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1.
Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz ; 115: e200272, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33206822

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Metformin (MET) is a hypoglycemic drug used for the treatment of diabetes, despite interference in host immunity against microorganisms. Cutaneous infection caused by pathogens such as Leishmania braziliensis (Lb), the agent responsible for cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in Brazil, represents an interesting model in which to evaluate the effects associated with MET. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the modulatory effect of MET in Lb infection. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Experimental study of Lb infection and MET treatment in BALB/c mice and Raw 264.7 macrophages. FINDINGS: MET treatment interfered with lesion kinetics, increased parasite load and reduced macrophage proliferation. Low concentrations of MET in Lb culture allow for the maintenance of stationary parasite growth phase. Lb-infected cells treated with MET exhibited increased parasite load. While both MET and Lb infection alone promoted the production of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), reduced levels of ROS were seen in MET-treated Lb-infected macrophages. MAIN CONCLUSION: Experimental treatment with MET interfered with the kinetics of cutaneous ulceration, increased Lb parasite load, altered ROS production and modulated cellular proliferation. Our experimental results indicate that MET interfere with the evolution of CL.


Assuntos
Leishmania/efeitos dos fármacos , Leishmaniose Cutânea/tratamento farmacológico , Metformina/farmacologia , Animais , Brasil , Leishmania braziliensis , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C
2.
Parasitol Res ; 119(10): 3503-3515, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32772176

RESUMO

Malaria, babesiosis, trypanosomosis, and leishmaniasis are some of the most life-threatening parasites, but the range of drugs to treat them is limited. An effective, safe, and low-cost drug with a large activity spectrum is urgently needed. For this purpose, an aryl amino alcohol derivative called Alsinol was resynthesized, screened in silico, and tested against Plasmodium, Babesia, Trypanosoma, and Leishmania. In silico Alsinol follows the Lipinski and Ghose rules. In vitro it had schizontocidal activity against Plasmodium falciparum and was able to inhibit gametocytogenesis; it was particularly active against late gametocytes. In malaria-infected mice, it showed a dose-dependent activity similar to chloroquine. It demonstrated a similar level of activity to reference compounds against Babesia divergens, and against promastigotes, and amastigotes stages of Leishmania in vitro. It inhibited the in vitro growth of two African animal strains of Trypanosoma but was ineffective in vivo in our experimental conditions. It showed moderate toxicity in J774A1 and Vero cell models. The study demonstrated that Alsinol has a large spectrum of activity and is potentially affordable to produce. Nevertheless, challenges remain in the process of scaling up synthesis, creating a suitable clinical formulation, and determining the safety margin in preclinical models.


Assuntos
Amino Álcoois/farmacologia , Antiprotozoários/farmacologia , Amino Álcoois/síntese química , Amino Álcoois/química , Animais , Antiprotozoários/síntese química , Antiprotozoários/química , Babesia/efeitos dos fármacos , Babesia/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Chlorocebus aethiops , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Leishmania/efeitos dos fármacos , Leishmania/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Estágios do Ciclo de Vida/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Plasmodium/efeitos dos fármacos , Plasmodium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Infecções por Protozoários/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Protozoários/parasitologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Trypanosoma/efeitos dos fármacos , Trypanosoma/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Células Vero
3.
Trends Parasitol ; 36(9): 785-795, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32713762

RESUMO

Leishmania parasites have the capacity to rapidly adapt to changing environments in their digenetic life cycle which alternates between a vertebrate and an invertebrate host. Emergence of resistance following drug exposure can evoke phenotypic alterations that affect several aspects of parasite fitness in both hosts. Current studies of the impact of resistance are mostly limited to interactions with the mammalian host and characterization of in vitro parasite growth and differentiation. Development in the vector and transmission capacity have been largely ignored. This review reflects on the impact of drug resistance on its spreading potential with specific focus on the use of the sand fly infection model to evaluate parasite development in the vector and the ensuing transmission potential of drug-resistant phenotypes.


