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1.
PLoS One ; 16(1): e0243978, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33476320

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is an infectious vector-borne disease caused by protozoa of the Leishmania genus that affects humans and animals. The distribution of parasites in the lesion is not uniform, and there are divergences in the literature about the choice of the better sampling site for diagnosis-inner or outer edge of the ulcerated skin lesion. In this context, determining the region of the lesion with the highest parasite density and, consequently, the appropriate site for collecting samples can define the success of the laboratory diagnosis. Hence, this study aims to comparatively evaluate the parasite load by qPCR, quantification of amastigotes forms in the direct exam, and the histopathological profile on the inner and outer edges of ulcerated CL lesions. METHODS: Samples from ulcerated skin lesions from 39 patients with confirmed CL were examined. We performed scraping of the ulcer inner edge (base) and outer edge (raised border) and lesion biopsy for imprint and histopathological examination. Slides smears were stained by Giemsa and observed in optical microscopy, the material contained on the smears was used to determine parasite load by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) with primers directed to the Leishmania (Viannia) minicircle kinetoplast DNA. The histopathological exam was performed to evaluate cell profile, tissue alterations and semi-quantitative assessment of amastigote forms in inner and outer edges. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Parasite loads were higher on the inner edge compared to the outer edge of the lesions, either by qPCR technique (P<0.001) and histopathological examination (P< 0.003). There was no significant difference in the parasite load between the imprint and scraping on the outer edge (P = 1.0000). CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: The results suggest that clinical specimens from the inner edge of the ulcerated CL lesions are the most suitable for both molecular diagnosis and direct parasitological examination.


Assuntos
DNA de Cinetoplasto/análise , Leishmania braziliensis , Leishmaniose Cutânea/parasitologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/métodos , Úlcera/parasitologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Leishmania braziliensis/genética , Leishmania braziliensis/isolamento & purificação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Carga Parasitária
2.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 54: e00472020, 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, Coleciona SUS, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: biblio-1143886

RESUMO

Abstract INTRODUCTION: The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of filter paper (FP) for lesion scraping collection in a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) diagnosis. METHODS: Lesion scrapings from 48 patients were collected and analyzed for PCR. RESULTS: PCR with FP detected up to three Leishmania braziliensis promastigotes. Considering the direct search by microscopy or PCR of samples collected in STE buffer as standards, the sensitivity of PCR with FP was 100%. CONCLUSIONS: FP can be useful for CL diagnosis in remote regions, allowing high sensitivity in the detection of the parasite by PCR.


Assuntos
Humanos , Leishmania braziliensis/genética , Leishmaniose Cutânea/diagnóstico , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , DNA de Protozoário/genética , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Microscopia
3.
Rev Soc Bras Med Trop ; 53: e20200255, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33331607

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In the Belém Metropolitan Region (BMR), Pará State, Brazil, American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) is endemic; however, very little is known regarding its causative agents. Therefore, we used our standard diagnostic approach combined with an RNA polymerase II largest subunit (RNAPOIILS)-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) followed by analysis of restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) to identify Leishmania spp. ACL agents in this region. METHODS: Thirty-two Leishmania spp. isolates from patients with ACL in the BMR during 1995-2018 were analyzed. Leishmania spp. DNA samples were amplified using the primers RPOR2/RPOF2, and the 615-bp PCR products were subjected to enzymatic digestion using TspRI and HgaI endonucleases. RESULTS: ACL etiological agents in the BMR comprised Leishmania (Viannia) lindenbergi (43.7%) followed by Leishmania (Viannia) lainsoni (34.4%), Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis (12.5%), and Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis (9.4%). CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, the results of the study revealed for the first time that L. (V.) lindenbergi and L. (V.) lainsoni are the main ACL agents in BMR.


Assuntos
Leishmania braziliensis , Leishmania , Leishmaniose Cutânea , Brasil/epidemiologia , Humanos , Leishmania/genética , Leishmania braziliensis/genética , Leishmaniose Cutânea/diagnóstico , Leishmaniose Cutânea/epidemiologia , Polimorfismo de Fragmento de Restrição , Estados Unidos
4.
Rev Soc Bras Med Trop ; 54: e00472020, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33338104

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of filter paper (FP) for lesion scraping collection in a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) diagnosis. METHODS: Lesion scrapings from 48 patients were collected and analyzed for PCR. RESULTS: PCR with FP detected up to three Leishmania braziliensis promastigotes. Considering the direct search by microscopy or PCR of samples collected in STE buffer as standards, the sensitivity of PCR with FP was 100%. CONCLUSIONS: FP can be useful for CL diagnosis in remote regions, allowing high sensitivity in the detection of the parasite by PCR.


