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1.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e238383, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34105676

RESUMO

In Brazil, American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL) has become a public health concern due to its high incidence and lethality. This study aimed to analyze the clinical, epidemiological, and laboratory aspects of AVL in a state of Brazil. This descriptive, cross-sectional, retrospective, and quantitative study of notified cases of AVL was carried out in Alagoas between 2008 and 2017 from data obtained from DATASUS/SINAN. Sociodemographic, clinical, and laboratory variables were analyzed. A descriptive analysis was performed using absolute values ​​and valid percentages, using tables and/or graphs. Data processing was performed using Stata 12.0®. Results with P <0.05 were considered statistically significant. During the study period, 352 cases of AVL were reported, of which 6.82% died and 38.92% had met a cure criterion. Male patients were predominant (66.76%). Of the total infected patients, 16.76% had attended only the 1st to the 4th grades, with those most affected aged 1 to 4 years (28.69%). Laboratory diagnostic criteria were most commonly used to confirm the notified cases (76.42%), whereas 51.70% and 8.52% of the cases had positive parasitological and immunofluorescence diagnoses, respectively. Finally, the study showed a higher prevalence of the disease in children, men and in rural residents. Although with low lethality, the expressive frequency of AVL in the State of Alagoas was still verified, since there was an increase in the number of cases during the years of the study.


Assuntos
Leishmaniose Visceral , Brasil/epidemiologia , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Laboratórios , Leishmaniose Visceral/diagnóstico , Leishmaniose Visceral/epidemiologia , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos
2.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 30(2): e022620, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34076050

RESUMO

Efforts to control a zoonotic disease such as visceral leishmaniasis (VL) caused by Leishmania infantum can be successful if they rely on comprehensive data on animal infection. In Bahia state, Brazil, human VL is endemic, yet some areas have no epidemiological data on canine L. infantum infection and canine leishmaniasis (CanL) to date. We aimed to perform an epidemiological study describing the spatial distribution and characterizing canine L. infantum infection in two districts of the municipality of Muritiba, where human cases have occurred. Brazilian official serodiagnostic protocol (ELISA and immunochromatographic tests), PCR and clinical examination were performed in 351 owned dogs. A seroprevalence of 15.7% (55/351) was found, and L. infantum identified in 88.8% (32/36) of PCR tested samples. Spatial distribution of positive dogs indicated infection in both urban and rural districts. There was no association between seropositivity and sex or breed, but dogs older than 2 years were 3.8 times more likely to be seropositive (95% CI 1.57 - 9.18) than younger dogs. Among seropositive dogs, 80% (44/55) had clinical manifestations of CanL: 75% (33/44) presented dermatopathy, 50% (22/44) emaciation, and 29.5% (13/44) ophthalmopathy. This is the first report on canine seroprevalence and natural L. infantum infection in Muritiba, Bahia.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão , Leishmania infantum , Leishmaniose Visceral , Leishmaniose , Animais , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários , Brasil/epidemiologia , Cidades , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Cães , Humanos , Leishmaniose/veterinária , Leishmaniose Visceral/diagnóstico , Leishmaniose Visceral/epidemiologia , Leishmaniose Visceral/veterinária , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
3.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 30(2): e023620, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34076051

RESUMO

Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a zoonosis with a worldwide distribution that has a major impact on public health. The aim of this study was to verify the prevalence of canine infection by Leishmania infantum, the factors associated with the infection and its spatial distribution in the municipality of Mãe D'Água, in the Sertão region of Paraíba State, Northeast Brazil. Blood samples were collected from 150 dogs for diagnosis by the DPP®, ELISA-S7®, ELISA-EIE® and qPCR assays. The prevalence was calculated considering the positivity in at least two tests. SaTScan® was used for spatial analysis. The prevalence of canine infection with Leishmania was 18.6% (28/150), with the rural area being identified as a risk factor (Odds Ratio (OR) = 2.93). The permanence of the dog loose during the night (OR = 0.33) and deworming (OR = 0.30) were identified as protective factors. A risk cluster was formed in the northern region of the urban area. Mãe D'Água showed a pattern of active transmission in the rural area, but VL control measures also need to be carried out in the urban area to prevent human cases and the spread of the disease in the risk zone.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão , Leishmania infantum , Leishmaniose Visceral , Leishmaniose , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Cães , Leishmaniose/veterinária , Leishmaniose Visceral/diagnóstico , Leishmaniose Visceral/epidemiologia , Leishmaniose Visceral/veterinária
4.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 30(2): e027920, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33978119