Assuntos
Resistência a Medicamentos , Insetos Vetores/parasitologia , Leishmaniose/transmissão , Psychodidae/parasitologia , Animais , Antiparasitários/farmacologia , Humanos , Leishmania/efeitos dos fármacos , Leishmania/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Leishmaniose/parasitologia , Estágios do Ciclo de Vida/fisiologia
4.
Exp Parasitol ; 216: 107940, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32562606

RESUMO

Therapeutic options for the treatment of leishmaniasis are insufficient and need improvements owing to their low efficiency and high toxicity as well as the emergence of resistant strains. The limited number of new drugs for neglected diseases and lack of innovation in your development are still challenges. In this context, the process of discovery and development of biological assays play a pivotal role for the identification of bioactive compounds. The assays currently used for screening of drugs with cytotoxic activity against Leishmania parasites, include different processes that utilize intact parasite (free or intracellular) or specific enzymes of metabolism as a target cell. These assays allow the screening of large numbers of samples followed by more detailed secondary confirmatory assays to confirm the observed activity and assess their toxicity. In the present study, we described the development of a new functional and more complete assay that enables simultaneous assessment of potential anti-Leishmania compounds through evaluation of internalization of fluorescein-labeled L. braziliensis promastigotes by human peripheral blood monocytes and their cytotoxicity by flow cytometry. We standardized the conditions for parasite labeling to achieve better phagocytosis analysis by setting the ratio of number of parasites per cell as 1 to 2, at incubation time of 6h. The cytotoxicity assessment was performed by the quantification of cells undergoing early/late apoptosis and necrosis using a double labelling platform employing 7AAD for late apoptosis and necrosis analysis and Annexin-V for early apoptosis evaluation. Hemolysis analysis was an additional parameter to test cytotoxicity. Two drugs used on clinic (Amphotericin B and Glucantime®) were used to validate the proposed methodology, and the assay was able to detect their known leishmanicidal activity and immunotoxicity properties. This new predictive assay will contribute to the development of translational medicine strategies in drug discovery for neglected diseases such as leishmaniasis.


Assuntos
Alternativas aos Testes com Animais/métodos , Antiprotozoários/toxicidade , Citometria de Fluxo/métodos , Leishmania/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças Negligenciadas/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Anfotericina B/farmacologia , Anfotericina B/toxicidade , Animais , Antiprotozoários/farmacologia , Antiprotozoários/uso terapêutico , Descoberta de Drogas/métodos , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos/métodos , Fluoresceína-5-Isotiocianato , Corantes Fluorescentes , Humanos , Leishmania braziliensis/efeitos dos fármacos , Leishmaniose/tratamento farmacológico , Leucócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Leucócitos/parasitologia , Antimoniato de Meglumina/farmacologia , Antimoniato de Meglumina/uso terapêutico , Antimoniato de Meglumina/toxicidade , Microscopia Confocal , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Monócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Monócitos/parasitologia , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
5.
Parasitol Res ; 119(7): 2025-2037, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32504119

RESUMO

Leishmaniasis is a neglected tropical disease with no effective vaccines to date. Globally, it affects around 14 million people living in undeveloped and developing countries. Leishmania, which is the causative eukaryotic organism, possesses unique enzymes and pathways that deviates from its mammalian hosts. The control strategy against leishmaniasis currently depends on chemotherapeutic methods. But these chemotherapeutic therapies possess several side effects, and therefore, the identification of potential drug targets has become very crucial. Identification of suitable drug targets is necessary to design specific inhibitors that can target and control the parasite. These unique enzymes can be used as possible drug targets after biochemical characterization and understanding the role of these enzymes. In this review, the authors discuss various metabolic pathways that are essential for the survival of the parasite and can be exploited as potential drug targets against leishmaniasis.


Assuntos
Antiparasitários , Leishmania/metabolismo , Leishmaniose/tratamento farmacológico , Redes e Vias Metabólicas/efeitos dos fármacos , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Animais , Antiparasitários/farmacologia , Antiparasitários/uso terapêutico , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Humanos , Leishmania/efeitos dos fármacos
6.
Korean J Parasitol ; 58(2): 173-179, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32418386

RESUMO

Leishmaniasis is a prevalent cause of death and animal morbidity in underdeveloped countries of endemic area. However, there is few vaccine and effective drugs. Antimicrobial peptides are involved in the innate immune response in many organisms and are being developed as novel drugs against parasitic infections. In the present study, we synthesized a 5-amino acid peptide REDLK, which mutated the C-terminus of Pseudomonas exotoxin, to identify its effect on the Leishmania tarentolae. Promastigotes were incubated with different concentration of REDLK peptide, and the viability of parasite was assessed using MTT and Trypan blue dye. Morphologic damage of Leishmania was analyzed by light and electron microscopy. Cellular apoptosis was observed using the annexin V-FITC/PI apoptosis detection kit, mitochondrial membrane potential assay kit and flow cytometry. Our results showed that Leishmania tarentolae was susceptible to REDLK in a dose-dependent manner, disrupt the surface membrane integrity and caused parasite apoptosis. In our study, we demonstrated the leishmanicidal activity of an antimicrobial peptide REDLK from Pseudomonas aeruginosa against Leishmania tarentolae in vitro and present a foundation for further research of anti-leishmanial drugs.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/farmacologia , Leishmania/efeitos dos fármacos , Leishmania/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Peptídeos/farmacologia , Pseudomonas/metabolismo , Técnicas In Vitro
7.
Parasit Vectors ; 13(1): 168, 2020 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32248823

