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1.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 446, 2020 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32248804

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is caused by protozoa of the Leishmania donovani complex. Annually, an estimated 500,000 cases of VL are reported globally posing a public health challenge. The objectives of our study were to confirm and determine the magnitude of VL outbreak, characterize the outbreak clinically and epidemiologically and evaluate the county preparedness and response in Marsabit County, Kenya. METHODS: A retrospective review of laboratory registers and patients' clinical notes was done at Marsabit County Hospital. Cases were persons with confirmed VL diagnosis either by microscopy, serology or molecular technique coming from Marsabit County from May to October 2014. Cases were interviewed using structured questionnaire to collect clinical and epidemiologic information. Blood samples were collected from cases for laboratory confirmation. RESULTS: A total of 136 cases were confirmed of which 77% (105) were male with a median age of 17 (IQR: 22) years and 9.6% (13) case fatality rate. All cases were admitted at Marsabit County Referral Hospital, Kenya. Medical records of 133 cases were retrieved. Of the 133 cases, 102 (77%) presented with fever, 43 (32%) with splenomegaly, 26 (20%) with hepatomegaly and 96 (72%) were managed with Sodium stibogluconate (SSG) monotherapy. Thirty-four cases (26%) received Full haemogram (FHG) test and none had more than one Liver Function Tests (LFTs) in a span of 6 months. Presenting with headache (OR: 4.21, 95% CI: 1.10-16.09) and hepatomegaly (OR: 4.2, 95% CI: 1.30-14.11) were associated with VL death. No VL case management training had been conducted nor VL treatment guidelines distributed among health care workers (HCWs) in the last 1 year. CONCLUSIONS: VL cases were confirmed. Inadequate case monitoring and management was evident. VL case management sensitization training was conducted. The County health department should put in place one health VL surveillance and facilitate periodic case management trainings.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças , Leishmaniose Visceral/diagnóstico , Leishmaniose Visceral/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Febre/epidemiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Quênia/epidemiologia , Leishmania/isolamento & purificação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
3.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(3): e0007947, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32196501

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a major public health concern in Ethiopia. However, knowledge about the complex zoonotic transmission cycle is limited, hampering implementation of control strategies. We explored the feeding behavior and activity of the vector (Phlebotomus pedifer) and studied the role of livestock in CL transmission in southwestern Ethiopia. METHODS: Blood meal origins of engorged sand flies were determined by sequencing host DNA. A host choice experiment was performed to assess the feeding preference of P. pedifer when humans and hyraxes are equally accessible. Ear and nose biopsies from livestock were screened for the presence of Leishmania parasites. Sand flies were captured indoor and outdoor with human landing catches and CDC light traps to determine at which time and where P. pedifer is mostly active. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A total of 180 P. pedifer sand flies were found to bite hosts of 12 genera. Humans were the predominant blood meal source indoors (65.9%, p < 0.001), while no significant differences were determined outdoors and in caves. In caves, hyraxes were represented in blood meals equally as humans (45.5% and 42.4%, respectively), but the host choice experiment revealed that sand flies have a significant preference for feeding on hyraxes (p = 0.009). Only a single goat nose biopsy from 412 animal samples was found with Leishmania RNA. We found that P. pedifer is predominantly endophagic (p = 0.003), but occurs both indoors and outdoors. A substantial number of sand flies was active in the early evening, which increased over time reaching its maximum around midnight. CONCLUSION: In contrast to earlier suggestions of exclusive zoonotic Leishmania transmission, we propose that there is also human-to-human transmission of CL in southwestern Ethiopia. Livestock does not play a role in CL transmission and combined indoor and outdoor vector control measures at night are required for efficient vector control.