RESUMO

The present study aimed to evaluate a methodology for active surveillance of visceral leishmaniasis by detecting Leishmania DNA in organs of wild road-killed animals from November 2016 to October 2018 in the North of Paraná, Brazil. The collection points of road-killed wild animals were georeferenced. The animals were autopsied and samples of bone marrow, lymph node, liver, spleen, and ear skin were collected. Genomic DNA was extracted and subjected to PCR for amplification of Leishmania spp. 18S, kinetoplastic DNA (kDNA), HSP70, and ITS1 genes, and DNA sequencing was performed. The primers used for the amplification of kDNA, ITS1, and HSP70 genes presented non-specific results. Of the 66 mammals collected from 24 different municipalities, one Southern Tamandua (Tamandua tetradactyla) presented DNA of Leishmania spp. in lymph nodes by 18S PCR. DNA sequencing confirmed the results of the subgenus, Viannia, identification. We suggest using the methodology showed in the present study in the active and early surveillance of visceral leishmaniasis in a non-endemic area.


Assuntos
Leishmania , Leishmaniose Visceral , Leishmaniose , Animais , Brasil , Leishmania/genética , Leishmaniose/diagnóstico , Leishmaniose/epidemiologia , Leishmaniose/veterinária , Leishmaniose Visceral/diagnóstico , Leishmaniose Visceral/epidemiologia , Leishmaniose Visceral/veterinária , Mamíferos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária
5.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 455, 2021 May 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34011276

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Leishmaniasis is one of the ten most important neglected tropical diseases worldwide. Understanding the distribution of vectors of visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis (VL/CL) is one of the significant strategic frameworks to control leishmaniasis. In this study, the extent of the bioclimatic variability was investigated to recognize a rigorous cartographic of the spatial distribution of VL/CL vectors as risk-maps using ArcGIS modeling system. Moreover, the effect of bioclimatic diversity on the fold change expression of genes possessing vaccine traits (SP15 and LeIF) was evaluated in each bioclimatic region using real-time PCR analysis. METHODS: The Inverse Distance Weighting interpolation method was used to obtain accurate geography map in closely-related distances. Bioclimatic indices were computed and vectors spatial distribution was analyzed in ArcGIS10.3.1 system. Species biodiversity was calculated based on Shannon diversity index using Rv.3.5.3. Expression fold change of SP15 and LeIF genes was evaluated using cDNA synthesis and RT-qPCR analysis. RESULTS: Frequency of Phlebotomus papatasi was predominant in plains areas of Mountainous bioclimate covering the CL hot spots. Mediterranean region was recognized as an important bioclimate harboring prevalent patterns of VL vectors. Semi-arid bioclimate was identified as a major contributing factor to up-regulate salivary-SP15 gene expression (P = 0.0050, P < 0.05). Also, Mediterranean bioclimate had considerable effect on up-regulation of Leishmania-LeIF gene in gravid and semi-gravid P. papatasi population (P = 0.0109, P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The diversity and spatial distribution of CL/VL vectors associated with bioclimatic regionalization obtained in our research provide epidemiological risk maps and establish more effectively control measures against leishmaniasis. Oscillations in gene expression indicate that each gene has its own features, which are profoundly affected by bioclimatic characteristics and physiological status of sand flies. Given the efficacy of species-specific antigens for vaccine production, it is essential to consider bioclimatic factors that have a fundamental role in affecting the regulatory regions of environmentally responsive loci for genes used in vaccine design.