Assuntos
Leishmania braziliensis , Leishmaniose Cutânea , DNA de Protozoário/genética , Humanos , Leishmania braziliensis/genética , Leishmaniose Cutânea/diagnóstico , Microscopia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
5.
Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz ; 115: e200113, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33111757

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lutzomyia longipalpis-derived cell line (Lulo) has been suggested as a model for studies of interaction between sandflies and Leishmania. OBJECTIVES: Here, we present data of proteomic and gene expression analyses of Lulo cell related to interactions with Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis. METHODS: Lulo cell protein extracts were analysed through a combination of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry and resulting spots were further investigated in silico to identify proteins using Mascot search and, afterwards, resulting sequences were applied for analysis with VectorBase. RESULTS: Sixty-four spots were identified showing similarities to other proteins registered in the databases and could be classified according to their biological function, such as ion-binding proteins (23%), proteases (14%), cytoskeletal proteins (11%) and interactive membrane proteins (9.5%). Effects of interaction with L. (V.) braziliensis with the expression of three genes (enolase, tubulin and vacuolar transport protein) were observed after an eight-hour timeframe and compared to culture without parasites, and demonstrated the impact of parasite interaction with the expression of the following genes: LLOJ000219 (1.69-fold), LLOJ000326 (1.43-fold) and LLOJ006663 (2.41-fold). CONCLUSIONS: This set of results adds relevant information regarding the usefulness of the Lulo cell line for studies with Leishmania parasites that indicate variations of protein expression.


Assuntos
Leishmania braziliensis , Leishmania , Proteômica , Psychodidae , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Leishmania/genética , Leishmania braziliensis/genética , Psychodidae/parasitologia , Transcriptoma
6.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(40): 25159-25168, 2020 10 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32958676

RESUMO

The tropical Andes are an important natural laboratory to understand speciation in many taxa. Here we examined the evolutionary history of parasites of the Leishmania braziliensis species complex based on whole-genome sequencing of 67 isolates from 47 localities in Peru. We first show the origin of Andean Leishmania as a clade of near-clonal lineages that diverged from admixed Amazonian ancestors, accompanied by a significant reduction in genome diversity and large structural variations implicated in host-parasite interactions. Within the Andean species, patterns of population structure were strongly associated with biogeographical origin. Molecular clock and ecological niche modeling suggested that the history of diversification of the Andean lineages is limited to the Late Pleistocene and intimately associated with habitat contractions driven by climate change. These results suggest that changes in forestation over the past 150,000 y have influenced speciation and diversity of these Neotropical parasites. Second, genome-scale analyses provided evidence of meiotic-like recombination between Andean and Amazonian Leishmania species, resulting in full-genome hybrids. The mitochondrial genome of these hybrids consisted of homogeneous uniparental maxicircles, but minicircles originated from both parental species. We further show that mitochondrial minicircles-but not maxicircles-show a similar evolutionary pattern to the nuclear genome, suggesting that compatibility between nuclear-encoded mitochondrial genes and minicircle-encoded guide RNA genes is essential to maintain efficient respiration. By comparing full nuclear and mitochondrial genome ancestries, our data expand our appreciation on the genetic consequences of diversification and hybridization in parasitic protozoa.


Assuntos
Genoma Mitocondrial/genética , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita/genética , Leishmania braziliensis/genética , Leishmaniose Cutânea/genética , Ecossistema , Florestas , Especiação Genética , Humanos , Leishmania braziliensis/patogenicidade , Leishmaniose Cutânea/epidemiologia , Leishmaniose Cutânea/parasitologia , Peru/epidemiologia , Filogeografia
7.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 29(2): e003520, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32520088