Assuntos
Reservatórios de Doenças/parasitologia , Comportamento Alimentar , Leishmania/isolamento & purificação , Gado/parasitologia , Phlebotomus/fisiologia , Phlebotomus/parasitologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa , Etiópia , Feminino , Humanos , Leishmaniose Cutânea/transmissão , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
4.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 163, 2020 Feb 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32087701

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL) is a widespread anthropozoonosis caused by protozoa of the genus Leishmania and is considered a serious public health problem. The aim of this study was to provide a descriptive analysis of confirmed ATL cases and evaluate the spatial distribution of ATL in high-risk transmission areas from the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. METHODS: An ecological, analytical, and retrospective study of the confirmed cases of ATL in Minas Gerais from 2007 to 2017 was conducted. To characterize these cases, multiple correspondence analysis and georeferencing of the ATL prevalence rates in the municipalities were conducted based on variables obtained at Sistema Nacional de Agravos de Notificação and Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística databases. RESULTS: There were 13,025 confirmed cases of ATL from 74.4% (635) municipalities of Minas Gerais, corresponding to a prevalence rate of 66.5 cases for every 100,000 inhabitants. Males aged 20 to 59 years and individuals who attended elementary school were most affected with ATL. Multiple correspondence analysis presented an accumulated qui-squared value of 44.74%, proving that there was a relationship between the variables, including ethnicity, age, pregnancy status, zone of infection, and number of cases. CONCLUSION: We confirmed that ATL is endemic to Minas Gerais, and there is high risk of infection within the municipalities due to a high rate of parasite transmission. The occurrence of infection in children, pregnant women, and the indigenous population demonstrates the need for the government to expand social policies aimed at vulnerable groups.


Assuntos
Leishmania/isolamento & purificação , Leishmaniose Cutânea/epidemiologia , Leishmaniose Cutânea/transmissão , Adolescente , Adulto , Brasil/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cidades/epidemiologia , Doenças Endêmicas , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Leishmania/genética , Leishmania/imunologia , Leishmaniose Cutânea/parasitologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Gravidez , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
5.
Parasit Vectors ; 13(1): 24, 2020 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31931865

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Leishmaniasis, considered by the World Health Organization as one of the most important tropical diseases, is endemic in the Mediterranean Basin. The aim of this study was to evaluate epidemiological and clinical characteristics of cutaneous (CL) and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis (MCL) in La Fe University Hospital, Valencia, Spain. The particular focus was on diagnosis techniques and clinical differences according to the immunological status of the patients. METHODS: An eleven-year retrospective observational study of CL and MCL episodes at the hospital was performed. Epidemiological, clinical and therapeutic variables of each case, together with the microbiological and anatomopathological diagnosis, were analyzed. RESULTS: A total of 42 patients were included, 30 of them were male and 28 were immunocompetent. Most of the cases (36/42) were diagnosed in the last 5 years (2013-2017). The incidence of CL and MCL increased from 3.6/100,000 (2006-2012) to 13.58/100,000 (2013-2017). The majority of the patients (37/42) exhibited CL, in 30 cases as single lesions (30/37). Ulcerative lesions were more common in immunosuppressed patients (13/14) than in immunocompetent patients (20/28), (P = 0.2302). The length of lesion presence before diagnosis was 7.36 ± 6.72 months in immunocompetent patients and 8.79 ± 6.9 months in immunosuppressed patients (P = 0.1863). Leishmania DNA detection (92.3%) was the most sensitive diagnostic technique followed by Giemsa stain (65%) and histopathological examination (53.8%). Twelve patients (12/42) had close contact with dogs or were living near to kennels, and 10 of them did not present underlying conditions. Intralesional glucantime (21/42) and liposomal amphotericin B (7/42) were the most common treatments administered in monotherapy. All patients evolved successfully and no relapse was reported. CONCLUSIONS: Some interesting clinical and epidemiological differences were found in our series between immunocompetent and immunosuppressed patients. Future studies can take these results further especially by studying patients with biological therapy. Skin biopsies combining NAAT with histological techniques are the most productive techniques for CL or MCL diagnosis.