Assuntos
Insetos Vetores/fisiologia , Leishmaniose Cutânea/transmissão , Leishmaniose Visceral/transmissão , Psychodidae/fisiologia , Distribuição Animal/fisiologia , Animais , Biodiversidade , Clima , Ecossistema , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Sistemas de Informação Geográfica , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Leishmaniose Cutânea/epidemiologia , Leishmaniose Visceral/epidemiologia , Masculino
6.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 464, 2021 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34020601

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Leishmaniasis is one of the most neglected tropical diseases in the world and remains endemic in some underdeveloped regions, including western China. The phylogeny and classification of Chinese Leishmania has not been completely clarified to date, especially within the Leishmania (L.) donovani complex, although phylogenetic analyses based on a series of gene markers have been performed. More analytic methods and data are still needed. Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technology can sensitively identify slight intraspecific differences, and it is a powerful tool to seek species-specific markers. This work attempted to identify Chinese Leishmania isolates from diverse geographic regions at the genomic level. Meanwhile, specific markers of the L. donovani complex were also developed by RAPD. METHODS: RAPD was applied to 14 Chinese Leishmania isolates from diverse geographic regions and 3 WHO reference strains. The polymorphic sites of amplification were transformed into a data matrix, based on which genetic similarity was calculated, and a UPGMA dendrogram was constructed to analyse the genetic diversity of these Leishmania isolates. Meanwhile, the specific amplification loci of the L. donovani complex were TA-cloned, sequenced and converted into sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR) markers, which were validated preliminarily in 17 available Leishmania strains in this study and analysed by bioinformatics. RESULTS: The cluster analyses showed that the three Leishmania sp. isolates SC10H2, SD and GL clustered together and apart from others, the strains of the L. donovani complex clearly divided into two clades, and the three isolates Cy, WenChuan and 801 formed a subclade. Three specific SCAR markers of the L. donovani complex, i.e., 1-AD17, 2-A816 and 3-O13, were successfully obtained and validated on 17 available Leishmania strains in this study. Through bioinformatic analyses, Marker 1-AD17 may have more specificity for PCR detection of VL, and Marker 3-O13 has the potential to encode a protein. CONCLUSIONS: The RAPD results verified that the undescribed Leishmania species causing visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in China was a unique clade distinguished from L. donovani and revealed that there was genetic differentiation among Chinese L. donovani. The identification of L. donovani-specific markers may help to provide a foundation for future research attempting to develop new specific diagnostic markers of VL and identify specific gene functions.


Assuntos
Variação Genética , Leishmania donovani/classificação , Leishmania donovani/genética , Leishmaniose Visceral/epidemiologia , Técnica de Amplificação ao Acaso de DNA Polimórfico/métodos , Animais , Sequência de Bases , China/epidemiologia , Análise por Conglomerados , DNA de Protozoário/genética , DNA de Protozoário/isolamento & purificação , Marcadores Genéticos , Humanos , Leishmania donovani/isolamento & purificação , Leishmaniose Visceral/parasitologia , Filogenia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Especificidade da Espécie
7.
Rev Soc Bras Med Trop ; 54: e0795, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33886819

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The association of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is a concern worldwide, and this co-infection is linked to increased lethality. The Northeast is the region that mostly reports cases of VL in Brazil. The knowledge of risk factors associated with VL/HIV co-infection and its impact on lethality is extremely important. METHODS: The present study analyzed the epidemiologic features of cases with VL/HIV co-infection in the state of Pernambuco, Northeast of Brazil, from 2014 to 2018. RESULTS: There were 858 and 11,514 reported cases of VL and HIV infection, respectively. The average incidences of VL and HIV infection were 1.82 and 24.4/100,000 inhabitants, respectively. Of all reported cases of VL, 4.9% (42/858) also had HIV infection. There was an inverse spatial association between VL and HIV infection incidences. The lethality rates of VL, HIV infection, and co-infection were 9.9%, 26.1%, and 16.6%, respectively. Most of the patients were males and lived in urban areas. The cases of VL mostly occurred in children aged below 10 years, whereas the cases of HIV infection and VL/HIV co-infection were primarily observed in adults between 20 years and 39 years old. CONCLUSIONS: We defined the profile and areas with most cases of co-infection and found that the lethality of VL with co-infection increased in the current period. These findings contribute to applying efforts with a greater focus in these identified populations to prevent future deaths.