RESUMO

Blood samples and swabs from ocular conjunctiva and mouth were obtained from 64 cats. Of 64 serum samples, 19 were positive for Leishmania antibodies by ELISA (29.80%). Eight cats were positive by PCR (12.5%) in swab samples from mouth and/or ocular mucosa. Poor kappa agreement between serological and molecular results (k = 0.16) was obtained. From five positive PCR samples one was L. braziliensis and four were L. infantum. Phylogenetic analysis performed with the five isolates of Leishmania, showed that samples of L. infantum isolated from the cats were phylogenetically close to those isolated from domestic dogs in Brazil, while the L. braziliensis is very similar to the one described in humans in Venezuela. The study demonstrated that, despite high seropositivity for Leishmania in cats living in the study region, poor agreement between serological and molecular results indicate that positive serology is not indicative of Leishmania infection in cats. Parasite DNA can be detected in ocular conjunctiva and oral swabs from cats, indicating that such samples could be used for diagnosis. Results of phylogenetic analyzes show that L. infantum circulating in Brazil is capable of infecting different hosts, demonstrating the parasite's ability to overcome the interspecies barrier.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato/parasitologia , Leishmania braziliensis/isolamento & purificação , Leishmania infantum/isolamento & purificação , Leishmaniose/parasitologia , Animais , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Doenças do Gato/diagnóstico , Gatos , DNA de Protozoário/análise , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/veterinária , Leishmania braziliensis/genética , Leishmania braziliensis/imunologia , Leishmania infantum/genética , Leishmania infantum/imunologia , Leishmaniose/diagnóstico , Filogenia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária
8.
Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz ; 115: e190413, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32348407

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The leishmaniases are complex neglected diseases caused by protozoan parasites of the genus Leishmania. Leishmania braziliensis is the main etiological agent of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the New World. In recent studies, genomic changes such as chromosome and gene copy number variations (CNVs), as well as transcriptomic changes have been highlighted as mechanisms used by Leishmania species to adapt to stress situations. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of short-term minor temperature shifts in the genomic and transcriptomic responses of L. braziliensis promastigotes in vitro. METHODS: Growth curves, genome and transcriptome sequencing of L. braziliensis promastigotes were conducted from cultures exposed to three different temperatures (24ºC, 28ºC and 30ºC) compared with the control temperature (26ºC). FINDINGS: Our results showed a decrease in L. braziliensis proliferation at 30ºC, with around 3% of the genes showing CNVs at each temperature, and transcriptomic changes in genes encoding amastin surface-like proteins, heat shock proteins and transport proteins, which may indicate a direct response to temperature stress. MAIN CONCLUSIONS: This study provides evidence that L. braziliensis promastigotes exhibit a decrease in cell density, and noticeable changes in the transcriptomic profiles. However, there were not perceptible changes at chromosome CNVs and only ~3% of the genes changed their copies in each treatment.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica/genética , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA/genética , Leishmania braziliensis/genética , Temperatura , Transcriptoma/genética , Adaptação Fisiológica/fisiologia , Animais , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Perfil Genético
9.
Rev Soc Bras Med Trop ; 53: e20190433, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32348430

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: As highly specific molecular biology-based techniques may not be sensitive enough for the diagnosis of American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL), clinicians frequently rely on immunological tests before treatment initiation. Hence, the correct combination of diagnostic tests is imperative for ATL diagnosis. We aimed to evaluate the accuracy of the Montenegro (Leishmanin) skin test (MST) in polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-negative patients to accurately detect ATL. METHODS: Patients with a clinical picture compatible with ATL were divided into ATL (confirmed by lesion smear, culture indirect immunofluorescence, and/or histopathology) and no-ATL (diseases that can mimic leishmaniasis) groups. Conventional PCR for the minicircle kDNA of Leishmania was performed, and the MST was carried out for PCR-negative patients. RESULTS: Ninety-nine patients were included in this study, including 79 diagnosed with ATL (6 with mucocutaneous leishmaniasis) and 20 without ATL (no-ATL group). The MST showed a high sensitivity of 90.0% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 69.90-97.21) in PCR-negative patients that was 10% higher than the sensitivity reported in PCR-positive population (79.66%; 95% CI = 67.73-87.96). CONCLUSIONS: One of the most important reasons for PCR negativity among patients with active ATL is the presence of a strong cellular immunological response, especially in chronic and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis. This reinforces the considerable utility of the tests that detect cellular responses against Leishmania antigens such as the MST in PCR-negative patients when the performance in screening situations is questionable.