Assuntos
Leishmania/efeitos dos fármacos , Leishmaniose Cutânea , Leishmaniose Mucocutânea , Administração Cutânea , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Anfotericina B/administração & dosagem , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido , Leishmania/isolamento & purificação , Leishmaniose Cutânea/diagnóstico , Leishmaniose Cutânea/tratamento farmacológico , Leishmaniose Cutânea/imunologia , Leishmaniose Cutânea/patologia , Leishmaniose Mucocutânea/diagnóstico , Leishmaniose Mucocutânea/tratamento farmacológico , Leishmaniose Mucocutânea/imunologia , Leishmaniose Mucocutânea/patologia , Masculino , Antimoniato de Meglumina/administração & dosagem , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Espanha/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
7.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(1): e0007981, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31961871

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Molecular diagnostic tests, notably polymerase chain reaction (PCR), are highly sensitive test for Leishmania detection, which is especially relevant in chronic cutaneous lesion with lower parasite load. An accurate diagnosis is essential because of the high toxicity of the medications for the disease. Nevertheless, diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is hampered by the absence of a reference standard. Assuming that the PCR-based molecular tools are the most accurate diagnostic method, the objective of this systematic review was to assess the diagnostic accuracy of PCR-based molecular tools in a meta-analysis of the published literature. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A search of the published literature found 142 papers of which only 13 studies met the selection criteria, including conventional PCR, real-time PCR, Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP), recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA), polymorphism-specific PCR (PS-PCR). The sensitivities of the individual studies ranged from 61% to 100%, and specificities ranged from 11% to 100%. The pooled sensitivities of PCR in smears were 0.95 (95% CI, 0.90 to 0.98), and the specificity was 0.91(95% CI, 0.70 to 0.98). In general population, estimates were lower in aspirates, skin biopsies and swab samples with 0.90 (95% CI, 0.80 to 0.95) and 0.87 (95% CI, 0.76 to 0.94) for sensitivity and specificity, respectively. The specificity was lower in consecutive studies, at 0.88 (95% CI, 0.59 to 0.98) and its CI were wider. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: No statistically significant differences between the accuracy in smears, aspirate, skin biopsies or swabs samples were observed. Therefore, a simple smear sample run by PCR, instead more invasive samples, may be enough to obtain a positive diagnosis of CL. The results for PCR in all samples type confirm previous reports that consider PCR as the most accurate method for the diagnosis of CL.


Assuntos
Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina/métodos , Leishmania/isolamento & purificação , Leishmaniose Cutânea/diagnóstico , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/métodos , Biópsia , Humanos , Leishmania/classificação , Leishmania/genética , Leishmaniose Cutânea/epidemiologia , Leishmaniose Cutânea/parasitologia , Leishmaniose Cutânea/patologia , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Pele/parasitologia
8.
Equine Vet J ; 52(1): 28-33, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31498914

RESUMO

Infection of equids by Leishmania (L.) parasites was previously described in both the Old and New World, particularly in Central and South America. Equine cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is caused by the Leishmania species, L. Viannia (V.) braziliensis and L. infantum, previously identified in humans and other parasite hosts living in the same geographic endemic areas. Sporadic autochthonous clinical cases, with no travel history, were documented in several countries including Germany, Portugal, Spain, Texas and Brazil; L. infantum and L. (Mundinia) martiniquensis were the infectious species. Prevalence of subclinical infections is extremely low and CL is observed in only a small proportion of infected animals with the appearance of single or multiple cutaneous lesions located on the head, external ear, scrotum, legs and the neck. To date, there has been no report of visceral abnormalities. However, the mild clinical profile of the disease and its spontaneous regression may indicate that skin lesions related to Leishmania infection is underdiagnosed. Importantly, although the prevalence of Leishmania infections in the equine population is low, a risk may rise from its potential involvement in the parasite transmission cycles as a source of infection for phlebotomine vectors and susceptible mammalian hosts. This review article summarises our current knowledge of the epidemiology, clinical presentation and diagnosis of Leishmania-infected equids.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Cavalos/parasitologia , Leishmania/isolamento & purificação , Leishmaniose/veterinária , Animais , Doenças dos Cavalos/epidemiologia , Cavalos , Leishmaniose/epidemiologia , Prevalência
9.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 13(12): e0007900, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31830038