Assuntos
Coinfecção , Infecções por HIV , Leishmaniose Visceral , Adulto , Brasil/epidemiologia , Criança , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Feminino , HIV , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Leishmaniose Visceral/epidemiologia , Masculino
8.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 30(1): e020320, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33909834

RESUMO

In São Luís, Maranhão, northeastern Brazil, the notification of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) cases intensified in 1982, showing endemic and epidemic patterns. In this city, the Center for Zoonoses Control (CZC) was an organization in charge of the control and prevention of the disease. However, technical and political reasons have led to a significant decline in the periodicity of its activities. Therefore, in this study we evaluated the epidemiological scenario of human visceral leishmaniasis (HVL) and the prevalence of the disease in dogs after the cessation of the CZC activities, covering the period of 2007 to 2016. The seroprevalence of canine leishmaniasis was determined based on clinical and serological profiles. HVL cases were notified using data provided by the Municipal Health Department of São Luís. A seropositivity rate of 45.8% (p = 0.0001) was found among dogs, 54% (p = 0.374) of which were asymptomatic. As for human cases, there were 415 notifications, with an increase in the incidence of the zoonosis observed during the aforementioned period. Thus, it can be inferred that after the control and surveillance activities were curtailed, there was an increase in the number of seropositive animals in circulation, acting as reservoirs of infection for dogs and humans.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão , Leishmaniose Visceral , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Cidades , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/prevenção & controle , Cães , Leishmaniose Visceral/diagnóstico , Leishmaniose Visceral/epidemiologia , Leishmaniose Visceral/prevenção & controle , Leishmaniose Visceral/veterinária , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Zoonoses/epidemiologia
9.
Parasitol Res ; 120(5): 1541-1554, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33825036

RESUMO

Leishmaniasis is a zoonotic disease in humans caused by the bite of a parasite-infected sandfly. The disease, widely referred to as "poor man's disease," affects millions of people worldwide. The clinical manifestation of the disease depends upon the species of the parasite and ranges from physical disfigurement to death if left untreated. Here, we review the past, present, and future of leishmaniasis in detail. The life cycle of Leishmania sp., along with its epidemiology, is discussed, and in addition, the line of therapeutics available for treatment currently is examined. The current status of the disease is critically evaluated, keeping emerging threats like human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) coinfection and post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) into consideration. In summary, the review proposes a dire need for new therapeutics and reassessment of the measures and policies concerning emerging threats. New strategies are essential to achieve the goal of leishmaniasis eradication in the next few decades.


Assuntos
Leishmania donovani/patogenicidade , Leishmaniose Cutânea/epidemiologia , Leishmaniose Cutânea/patologia , Leishmaniose Visceral/epidemiologia , Leishmaniose Visceral/patologia , Animais , Coinfecção/patologia , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/patologia , Humanos , Masculino , Psychodidae/parasitologia , Zoonoses/patologia
10.
Vet J ; 271: 105638, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33840483

