Produtos/legislação & jurisprudência , Brasil , Comércio/normas , Suplementos Nutricionais/normas , Ingredientes de Alimentos/normas , Humanos , Legislação sobre Alimentos/normas , Rotulagem de Produtos/normas , Saúde Pública , Pesquisa Qualitativa
18.
Cien Saude Colet ; 24(10): 3805-3814, 2019.
Artigo em Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31577011

RESUMO

The scope of this study was to determine the food on offer in state public school canteens of Curitiba, Paraná, and to investigate the association between the permitted/prohibited food supplied under the Canteen Law, with school and canteen variables. A cross-sectional study was conducted with interviews with canteen administrators in 27 state schools. The Mann Whitney test was used to investigate associations. There was a higher frequency of administration of the canteens under the self-management regime (n = 25, 92.6%); appropriate location in the school for serving meals (n = 20, 74.1%); length of time in administration of over 10 years (n = 13, 48.2%) and administrators who reported knowing the Canteen Law (n = 22, 81.5%). More than 2/3 of canteens sold prohibited food, such as sweetened beverages (n = 22, 81.5%) and candies, industrialized popcorn and salty snacks (n = 13, 48.2%). Only one school provided fried snacks (n = 1, 3.7%). The offer of technical education alone was associated with greater availability of food allowed by the legislation (p = 0.033). The school canteens evaluated can be described as places of commercialization of food not permitted by the Healthy Canteen Law. It is important to highlight the regulation and inspection of food sales in canteens for the promotion of health in schools.


Assuntos
Serviços de Alimentação/estatística & dados numéricos , Abastecimento de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Legislação sobre Alimentos , Instituições Acadêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Brasil , Estudos Transversais , Serviços de Alimentação/legislação & jurisprudência , Abastecimento de Alimentos/legislação & jurisprudência , Promoção da Saúde , Humanos
19.
Recent Pat Drug Deliv Formul ; 13(2): 105-156, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31577201

RESUMO

Traditional nutraceuticals and cosmeceuticals hold pragmatic nature with respect to their definitions, claims, purposes and marketing strategies. Their definitions are not well established worldwide. They also have different regulatory definitions and registration regulatory processes in different parts of the world. Global prevalence of nutraceuticals and cosmeceuticals is noticeably high with large market share with minimal regulation compared to traditional drugs. The global market is flooded with nutraceuticals and cosmeceuticals claiming to be of natural origin and sold with a therapeutic claim by major online retail stores such as Amazon and eBay. Apart from the traditional formulations, many manufacturers and researchers use novel formulation technologies in nutraceutical and cosmeceutical formulations for different reasons and objectives. Manufacturers tend to differentiate their products with novel formulations to increase market appeal and sales. On the other hand, researchers use novel strategies to enhance nutraceuticals and cosmeceuticals activity and safety. The objective of this review is to assess the current patents and research adopting novel formulation strategies in nutraceuticals and cosmeceuticals. Patents and research papers investigating nutraceutical and cosmeceutical novel formulations were surveyed for the past 15 years. Various nanosystems and advanced biotechnology systems have been introduced to improve the therapeutic efficacy, safety and market appeal of nutraceuticals and cosmeceuticals, including liposomes, polymeric micelles, quantum dots, nanoparticles, and dendrimers. This review provides an overview of nutraceuticals and cosmeceuticals current technologies, highlighting their pros, cons, misconceptions, regulatory definitions and market. This review also aims in separating the science from fiction in the nutraceuticals and cosmeceuticals development, research and marketing.


Assuntos
Cosmecêuticos/administração & dosagem , Suplementos Nutricionais , Biotecnologia/métodos , Qualidade de Produtos para o Consumidor , Cosmecêuticos/legislação & jurisprudência , Cosmecêuticos/normas , Suplementos Nutricionais/normas , Humanos , Legislação sobre Alimentos , Patentes como Assunto
20.
Public Health Res Pract ; 29(3)2019 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31569204

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the incidence of the 'revolving door' phenomenon, whereby individuals move between positions in government and positions in the Australian alcohol, food and gambling industries. METHODS: This exploratory study was composed of two substudies: 1) an analysis of existing Australian Government Register of Lobbyists databases and related social network content; and 2) a series of 28 in-depth semistructured interviews with key informants discussing industry tactics for influencing policy, of which 15 interviewees explicitly discussed the revolving door phenomenon. RESULTS: More than one-third of people registered on the Australian Government Register of Lobbyists were previously government representatives. We report on several examples of government employees going on to work directly for alcohol, food or gambling industries, some taking employment directly related to their previous employment in government. Key informants highlight the potential risks this poses to good governance. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that the revolving door that sees people move between roles in the Australian Government and alcohol, food and gambling industries is commonplace, creating a range of ethical and moral problems, and posing a risk to public health.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/legislação & jurisprudência , Jogo de Azar , Programas Governamentais/legislação & jurisprudência , Legislação sobre Alimentos , Manobras Políticas , Política , Saúde Pública/legislação & jurisprudência , Adulto , Austrália , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recursos Humanos/estatística & dados numéricos
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