RESUMO

Whole genome sequencing (WGS) is increasingly used for molecular diagnosis and epidemiology of infectious diseases. Current Leishmania genomic studies rely on DNA extracted from cultured parasites, which might introduce sampling and biological biases into the subsequent analyses. Up to now, direct analysis of Leishmania genome in clinical samples is hampered by high levels of human DNA and large variation in parasite load in clinical samples. Here, we present a method, based on target enrichment of Leishmania donovani DNA with Agilent SureSelect technology, that allows the analysis of Leishmania genomes directly in clinical samples. We validated our protocol with a set of artificially mixed samples, followed by the analysis of 63 clinical samples (bone marrow or spleen aspirates) from visceral leishmaniasis patients in Nepal. We were able to identify genotypes using a set of diagnostic SNPs in almost all of these samples (97%) and access comprehensive genome-wide information in most (83%). This allowed us to perform phylogenomic analysis, assess chromosome copy number and identify large copy number variants (CNVs). Pairwise comparisons between the parasite genomes in clinical samples and derived in vitro cultured promastigotes showed a lower aneuploidy in amastigotes as well as genomic differences, suggesting polyclonal infections in patients. Altogether our results underline the need for sequencing parasite genomes directly in the host samples.


Assuntos
Genótipo , Leishmania/classificação , Leishmania/genética , Leishmaniose Visceral/parasitologia , Manejo de Espécimes/métodos , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma/métodos , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , DNA de Protozoário/química , DNA de Protozoário/genética , Humanos , Lactente , Leishmania/isolamento & purificação , Nepal
10.
Rev Soc Bras Med Trop ; 53: e20190320, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31859954

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: This study aimed to investigate human exposure to Leishmania spp. infection and sandflies in an area endemic for the disease. METHODS: The presence of antibodies specific for Leishmania spp. and saliva of Lutzomyia spp. and that of L. infantum DNA in blood were evaluated. RESULTS: Antibodies against Leishmania spp. and sandfly saliva were observed in 20.8% and 37.7% of individuals, respectively. DNA of Leishmania spp. was amplified from the blood of one patient. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that Leishmania spp. infection may be underdiagnosed in this area.


Assuntos
Insetos Vetores/parasitologia , Leishmania/isolamento & purificação , Leishmaniose Visceral/transmissão , Psychodidae/parasitologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Brasil , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Humanos , Leishmania/genética , Leishmania/imunologia , Leishmaniose Visceral/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Adulto Jovem
11.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 13(11): e0007748, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31730650

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We identified the species of Leishmania isolated from traveling and migrant patients attended in a reference center from 2000 to 2015, we performed the georeferencing of these species in Rio de Janeiro (RJ) state and we had knowledge about the human flows between the likely location of infection (LLI) and place of residence (PR) in RJ state, Brazil. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This is a retrospective cross-sectional study including 171 patients diagnosed with ATL. Google Maps, OpenStreetMap, and Bing Maps were tools used to georeference LLI and PR. For etiological identification, we used isoenzyme electrophoresis, polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (molecular target hsp70C with restriction enzymes HaeIII and BstUI), and sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer of ribosomal DNA. ARCGIS software was used to create maps of the geographic distribution of Leishmania species in the state and municipality of RJ, together with flows between the LLI and PR. Isolates from 104 patients were identified as: L. (Viannia) braziliensis (80.8%), L. (V.) naiffi (7.7%), L. (V.) guyanensis (6.7%), L. (Leishmania) amazonensis (1%), and genetic variants of L. (V.) braziliensis (3.8%). The flow maps showed that the LLI included 4 countries, 19 Brazilian states, and 18 municipalities of RJ state. The Brazilian states with the highest density of cases were Amazonas (n = 32), Bahia (n = 18), and Ceará (n = 15). CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This work is the first contribution to the knowledge of the routes of Leishmania species introduced in RJ state by migrants and travelers patients. L. (V.) braziliensis, L. (V.) guyanensis, L. (V.) naiffi, L. (L.) amazonensis, and genetic variants of L. (V.) braziliensis were identified in RJ state. To determine whether the autochthonous transmission of these imported species is possible it is necessary the adaptation of these species to environmental conditions as well as the presence of reservoirs and phlebotomine vectors in this region.


