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1.
Exp Parasitol ; 222: 108065, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33428893

RESUMO

Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a protozoan disease caused by Leishmania infantum in the Mediterranean region including Iran. In 95% of cases, the disease can be fatal if not rapidly diagnosed and left untreated. We aimed to identify immunoreactive proteins of L. infantum (Iranian strain), and to design and evaluate a recombinant multi-epitope antigen for serodiagnosis of human VL. To detect the immunoreactive proteins of L. infantum promastigotes, 2DE immunoblotting technique was performed using different pooled sera of VL patients. The candidate immunoreactive proteins were identified using MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrophotometry. Among 125 immunoreactive spots detected in 2-DE gels, glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78), ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2, calreticulin, mitochondrial heat shock 70-related protein 1 (mtHSP70), heat shock protein 70-related protein, i/6 autoantigen-like protein, ATPase beta subunit, and proteasome alpha subunit 5 were identified. The potent epitopes from candidate immunodominant proteins including GRP78, mtHSP70 and ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2 were then selected to design a recombinant antigenic protein (GRP-UBI-HSP). The recombinant antigen was evaluated by ELISA and compared to direct agglutination test for detection of anti L. infantum human antibodies. We screened 34 sera of VL patients from endemic areas and 107 sera of individuals without L. infantum infection from non-endemic area of VL. The recombinant protein-based ELISA provided a sensitivity of 70.6% and a specificity of 84.1%. These results showed that GRP78, ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2, and mtHSP70 proteins are potential immunodominant targets of the host immune system in response to the parasite and they can be considered as potential candidate markers for diagnosis purposes.


Assuntos
Epitopos Imunodominantes/isolamento & purificação , Leishmania infantum/imunologia , Leishmaniose Visceral/diagnóstico , Proteômica/métodos , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Antígenos de Protozoários/isolamento & purificação , Western Blotting , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Eletroforese em Gel Bidimensional , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Epitopos/imunologia , Epitopos/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Immunoblotting , Leishmaniose Visceral/imunologia , Conformação Molecular , Estrutura Secundária de Proteína , Proteômica/normas , Proteínas de Protozoários/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas Recombinantes/química , Proteínas Recombinantes/imunologia , Testes Sorológicos/métodos , Testes Sorológicos/normas , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz
2.
Exp Parasitol ; 216: 107941, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32622940

RESUMO

Distinct antigens have been evaluated with diagnostic purpose for canine and human visceral leishmaniasis (VL), and variable sensitivity and specificity values have been obtained in the assays. In the present study, a Leishmania infantum hypothetical protein called LiHyG, which was identified in an immunoproteomics study in Leishmania infantum amastigote extracts by antibodies in VL dogs sera; was cloned, expressed, purified and evaluated as a recombinant protein (rLiHyG) for the diagnosis of canine and human disease. The recombinant amastigote-specific A2 protein (rA2) and a soluble L. infantum protein extract (SLA) were used as controls. For canine VL, the sensitivity values were of 100%, 57.29% and 48.57%, when rLiHyG, rA2 and SLA were used, respectively, while the specificity values were of 100%, 81.43% and 88.57%, respectively. In addition, AUC values were of 1.00, 0.72 and 0.65, when rLiHyG, rA2 and SLA were used, respectively, while accuracy was of 100%, 72.38% and 75.24%, respectively. For human VL, the sensitivity values were of 100%, 84.00% and 88.00%, when rLiHyG, rA2 and SLA were used, respectively, while the specificity values were of 100%, 58.75% and 73.75%, respectively. In addition, AUC values were of 1.00, 0.76 and 0.83, when rLiHyG, rA2 and SLA were used, respectively, while accuracy was of 100%, 64.8% and 66.6%, respectively. The prognostic role of rLiHyG in the human VL was also evaluated, by means of post-therapeutic serological follow-up with sera samples collected before and six months after treatment. Results showed that treated patients presented significant reductions in the anti-rLiHyG IgG, IgG1, and IgG2 antibody levels, with results being similar to those found in healthy subjects. Testing the rA2 protein and SLA as antigens, lower IgG, IgG1, and IgG2 levels were also found, although they were higher after treatment than those obtained for rLiHyG. In conclusion, results suggested that rLiHyG could be considered for future studies as a diagnostic and/or prognostic marker for canine and human VL.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Protozoários/isolamento & purificação , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Leishmania infantum/imunologia , Leishmaniose Visceral/diagnóstico , Adulto , Idoso , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Antígenos de Protozoários/genética , Medula Óssea/parasitologia , Biologia Computacional , DNA de Protozoário/química , DNA de Protozoário/isolamento & purificação , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Cães , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Epitopos de Linfócito B/química , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Leishmania infantum/genética , Leishmaniose Visceral/parasitologia , Leishmaniose Visceral/veterinária , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Proteínas de Protozoários/química , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Alinhamento de Sequência , Testes Sorológicos , Baço/parasitologia , Adulto Jovem
3.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 29(2): e003520, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32520088

