Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 1.741
Filtrar
1.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e238665, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33787717

RESUMO

Malakand region is an endemic area for cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). However, there are limited number of studies of this disease in Pakistan. Therefore, a study was conducted to understand the level of awareness attitude and practice among the residents of Makaland towards CL and the disease vectors. This study adopted a cross-sectional approach with a total of 400 respondents (n=93 rural and n= 307 urban). Overall, the population in Malakand region (61.2%) were well-informed in the role of sand fly in transmitting diseases, but most lack knowledge on the vector's behavior and almost a quarter (24.5%) were unable to provide knowledge on proper control measures. Alarmingly, the practice and attitudes of the general population was not satisfactory as close to half (49.8%) of the population did adopt any control method. This study calls for increase in awareness through health education campaign to reduce the risk of cutaneous leishmaniasis outbreaks in the future.


Assuntos
Leishmaniose Cutânea , Psychodidae , Animais , Estudos Transversais , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Leishmaniose Cutânea/epidemiologia , Paquistão/epidemiologia , População Rural , População Urbana
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33503150

RESUMO

American Tegumentary Leishmaniasis (ATL) is endemic in the municipality of Montes Claros, Minas Gerais State. The use of geotechnology such as spatial statistics and remote sensing has contributed to a better understanding of the eco-epidemiology of diseases, and consequently a better definition of control strategies. This study aimed to analyze the spatial distribution of probable sites of cases of ATL infection (2007-2011) in the municipality of Montes Claros and to identify related socio-environmental factors. Data on ATL cases notification were obtained from the Municipal Health Department of Montes Claros. The annual incidence of ATL in the municipality was calculated and the probable sites of infection were georeferenced. Crude Rate and the Local Empirical Bayesian Rate were calculated with census sectors considered as the unit of analysis. The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) was calculated from LANDSAT 5 TM images. The spatial association between the crude rate of ATL and the NDVI of the census tracts was evaluated using the Local Bivariate of Moran I. The socio-environmental aspects of household structures were assessed based on a structured questionnaire. The incidence of ATL in the evaluated period ranged from 6.2 to 16.6 cases/100,000 inhabitants. The highest rates of ATL occurrence were found in the census sectors located in the rural area and in the peripheral census sectors in the city. Through the Empirical Bayes Smoothed Rate map, it was found that in the peripheral areas of the city, the rates of ATL occurrence were lower than in the rural area and their values decreased as they approach the city center. Local Bivariate of Moran I showed a positive correlation between NDVI and crude ATL rates, with significant high-high clusters observed in the rural area and in the census sectors in the Western peripheral area of the city that have experienced an urban expansion concomitant to the period investigated. In most homes of people affected by the disease, there were domestic animals and organic matter in the peridomicile. In addition, a high percentage of individuals affected by ATL reported the presence of rodents circulating near their homes. In conclusion, it is possible that the disorderly expansion process in the city of Montes Claros favored the establishment of the ATL periurban and urban transmission cycle. These regions deserve special attention from health surveillance to combat this zoonosis.


Assuntos
Leishmania/isolamento & purificação , Leishmaniose Cutânea/epidemiologia , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , Brasil/epidemiologia , Cidades/epidemiologia , Saúde Ambiental , Incidência , Leishmania/genética , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Análise Espacial
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33374115

RESUMO

Illegal waste disposal represents a risk health factor for vector-borne diseases by providing shelter for rodents and their ectoparasites. The presence of the Phlebotomus papatasi vector of Leishmania major, an etiologic agent of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ZCL), was assessed at illegal waste sites located at the vicinity of villages in endemic areas of Central Tunisia. The study was performed over a two-year period over three nights from July to September 2017, and over three nights in September 2018. Household waste is deposited illegally forming dumpsites at the vicinity of each village and contains several rodent burrows of Psammomys obesus, the main reservoir host of L. major. Sandflies were collected from rodent burrows in the natural environment and in dumpsites using sticky traps and were identified at species level. Female sandflies were tested for the presence of L. major by PCR. Our entomological survey showed that Phlebotomus papatasi is the most abundant sandfly species associated with rodent burrows in these waste sites. The densities of P. papatasi in dumpsites are significantly higher compared to the natural environment. The minimum infection rate of P. papatasi with L. major in these illegal waste sites is not significantly different compared to the natural environment. Considering the short flight range of P. papatasi, increases in its densities, associated with burrows of P. obesus in illegal waste sites located at the edge of villages, expands the overlap of infected ZCL vectors with communities. Thus, illegal waste sites pose a high risk of spreading ZCL to neighboring home ranges. Waste management is an environmentally friendly method of controlling sandfly populations and should be included in an integrated management program for controlling ZCL in endemic countries.