Assuntos
Leishmania/classificação , Leishmania/isolamento & purificação , Leishmaniose/epidemiologia , Leishmaniose/parasitologia , Migrantes , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , DNA de Protozoário/genética , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Leishmania/genética , Leishmaniose/diagnóstico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Filogenia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Polimorfismo de Fragmento de Restrição , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
12.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 28(4): 574-581, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31596317

RESUMO

Leishmaniases are a group of diseases of zoonotic importance caused by over 20 species of protozoa of the genus Leishmania, in which domestic dogs are considered to be the main reservoir for the disease. However, the involvement of other vertebrates as reservoirs for these parasites has also been investigated. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to carry out a systematic review with meta-analysis on occurrences of leishmaniasis in equids. The case reports described animals with cutaneous symptoms of leishmaniasis (papules, nodules, ulcers or crusts) that regressed spontaneously, located mainly on the head and limbs, from which three species of protozoa were identified in the lesions: Leishmania braziliensis, Leishmania infantum and Leishmania siamensis. In turn, the meta-analysis showed a combined prevalence of 25%, although with high heterogeneity among the studies, which was attributed to the use of different methods for diagnosing the disease. Leishmaniasis in equids is a benign disease but it should be included in the differential diagnosis of cutaneous diseases among these species. Seroepidemiological studies are important in investigating and monitoring suspected exposure of these hosts to the parasite, especially in endemic areas. However, there is also a need to standardize diagnostic methods.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Cavalos/parasitologia , Cavalos/parasitologia , Leishmania/isolamento & purificação , Leishmaniose/veterinária , Animais , Reservatórios de Doenças , Leishmania/classificação
13.
Exp Parasitol ; 207: 107773, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31605671

RESUMO

Studies of the primers that were designed to detect New World Leishmania were systematically reviewed to report the characteristics of each target, detection limit, specificity of the primers designed and diagnostic sensibility. The papers identified in the databases PubMed and Web of Science involved 50 studies. Minicircle is the most applied target in molecular research for diagnosis, due to its high sensitivity in detecting Leishmania in different clinical samples, a characteristic that can be partially attributed to the higher number of copies of the minicircle per cell. The other molecular targets shown in this review were less sensitive to diagnostic use because of the lower number of copies of the target gene per cell, but more specific for identification of the subgenus and/or species. The choice of the best target is an important step towards the result of the research. The target allows the design of primers that are specific to the genus, subgenus or a particular species and also imparts sensitivity to the method for diagnosis. The findings of this systematic review provide the advantages and disadvantages of the main molecular targets and primers designed for New World Leishmania, offering information so that the researcher can choose the PCR system best suited to their research need. This is a timely and extremely thorough review of the primers designed for New World Leishmania.