RESUMO

Blood samples and swabs from ocular conjunctiva and mouth were obtained from 64 cats. Of 64 serum samples, 19 were positive for Leishmania antibodies by ELISA (29.80%). Eight cats were positive by PCR (12.5%) in swab samples from mouth and/or ocular mucosa. Poor kappa agreement between serological and molecular results (k = 0.16) was obtained. From five positive PCR samples one was L. braziliensis and four were L. infantum. Phylogenetic analysis performed with the five isolates of Leishmania, showed that samples of L. infantum isolated from the cats were phylogenetically close to those isolated from domestic dogs in Brazil, while the L. braziliensis is very similar to the one described in humans in Venezuela. The study demonstrated that, despite high seropositivity for Leishmania in cats living in the study region, poor agreement between serological and molecular results indicate that positive serology is not indicative of Leishmania infection in cats. Parasite DNA can be detected in ocular conjunctiva and oral swabs from cats, indicating that such samples could be used for diagnosis. Results of phylogenetic analyzes show that L. infantum circulating in Brazil is capable of infecting different hosts, demonstrating the parasite's ability to overcome the interspecies barrier.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato/parasitologia , Leishmania braziliensis/isolamento & purificação , Leishmania infantum/isolamento & purificação , Leishmaniose/parasitologia , Animais , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Doenças do Gato/diagnóstico , Gatos , DNA de Protozoário/análise , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/veterinária , Leishmania braziliensis/genética , Leishmania braziliensis/imunologia , Leishmania infantum/genética , Leishmania infantum/imunologia , Leishmaniose/diagnóstico , Filogenia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária
4.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 29(2): e001120, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32490894

RESUMO

This study aimed to determine the seroprevalence, factors associated with seropositivity to Leishmania infection in dogs and spatial analysis in six municipalities in the semiarid region of Pernambuco, Brazil. Blood samples were collected from 462 dogs, 77 in each municipality, and used for serological analysis [dual path platform (DPP®) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)]. Clinical signs of dogs were evaluated and associated factors for Leishmania infection were analyzed using robust Poisson regression model. A seroprevalence of 42.8% (198/462, IC: 95% = 38.6%-47.6%) was detected in dogs that tested positive in both tests, ranging from 29.8% to 55.8%, with higher prevalence in the municipality of Cabrobó (55.8%; P = 0.006). About 67% (132/198) of the seropositive dogs showed one or more clinical signs suggestive of canine leishmaniasis (CanL), such as lymphadenomegaly, skin lesions and conjunctivitis, which were associated with seropositivity. High seroprevalence levels were identified in urban and rural areas in all the municipalities, and the buffer for sand flies around cases covered almost these entire areas. Spatial analysis revealed a significant cluster, showing a relative risk of 1.88 in the urban area of Cabrobó. The higher density of seropositive dogs in urban areas indicates the need effective control measures against CanL to prevent the emergence of canine and human diseases.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Leishmania infantum/imunologia , Leishmaniose Visceral/veterinária , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Cães , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/veterinária , Feminino , Leishmaniose Visceral/diagnóstico , Leishmaniose Visceral/epidemiologia , Masculino , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Análise Espacial
5.
Parasitol Res ; 119(8): 2609-2622, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32535734

RESUMO

The treatment against visceral leishmaniasis (VL) presents problems, mainly related to the toxicity and/or high cost of the drugs. In this context, a prophylactic vaccination is urgently required. In the present study, a Leishmania protein called LiHyE, which was suggested recently as an antigenic marker for canine and human VL, was evaluated regarding its immunogenicity and protective efficacy in BALB/c mice against Leishmania infantum infection. In addition, the protein was used to stimulate peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from VL patients before and after treatment, as well as from healthy subjects. Vaccination results showed that the recombinant (rLiHyE) protein associated with liposome or saponin induced effective protection in the mice, since significant reductions in the parasite load in spleen, liver, draining lymph nodes, and bone marrow were found. The parasitological protection was associated with Th1-type cell response, since high IFN-γ, IL-12, and GM-CSF levels, in addition to low IL-4 and IL-10 production, were found. Liposome induced a better parasitological and immunological protection than did saponin. Experiments using PBMCs showed rLiHyE-stimulated lymphoproliferation in treated patients' and healthy subjects' cells, as well as high IFN-γ levels in the cell supernatant. In conclusion, rLiHyE could be considered for future studies as a vaccine candidate against VL.