Assuntos
Leishmaniose Cutânea/transmissão , Phlebotomus/parasitologia , Instalações de Eliminação de Resíduos , Animais , Feminino , Gerbillinae , Leishmania major , Leishmaniose Cutânea/epidemiologia , Masculino , Tunísia/epidemiologia
4.
Rev Soc Bras Med Trop ; 53: e20200255, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33331607

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In the Belém Metropolitan Region (BMR), Pará State, Brazil, American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) is endemic; however, very little is known regarding its causative agents. Therefore, we used our standard diagnostic approach combined with an RNA polymerase II largest subunit (RNAPOIILS)-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) followed by analysis of restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) to identify Leishmania spp. ACL agents in this region. METHODS: Thirty-two Leishmania spp. isolates from patients with ACL in the BMR during 1995-2018 were analyzed. Leishmania spp. DNA samples were amplified using the primers RPOR2/RPOF2, and the 615-bp PCR products were subjected to enzymatic digestion using TspRI and HgaI endonucleases. RESULTS: ACL etiological agents in the BMR comprised Leishmania (Viannia) lindenbergi (43.7%) followed by Leishmania (Viannia) lainsoni (34.4%), Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis (12.5%), and Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis (9.4%). CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, the results of the study revealed for the first time that L. (V.) lindenbergi and L. (V.) lainsoni are the main ACL agents in BMR.


Assuntos
Leishmania braziliensis , Leishmania , Leishmaniose Cutânea , Brasil/epidemiologia , Humanos , Leishmania/genética , Leishmania braziliensis/genética , Leishmaniose Cutânea/diagnóstico , Leishmaniose Cutânea/epidemiologia , Polimorfismo de Fragmento de Restrição , Estados Unidos
5.
Rev Soc Bras Med Trop ; 53: e20200006, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33111906

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: We diagnose cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) among indigenous peoples of the state of Roraima, Brazil, and discuss some aspects of its epidemiology. METHODS: Skin imprints, and lesion exudate samples collected on filter paper were examined using parasitological and molecular techniques, respectively. RESULTS: Of 30 indigenous individuals, representing several ethnic groups, with suspected cases of CL, 27 (90%) tested positive for Leishmania spp. by PCR, and 21 (70%) by parasitological microscopy. CONCLUSIONS: Cutaneous leishmaniasis is indistinctly present among indigenous peoples from different regions of the state of Roraima. Individuals from seven of the ten existing ethnic groups in the state tested positive for CL, demonstrating the need for further investigation of the disease among these ethnic groups.


Assuntos
Leishmania , Leishmaniose Cutânea , Adolescente , Adulto , Brasil/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Povos Indígenas , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Leishmania/genética , Leishmaniose Cutânea/diagnóstico , Leishmaniose Cutânea/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Adulto Jovem
6.
Ann Parasitol ; 66(3): 339-346, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33128516

RESUMO

Cutaneous leishmaniosis (CL) is mainly caused by Leishmania major (rural-type) and Leishmania tropica (urban-type). CL is a major health problem in many regions of the world, and it is associated with health complications and economic loss. The identification and differentiation of Leishmania species are critical because the prevention and control methods, as well as management and therapeutic strategies, are different for each type of CL. The present study aimed to identify the parasite species responsible for CL in the study area using ITS1 and HSP70- based PCR-RFLP methods. A total of 147 stained slides were prepared from samples collected from CL patients, and these slides were positive for amastigotes of Leishmania species on microscopic examination. Forty-three Giemsastained slides with 2+ to 4+ grades were selected for molecular studies for the identification of the Leishmania species. DNA was extracted from the selected slides for the molecular studies. The amplification of HSP70 and ITS1 genes was performed by the PCR method. The PCR products were digested with the HaeIII restriction enzyme, and banding patterns of all samples were compared with reference strains. Overall, patterns of all the samples were found to correspond to the reference strains of L. major based on RFLP-PCR targeting HSP70 and ITS1 genes of the parasite, demonstrating the dominance of L. major as the causative agent of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniosis (zCL) in the study area. This area is endemic for zoonotic CL, and further studies are required to determine the reservoir and natural infection of sand flies in this county.