Assuntos
Testes Intradérmicos/métodos , Leishmania braziliensis/imunologia , Leishmaniose Cutânea/diagnóstico , Adulto , Idoso , Doença Crônica , Estudos Transversais , DNA de Protozoário/genética , Feminino , Técnica Indireta de Fluorescência para Anticorpo , Humanos , Leishmania braziliensis/genética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Polimorfismo de Fragmento de Restrição , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
10.
Parasit Vectors ; 13(1): 9, 2020 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31915065

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prostaglandins (PG) are lipid mediators derived from arachidonic acid metabolism. They are involved in cellular processes such as inflammation and tissue homeostasis. PG production is not restricted to multicellular organisms. Trypanosomatids also synthesize several metabolites of arachidonic acid. Nevertheless, their biological role in these early-branching parasites and their role in host-parasite interaction are not well elucidated. Prostaglandin F2α synthase (PGF2S) has been observed in the Leishmania braziliensis secreted proteome and in L. donovani extracellular vesicles. Furthermore, we previously reported a positive correlation between L. braziliensis PGF2S (LbrPGF2S) expression and pathogenicity in mice. METHODS: LbrPGF2S gene expression and PGF2α synthesis in promastigotes were detected and quantified by western blotting and EIA assay kit, respectively. To investigate LbrPGF2S localization in amastigotes during bone marrow-derived macrophage infection, parasites expressing mCherry-LbrPGF2S were generated and followed by time-lapse imaging for 48 h post-infection. PGF2S homolog sequences from Leishmania and humans were analyzed in silico using ClustalW on Geneious v6 and EMBOSS Needle. RESULTS: Leishmania braziliensis promastigotes synthesize prostaglandin F2α in the presence of arachidonic acid, with peak production in the stationary growth phase under heat stress. LbrPGF2S is a cytoplasmic protein enriched in the secretory site of the parasite cell body, the flagellar pocket. It is an enzyme constitutively expressed throughout promastigote development, but overexpression of LbrPGF2S leads to an increase of infectivity in vitro. The data suggest that LbrPGF2S may be released from intracellular amastigotes into the cytoplasm of bone marrow-derived macrophages over a 48-hour infection period, using time-lapse microscopy and mCherry-PGF2S (mChPGF2S)-expressing parasites. CONCLUSIONS: LbrPGF2S, a parasite-derived protein, is targeted to the host cell cytoplasm. The putative transfer of this enzyme, involved in pro-inflammatory lipid mediator synthesis, to the host cell suggests a potential role in host-parasite interaction and may partially explain the increased pathogenicity associated with overexpression of LbrPGF2S in L. braziliensis. Our data provide valuable insights to help understand the importance of parasite-derived lipid mediators in pathogenesis.


Assuntos
Leishmania braziliensis/enzimologia , Leishmaniose Cutânea/parasitologia , Prostaglandina-Endoperóxido Sintases/metabolismo , Proteínas de Protozoários/metabolismo , Animais , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Humanos , Leishmania braziliensis/genética , Leishmania braziliensis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Leishmania braziliensis/metabolismo , Macrófagos/parasitologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Prostaglandina-Endoperóxido Sintases/genética , Prostaglandinas/biossíntese , Proteínas de Protozoários/genética
11.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 53: e20200255, 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, Coleciona SUS, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: biblio-1143862

RESUMO

Abstract INTRODUCTION: In the Belém Metropolitan Region (BMR), Pará State, Brazil, American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) is endemic; however, very little is known regarding its causative agents. Therefore, we used our standard diagnostic approach combined with an RNA polymerase II largest subunit (RNAPOIILS)-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) followed by analysis of restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) to identify Leishmania spp. ACL agents in this region. METHODS: Thirty-two Leishmania spp. isolates from patients with ACL in the BMR during 1995-2018 were analyzed. Leishmania spp. DNA samples were amplified using the primers RPOR2/RPOF2, and the 615-bp PCR products were subjected to enzymatic digestion using TspRI and HgaI endonucleases. RESULTS: ACL etiological agents in the BMR comprised Leishmania (Viannia) lindenbergi (43.7%) followed by Leishmania (Viannia) lainsoni (34.4%), Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis (12.5%), and Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis (9.4%). CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, the results of the study revealed for the first time that L. (V.) lindenbergi and L. (V.) lainsoni are the main ACL agents in BMR.