RESUMO

Quantitative anti-Leishmania antibody titres are critical in the management of dogs with leishmaniosis, from diagnosis to treatment and follow-up, and there is a paucity of data relating changes in antibody titres to sand fly vector seasonality. This study aimed to evaluate seasonal variations in anti-Leishmania infantum antibody titres in dogs from a hyperendemic area for canine leishmaniosis (CanL). Leishmania infantum-seropositive and clinically healthy dogs (n=65) were sampled in June 2019 (sand fly season) and again in February-March 2020 (non-transmission season) to monitor clinical status and serological titres. There was a reduction in anti-L. infantum antibody titres during the non-transmission season in most dogs (n=36; 55.4%), and 44% of those dogs (n=16/36) became seronegative (i.e. below the cut-off value of 1:80). Given the relevance of serology to epidemiological, preventive and clinical studies related to CanL, seasonal variations in antibody titres are important in areas where phlebotomine vectors have seasonal patterns of activity. Sand fly seasonal period must be considered in the interpretation of annual anti-L. infantum antibody screening test results in asymptomatic dogs, to make clinical decisions about staging, treatment and prevention.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Leishmania infantum/imunologia , Leishmaniose Visceral/veterinária , Estações do Ano , Animais , Vetores de Doenças , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Cães , Feminino , Itália/epidemiologia , Leishmaniose Visceral/diagnóstico , Leishmaniose Visceral/epidemiologia , Masculino , Psychodidae/parasitologia
11.
Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz ; 116: e200571, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33681890

RESUMO

Leishmania infantum chagasi is the causative agent and Lutzomyia longipalpis is the main vector of visceral leishmaniasis in the Americas. We investigated the expression of Leishmania genes within L. longipalpis after artificial infection. mRNAs from genes involved in sugar and amino acid metabolism were upregulated at times of high parasite proliferation inside the insect. mRNAs from genes involved in metacyclogenesis had higher expression in late stages of infection. Other modulated genes of interest were involved in immunomodulation, purine salvage pathway and protein recycling. These data reveal aspects of the adaptation of the parasite to the microenvironment of the vector gut and reflect the preparation for infection in the vertebrate.


Assuntos
Insetos Vetores/parasitologia , Leishmania infantum/genética , Leishmania/isolamento & purificação , Leishmaniose Visceral/transmissão , Psychodidae/parasitologia , Animais , Brasil , Expressão Gênica , Leishmaniose Visceral/epidemiologia , Leishmaniose Visceral/parasitologia , Estágios do Ciclo de Vida , Psychodidae/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa/métodos
12.
Turkiye Parazitol Derg ; 45(1): 11-16, 2021 03 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33685062

RESUMO

Objective: This study aimed to determine the prevalence of canine visceral leishmaniasis by molecular and serological techniques among owned dogs brought to veterinary clinics in the Mugla region of Turkey. Methods: Blood samples were collected from a total of 131 dogs of different breeds and gender that were brought to veterinary clinics between October 2017 and November 2018 in the Mugla region. These blood samples were analysed using immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Results: According to the IFAT results, 49 out of 131 dogs (37.4%) were found to have anti-Leishmania antibodies at a titer of ≥1/64, which was considered as seropositive. On the other hand, PCR results obtained in this study showed that 9 out of 131 dogs (6.87%) were Leishmania spp. positive by RV1/RV2 PCR. Conclusion: The results suggest that there is a need to focus on developing measures to control the disease, fight the vector Phlebotom and initiate disease control programmes for dogs in the Mugla region.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Leishmania/isolamento & purificação , Leishmaniose Visceral/veterinária , Animais , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , DNA de Protozoário/genética , Doenças do Cão/sangue , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Cães , Leishmania/genética , Leishmania/imunologia , Leishmaniose Visceral/sangue , Leishmaniose Visceral/epidemiologia , Leishmaniose Visceral/parasitologia , Prevalência , Turquia/epidemiologia
13.
Acta Trop ; 218: 105906, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33775627