Assuntos
Leishmania tropica , Leishmaniose Cutânea , Animais , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Leishmania tropica/genética , Leishmaniose Cutânea/epidemiologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Polimorfismo de Fragmento de Restrição
7.
Ann Parasitol ; (3): 415-418, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33128868

RESUMO

Cutaneous leishmaniosis (CL) transmitted by the bite of infected female phlebotomine sand flies endemic in many parts of rural and urban areas of Kashan, central Iran. Rare systemic allergic reactions, including anaphylaxis can occur in response to the bites of mosquitoes. In 2019, the patient was a 20-yr-old woman referring to the Health Care Centre in Kashan, central Iran, and complaint of symptoms allergic. After receiving anti-allergic drug therapy a month, skin lesions appeared on her forehead, forearm, and right arm. The disease was diagnosed with positive CL by direct smear. Her lesion treated with systemic meglumine antimonate (Glucantime®) (1.5 g/5ml/week) for seven-week. In conclusion, CL, as a public health problem, especially for travellers and patients with allergies to insect bites, is the most common in endemic areas. It guides us to consider the control programs of this disease, and much attention should be given to improve the environmental conditions for vector-borne control and public health education for personal protection.


Assuntos
Hipersensibilidade , Leishmaniose Cutânea , Psychodidae , Animais , Feminino , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Leishmaniose Cutânea/tratamento farmacológico , Leishmaniose Cutânea/epidemiologia , Mosquitos Vetores
8.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 645, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32873242

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: During the outbreak of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the Kurdistan Region of Iraq that started in 2015, the course of the disease and the treatment were not consistent with the available literature. Physicians, particularly dermatologists, faced challenges with treating the cutaneous leishmaniasis lesions with high rates of treatment failure and resistance to treatment. We used Q-methodology to understand the range and diversities of opinions and the practical experiences of dermatologists about the treatment difficulties of cutaneous leishmaniasis. METHODS: This Q-methodology study was carried out in Erbil, Kurdistan Region of Iraq, and involved 37 dermatologists. A set of 40 statements related to different aspects of difficulties and uncertainties of treating cutaneous leishmaniasis was prepared. The dermatologists were requested to distribute the 40 statements into a scaled grid of nine piles from least agree to most agree. We applied by-person factor analysis using PQMethod 2.35 for the data analysis. RESULTS: The analysis revealed two different viewpoints about the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis and a consensus viewpoint. The first viewpoint emphasized the use of sodium stibogluconate-based combination therapy, concerns with treatment failure, and lack of compliance with the treatment. The second viewpoint emphasized the lack of standard treatment and advances in the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis. There was a consensus between both groups of respondents about many aspects of the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis, including considering sodium stibogluconate the first drug of choice for cutaneous leishmaniasis treatment. CONCLUSIONS: This study revealed a diversity of viewpoints and uncertainties about the effectiveness of the available treatment modalities and treatment difficulties and failure. Interrupted supply and poor quality of the available drugs and lack of a standard and advanced treatment are the main problems facing the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis. More research is required to determine the best treatment modalities for the different types of cutaneous leishmaniasis. There is a need for the development of treatment guidelines specific to the Iraqi context with a particular focus on the treatment of the resistant and atypical cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis.


Assuntos
Gluconato de Antimônio e Sódio/uso terapêutico , Atitude , Consenso , Dermatologistas/psicologia , Leishmania , Leishmaniose Cutânea/tratamento farmacológico , Leishmaniose Cutânea/epidemiologia , Adulto , Terapia Combinada , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Iraque/epidemiologia , Leishmaniose Cutânea/parasitologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Falha de Tratamento
9.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(40): 25159-25168, 2020 10 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32958676