Assuntos
Adjuvantes Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Antígenos de Protozoários/administração & dosagem , Leishmania infantum/imunologia , Leishmaniose Visceral/prevenção & controle , Animais , Antígenos de Protozoários/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imunogenicidade da Vacina , Leishmaniose Visceral/imunologia , Leishmaniose Visceral/parasitologia , Leucócitos Mononucleares/imunologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Carga Parasitária , Células Th1/imunologia , Vacinação
6.
Mol Immunol ; 124: 161-171, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32585510

RESUMO

Leishmania infantum pyridoxal kinase (PK) protein was characterized after an immunoproteomics screening performed with the sera from patients suffering visceral leishmaniasis (VL). Since it was recognized by sera of mammalian hosts infected by a viscerotropic Leishmania species, PK could emerge as a new vaccine candidate against disease, due to its antigenicity and immunogenicity. In this context, in the present study, the effects of the immunization using PK were evaluated when administered as a DNA plasmid (pDNAA3/PK) or recombinant protein (rPK) plus saponin. The immune response elicited by both vaccination regimens reduced in significant levels the parasite load in spleen, liver, draining lymph nodes and bone marrow, being associated with the development of Th1-type immune response, which was characterized by high levels of IFN-γ, IL-12, GM-CSF, and specific IgG2a antibody, besides low production of IL-4, IL-10, and protein and parasite-specific IgG1 antibodies. CD8+ T cells were more important in the IFN-γ production in the pDNAA3/PK group, while CD4+ T cells contributed more significantly to production of this cytokine in the rPK/Saponin group. In addition, increased IFN-γ secretion, along with low levels of IL-10, were found when PBMCs from VL patients after treatment and healthy individuals were stimulated with the protein. In conclusion, when administered either as a DNA plasmid or recombinant protein plus adjuvant, PK can direct the immune response towards a Th1-type immune profile, protecting mice against L. infantum challenge; therefore, it can be seen as a promising immunogen against human VL.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Protozoários/imunologia , Vacinas contra Leishmaniose/imunologia , Leishmaniose Visceral/imunologia , Piridoxal Quinase/imunologia , Animais , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/imunologia , Humanos , Leishmania infantum/imunologia , Camundongos , Proteínas Recombinantes/imunologia , Vacinas de DNA/imunologia
7.
Acta Trop ; 209: 105535, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32450137

RESUMO

Canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) has been the theme of several studies given the importance of dog as natural reservoir of the pathogen Leishmania infantum in endemic regions and its role on dissemination of CVL and human visceral Lesihmaniasis (VL). The current immunodiagnosis of CVL has limitations concerning accuracy, specificity and sensitivity. Therefore, improvements are required. rLiNTPDase2 has been previously highlighted as a new recombinant antigen from L. infantum to the CVL diagnosis by ELISA assay (rLiNTPDase2-ELISA). In this study, we aimed to evaluate rLiNTPDase2-ELISA in a Phase II study with 651 dog sera samples, also comparing it with methodologies previously established and used in epidemiology surveillance in Brazil, an endemic country of CVL and VL. The rLiNTPDase2-ELISA using standard control sera showed high capability to distinguish between positive and negative sera, sensitivity of 92.6% and specificity of 88.5%. The test was reproductive and the kappa statistics judgement "substantial agreement". rLiNTPDase2-ELISA does not show cross-reactivity with ehrlichiosis-reagent sera. However, we verified 15.3% of cross-reactivity with Chagas disease-reagent sera. The performance of rLiNTPDase2-ELISA was evaluated using sera samples from vaccinated dogs (Leish-Tec®). The results showed high agreement with parasitological and PCR results (sensitivity of 100.0% and specificity of 91.7%). Furthermore, we compared the performance of rLiNTPDase2-ELISA in CVL-reagent sera samples from endemic areas, which were previously diagnosed using other tests for CVL: immunofluorescent (IFI-LVC-Bio-Manguinhos), IFI-LVC-Bio-Manguinhos coupled to ELISA (EIE-LVC-Bio-Manguinhos) and the Rapid Dual Path Platform® (TR-DPP®-Bio-Manguinhos) coupled to EIE-LVC-Bio-Manguinhos. rLiNTPDase2-ELISA showed high level of concordance with IFI-LVC-Bio-Manguinhos (88.6%) and with IFI-LVC-Bio-Manguinhos coupled to EIE-LVC-Bio-Manguinhos (82.9%) but not with TR-DPP® -Bio-Manguinhos coupled to EIE-LVC-Bio-Manguinhos (33.3%), which casts doubts on the effectiveness of this latest test. In addition, the rLiNTPDase2 antigen adsorbed in 96-well plate was stable enough to be used at least for three months. Taken together, our data confirmed, by Phase II study using hundreds samples, the good potential of rLiNTPDase2-ELISA to be used in the field as a new diagnostic assay for CVL.