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The enzyme farnesyl diphosphate synthase (FPPS) is positioned in the intersection of different sterol biosynthesis pathways such as those producing isoprenoids, dolichols and ergosterol. FPPS is ubiquitous in eukaryotes and is inhibited by nitrogen-containing bisphosphonates (N-BP). N-BP activity and the mechanisms of cell death as well as damage to the ultrastructure due to N-BP has not yet been investigated in Leishmania infantum and Giardia. Thus, we evaluated the effect of N-BP on cell viability and ultrastructure and then performed structural modelling and phylogenetic analysis on the FPPS enzymes of Leishmania and Giardia. METHODS: We performed multiple sequence alignment with MAFFT, phylogenetic analysis with MEGA7, and 3D structural modelling for FPPS with Modeller 9.18 and on I-Tasser server. We performed concentration curves with N-BP in Leishmania promastigotes and Giardia trophozoites to estimate the IC50via the MTS/PMS viability method. The ultrastructure was evaluated by transmission electron microscopy, and the mechanism of cell death by flow cytometry. RESULTS: The nitrogen-containing bisphosphonate risedronate had stronger anti-proliferative activity in Leishmania compared to other N-BPs with an IC50 of 13.8 µM, followed by ibandronate and alendronate with IC50 values of 85.1 µM and 112.2 µM, respectively. The effect of N-BPs was much lower on trophozoites of Giardia than Leishmania (IC50 of 311 µM for risedronate). Giardia treated with N-BP displayed concentric membranes around the nucleus and nuclear pyknosis. Leishmania had mitochondrial swelling, myelin figures, double membranes, and plasma membrane blebbing. The same population labelled with annexin-V and 7-AAD had a loss of membrane potential (TMRE), indicative of apoptosis. Multiple sequence alignments and structural alignments of FPPS proteins showed that Giardia and Leishmania FPPS display low amino acid identity but possess the conserved aspartate-rich motifs. CONCLUSIONS: Giardia and Leishmania FPPS enzymes are phylogenetically distant but display conserved protein signatures. The N-BPs effect on FPPS was more pronounced in Leishmania than Giardia. This might be due to general differences in metabolism and differences in the FPPS catalytic site.


Assuntos
Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Difosfonatos/farmacologia , Geraniltranstransferase/química , Giardia/enzimologia , Giardia/ultraestrutura , Leishmania/enzimologia , Leishmania/ultraestrutura , Aminoácidos/genética , Morte Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Geraniltranstransferase/antagonistas & inibidores , Giardia/efeitos dos fármacos , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Leishmania/efeitos dos fármacos , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Filogenia , Alinhamento de Sequência , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
8.
Chem Biol Interact ; 320: 109026, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32112863

RESUMO

Leishmaniasis is a widespread tropical infection caused by different species of Leishmania protozoa. Many of the available drugs against the disease are toxic and in certain cases parasite drug resistance is developed. The discovery of drugs for the treatment of leishmaniasis is a pressing concern. In the present work, we describe in vitro studies of the phenolic compound methyl gallate (MG) against Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis and its possible mechanisms of action. The in vitro activity of MG was assayed against L. amazonensis (promastigotes, axenic amastigotes, and intramacrophagic amastigotes). Cytotoxicity tests were performed with J774A.1 macrophages and THP-1 cell derived macrophages. To evaluate mechanisms of action, we analyzed cellular TNF-α, IL-12, IFN-γ, IL-10, IL-6, NO, ROS levels, arginase activity, and structural mechanisms (phagocytic and lysosomal activities) involving macrophage activation. Meglumine antimoniate and amphotericin B were used as reference drugs. It was observed that MG effectively inhibited the growth of both promastigote (IC50 5.71 µM) and amastigote-like forms (EC50 5.39 µM), with much higher selectivity indexes than the reference drugs, being more benign towards J774A.1 macrophages than meglumine antimoniate and amphotericin B, at 1631- and 70.92-fold respectively, with respect to the promastigote form. Additionally, MG proved to be even more active against intracellular amastigotes of the parasite (EC50 4.24 µM). Our results showed that antileishmania activity was associated with increased TNF-α, IL-12, NO and ROS levels, as well as decreased IL-6 and decreased arginase activity. In addition, MG induced increased phagocytic capability, and lysosomal volume in macrophages; structural parameters of microbicidal activity. Taken together, our results suggest that MG may be a promising candidate for new drug development against leishmaniasis.