RESUMO

The tropical Andes are an important natural laboratory to understand speciation in many taxa. Here we examined the evolutionary history of parasites of the Leishmania braziliensis species complex based on whole-genome sequencing of 67 isolates from 47 localities in Peru. We first show the origin of Andean Leishmania as a clade of near-clonal lineages that diverged from admixed Amazonian ancestors, accompanied by a significant reduction in genome diversity and large structural variations implicated in host-parasite interactions. Within the Andean species, patterns of population structure were strongly associated with biogeographical origin. Molecular clock and ecological niche modeling suggested that the history of diversification of the Andean lineages is limited to the Late Pleistocene and intimately associated with habitat contractions driven by climate change. These results suggest that changes in forestation over the past 150,000 y have influenced speciation and diversity of these Neotropical parasites. Second, genome-scale analyses provided evidence of meiotic-like recombination between Andean and Amazonian Leishmania species, resulting in full-genome hybrids. The mitochondrial genome of these hybrids consisted of homogeneous uniparental maxicircles, but minicircles originated from both parental species. We further show that mitochondrial minicircles-but not maxicircles-show a similar evolutionary pattern to the nuclear genome, suggesting that compatibility between nuclear-encoded mitochondrial genes and minicircle-encoded guide RNA genes is essential to maintain efficient respiration. By comparing full nuclear and mitochondrial genome ancestries, our data expand our appreciation on the genetic consequences of diversification and hybridization in parasitic protozoa.


Assuntos
Genoma Mitocondrial/genética , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita/genética , Leishmania braziliensis/genética , Leishmaniose Cutânea/genética , Ecossistema , Florestas , Especiação Genética , Humanos , Leishmania braziliensis/patogenicidade , Leishmaniose Cutânea/epidemiologia , Leishmaniose Cutânea/parasitologia , Peru/epidemiologia , Filogeografia
10.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 103(5): 1934-1937, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32901597

RESUMO

The period between the infective sandfly bites and appearance of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) lesions is still hypothetical and little studied. This work aimed at assessing the incubation time of zoonotic CL (ZCL) due to Leishmania major using a standardized methodology. The retrospective analysis used the epidemiological, clinical, and biological information available in the database recording all the CL cases diagnosed at the Parasitology Department of the Pasteur Institute of Tunis during 2015-2019. It allowed for the selection of 92 privileged observations 1) of confirmed CL cases with presentation suggestive of ZCL form 2) living in northern regions free of ZCL 3) with a single infective trip of less than a week to ZCL foci during transmission season and 4) with accurate dates of travel and onset of lesions. Incubation length computed in this population ranged from 1 to 21 weeks, with a median of 5 weeks (interquartile range: 3-8.5 weeks).


Assuntos
Período de Incubação de Doenças Infecciosas , Leishmania major/fisiologia , Leishmaniose Cutânea/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Geografia , Humanos , Lactente , Leishmaniose Cutânea/parasitologia , Leishmaniose Cutânea/transmissão , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tunísia/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem , Zoonoses
11.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(8): e0008507, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32841279

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cutaneous leishmaniasis is one of the most neglected tropical diseases increasing in its public health importance. In Ethiopia over 28 million people are living at risk of infection. METHOD: Institution based cross-sectional study was conducted at Borumeda Hospital from February to May 2019. A total 205 leishmaniasis suspected patients were included by systematic random sampling technique. Socio demographic characteristics were collected using pre-tested questionnaires. Parasitological investigation was done from skin slit sample by using Geimsa staining method. Species identification was done by PCR-RFLP. Data were entered in to EpiData version 3.1 and analyzed using SPSS version 20 software. P-value of ≤ 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. RESULT: A total of 205 participants consisting 59% male and 41% female included in this study. The mean age (±SD) of the study participants was 31.9 (±14.29). The overall prevalence of cutaneous leishmaniasis was 22.4% (46/205). The prevalence in males (13.7%) was higher than in females (8.8%). It was more prevalent in the age group 16-45years old (15.6%). Clinically, 60% of patients' hade single lesion with 1.55 average number of lesions. About 30.7% of patients' had indurated plaque type of lesion. Most of the lesions were found on head and face (59%). House near to farmland, presence of hyrax in the village and presence of other cutaneous leishmaniasis cases in the neighborhood were independent predicator of cutaneous leishmaniasis prevalence. L.aethopica was found to be the etiologic agent of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the study participants. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of cutaneous leishmaniasis was 22.4%, this alerts the need of intervention. It is statistically associated with house near to farm land, presence of other cutaneous leishmaniasis cases in the neighborhood and presence of hyrax in village. Head and face were the most common sites of lesion.