Assuntos
Adenosina Trifosfatases/imunologia , Antígenos de Protozoários/imunologia , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/métodos , Leishmania infantum/imunologia , Leishmaniose Visceral/veterinária , Animais , Reações Cruzadas/imunologia , Cães , Leishmaniose Visceral/diagnóstico , Proteínas Recombinantes/imunologia
8.
Rev Soc Bras Med Trop ; 53: e20190525, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32428174

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) is a public health problem, and its prevalence is associated with the coexistence of vectors and reservoirs. CVL is a protozoonosis caused by Leishmania infantum that is endemic in the southeast region of Brazil. Thus, vector and canine reservoir control strategies are needed to reduce its burden. This study aimed to verify the CVL seroprevalence and epidemiology in a municipality in Southeast Brazil to initiate disease control strategies. METHODS: A total of 833 dogs were subjected to Dual Path Platform (DPP) testing and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. For seropositive dogs, epidemiological aspects were investigated using a questionnaire and a global position system. The data were submitted to simple logistic regression, kernel estimation, and Bernoulli spatial scan statistical analysis. RESULTS: The overall CVL-confirmed seroprevalence was 16.08%. The 28.93% in the DPP screening test was associated with dogs maintained in backyards with trees, shade, animal and/or bird feces, and contact with other dogs and cats, with sick dogs showing the highest chances of infection (odds ratio, 2.6; 95% confidence interval, 2.38-1.98), especially in residences with elderly people. A spatial analysis identified two hotspot regions and detected two clusters in the study area. CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrated that residences with elderly people and the presence of trees, shade, feces, and pet dogs and cats increased an individual's risk of developing CVL. The major regions where preventive strategies for leishmaniasis were to be initiated in the endemic area were identified in two clusters.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Leishmaniose Visceral/veterinária , Animais , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Brasil/epidemiologia , Gatos , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Cães , Doenças Endêmicas , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/veterinária , Feminino , Leishmania infantum/imunologia , Leishmaniose Visceral/diagnóstico , Leishmaniose Visceral/epidemiologia , Masculino , Prevalência , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Análise Espacial
9.
Parasit Vectors ; 13(1): 196, 2020 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32295617

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) caused by dimorphic Leishmania species is a parasitic disease with high socioeconomic burden in endemic areas worldwide. Sustaining control of VL in terms of proper and prevailing immunity development is a global necessity amid unavailability of a prophylactic vaccine. Screening of experimental proteome of the human disease propagating form of Leishmania donovani (amastigote) can be more pragmatic for in silico mining of novel vaccine candidates. METHODS: By using an immunoinformatic approach, CD4+ and CD8+ T cell-specific epitopes from experimentally reported L. donovani proteins having secretory potential and increased abundance in amastigotes were screened. A chimera linked with a Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) peptide adjuvant was constructed and evaluated for physicochemical characteristics, binding interaction with TLR4 in simulated physiological condition and the trend of immune response following hypothetical immunization. RESULTS: Selected epitopes from physiologically important L. donovani proteins were found mostly conserved in L. infantum, covering theoretically more than 98% of the global population. The multi-epitope chimeric vaccine was predicted as stable, antigenic and non-allergenic. Structural analysis of vaccine-TLR4 receptor docked complex and its molecular dynamics simulation suggest sufficiently stable binding interface along with prospect of non-canonical receptor activation. Simulation dynamics of immune response following hypothetical immunization indicate active and memory B as well as CD4+ T cell generation potential, and likely chance of a more Th1 polarized response. CONCLUSIONS: The methodological approach and results from this study could facilitate more informed screening and selection of candidate antigenic proteins for entry into vaccine production pipeline in future to control human VL.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Protozoários/imunologia , Epitopos de Linfócito T/imunologia , Leishmania donovani/imunologia , Vacinas contra Leishmaniose/imunologia , Adjuvantes Imunológicos/química , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Biologia Computacional , Leishmania infantum/imunologia , Leishmaniose Visceral/parasitologia , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Proteômica , Proteínas de Protozoários/imunologia , Vacinas de Subunidades/imunologia
10.
Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz ; 115: e190408, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32321156

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The mechanism of resistance to SbIII in Leishmania is complex, multifactorial and involves not only biochemical mechanisms, but also other elements, such as the immune system of the host. OBJECTIVES: In this study, putative changes in the immunological profile of human monocytes infected with wild-type (WT) and antimony (SbIII)-resistant Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis and Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum lines were evaluated. METHODS: Susceptibility assays WT and SbIII-resistant L. braziliensis and L. infantum were performed using lines THP-1 human monocytic lineage. Phagocytic capacity, cytokine profile, intracellular nitric oxide (NO) production and surface carbohydrate residues profile were performed in peripheral blood monocytes by flow cytometry. FINDINGS: The phagocytic capacity and intracellular NO production by classical (CD14++CD16-) and proinflammatory (CD14++CD16+) monocytes were higher in the presence of L. infantum lines compared to L. braziliensis lines. The results also highlight proinflammatory monocytes as the cellular subpopulation of major relevance in a phagocytosis event and NO expression. It is important to note that L. infantum induced a proinflammatory cytokine profile characterised by higher levels of TNF-α in culture supernatant than L. braziliensis. Conversely, both Leishmania lines induce high levels of IL-6 in culture supernatant. Analysis of the expression profile of surface carbohydrates showed that L. braziliensis presents 4.3-fold higher expression of galactose(ß1,4)N-acetylglucosamine than L. infantum line. Interestingly, the expression level of α-N-acetylgalactosamine residues was 2-fold lower in the SbIII-resistant L. braziliensis line than its counterpart WT line, indicating differences in surface glycoconjugates between these lines. MAIN CONCLUSIONS: Our results showed that L. braziliensis and L. infantum induce different innate immune responses and a highly inflammatory profile, which is characteristic of infection by L. infantum, the species associated with visceral disease.