Assuntos
Antiprotozoários/farmacologia , Ácido Gálico/análogos & derivados , Leishmania/efeitos dos fármacos , Anfotericina B/farmacologia , Antiprotozoários/química , Ácido Gálico/efeitos adversos , Ácido Gálico/química , Ácido Gálico/farmacologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Antimoniato de Meglumina/farmacologia , Estrutura Molecular , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio
9.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0228740, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32214347

RESUMO

Parasitic diseases are a neglected and serious problem, especially in underdeveloped countries. Among the major parasitic diseases, Leishmaniasis figures as an urgent challenge due to its high incidence and severity. At the same time, the indiscriminate use of antibiotics by the population is increasing together with resistance to medicines. To address this problem, new antibiotic-like molecules that directly kill or inhibit the growth of microorganisms are necessary, where antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) can be of great help. In this work, the ferrocene molecule, one active compound with low levels of in vivo toxicity, was coupled to the N-terminus of the RP1 peptide (derived from the human chemokine CXCL4), aiming to evaluate how this change modifies the structure, biological activity, and toxicity of the peptide. The peptide and the conjugate were synthesized using the solid phase peptide synthesis (SPPS). Circular dichroism assays in PBS showed that the RP1 peptide and its conjugate had a typical spectrum for disordered structures. The Fc-RP1 presented anti-amastigote activity against Leishmania amazonensis (IC50 = 0.25 µmol L-1). In comparison with amphotericin B, a second-line drug approved for leishmaniasis treatment, (IC50 = 0.63 µmol L-1), Fc-RP1 was more active and showed a 2.5-fold higher selectivity index. The RP1 peptide presented a MIC of 4.3 µmol L-1 against S. agalactiae, whilst Fc-RP1 was four times more active (MIC = 0.96 µmol L-1), indicating that ferrocene improved the antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive bacteria. The Fc-RP1 peptide also decreased the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) in the assays against E. faecalis (MIC = 7.9 µmol L-1), E. coli (MIC = 3.9 µmol L-1) and S. aureus (MIC = 3.9 µmol L-1). The cytotoxicity of the compounds was tested against HaCaT cells, and no significant activity at the highest concentration tested (500 µg. mL-1) was observed, showing the high potential of this new compound as a possible new drug. The coupling of ferrocene also increased the vesicle permeabilization of the peptide, showing a direct relation between high peptide concentration and high carboxyfluorescein release, which indicates the action mechanism by pore formation on the vesicles. Several studies have shown that ferrocene destabilizes cell membranes through lipid peroxidation, leading to cell lysis. It is noteworthy that the Fc-RP1 peptide synthesized here is a prototype of a bioconjugation strategy, but it still is a compound with great biological activity against neglected and fish diseases.


Assuntos
Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos/química , Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos/farmacologia , Compostos Ferrosos/química , Metalocenos/química , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos/metabolismo , Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos/toxicidade , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Leishmania/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Permeabilidade
10.
Org Biomol Chem ; 18(7): 1462-1475, 2020 02 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32025679

RESUMO

Selective glycosylation of the C-6 fluorinated galactofuranosyl acceptor 2 was studied with four galactofuranosyl donors. It was highlighted that this electron-withdrawing atom strongly impacted the behavior of the acceptor, thus leading to unprecedented glycosylation pathways. Competition between expected glycosylation of 2, ring expansion of this acceptor and furanosylation, and intermolecular aglycon transfer was observed. Further investigation of the fluorinated synthetic compounds showed that the presence of fluorine atom contributed to increase the inhibition of the growth of Leishmania tarentolae, a non-pathogenic strain of Leishmania.