Assuntos
Humanos , Leishmania braziliensis/genética , Leishmaniose Cutânea/diagnóstico , Leishmaniose Cutânea/epidemiologia , Leishmania/genética , Estados Unidos , Brasil/epidemiologia , Leishmaniose Cutânea
12.
Sci Transl Med ; 11(519)2019 11 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31748229

RESUMO

Patients infected with Leishmania braziliensis develop chronic lesions that often fail to respond to treatment with antiparasite drugs. To determine whether genes whose expression is highly variable in lesions between patients might influence disease outcome, we obtained biopsies of lesions from patients before treatment with pentavalent antimony and performed transcriptomic profiling on these clinical samples. We identified genes that were highly variably expressed between patients, and the variable expression of these genes correlated with treatment outcome. Among the most variable genes in all the patients were components of the cytolytic pathway, and the expression of these genes correlated with parasite load in the skin. We demonstrated that treatment failure was linked to the cytolytic pathway activated during infection. Using a host-pathogen marker profile of as few as three genes, we showed that eventual treatment outcome could be predicted before the start of treatment in two separate cohorts of patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis (n = 21 and n = 25). These findings raise the possibility of point-of-care diagnostic screening to identify patients at high risk of treatment failure and provide a rationale for a precision medicine approach to drug selection in cutaneous leishmaniasis. This work more broadly demonstrates the value of identifying genes of high variability in other diseases to better understand and predict diverse clinical outcomes.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Leishmaniose Cutânea/tratamento farmacológico , Leishmaniose Cutânea/genética , Carga Parasitária , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Morte Celular , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Leishmania braziliensis/genética , Leishmaniose Cutânea/parasitologia , Pele/parasitologia , Pele/patologia , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
Biomedica ; 39(Supl. 2): 58-65, 2019 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31529834

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Mucosal leishmaniasis has a progressive course and can cause deformity and even mutilation in the affected areas. It is endemic in the American continent and it is mainly caused by Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis. OBJECTIVE: To describe a series of mucosal leishmaniasis cases and the infectious Leishmania species. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We included 50 patients with a clinical diagnosis of mucosal leishmaniasis and parasitological confirmation, and we described their clinical and laboratory results. We performed species typing by PCR-RFLP using the miniexon sequence and hsp70 genes; confirmation was done by sequencing. RESULTS: The median time of disease evolution was 2.9 years (range: 1 month to 16 years). The relevant clinical findings included mucosal infiltration (94%), cutaneous leishmaniasis scar (74%), total loss of the nasal septum (24%), nasal deformity (22%), and mucosal ulceration (38%). The symptoms reported included nasal obstruction (90%), epistaxis (72%), rhinorrhea (72%), dysphonia (28%), dysphagia (18%), and nasal pruritus (34%). The histopathological study revealed a pattern compatible with leishmaniasis in 86% of the biopsies, and amastigotes were identified in 14% of them. The Montenegro skin test was positive in 86% of patients, immunofluorescence in 84%, and culture in 8%. Leishmania (V.) braziliensis was identified in 88% of the samples, L. (V) panamensis in 8%, and L. (V.) guyanensis and L. (L.) amazonensis in 2% respectively. CONCLUSION: In this study, we found a severe nasal disease with destruction and deformity of the nasal septum in 25% of the cases, probably associated with late diagnosis. Leishmania (V.) braziliensis was the predominant species. We described a case of mucosal leishmaniasis in Colombia caused by L. (L.) amazonensis for the first time.


Assuntos
Leishmania braziliensis/isolamento & purificação , Leishmania guyanensis/isolamento & purificação , Leishmaniose Mucocutânea/parasitologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Colômbia/epidemiologia , DNA de Protozoário/genética , Feminino , Genes de Protozoários , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP70/genética , Humanos , Leishmania braziliensis/classificação , Leishmania braziliensis/genética , Leishmania guyanensis/classificação , Leishmania guyanensis/genética , Leishmaniose Mucocutânea/complicações , Leishmaniose Mucocutânea/epidemiologia , Leishmaniose Mucocutânea/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Polimorfismo de Fragmento de Restrição , Proteínas de Protozoários/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Pele/parasitologia , Especificidade da Espécie , Adulto Jovem
14.
Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz ; 114: e190147, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31553371