Assuntos
Antimônio/farmacologia , Antiprotozoários/farmacologia , Leishmania braziliensis/imunologia , Leishmania infantum/imunologia , Monócitos/parasitologia , Óxido Nítrico/biossíntese , Fagocitose/imunologia , Adulto , Resistência a Medicamentos , Feminino , Citometria de Fluxo , Humanos , Imunidade Inata , Leishmania braziliensis/efeitos dos fármacos , Leishmania infantum/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Monócitos/imunologia , Adulto Jovem
11.
Parasite Immunol ; 42(6): e12713, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32173875

RESUMO

Canine leishmaniasis (CanL) is caused by the intracellular parasite Leishmania infantum. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 ) exerts potent regulatory effects on the immune system in experimental model Leishmania infection, but this influence has not yet been studied in CanL. In this study, PGE2 and PGE2 receptor levels and the regulatory effect of PGE2 on arginase activity, NO2 , IL-10, IL-17, IFN-γ, TNF-α and parasite load were evaluated in cultures of splenic leucocytes obtained from dogs with CanL in the presence of agonists and inhibitors. Our results showed that splenic leucocytes from dogs with CanL had lower EP2 receptor levels than those of splenic leucocytes from healthy animals. We observed that NO2 levels decreased when the cells were treated with a PGE2 receptor agonist (EP1/EP2/EP3) or COX-2 inhibitor (NS-398) and that TNF-α, IL-17 and IFN-γ cytokine levels decreased when the cells were treated with a PGE2 receptor agonist (EP2) or PGE2 itself. The parasite load in splenic leucocyte cell cultures from dogs with CanL decreased after stimulation of the cells with PGE2 . We conclude that Leishmania infection of dogs modulates PGE2 receptors and speculate that the binding of PGE2 to its receptors may activate the microbicidal capacity of cells.


Assuntos
Citocinas/imunologia , Dinoprostona/metabolismo , Doenças do Cão/tratamento farmacológico , Leishmania infantum/imunologia , Leishmaniose/veterinária , Receptores de Prostaglandina E/metabolismo , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/farmacologia , Inibidores de Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/farmacologia , Dinoprostona/agonistas , Dinoprostona/antagonistas & inibidores , Doenças do Cão/imunologia , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Cães , Leishmaniose/tratamento farmacológico , Leishmaniose/imunologia , Óxido Nítrico/análise , Nitrobenzenos/farmacologia , Carga Parasitária , Receptores de Prostaglandina E/agonistas , Receptores de Prostaglandina E/fisiologia , Sulfonamidas/farmacologia , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/imunologia
12.
PLoS Pathog ; 16(3): e1008435, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32210480

RESUMO

A striking feature of human visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is chronic inflammation in the spleen and liver, and VL patients present increased production levels of multiple inflammatory mediators, which contribute to tissue damage and disease severity. Here, we combined an experimental model with the transcriptional profile of human VL to demonstrate that the TLR4-IFN-ß pathway regulates the chronic inflammatory process and is associated with the asymptomatic form of the disease. Tlr4-deficient mice harbored fewer parasites in their spleen and liver than wild-type mice. TLR4 deficiency enhanced the Th1 immune response against the parasite, which was correlated with an increased activation of dendritic cells (DCs). Gene expression analyses demonstrated that IRF1 and IFN-ß were expressed downstream of TLR4 after infection. Accordingly, IRF1- and IFNAR-deficient mice harbored fewer parasites in the target organs than wild-type mice due to having an increased Th1 immune response. However, the absence of TLR4 or IFNAR increased the serum transaminase levels in infected mice, indicating the presence of liver damage in these animals. In addition, IFN-ß limits IFN-γ production by acting directly on Th1 cells. Using RNA sequencing analysis of human samples, we demonstrated that the transcriptional signature for the TLR4 and type I IFN (IFN-I) pathways was positively modulated in asymptomatic subjects compared with VL patients and thus provide direct evidence demonstrating that the TLR4-IFN-I pathway is related to the nondevelopment of the disease. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that the TLR4-IRF1 pathway culminates in IFN-ß production as a mechanism for dampening the chronic inflammatory process and preventing immunopathology development.