Assuntos
Antiprotozoários/farmacologia , Furanos/farmacologia , Galactosídeos/farmacologia , Leishmania/efeitos dos fármacos , Antiprotozoários/síntese química , Antiprotozoários/química , Configuração de Carboidratos , Furanos/síntese química , Furanos/química , Galactosídeos/síntese química , Galactosídeos/química , Glicosilação , Testes de Sensibilidade Parasitária , Estereoisomerismo
11.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(2): e0007983, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32106219

RESUMO

The development of chemotherapies against eukaryotic pathogens is especially challenging because of both the evolutionary conservation of drug targets between host and parasite, and the evolution of strain-dependent drug resistance. There is a strong need for new nontoxic drugs with broad-spectrum activity against trypanosome parasites such as Leishmania and Trypanosoma. A relatively untested approach is to target macromolecular interactions in parasites rather than small molecular interactions, under the hypothesis that the features specifying macromolecular interactions diverge more rapidly through coevolution. We computed tRNA Class-Informative Features in humans and independently in eight distinct clades of trypanosomes, identifying parasite-specific informative features, including base pairs and base mis-pairs, that are broadly conserved over approximately 250 million years of trypanosome evolution. Validating these observations, we demonstrated biochemically that tRNA:aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase (aaRS) interactions are a promising target for anti-trypanosomal drug discovery. From a marine natural products extract library, we identified several fractions with inhibitory activity toward Leishmania major alanyl-tRNA synthetase (AlaRS) but no activity against the human homolog. These marine natural products extracts showed cross-reactivity towards Trypanosoma cruzi AlaRS indicating the broad-spectrum potential of our network predictions. We also identified Leishmania major threonyl-tRNA synthetase (ThrRS) inhibitors from the same library. We discuss why chemotherapies targeting multiple aaRSs should be less prone to the evolution of resistance than monotherapeutic or synergistic combination chemotherapies targeting only one aaRS.


Assuntos
Alanina-tRNA Ligase/antagonistas & inibidores , Antiprotozoários/farmacologia , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Leishmania/enzimologia , Proteínas de Protozoários/antagonistas & inibidores , Treonina-tRNA Ligase/antagonistas & inibidores , Trypanosoma/efeitos dos fármacos , Alanina-tRNA Ligase/genética , Alanina-tRNA Ligase/metabolismo , Antiprotozoários/química , Inibidores Enzimáticos/química , Humanos , Leishmania/efeitos dos fármacos , Leishmania/genética , Leishmaniose/parasitologia , Proteínas de Protozoários/genética , Proteínas de Protozoários/metabolismo , Treonina-tRNA Ligase/genética , Treonina-tRNA Ligase/metabolismo , Trypanosoma/enzimologia , Trypanosoma/genética , Tripanossomíase/parasitologia
12.
Molecules ; 25(4)2020 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32059518

RESUMO

In continuation of our efforts to identify promising antileishmanial agents based on the chroman scaffold, we synthesized several substituted 2H-thiochroman derivatives, including thiochromenes, thichromanones and hydrazones substituted in C-2 or C-3 with carbonyl or carboxyl groups. Thirty-two compounds were thus obtained, characterized, and evaluated against intracellular amastigotes of Leishmania (V) panamensis. Twelve compounds were active, with EC50 values lower than 40 µM, but only four compounds displayed the highest antileishmanial activity, with EC50 values below 10 µM; these all compounds possess a good Selectivity Index > 2.6. Although two active compounds were thiochromenes, a clear structure-activity relationship was not detected since each active compound has a different substitution pattern.


Assuntos
Antiprotozoários/farmacologia , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Leishmania/efeitos dos fármacos , Piranos/farmacologia , Compostos de Sulfidrila/farmacologia , Animais , Antiprotozoários/síntese química , Antiprotozoários/química , Humanos , Leishmania/patogenicidade , Estrutura Molecular , Testes de Sensibilidade Parasitária , Piranos/síntese química , Piranos/química , Compostos de Sulfidrila/síntese química , Compostos de Sulfidrila/química
13.
Pathog Dis ; 78(1)2020 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32053190

RESUMO

Leishmaniasis includes a broad spectrum of pathological outcomes in humans caused by protozoan parasites from the genus Leishmania. In recent years, proteomic techniques have introduced novel proteins with critical functions in Leishmania parasites. Based on our report of a Chitin binding protein (CBP) in our previous immunoproteomic study, this article suggests that CBP might be an RNA binding protein (RBP) in Leishmania parasites. RBPs, as key regulatory factors, have a role in post-transcriptional gene regulation. The presence of RBPs in Leishmania parasites has not been considered so far; however, this study aims to open a new venue regarding RBPs in Leishmania parasites. Confirming CBP as an RBP in Leishmania parasites, exploring other RBPs and their functions might lead to interesting issues in leishmaniasis. In fact, due to the regulatory role of RBPs in different diseases including cancers and their further classification as therapeutic targets, the emerging evaluation of CBP and RBPs from Leishmania parasites may allow the discovery of novel and effective drugs against leishmaniasis.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Transporte/metabolismo , Quitina/metabolismo , Leishmania/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/metabolismo , Antiprotozoários/farmacologia , Antiprotozoários/uso terapêutico , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Leishmania/efeitos dos fármacos , Leishmania/genética , Leishmaniose/parasitologia , Ligação Proteica , Proteínas de Protozoários/genética , Proteínas de Protozoários/metabolismo
14.
Nanotechnology ; 31(17): 175705, 2020 Apr 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31931488