Assuntos
Leishmania/genética , Leishmania/isolamento & purificação , Leishmaniose Cutânea/epidemiologia , Leishmaniose Cutânea/parasitologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , DNA de Protozoário/análise , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Leishmaniose Cutânea/diagnóstico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Polimorfismo de Fragmento de Restrição , Prevalência , Adulto Jovem
12.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(8): e0008550, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32841284

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Leishmanin Skin Test (LST) is considered as a useful indicator of past infection by Leishmania parasites. However, the temporal dynamics of a positive LST under different epidemiologic scenarios and whether it relates to the protection against the recurrence of an overt disease are not fully documented. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We report here on a population based prospective study conducted on 2686 individuals living in two foci located in Central Tunisia, to assess over a one-year epidemiologic season, the incidence of Leishmania (L.) major infection and disease and changes in LST reactivity. The two foci were both endemic for Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (CL) due to L. major, but contrasted in their history for this disease (ie: an old focus versus a recent focus). We found that most infections occurred in the new focus (290/1000; 95% CI: 265-315 person-years) with an incidence rate of CL lesions 2.4 times higher than in the old focus. Likewise, the rates of LST reactivity reversion and loss, in the new focus, were 99/1000[38-116] person-years and 14/1000[8-21] person-years, respectively. Loss of LST reactivity was not noticed in the old focus. Interestingly, the incidence rates of symptomatic infection did not differ significantly according to the LST status at enrolment (negative versus positive) between the combined foci and the new one. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings confirm LST as a good tool for assessing L. major cryptic infection. However, the instability of the LST positivity in new foci should be considered as an important confounder of the outcome of this infection when developing a research protocol for vaccine trial.


Assuntos
Leishmania major/imunologia , Leishmaniose Cutânea/epidemiologia , Leishmaniose Cutânea/imunologia , Testes Cutâneos/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Leishmaniose Cutânea/parasitologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Tunísia/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
13.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(8): e0008380, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32797078

RESUMO

In French Guiana, five species are associated with Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (CL). Though infections with Leishmania guyanensis, L. (V.) braziliensis and L. (L.) amazonensis have been extensively described, there are few available clinical and genetic data on L. (V.) lainsoni and L. (V.) naiffi. We determined the clinical and epidemiological features of all cases of CL due to L. (V.) naiffi and L. (V.) lainsoni diagnosed in French Guiana between 2003 and 2019. Phylogenetic analysis was performed by sequencing a portion of HSP70 and cyt b genes. Five cases of L. naiffi and 25 cases of L. lainsoni were reported. Patients infected by L. (V.) lainsoni were usually infected on gold camps, mostly along the Maroni river (60%), while L. naiffi was observed in French patients infected on the coast (100%). A high number of pediatric cases (n = 5; 20%) was observed for L. (V.) lainsoni. A mild clinical course was observed for all cases of L. (V.) naiffi. HSP70 and cyt b partial nucleotide sequence analysis revealed different geographical clusters within L. (V.) naiffi and L. (V.) lainsoni but no association were found between phylogenetic and clinical features. Our data suggest distinct socio-epidemiological features for these two Leishmania species. Patients seem to get infected with L. (V.) naiffi during leisure activities in anthropized coastal areas, while L. (V.) lainsoni shares common features with L. (V.) guyanensis and braziliensis and seems to be acquired during professional activities in primary forest regions. Phylogenetic analysis has provided information on the intraspecific genetic variability of L. (V.) naiffi and L. (V.) lainsoni and how these genotypes are distributed at the geographic level.


Assuntos
Leishmania/classificação , Leishmaniose Cutânea/tratamento farmacológico , Leishmaniose Cutânea/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Citocromos b/genética , Feminino , Guiana Francesa/epidemiologia , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP70/genética , Humanos , Lactente , Leishmania/genética , Leishmania/patogenicidade , Leishmaniose Cutânea/patologia , Atividades de Lazer , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mineração , Doenças Negligenciadas , Filogenia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Análise de Sequência de DNA
14.
An Bras Dermatol ; 95(5): 641-644, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32768199

RESUMO

Genital lesions are an unusual presentation of American cutaneous leishmaniasis. Conditions such as disseminated cutaneous leishmaniasis and HIV infection may be associated with genital involvement. The authors present five cases of American cutaneous leishmaniasis with genital lesions and discuss the clinical and epidemiological aspects observed in this case series.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Leishmania braziliensis , Leishmaniose Cutânea , Leishmaniose Mucocutânea , Genitália , Humanos , Leishmaniose Cutânea/diagnóstico , Leishmaniose Cutânea/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos
15.
Korean J Parasitol ; 58(3): 229-236, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32615736