Assuntos
Primers do DNA/análise , DNA de Protozoário/análise , Leishmania/genética , Leishmaniose Cutânea/parasitologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos , Humanos , Leishmania/isolamento & purificação , Limite de Detecção , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
14.
Braz J Med Biol Res ; 52(9): e8224, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31482975

RESUMO

Leishmaniasis is a neglected disease that affects a large part of the world population. Knowing the sand fly fauna of a region is of fundamental importance for guiding health surveillance actions related to the prevention and control of leishmaniasis. A total of 86 specimens of sand flies (60 females and 26 males) were collected. Using the classification proposed by Galati (2003), the following species were identified: Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912), Migonemyia migonei (França, 1920), Evandromyia cortelezzi (Brethes, 1923), Ev. sallesi (Galvão & Coutinho, 1939), Nyssomyia whitmani (Atunes & Coutinho, 1939), Psathyromyia lutziana (Costa Lima, 1932), Ev. lenti (Mangabeira, 1938), Brumptomyia sp. (França and Parrot, 1921), and Pressatia sp. (Mangabeira, 1942). Using PCR with internal transcribed spacer target to identify infected sand flies, five Lu. longipalpis females were infected with Leishmania spp. Despite the small number of specimens collected, considerable species diversity was found in the study area.


Assuntos
Insetos Vetores/classificação , Insetos Vetores/parasitologia , Leishmania/isolamento & purificação , Psychodidae/classificação , Psychodidae/parasitologia , Animais , Brasil , DNA Espaçador Ribossômico/genética , Feminino , Leishmania/genética , Leishmaniose/transmissão , Masculino , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , RNA de Protozoário/genética
15.
Acta Trop ; 199: 105101, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31361989

RESUMO

Leishmaniasis is a disease caused by Leishmania parasites transmitted by phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae). Human infections with different Leishmania species cause characteristic clinical manifestations; cutaneous or visceral leishmaniasis. Here we describe the development and application of a Miseq Next GenerationSequencing (NGS)-based Multi Detection Assay (MDA) designed to characterize metagenomics parameters pertinent to the sand fly vectors which may affect their vectorial capacity for Leishmania. For this purpose, we developed a MDA by which, DNA fragments were amplified through polymerase chain reactions (PCR) and then sequenced by MiSeq/NGS. PCR amplification was achieved using some published and some new primers designed specifically for identifying Leishmania spp. (ITS1), sand fly spp. (cytochrome oxidase I), vertebrate blood (Cytochrome b), plant DNA ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase large subunit gene (rbcL), and prokaryotic micobiome (16 s rRNA). This MDA/NGS analysis was performed on two species of wild-caught sand flies that transmit different Leishmania spp. in two ecologically distinct, but geographically neighboring locations. The results were analyzed to identify, quantitate and correlate the measured parameters in order to assess their putative importance in the transmission dynamics of leishmaniasis.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Insetos Vetores/parasitologia , Leishmania/isolamento & purificação , Phlebotomus/parasitologia , Animais , Feminino , Humanos , Leishmania/genética , Leishmaniose/transmissão
16.
Res Vet Sci ; 125: 205-211, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31260840

RESUMO

The factors associated with Leishmania spp. infection in dogs are still poorly understood. This study aimed to identify such factors among domestic dogs from the Brazilian municipality of Rondonópolis, which recently emerged as an endemic area with intense transmission of human visceral leishmaniasis (VL). It was a household-based cross-sectional study conducted between 2016 and 2017. Interviews were conducted with 405 dog owners considering their socioeconomic characteristics, and environmental aspects of the household and its adjacent areas. In addition, 600 dogs were evaluated regarding physical characteristics, behavior, and care provided by the owner. Seropositive animals were those that showed reactivity in a rapid immunochromatographic test and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, which are currently recommended for canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) diagnosis in Brazil. A multivariable logistic regression analysis was employed to determine the associated factors. Low social class [OR = 2.0; 95%CI = (1.2-3.2)], presence of acerola tree (Malpighia emarginata) in the yard [OR = 2.2; 95%CI = (1.2-4.1)], presence of more than one dog in the household [OR = 2.0; 95%CI = (1.3-3.3)], horse and/or cattle breeding [OR = 12.0; 95%CI = (1.9-73.6)], existence of houses with yard adjacent to the home [OR = 4.0; 95%CI = (1.3-12.2)], presence of apparent signs consistent with CVL [OR = 10.6; 95%CI = (5.8-19.4)], dog staying mostly in the yard during the day [(OR = 4.8; 95%CI = (1.1-21.4)], and lack of cleaning of the dog's shelter [(OR = 1.9; 95%CI = (1.1-3.2)] were identified as the factors associated with Leishmania spp. infection. These results support the importance of socioeconomic and environmental aspects in the occurrence of Leishmania spp. infection. In addition, they may be useful in guiding control strategies in areas where zoonotic VL is endemic.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Leishmania/isolamento & purificação , Leishmaniose Visceral/veterinária , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Cães , Doenças Endêmicas , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/veterinária , Humanos , Leishmaniose Visceral/epidemiologia , Leishmaniose Visceral/parasitologia , Propriedade , Fatores Socioeconômicos
17.
J Vet Diagn Invest ; 31(5): 726-731, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31272298