RESUMO

Due to the resistance to drugs, studies involving the combination and controlled release of different agents are gradually increasing. In this study, two different active ingredients, known to have antibacterial and antiparasitic activities, were encapsulated into single polymeric nanoparticles. After co-encapsulation their antibacterial and antileishmanial activity was enhanced approximately 5 and 250 times, respectively. Antibacterial and antileishmanial activities of caffeic acid phenethyl ester and juglone loaded, multifunctional nanoformulations (CJ4-CJ6-CJ8) were also evaluated for the first time in the literature comparatively with their combined free formulations. The antibacterial activity of the multifunctional nanoformulation (CJ8) were found to have a much higher activity (MIC values 6.25 and 12.5 µg ml-1 for S. aureus and E. coli, respectively) than all other formulations. Similar efficacy for CJ8 was obtained in the antiparasitic study against the Leishmania promastigotes and the IC50 was reduced to 0.1263 µg ml-1. The high activity of multifunctional nanoparticles is not only due to the synergistic effect of the active molecules but also by the encapsulation into polymeric nanoparticles. Therefore, it has been shown in the literature for the first time that the biological activity of molecules whose activity is increased by the synergistic effect can be improved with nanosystems.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antiparasitários/farmacologia , Ácidos Cafeicos/farmacologia , Naftoquinonas/farmacologia , Álcool Feniletílico/análogos & derivados , Antibacterianos/química , Antiparasitários/química , Ácidos Cafeicos/química , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Leishmania/efeitos dos fármacos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Nanopartículas , Naftoquinonas/química , Tamanho da Partícula , Álcool Feniletílico/química , Álcool Feniletílico/farmacologia , Copolímero de Ácido Poliláctico e Ácido Poliglicólico , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos
15.
Parasit Vectors ; 13(1): 24, 2020 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31931865

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Leishmaniasis, considered by the World Health Organization as one of the most important tropical diseases, is endemic in the Mediterranean Basin. The aim of this study was to evaluate epidemiological and clinical characteristics of cutaneous (CL) and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis (MCL) in La Fe University Hospital, Valencia, Spain. The particular focus was on diagnosis techniques and clinical differences according to the immunological status of the patients. METHODS: An eleven-year retrospective observational study of CL and MCL episodes at the hospital was performed. Epidemiological, clinical and therapeutic variables of each case, together with the microbiological and anatomopathological diagnosis, were analyzed. RESULTS: A total of 42 patients were included, 30 of them were male and 28 were immunocompetent. Most of the cases (36/42) were diagnosed in the last 5 years (2013-2017). The incidence of CL and MCL increased from 3.6/100,000 (2006-2012) to 13.58/100,000 (2013-2017). The majority of the patients (37/42) exhibited CL, in 30 cases as single lesions (30/37). Ulcerative lesions were more common in immunosuppressed patients (13/14) than in immunocompetent patients (20/28), (P = 0.2302). The length of lesion presence before diagnosis was 7.36 ± 6.72 months in immunocompetent patients and 8.79 ± 6.9 months in immunosuppressed patients (P = 0.1863). Leishmania DNA detection (92.3%) was the most sensitive diagnostic technique followed by Giemsa stain (65%) and histopathological examination (53.8%). Twelve patients (12/42) had close contact with dogs or were living near to kennels, and 10 of them did not present underlying conditions. Intralesional glucantime (21/42) and liposomal amphotericin B (7/42) were the most common treatments administered in monotherapy. All patients evolved successfully and no relapse was reported. CONCLUSIONS: Some interesting clinical and epidemiological differences were found in our series between immunocompetent and immunosuppressed patients. Future studies can take these results further especially by studying patients with biological therapy. Skin biopsies combining NAAT with histological techniques are the most productive techniques for CL or MCL diagnosis.