RESUMO

Cutaneous leishmaniosis (CL) is the most common form of leishmaniasis.CL caused by L. major and L. tropica is endemic in 17 provinces of Iran. This study was carried out to elucidate situation of CL in Ardabil province and to predict distribution of Phlebotomus papatasi and Phlebotomus sergenti (Diptera: Psychodidae) as vectors of CL in the region. In this cross-sectional study, data on CL patients were collected from local health centers of Ardabil province, Iran during 2006-2018 to establish a geodatabase using ArcGIS10.3. A total of 20 CL cases were selected randomly and skin samples were collected and analyzed by PCR method. MaxEnt 3.3.3 model was used to determine ecologically suitable niches for the main vectors. A total, 309 CL human cases were reported and the highest incidence rate of disease was occurred in Bilasavar (37/100,000) and Germi (35/100,000). A total of 2,794 sand flies were collected during May to October 2018. The environmentally suitable habitats for P. papatasi and P. sergenti were predicted to be present in northern and central areas of Ardabil province. The most variable that contributed ratio in the modeling were Isothermality and slope factors. Ardabil province is possibly an endemic are for CL. The presence of P. papatasi and P. sergenti justifies local transmission while the vectors of CL are existing in the northern and central areas of the province.


Assuntos
Insetos Vetores , Leishmaniose Cutânea/epidemiologia , Phlebotomus , Animais , Estudos Transversais , Ecossistema , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Leishmaniose Cutânea/transmissão , Masculino , Fatores de Tempo
17.
Rev Soc Bras Med Trop ; 53: e20190291, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32491100

RESUMO

Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a zoonotic disease with complex transmission cycle. Some environmental and socioeconomic factors are known to be the major determinants of the transmission process, which are involved in configuring the spatiotemporal patterns and thus can be delimiting. However, the relevance of these socioeconomic and environmental determinants is still not well understood. In this study, we aimed to identify the major environmental and socioeconomic determinants of CL in Brazil by articulating a systematic literature review of studies that are based on this subject. The methodology included a search for studies according to a structured protocol using the scientific platforms, such as Scielo and PubMed. The references of each identified article were who referred to CL determinants were further screened, and so on. We extracted information from 41 articles and the determinants were grouped accordingly. Two measures were evaluated as follows: a) the frequency of citations of the determinants; and b) the proportion of determinants identified as having "significant association in analytical studies" with respect to the total number of determinants analyzed in other analytical studies using the same concept. The analyzed articles covered most of the regions of Brazil and 7 other countries bordering Brazil. We found 43 concepts of determinants. However, the final selection resulted in the identification of 14 major determinants. These results therefore contribute in the identification of major CL determinants and this information can be used to establish strategies for identifying risk prone areas for disease surveillance.


Assuntos
Leishmaniose Cutânea/epidemiologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Meio Ambiente , Humanos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Análise Espacial
18.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 913, 2020 Jun 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32532244

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Leishmaniasis is a notifiable disease in Sri Lanka since 2008. Previous studies show a gap in the notification of leishmaniasis. The purpose of the present study was to determine the Knowledge, attitudes and practice of medical officers regarding leishmaniasis. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in the Anuradhapura district which reported the highest case load of leishmaniasis. Medical officers from public and private health care institutes in the area filled a self-administered questionnaire in the presence of the investigators. RESULTS: One hundred and eighty-eight (188) medical officers completed the questionnaire. Of them, 95.7% were aware of leishmaniasis as a parasitic infection and 84.7% correctly identified Leishmania donovani as the causative organism in Sri Lanka. From the respondents, 181 (96.8%) knew that the vector of leishmaniasis is sand fly. Cutaneous leishmaniasis was reported as the most prevalent form of leishmaniasis in the country by 176 (94.1%). Nearly half of the respondents (98, 54.1%) were aware of the fact that the Anuradhapura district has the highest disease burden. Many of them had the idea that leishmaniasis is an emerging disease (155, 84.3%,) and early diagnosis is important in controlling the disease (163, 89.1%). Although about three fourth (123, 73.7%,) of the participants mentioned that leishmaniasis should be notified at first clinical suspicion, only 74 (42.5%) were aware that it is a legal requirement. Some medical officers (39, 22%) believed that the current notification system in the country is not effective. Unavailability of notification forms (60, 36.8%) heavy workload (85, 50.3%) and inadequate supportive staff (55, 35.1%) were reported as barriers for timely notification. Even though 105 (58.0%) of medical officers had suspected leishmaniasis during the last 8 years period only 35 (19.4%) had notified. CONCLUSIONS: Even though more than 90% of the participants had good theoretical knowledge about leishmaniasis; notification of leishmaniasis is considerably inadequate. This study emphasizes the need for greater efforts to improve the notification of leishmaniasis in Sri Lanka.