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Calpains are proteins belonging to the multi-gene family of calcium-dependent cysteine peptidases that undergo tight on/off regulation, and uncontrolled proteolysis of calpains is associated with severe human pathologies. Calpain orthologues are expanded and diversified in the trypanosomatids genome. OBJECTIVES: Here, we characterised calpains in Leishmania braziliensis, the main causative agent of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Brazil. METHODS/FINDINGS: In total, 34 predicted calpain-like genes were identified. After domain structure evaluation, reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) during in vitro metacyclogenesis revealed (i) five genes with enhanced expression in the procyclic stage, (ii) one augmented gene in the metacyclic stage, and (iii) one procyclic-exclusive transcript. Western blot analysis revealed that an antibody against a consensus-conserved peptide reacted with multiple calpain-like proteins, which is consistent with the multi-gene family characteristic. Flow cytometry and immunocytochemistry analyses revealed the presence of calpain-like molecules mainly in the cytoplasm, to a lesser extent in the plasma membrane, and negligible levels in the nucleus, which are all consistent with calpain localisation. Eventually, the calpain inhibitor MDL28170 was used for functional studies revealing (i) a leishmaniostatic effect, (ii) a reduction in the association index in mouse macrophages, (iii) ultra-structural alterations conceivable with autophagy, and (iv) an enhanced expression of the virulence factor GP63. CONCLUSION: This report adds novel insights into the domain structure, expression, and localisation of L. braziliensis calpain-like molecules.


Assuntos
Calpaína/genética , Genoma de Protozoário/genética , Leishmania braziliensis/química , Macrófagos Peritoneais/metabolismo , Animais , Western Blotting , Calpaína/efeitos dos fármacos , Calpaína/metabolismo , Calpaína/ultraestrutura , Inibidores de Cisteína Proteinase/farmacologia , Dipeptídeos/farmacologia , Citometria de Fluxo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Imuno-Histoquímica , Leishmania braziliensis/genética , Leishmania braziliensis/metabolismo , Leishmania braziliensis/ultraestrutura , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Fatores de Virulência
15.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 101(4): 780-788, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31407656

RESUMO

American tegumentary leishmaniasis is an endemic anthropozoonosis undergoing expansion on the American continent. The disease is caused by several Leishmania species and it is manifested as cutaneous and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis. In this study, we evaluate the viability of high-resolution melt polymerase chain reaction (HRM-PCR) analysis to differentiate four closely related Leishmania species as a routine tool for the diagnosis of leishmaniasis. For this purpose, biopsy specimens from cutaneous and mucocutaneous lesions were taken from 132 individuals from endemic and non-endemic areas for leishmaniasis. Each sample was processed for parasitological, histopathological, and molecular analysis. Positive biopsy samples were analyzed by HRM-PCR of a 144-bp heat-shock protein (hsp70) gene fragment, and new cases were confirmed by sequencing. Of the 132 samples analyzed, 36 (27%) were positive for Leishmania spp., of which 86% were from cutaneous lesions and 14% from mucocutaneous lesions. We identified Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis (84%), Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum (13%), and Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis (3%) in cutaneous lesions, and L. (V.) braziliensis (40%), L. (L.) infantum (20%), L. (L.) amazonensis (20%), and Leishmania (Viannia) guyanensis (20%) in mucocutaneous lesions. The main purpose of this research was to report for the first time in Paraguay the presence of L. (L.) amazonensis and L. (V.) guyanensis in patients with cutaneous and mucocutaneous lesions, using the HRM-PCR technique. In addition, we report the presence of additional new cases of L. (L.) infantum in cutaneous lesions.


Assuntos
Leishmania braziliensis/isolamento & purificação , Leishmania guyanensis/isolamento & purificação , Leishmania infantum/isolamento & purificação , Leishmaniose Cutânea/epidemiologia , Leishmaniose Mucocutânea/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Geografia , Humanos , Leishmania braziliensis/genética , Leishmania guyanensis/genética , Leishmania infantum/genética , Leishmaniose Cutânea/parasitologia , Leishmaniose Cutânea/patologia , Leishmaniose Mucocutânea/parasitologia , Leishmaniose Mucocutânea/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Paraguai/epidemiologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Alinhamento de Sequência , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Pele/parasitologia , Pele/patologia
16.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 747, 2019 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31455227