RESUMO

A 5-y-old male Poodle mix was presented with intermittent vomiting, anorexia, and weight loss. Physical examination revealed emaciation, lethargy, dehydration, hypothermia, respiratory distress, and splenomegaly. Based on clinicopathologic, serologic, and parasitologic findings, diagnoses of severe leishmaniosis and dirofilariasis were made. Extracellular, intraneutrophilic, and intramonocytic Leishmania amastigotes were observed on blood smear and buffy coat smear examination. In blood smears, 0.2% of neutrophils were observed to be infected; in buffy coat smears, 0.5% of neutrophils and 0.1% of monocytes were found to be infected. Leishmania amastigotes were also found engulfed by eosinophils and neutrophil precursors in bone marrow aspiration cytology. The detection of Leishmania amastigotes in blood smears is rare, and the clinical significance is uncertain. In circulating blood, Leishmania amastigotes are primarily found phagocytized by neutrophils. Although debatable, there is growing evidence that neutrophils are used as carriers enabling the "silent entry" of the protozoa into macrophages ("Trojan horse" theory). To date, cytologic screening of blood smears for the diagnosis of canine leishmaniosis is not a routine practice. Clinical pathologists and practitioners should be aware that Leishmania amastigotes may be present in neutrophils and less frequently monocytes during blood smear evaluation; neutrophil precursors and eosinophils may also be parasitized in bone marrow specimens.


Assuntos
Células da Medula Óssea/parasitologia , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Leishmania/isolamento & purificação , Leishmaniose/veterinária , Células Mieloides/parasitologia , Animais , Dirofilariose/complicações , Cães , Leishmaniose/complicações , Leishmaniose/parasitologia , Leishmaniose Visceral , Masculino , Neutrófilos , Baço/patologia
18.
Afr Health Sci ; 19(1): 1329-1337, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31148958

RESUMO

Background: Cutaneous and visceral forms of leishmaniasis are the most important protozoan infection in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA). Objectives: Review the current knowledge on leishmaniasis in the MENA. Methods: The data presented in this review are gathered primarily from WHO reports and from an extensive literature search on PubMed. Results: There are four cycles of transmission of leishmaniasis: zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ZCL), induce by Leishmania (L.) major, transmitted by Phlebotomus (P.) papatasi, with rodent species of Psammomys obesus, Meriones libycus, Nesokia indica, and Rhombomys opimus are considered as host reservoirs. Zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (ZVL) is inducing by L. infantum, transmitted by several Phlebotomus spp. of the sub-genus Larroussius and mainly P. perniciosus in more than one-half of the MENA countries and the dog species of Canis familiaris are considered as the main reservoirs. Anthroponotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL), induce by L. tropica and transmitted by P. sergenti, without any non-human reservoir in most cases. Anthroponotic visceral leishmaniasis (AVL) induces by L. donovani spreads through P. alexandri, circulates exclusively in humans. Conclusion: There are many challenges facing the successful control of leishmaniasis. However, there is continuing research into the treatment of leishmaniasis and potentially vaccinations for the disease.