Assuntos
Leishmania/efeitos dos fármacos , Leishmaniose Cutânea , Leishmaniose Mucocutânea , Administração Cutânea , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Anfotericina B/administração & dosagem , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido , Leishmania/isolamento & purificação , Leishmaniose Cutânea/diagnóstico , Leishmaniose Cutânea/tratamento farmacológico , Leishmaniose Cutânea/imunologia , Leishmaniose Cutânea/patologia , Leishmaniose Mucocutânea/diagnóstico , Leishmaniose Mucocutânea/tratamento farmacológico , Leishmaniose Mucocutânea/imunologia , Leishmaniose Mucocutânea/patologia , Masculino , Antimoniato de Meglumina/administração & dosagem , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Espanha/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
16.
Rev Soc Bras Med Trop ; 53: e20190139, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31994657

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Leishmaniasis, a disease caused by a parasite endemic to large areas of tropical and subtropical countries, is a growing public health problem. METHODS: Male BALB/c mice were infected with Leishmania amazonensis and treated with extracts isolated from Annona mucosa. RESULTS: Treated groups had significantly reduced footpad swelling. The group treated intraperitoneally with hexane extract showed footpad swelling similar to groups treated with Pentamidine® and Glucantime®. Groups treated with dichloromethane extract and hexane extract presented the recovering phenotype associated with reduced parasite levels. CONCLUSIONS: Extracts of A. mucosa are promising sources of novel antileishmanial compounds.


Assuntos
Annona/química , Antiprotozoários/uso terapêutico , Leishmania/efeitos dos fármacos , Leishmaniose Cutânea/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Animais , Antiprotozoários/isolamento & purificação , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Leishmaniose Cutânea/parasitologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C
17.
Med Chem ; 16(1): 24-38, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31218962

RESUMO

More than 10 million people around the world are afflicted by Neglected Tropical Diseases, such as Chagas Disease, Human African Trypanosomiasis, and Leishmania. These diseases mostly occur in undeveloped countries that suffer from a lack of economic incentive, research, and policy for new compound development. Sulfonamide moieties are effective scaffolds present in several compounds that are determinants to treat various diseases, principally neglected tropical diseases. This review article examines the contribution of these scaffolds in medicinal chemistry in the last five years, focusing on three trypanosomatid parasites: Trypanosoma cruzi, Trypanosoma brucei, and Leishmania ssp. We also present perspectives for their use in drug designs in an effort to contribute to new drug development. In addition, we consider the physicochemical parameters, whose molecules all presented according to Lipinski's rule. The correlation between the selective index and LogP was evaluated, showing that sulfonamide derivatives can act differently against each trypanosomatid parasite. Moreover, the approaches of novel drugs and technologies are very important for the eventual drug discovery against trypanosomatid diseases.


Assuntos
Antiprotozoários/farmacologia , Leishmania/efeitos dos fármacos , Sulfonamidas/farmacologia , Trypanosoma brucei brucei/efeitos dos fármacos , Trypanosoma cruzi/efeitos dos fármacos , Antiprotozoários/síntese química , Antiprotozoários/química , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Estrutura Molecular , Testes de Sensibilidade Parasitária , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Sulfonamidas/síntese química , Sulfonamidas/química
18.
Biochim Biophys Acta Gen Subj ; 1864(1): 129465, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31676291

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: M20 aminopeptidases, such as Peptidase T (PepT), are implicated in the hydrolysis of oligopeptides during the terminal stages of protein degradation pathway to maintain turnover. Therefore, specific inhibition of PepT bores well for the development of novel next-generation antileishmanials. This work describes the metal dependence, substrate preferences and inhibition of PepT, and demonstrates in detail the role of its two conserved substrate binding residues. METHODS: PepT was purified and characterized using a scheme of peptide substrates and peptidomimetic inhibitors. Residues T364 and N378 were mutated and characterized with an array of biochemical, biophysical and structural biology methods. RESULTS: PepT sequence carries conserved motifs typical of M20 peptidases and our work on its biochemistry shows that this cytosolic enzyme carries broad substrate specificity with best cleavage preference for peptides carrying alanine at the P1 position. Peptidomimetics amastatin and actinonin occupied S1 pocket by competing with the substrate for binding to active site and inhibited PepT potently, while arphamenine A and bestatin were less effective inhibitors. We further show that the mutation of conserved substrate binding residues (T364 and N378) to alanine affects structure, reduces substrate binding and alters the amidolytic activity of this dimeric enzyme. CONCLUSIONS: PepT preferentially hydrolyzes oligopeptides carrying alanine at P1 position and is potently inhibited by peptidomimetics. Reduced substrate binding after mutations was a key factor involved in amidolytic digressions. GENERAL SIGNIFICANCE: This study provides insights for further exploration of the druggability of PepT and highlights prospective applications of this enzyme along with its mutazyme T364A/N378A.