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Leishmaniasis caused by different species of Leishmania affect 98 countries worldwide. Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) is the mortal clinical presentation of the disease that causes the dead to more than 90% of the patients who suffer it. The diagnosis of VL is made by the direct observation of the parasite in bone marrow, spleen and/or liver aspirates that requires complex proceedings. Therefore, serum samples are submitted to Indirect Immunofluorescence to identify the presence of anti-Leishmania antibodies. Despite the variability in the diagnostic performance of the Immunochromatographic Tests (ICTs), there are many evidences that suggest that ICTs can be used for epidemiological screening. However, in Colombia there are not any evidence about the performance of the ICTs for VL diagnosis, both for human and canine serum samples. Therefore, this study evaluated the diagnostic performance of 4 ICTs for VL (2 ICTs in human sera and 2 ICTs in canine sera) in samples from endemic areas of Colombia. METHODS: We selected a total of 156 human serum samples (82 positive and 74 negative for VL) and 126 canine serum samples (71 positive and 54 negative) diagnosed by in house Indirect Immunofluorescence (IIF). The samples were submitted to the ICTs following the manufacturers' instructions. Statistical analysis was performed to evaluate the diagnostic performance of each ICT in comparison with the IIF. PCR for HSP70 gene and sanger sequencing was performed in samples with negative results for both ICTs. RESULTS: The sensitivity (S) of both ICTs for human samples (Ad-bio Leishmania IgG/IgM Combo Rapid Test and Kalazar Detect™) was 91.5% and specificity (E) were 93.2 and 89.2% respectively, while for the ICTs tested on canine samples (Kalazar Detect™ Rapid Test, Canine and DPP® CVL rapid test) we found S values between 82.9 and 85.7% and E values between 79.6 and 92.6%. We found L. infantum by PCR and sequencing in 2 human samples, and L. braziliensis and L. amazonensis in canine serum samples that were negative by both ICTs. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that both tests evaluated on human samples have a similar diagnostic performance, while the Kalazar Detect™ Rapid Test, Canine showed a better diagnostic performance than the DPP® CVL rapid test evaluated on canine samples. Also, we suggest that it is necessary to design tests with antigens of the circulating strains to increase its diagnostic utility.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Imunoensaio/métodos , Leishmaniose Visceral/diagnóstico , Animais , Colômbia , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Cães , Técnica Indireta de Fluorescência para Anticorpo , Humanos , Leishmania braziliensis/genética , Leishmania braziliensis/imunologia , Leishmania infantum/genética , Leishmania infantum/imunologia , Leishmaniose Visceral/veterinária , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
17.
J Clin Microbiol ; 57(11)2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31434727

RESUMO

Leishmaniasis represents a group of parasitic diseases caused by a protozoan of the genus Leishmania and is widely distributed in tropical and subtropical regions. Leishmaniasis is one of the major tropical neglected diseases, with 1.5 to 2 million new cases occurring annually. Diagnosis remains a challenge despite advances in parasitological, serological, and molecular methods. Dogs are an important host for the parasite and develop both visceral and cutaneous lesions. Our goal was to contribute to the diagnosis of canine cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) and visceral leishmaniasis (VL) using the recombinant cysteine proteinase B (F-CPB) from Leishmania braziliensis and its N- and C-terminal domains (N-CPB and C-CPB) as antigens in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Sera from dogs from Northwest Argentina diagnosed with CL were tested by ELISA against a supernatant of L. braziliensis lysate, the F-CPB protein, and its domains. We found values of sensitivity (Se) of 90.7%, 94.4%, and 94.3% and specificity (Sp) of 95.5%, 90.9%, and 91.3% for F-CPB and its N- and C-terminal domains, respectively. In sera from dogs diagnosed with VL from Northeast Argentina, we found Se of 93.3%, 73.3%, and 66.7% and Sp of 92.3%, 76.9%, and 88.5% for F-CPB and its N- and C-terminal domains, respectively. These results support CPB as a relevant antigen for canine leishmaniasis diagnosis in its different clinical presentations. More interestingly, the amino acid sequence of CPB showed high percentages of identity in several Leishmania species, suggesting that the CPB from L. braziliensis qualifies as a good antigen for the diagnosis of leishmaniasis caused by different species.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Protozoários/imunologia , Cisteína Proteases/genética , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Leishmania braziliensis/enzimologia , Leishmaniose Cutânea/veterinária , Leishmaniose Visceral/veterinária , Animais , Antígenos de Protozoários/genética , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Cães , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Leishmania braziliensis/genética , Leishmaniose Cutânea/sangue , Leishmaniose Cutânea/diagnóstico , Leishmaniose Visceral/sangue , Leishmaniose Visceral/diagnóstico , Proteínas de Protozoários/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Testes Sorológicos
18.
Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz ; 114: e190111, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31433006