Assuntos
Fator Regulador 1 de Interferon/imunologia , Interferon beta/imunologia , Leishmania infantum/imunologia , Leishmaniose Visceral/imunologia , Células Th1/imunologia , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/imunologia , Animais , Inflamação/genética , Inflamação/imunologia , Inflamação/patologia , Fator Regulador 1 de Interferon/genética , Interferon beta/genética , Leishmaniose Visceral/genética , Leishmaniose Visceral/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Células Th1/patologia , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/genética
13.
Int J Parasitol ; 50(3): 171-176, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32126240

RESUMO

Prevention of canine Leishmania infantum infection is critical to management of visceral leishmaniasis in people living in endemic areas of Brazil. A bill (PL 1738/11), currently under consideration, proposes to establish a national vaccination policy against canine leishmaniasis in Brazil. However, there is no solid scientific evidence supporting the idea that this could reduce transmission from infected vaccinated dogs to sand flies to a level that would significantly reduce the risk of L. infantum infection or visceral leishmaniasis in humans. Thus, we advocate that insecticide-impregnated collars should the first line protective measure for public health purposes and that vaccines are applied on a case-by-case, optional basis for individual dog protection.


Assuntos
Leishmania infantum/imunologia , Leishmaniose Visceral , Psychodidae/parasitologia , Piretrinas/administração & dosagem , Vacinação/veterinária , Administração Tópica , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/prevenção & controle , Doenças do Cão/transmissão , Cães , Humanos , Insetos Vetores/efeitos dos fármacos , Insetos Vetores/parasitologia , Inseticidas/administração & dosagem , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Vacinas contra Leishmaniose , Leishmaniose Visceral/prevenção & controle , Leishmaniose Visceral/transmissão , Leishmaniose Visceral/veterinária , Psychodidae/efeitos dos fármacos , Piretrinas/farmacologia
14.
Trop Med Int Health ; 25(5): 540-557, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32034985

RESUMO

Canine leishmaniosis is an important vector-borne zoonosis caused mainly by Leishmania infantum. Diagnosis and treatment of affected individuals can be particularly complex, hindering infection control in endemic areas. Methods to prevent canine leishmaniosis include the use of topical insecticides, prophylactic immunotherapy and vaccination. Four vaccines against canine leishmaniosis have been licensed since 2004, two in Brazil (Leishmune®, the production and marketing licence of which was withdrawn in 2014, and Leish-Tec®) and two in Europe (CaniLeish® and LetiFend®). After several years of marketing, doubts remain regarding vaccine efficacy and effectiveness, potential infectiousness of vaccinated and infected animals or the interference of vaccine-induced antibodies in L. infantum serological diagnosis. This review summarises the scientific evidence for each of the vaccines commercially approved for canine leishmaniosis, while discussing possible weaknesses of these studies. Furthermore, it raises the need to address important questions related to vaccination impact in Leishmania-endemic countries and the importance of post-marketing pharmacological surveillance.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/prevenção & controle , Leishmaniose/veterinária , Animais , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Brasil , Comércio , Doenças do Cão/sangue , Cães , Europa (Continente) , Leishmania infantum/imunologia , Leishmaniose/prevenção & controle , Vigilância de Produtos Comercializados , Vacinação/veterinária , Vacinas/efeitos adversos
15.
Acta Trop ; 205: 105387, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32035053

RESUMO

Dog vaccination is considered an effective way of reducing Leishmania infantum infection incidence in the canine population, as well as its transmission to humans. However, the use of partially effective vaccines can have the detrimental effect of "masking" vaccinated asymptomatic carriers, capable of harbouring the parasite and transmitting it to naïve individuals. After eight years on the European market, few studies have been released on CaniLeish® vaccine safety and efficacy. The present study, a one-year randomized CaniLeish® vaccine field trial, was performed in a canine leishmaniosis endemic area and included animals selected from a native dog population (n = 168). No severe adverse reactions were observed in vaccinated dogs (n = 85). Cases of active L. infantum infection were detected by serological, molecular and clinical follow-up of dogs. One-year post-vaccination, no differences in number or severity of L. infantum active infections were observed between study groups (n = 4 in each group). Vaccine-induced cellular immunity, assessed through interferon-γ quantification, showed significantly higher levels of this cytokine one-month post-vaccination in the vaccine group (p < 0.001), but no differences were observed after nine months between trial groups (p = 0.078). These results fail to support the reported CaniLeish® efficacy in the prevention of active L. infantum infection in dogs from endemic areas and naturally exposed to the parasite.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/prevenção & controle , Leishmania infantum/imunologia , Vacinas contra Leishmaniose/imunologia , Leishmaniose Visceral/veterinária , Vacinação/veterinária , Animais , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Cães , Feminino , Interferon gama/sangue , Vacinas contra Leishmaniose/efeitos adversos , Leishmaniose Visceral/epidemiologia , Leishmaniose Visceral/prevenção & controle , Masculino
16.
Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis ; 69: 101412, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31981798