Assuntos
Leishmania/classificação , Leishmania/isolamento & purificação , Leishmaniose/epidemiologia , África do Norte/epidemiologia , Animais , Reservatórios de Doenças/parasitologia , Cães/parasitologia , Gerbillinae/parasitologia , Humanos , Insetos Vetores/parasitologia , Leishmaniose/transmissão , Leishmaniose Cutânea/epidemiologia , Leishmaniose Cutânea/transmissão , Leishmaniose Visceral/epidemiologia , Leishmaniose Visceral/transmissão , Oriente Médio/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Zoonoses
19.
Acta Trop ; 197: 105058, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31185223

RESUMO

Vector-borne diseases (VBDs) of domestic and wild carnivores are of major public health concern both in industrialized and developing countries, especially in poor socioeconomic settings. War-torn areas specifically suffer from absence of veterinary surveillance of VBDs, resulting in lack of scientific knowledge on this topic. To investigate occurence and prevalence of several vector-borne pathogens (VBPs) in some carnivore species from Iraq, blood samples (n = 397) were obtained from 190 canids [97 stray dogs (Canis familiaris), 55 jackals (Canis aureus) and 38 red foxes (Vulpes vulpes)] and 207 stray cats (Felis catus) collected during a feral animal control and zoonotic disease surveillance program in several United States military bases in Iraq. The presence of Babesia spp., Hepatozoon spp., Ehrlichia spp., Anaplasma spp., Dirofilaria spp. and Leishmania spp. DNA was molecularly investigated. Out of 397 animals tested, 176 (44.3%; 95% CI: 39.5-49.2%) were positive for at least one pathogen with the highest prevalence in foxes (73.7%; 95% CI: 58-85%), followed by jackals (54.5%; 95% CI: 41.5-67%), dogs (38.1%; 29.1-48.1%) and cats (39.1%; 95% CI: 32.7-45.9%). Up to five pathogens were diagnosed in dogs. Hepatozoon canis was the most prevalent VBP in jackals (49.1%; 95% CI: 36.4-61.9%), foxes (47.3%; 95% CI: 32.5-62.7%) and dogs (33%; 95% CI: 24.4-42.8%), whereas Hepatozoon felis was the only species detected in cats (39.1%; 95% CI: 32.7-45.9%). A species of Babesia related to but different from Babesia lengau and designated as Babesia sp. MML was detected in six foxes (15.8%; 95% CI: 7.4-30.4%) and in one jackal (1.8%; 95% CI: 0.3-9.6%). This finding suggested the existence of a new species in the genus Babesia as inferred by molecular and phylogenetical analysis. Further, Babesia vulpes was identified only in two foxes (5.3%; 95% CI: 1.5-17.3%). All samples were negative for Leishmania spp. and Ehrlichia spp. Co-infection with H. canis and Babesia spp. was the most prevalent (5/176, 2.8%, i.e., 4 foxes and 1 jackal), followed by H. canis and Dirofilaria immitis (1/176, 1.3%, i.e., in 1 jackal), H. canis and Dirofilaria repens or Acanthocheilonema reconditum (1/176, 1.3%, i.e., in one dog, each). Data presented fill gaps into knowledge of VBPs in dogs, cats and wild canids in Iraq, indicating that different pathogens circulate amongst animal populations living in the same areas, possibly sharing the same tick vectors. Large-scale surveys are urgently needed to further assess VBPs distribution in Iraq and establish preventative strategies in domestic animals to minimize the risk of infection for animals and humans.


Assuntos
Gatos/parasitologia , Cães/parasitologia , Raposas/parasitologia , Chacais/parasitologia , Anaplasma/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Babesia/isolamento & purificação , Gatos/microbiologia , Vetores de Doenças , Cães/microbiologia , Ehrlichia/isolamento & purificação , Feminino , Raposas/microbiologia , Iraque/epidemiologia , Chacais/microbiologia , Leishmania/isolamento & purificação , Masculino , Prevalência
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