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In addition to the limited therapeutic arsenal and the side effects of antileishmanial agents, drug resistance hinders disease control. In Brazil, Leishmania braziliensis causes atypical (AT) tegumentary leishmaniasis lesions, frequently refractory to treatment. OBJECTIVES: The main goal of this study was to characterise antimony (Sb)-resistant (SbR) L. braziliensis strains obtained from patients living in Xakriabá indigenous community, Minas Gerais, Brazil. METHODS: The aquaglyceroporin 1-encoding gene (AQP1) from L. braziliensis clinical isolates was sequenced, and its function was evaluated by hypo-osmotic shock. mRNA levels of genes associated with Sb resistance were measured by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Atomic absorption was used to measure Sb uptake. FINDINGS: Although clinical isolates presented delayed recovery time in hypo-osmotic shock, AQP1 function was maintained. Isolate 340 accumulated less Sb than all other isolates, supporting the 65-fold downregulation of AQP1 mRNA levels. Both 330 and 340 isolates upregulated antimony resistance marker (ARM) 56/ARM58 and multidrug resistant protein A (MRPA); however, only ARM58 upregulation was an exclusive feature of SbR field isolates. CA7AE seemed to increase drug uptake in L. braziliensis and represented a tool to study the role of glycoconjugates in Sb transport. MAIN CONCLUSIONS: There is a clear correlation between ARM56/58 upregulation and Sb resistance in AT-harbouring patients, suggesting the use of these markers as potential indicators to help the treatment choice and outcome, preventing therapeutic failure.


Assuntos
Antimônio/farmacologia , Resistência a Medicamentos/genética , Leishmania braziliensis/efeitos dos fármacos , Leishmaniose Cutânea/parasitologia , Proteínas de Protozoários/genética , Tripanossomicidas/farmacologia , Aquagliceroporinas/metabolismo , Resistência a Medicamentos/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Leishmania braziliensis/genética , Testes de Sensibilidade Parasitária , Proteínas de Protozoários/metabolismo , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real
19.
Curr Opin Microbiol ; 52: 110-115, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31306995

RESUMO

The outcome of Leishmania infection depends on the parasite species and the host immune response. Virulence factors have been extensively studied over the years in an effort to find efficient vaccines and/or treatments for Leishmania infection. Arginase activity in Leishmania has been described as an essential player for the polyamines pathway, impacting parasite replication and infectivity. Considering previous studies showing that the absence of arginase activity leads to low infectivity of Leishmania amazonensis, we reanalyzed transcriptomic data comparing both promastigotes and axenic amastigotes from L. amazonensis wild type (La-WT) and L. amazonensis arginase knockout (La-arg-) backgrounds. The analysis produced a new compilation of modulated transcripts that indicated the role of arginase not only in the polyamines pathway but also in the modulation of virulence factors involved in parasite recognition, growth and differentiation.


Assuntos
Arginase/metabolismo , Leishmania braziliensis/enzimologia , Leishmania braziliensis/patogenicidade , Fatores de Virulência/metabolismo , Animais , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/imunologia , Humanos , Leishmania braziliensis/genética , Leishmaniose/imunologia , Macrófagos/parasitologia , Proteínas de Protozoários/metabolismo , Transcriptoma
20.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 9485, 2019 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31263131

RESUMO

Leishmania braziliensis and Leishmania panamensis are two species clinically and epidemiologically important, among others because of their relative resistance to first-line drugs (antimonials). The precise mechanism underlying the ability of these species to survive antimony treatment remains unknown. Therefore, elucidating the pathways mediating drug resistance is essential. We herein experimentally selected resistance to trivalent antimony (SbIII) in the reference strains of L. braziliensis (MHOM/BR75/M2904) and L. panamensis (MHOM/COL/81L13) and compared whole genome and transcriptome alterations in the culture promastigote stage. The results allowed us to identify differences in somy, copy number variations in some genes related to antimony resistance and large-scale copy number variations (deletions and duplications) in chromosomes with no somy changes. We found mainly in L. braziliensis, a direct relation between the chromosomal/local copy number variation and the gene expression. We identified differentially expressed genes in the resistant lines that are involved in antimony resistance, virulence, and vital biological processes in parasites. The results of this study may be useful for characterizing the genetic mechanisms of these Leishmania species under antimonial pressure, and for clarifying why the parasites are resistant to first-line drug treatments.


Assuntos
Antimônio/farmacologia , Cromossomos , Dosagem de Genes , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Genes de Protozoários , Leishmania braziliensis , Cromossomos/genética , Cromossomos/metabolismo , Leishmania braziliensis/genética , Leishmania braziliensis/metabolismo , Especificidade da Espécie
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