RESUMO

In Côte d'Ivoire, limited information are available on vector-borne pathogens, their prevalence and distribution. Here, we assess the occurrence and diversity of canine vector-borne diseases (CVBDs) in Abidjan and Yamoussoukro cities. Blood from a total of 123 dogs were tested for Leishmania infantum and Ehrlichia canis antibodies and screened for Leishmania and Trypanosoma spp., Piroplasmida, Filariidae and Anaplasmataceae by PCR and sequencing. Among dogs, 39 % were positive for at least one pathogen. Seroprevalences were: 15.4 % and 12.2 % for L. infantum and E. canis, respectively. DNA of L. infantum and T. congolense (4.1 %), Baabesia vogeli (1.6 %), Filariidae (Dirofilaria immitis, D. repens and Acanthocheilonema reconditum) (10.6 %) has been detected. Anaplasmataceae were detected in (17.1 %) and E. canis was the only identified specie. Co-infections were observed in 13.8 % of dogs: E. canis-L. infantum co-infection was the most prevalent (4.9 %). Age, breed and sex of dogs do not seem to influence infections. Village dogs were more susceptible to CVBDs than kennel dogs (PV = 0.0000008). This study reports for the first time the presence of L. infantum, B. vogeli, A. reconditum, D. immitis and D. repens in dogs from Côte d'Ivoire and determines the prevalence and diversity of CVBD pathogens. The results indicate that human and animal pathogens are abundant in Ivoirian dogs which requires attention of veterinarians, physicians and authorities against these diseases, especially against major zoonosis such as visceral leishmaniasis (L. infantum).


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/etiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Vetores/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Vetores/etiologia , Animais , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/imunologia , Antígenos de Protozoários/imunologia , Costa do Marfim/epidemiologia , Dirofilaria immitis/genética , Dirofilaria immitis/imunologia , Vetores de Doenças , Doenças do Cão/sangue , Doenças do Cão/transmissão , Cães , Humanos , Leishmania infantum/genética , Leishmania infantum/imunologia , Filogenia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Vigilância em Saúde Pública , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Doenças Transmitidas por Vetores/sangue , Doenças Transmitidas por Vetores/transmissão
17.
Med Microbiol Immunol ; 209(1): 69-79, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31696313

RESUMO

Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a tropical and subtropical disease which is endemic in more than eighty countries around the world. Leishmania infantum is one of the main causative agents of VL disease. Currently, there is no approved-to-market vaccine for VL therapy. In this study, we evaluated cellular and humoral immune responses induced by our newly designed multi-epitope vaccine in BALB/c mice. Four antigenic proteins, including histone H1, sterol 24-c-methyltransferase (SMT), Leishmania-specific hypothetical protein (LiHy), and Leishmania-specific antigenic protein (LSAP) were chosen for the prediction of potential immunodominant epitopes. Moreover, to enhance vaccine immunogenicity, two toll-like receptors 4 (TLR4) agonists, resuscitation-promoting factors of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (RpfE and RpfB), were employed as the built-in adjuvants. Immunization with the designed multi-epitope vaccine elicited a robust Th1-type immune response, compared to other groups, as shown by increased levels of IL-2, IFN-γ, TNF-α, and IgG2a. Furthermore, a significant decrease was observed in Th-2-type-related cytokines such as IL-4 in immunized mice. The designed construct also induced a significant reduction in parasite load (p < 0.0001), conferring protection against L. infantum challenge. This study could be promising in gaining insight towards the potential of peptide epitope-based vaccines as effective protective approaches against Leishmania species.


Assuntos
Epitopos/imunologia , Imunidade , Leishmania infantum/imunologia , Leishmaniose Visceral/imunologia , Vacinas de Subunidades/imunologia , Animais , Citocinas/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Leishmaniose Visceral/metabolismo , Leishmaniose Visceral/parasitologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Carga Parasitária , Vacinas de Subunidades/isolamento & purificação
18.
Acta Trop ; 202: 105259, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31703952

RESUMO

Effective vaccines against Leishmania parasites are a goal for the scientific community working with both canine and human leishmaniosis. However, possible side effects of vaccination should also be considered and evaluated, preferably before vaccine licensing and marketing. One of these possible effects is the cross-reaction of vaccine-induced antibodies with standard serological tests for detection of Leishmania infantum infection. Longitudinal studies were performed on the type of humoral profile induced by Brazilian marketed canine leishmaniosis vaccines, but little is known regarding the European situation. In this study, an annual follow-up of 85 CaniLeish® vaccinated dogs and 83 non-vaccinated control dogs was performed. Blood samples were taken for all animals at pre-determined time points: before vaccination; immediately before each one of the two following vaccine doses (at 21 days intervals); and then one, four, six, nine and 12 months after finishing the vaccination course. All samples were tested by an in-house ELISA, using a whole promastigote antigen, for the presence of anti-L. infantum antibodies. Humoral response detectable by the used serological diagnostic method was significantly higher in the vaccine group when compared with the control group (p < 0.01) until one-month post-vaccination. Results show that CaniLeish® vaccine-induced antibodies cross-react with a commonly used serological test for diagnosis of L. infantum natural infection. Implications of this interference are discussed, with special emphasis on a possible negative impact on canine leishmaniosis surveillance studies.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Doenças do Cão/prevenção & controle , Leishmania infantum/imunologia , Leishmaniose Visceral/veterinária , Vacinação/veterinária , Animais , Cães , Feminino , Vacinas contra Leishmaniose/imunologia , Leishmaniose Visceral/prevenção & controle , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
19.
Acta Trop ; 203: 105318, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31870709