Assuntos
Notificação de Doenças , Leishmania donovani , Leishmaniose Cutânea/epidemiologia , Padrões de Prática Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Animais , Estudos Transversais , Vetores de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Leishmaniose Cutânea/prevenção & controle , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Médicos , Prevalência , Psychodidae , Sri Lanka/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
19.
Clin Dermatol ; 38(2): 140-151, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32513395

RESUMO

Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is called "the great imitator," because it can mimic almost all types of dermatoses. This similarity may sometimes lead to misdiagnosis, resulting in inappropriate treatment and morbidities. Atypical forms occur due to the interaction between parasitic factors and the host immune response. Secondary infection or mistreatment of CL can also alter the natural course, resulting in bizarre and misdiagnosed cases. Atypical leishmaniasis should be considered in longstanding and painless lesions that may simulate erysipelas, dermatitis, verruca, herpes zoster, paronychia, and sporotrichosis. Less commonly, sarcoidosis, deep mycosis, basal and squamous cell carcinoma, cutaneous lymphoma, or pseudolymphomalike lesions may need to be considered in the differential diagnosis. A high index of suspicion is required to consider a diagnosis of CL, especially in nonendemic or newly endemic regions. Smear, histopathologic examination, culture, and polymerase chain reaction serve as important tools to differentiate CL from its clinical and histologic look-alikes. CL is discussed from various perspectives, with emphasis on CL and its broad differential diagnosis.


Assuntos
Leishmaniose Cutânea/diagnóstico , Leishmaniose Cutânea/patologia , Pele/patologia , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Erros de Diagnóstico , Técnicas e Procedimentos Diagnósticos , Humanos , Leishmania/genética , Leishmania/isolamento & purificação , Leishmaniose Cutânea/epidemiologia , Leishmaniose Cutânea/parasitologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase
20.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0232829, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32379842

RESUMO

The diagnosis of American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL) still requires the design of more effective tools. Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis is the causal agent of the 90% of Argentinean ATL cases. Considering the current knowledge, an ELISA based crude antigen (CA) for the diagnosis was designed. Ninety-nine subjects diagnosed as ATL, 27 as no-ATL, and 84 donors from non-ATL-endemic areas were included in this study. The current ATL diagnosis was based four techniques, dermal smear microscopic examination (parasitological test), PCR, Leishmanin skin test, and clinical records. We obtained CA extracts from promastigotes and amastigotes from macrophage cultures of different zymodemes of endemic Leishmania species circulating in the study area. Crude antigens from the 'local' main zymodeme of L. (V.) braziliensis showed the highest reactivity against anti-Leishmania antibodies compared to the other included species. The CA of amastigotes of this zymodeme was 3.4 fold more reactive than promastigotes one. Moreover, amastigote-membrane CA (MCA) were 3.6 fold more reactive than the soluble antigens. The MCA-ELISA reached a sensitivity and specificity of 98% (CI = 94.7%-100%) and 63.6% (53.9-73.1), respectively. When anti-Trypanosoma cruzi reactive sera were excluded, the specificity reached 98.4% (94.4-100), while the sensitivity was similar, with a positive predictive value (PV) of 98.6% (94.6-100) and negative PV of 96.3% (91.6-100). The performance of the MCA-ELISA results strongly contribute to the final diagnostic decision, since a non-reactive serological result almost discards the suspected ATL, because of its high negative PV. The developed MCA-ELISA showed a high diagnostic performance, which makes it a good candidate for ATL diagnosis, for seroprevalence studies, or for monitoring treatments efficacy.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Antígenos de Protozoários/imunologia , Membrana Celular/imunologia , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/métodos , Leishmania braziliensis/imunologia , Leishmaniose Cutânea/diagnóstico , Afinidade de Anticorpos , Especificidade de Anticorpos , Argentina/epidemiologia , Doadores de Sangue , Doenças Endêmicas , Humanos , Leishmania braziliensis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Leishmaniose Cutânea/sangue , Leishmaniose Cutânea/epidemiologia , Leishmaniose Cutânea/parasitologia , Leishmaniose Mucocutânea/sangue , Leishmaniose Mucocutânea/diagnóstico , Leishmaniose Mucocutânea/parasitologia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Trypanosoma cruzi/imunologia
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...