Assuntos
Aminopeptidases/química , Leishmaniose/tratamento farmacológico , Oligopeptídeos/farmacologia , Peptidomiméticos/química , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Aminopeptidases/antagonistas & inibidores , Aminopeptidases/genética , Sítios de Ligação/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Hidrólise/efeitos dos fármacos , Cinética , Leishmania/efeitos dos fármacos , Leishmania/enzimologia , Leishmania/patogenicidade , Leishmaniose/genética , Leishmaniose/parasitologia , Mutação/genética , Oligopeptídeos/química , Peptídeos/química , Peptídeos/farmacologia , Peptidomiméticos/farmacologia , Proteólise/efeitos dos fármacos , Especificidade por Substrato
19.
Arch Pharm (Weinheim) ; 353(2): e1900241, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31840866

RESUMO

Nineteen 3,5-disubstituted-isoxazole analogs were synthesized based on nitrofuran scaffolds, by a [3 + 2] cycloaddition reaction between terminal acetylenes and 5-nitrofuran chloro-oxime. The compounds were obtained in moderate to very good yields (45-91%). The antileishmanial activity was assayed against the promastigote and amastigote forms of Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis. Alkylchlorinated compounds 14p-r were active on both the promastigote and amastigote forms, with emphasis on compound 14p, which showed strong activity against the amastigote form (IC50 = 0.6 µM and selectivity index [SI] = 5.2). In the alkyl series, compound 14o stands out with an IC50 = 8.5 µM and SI = 8.0 on the amastigote form. In the aromatic series, the most active compounds were those containing electron-donor groups, such as trimethoxy isoxazole 14g (IC50 = 1.2 µM and SI = 20.2); compound 14h, with IC50 = 7.0 µM and SI = 6.1; and compound 14j containing the 4-SCH3 group, with IC50 = 5.7 µM and SI = 10.2. In addition, the antifungal activity of 19 nitrofuran isoxazoles was evaluated against five strains of Candida (C. albicans, C. parapsilosis, C. krusei, C. tropicalis, and C. glabrata). Eleven isoxazole derivatives were active against C. parapsilosis, and compound 14o was found to be the most active (minimal inhibitory concentration [MIC] = 3.4 µM) for this strain. Compound 14p was active against all the strains tested, with an MIC = 17.5 µM for C. glabrata, lower than that of the fluconazole used as the reference drug.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Antiprotozoários/farmacologia , Candida/efeitos dos fármacos , Desenho de Fármacos , Isoxazóis/farmacologia , Leishmania/efeitos dos fármacos , Nitrofuranos/farmacologia , Antifúngicos/síntese química , Antifúngicos/química , Antiprotozoários/síntese química , Antiprotozoários/química , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Isoxazóis/síntese química , Isoxazóis/química , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Estrutura Molecular , Nitrofuranos/química , Testes de Sensibilidade Parasitária , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
20.
J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem ; 35(1): 199-210, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31752556

RESUMO

Previous reports have validated the glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) as a druggable target against the human protozoan parasite Leishmania. This prompted us to search for new leishmanicidal scaffolds as inhibitors of this enzyme from our in-house library of human GSK-3ß inhibitors, as well as from the Leishbox collection of leishmanicidal compounds developed by GlaxoSmithKline. As a result, new leishmanicidal inhibitors acting on Leishmania GSK-3 at micromolar concentrations were found. These inhibitors belong to six different chemical classes (thiadiazolidindione, halomethylketone, maleimide, benzoimidazole, N-phenylpyrimidine-2-amine and oxadiazole). In addition, the binding mode of the most active compounds into Leishmania GSK-3 was approached using computational tools. On the whole, we have uncovered new chemical scaffolds with an appealing prospective in the development and use of Leishmania GSK-3 inhibitors against this infectious protozoan.


Assuntos
Antiprotozoários/farmacologia , Descoberta de Drogas , Quinase 3 da Glicogênio Sintase/antagonistas & inibidores , Leishmania/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Antiprotozoários/síntese química , Antiprotozoários/química , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Quinase 3 da Glicogênio Sintase/metabolismo , Humanos , Leishmania/citologia , Leishmania/enzimologia , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Estrutura Molecular , Testes de Sensibilidade Parasitária , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/síntese química , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/química , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
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