RESUMO

The serodiagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) presents problems related to the sensitivity and/or specificity of the tests. In this context, more refined antigens should be identified and applied for the improvement of disease diagnosis. In the present study, DNA with an encoding of a Leishmania infantum hypothetical protein, LiHyC, was cloned, and the recombinant protein was expressed, purified, and evaluated for the serodiagnosis of canine and human VL. In addition, a specific B-cell epitope present in the LiHyC sequence was predicted; the peptide was both synthetized and evaluated in the ELISA experiments. For comparison, commercial diagnostic kits were used against positive (VL hosts) and negative (healthy hosts) samples. Results showed that the recombinant protein (rLiHyC) and synthetic peptide (PeptC) were highly sensitive and specific to diagnose canine and human VL, with 100% sensitivity and specificity, while no false-positive or false-negative result was detected. When the DPP® CVL kit was used to identify canine samples, 44 and 52 of the 60 L. infantum-infected animals, without or with clinical signals of disease, respectively, were identified, while eight and four samples were considered as false-negatives, respectively. For human VL, an IT LEISH® kit was used, and 33 of the 40 VL patients were identified, while seven samples were considered to be false-negatives. Post-therapeutic serological follow-up testing sera samples from treated and untreated VL patients showed a significant drop in the anti-PeptC and anti-rLiHyC antibody levels, thus suggesting the feasibility to use the recombinant protein and/or synthetic peptide in future studies as diagnostic and/or prognostic markers for VL.


Assuntos
Epitopos de Linfócito B/imunologia , Leishmania infantum/imunologia , Leishmaniose Visceral/diagnóstico , Adulto , Animais , Antígenos de Protozoários/imunologia , Cães , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Proteínas de Protozoários/imunologia , Proteínas Recombinantes/imunologia , Testes Sorológicos/métodos
20.
PLoS One ; 14(12): e0226336, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31841533

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In southern European countries, multicentric lymphoma and leishmaniosis are the main differential diagnoses in dogs presented with generalized lymphadenomegaly. The cytological examination is in some cases inconclusive and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for antigen receptor rearrangement (PARR) has become a common method to confirm or rule out a lymphoproliferative neoplasia. According to the literature, leishmaniosis may lead to clonal arrangements and therefore to a false diagnosis of lymphoma, but this assumption is made from a single leishmania infected dog. Therefore, the objective of this study was to prospectively evaluate results from PARR in dogs with lymphadenomegaly due to clinical leishmaniosis at the moment of diagnosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 31 dogs with a diagnosis of leishmaniosis based on the LeishVet guidelines were included in the study. Samples from enlarged lymph nodes were taken for cytological examination, clonality testing and Leishmania infantum PCR. RESULTS: All 31 dogs had medium to high positive antibody titers against Leishmania spp. and 30/31 had a positive Leishmania PCR from the lymph node. A polyclonal arrangement for B cells (immunoglobulin heavy chain gene) and T cells (T-cell receptor gamma chain gene) antigen receptors was found in 28/31 dogs. Two out of 31 dogs showed a monoclonal arrangement for Ig with high (1:2) and low (1:7) polyclonal background respectively; and one of the 31 dogs showed a monoclonal arrangement for T cell receptor with low (1:3) polyclonal background. CONCLUSION: Infections with Leishmania infantum resulted in clonal rearrangement, and therefore in a possible false diagnosis of lymphoma, in 3 out of 31 dogs (9.7%). Although, PARR is a useful method to differentiate lymphoma from reactive lymphoid hyperplasia in dogs with leishmaniosis, mono-/biclonal results should be interpreted carefully, especially in the presence of any degree of polyclonal background, and together with other clinicopathological findings.


Assuntos
Evolução Clonal , Doenças do Cão/imunologia , Leishmania infantum/imunologia , Leishmaniose Visceral/diagnóstico , Linfonodos/metabolismo , Linfadenopatia/diagnóstico , Animais , Evolução Clonal/genética , Evolução Clonal/imunologia , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Doenças do Cão/genética , Doenças do Cão/patologia , Cães , Feminino , Rearranjo Gênico do Linfócito B , Rearranjo Gênico do Linfócito T , Testes Genéticos/métodos , Testes Genéticos/veterinária , Leishmania infantum/genética , Leishmaniose Visceral/genética , Leishmaniose Visceral/imunologia , Leishmaniose Visceral/patologia , Linfonodos/imunologia , Linfadenopatia/genética , Linfadenopatia/imunologia , Linfadenopatia/parasitologia , Linfoma/diagnóstico , Linfoma/genética , Linfoma/veterinária , Masculino , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , Estudos Prospectivos , Esplenomegalia/diagnóstico , Esplenomegalia/veterinária
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