RESUMO

The first step of the diagnostic process of canine leishmaniasis (CanL) is initiated by veterinarians and relies on their assessment of a high number of clinical signs common to other infectious diseases. We investigated herein the relationship between the clinical profile of 64 domestic dogs living in Tunisian endemic areas and their serological immune status with the aim to identify leishmanial serological markers of diagnosis and disease staging. Seven clinical signs were examined and a total clinical score that describes the number (TCS1) and the number plus the intensity of the clinical signs (TCS2) were determined. Laboratory tests consisted of parasitological examination (PE) of Giemsa-stained popliteal lymph node smears, indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT), IgG-, IgG1-, IgG2-Enzyme-Linked-Immunosorbent-Assay (ELISA), and IgG1-, IgG2- Western blotting (WB). Dogs' categorization according to the results of routine diagnostic tests, the TCS1 and TCS2, and the relative IgG1 and IgG2 specific reactivity allowed us to show that active CanL is characterized by an increased reactivity of the IgG2 specific antibodies. Interestingly, the IgG1 levels increased in parallel with the TCS1 and especially with the TCS2, indicating that this isotype is a better marker of dogs' health deterioration. PE & IFAT positive dogs which presented the highest TCS2 and IgG1 reactivity demonstrated significantly more severe weight loss and paleness of the mucosal membranes, suggesting that these signs characterize the latest stages of the disease. WB analysis showed that threeleishmanial polypeptides merit attention and further investigations. The antigens with MWs 32kDa reacting with IgG1 and 37kDa reacting withIgG2 antibodies were found associated with the results of diagnostic tests and late CanL stages, whereas the 24kDa antigen reacting with the IgG2 isotype and associated with low TCS2 seems to be a marker of the early stages.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Leishmania infantum/imunologia , Leishmaniose Visceral/diagnóstico , Leishmaniose Visceral/veterinária , Animais , Formação de Anticorpos , Especificidade de Anticorpos , Western Blotting , Cães , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/veterinária , Feminino , Técnica Indireta de Fluorescência para Anticorpo/veterinária , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Leishmaniose Visceral/epidemiologia , Linfonodos/parasitologia , Masculino , Tunísia/epidemiologia
14.
Rev Soc Bras Med Trop ; 54: e06102020, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33605380

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Visceral leishmaniasis has a broad worldwide distribution and constitutes a public health problem in the Northeast of Brazil. Located in this region is the state of Alagoas, where the disease is endemic in humans and where there has been a significant increase in the number of positive dogs. The objective of this study was to describe the temporal and spatial distribution of the cases of human VL in the state of Alagoas with the aim of identifying transmission risk areas in the period from 2007 to 2018. METHODS: The data available in the National Disease Notification System (SINAN-NET) were used. The Bayesian incidence rate and the Moran's global index were calculated using the Terra View 4.2.2 program, and the maps were created using QGIS2.18.0. RESULTS: From the 102 municipalities, 68.6% (n= 70) had at least one notified case of VL in the years of study. A total of 489 cases were registered, with an average of 40.7 cases per year and an incidence rate of 1.25/100,000 inhabitants. The highest number of confirmed cases (105) occurred in 2018. Male individuals and children between 1-4 years old were the most affected, and 64% of the cases were in rural areas. Spatial dependence was detected in all the intervals except for the first triennium, and clusters were formed in the west of the state. CONCLUSIONS: Alagoas presented an accentuated geographical expansion of VL, and it is necessary to prioritize areas and increase surveillance actions and epidemiological control.


Assuntos
Leishmaniose Visceral , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , Brasil/epidemiologia , Cidades , Cães , Incidência , Leishmaniose Visceral/epidemiologia , Análise Espacial
15.
Acta Trop ; 217: 105855, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33567321

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Natural disasters (NDs) may increase the outbreaks and transmissions of vector-borne diseases such as cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) and visceral leishmaniasis (VL). However, the relationship between leishmaniases and NDs has not yet been clearly established. Here, we systematically reviewed all reported articles in this field to answer whether NDs increase the frequency of leishmaniases. METHODS: All the related articles published during January 2000 till January 2020 were reviewed. Moreover, all NDs and the associated leishmaniases frequencies reports in 17 leishmaniases endemic countries were searched to find any ND-leishmaniases relationship. RESULTS: After the initial screening, 39 articles on ND-leishmaniases were selected and systematically reviewed. These articles showed different frequencies of CL in the endemic areas before and after NDs in some regions of Pakistan and Iran and in case of VL in Brazil, Ethiopia, and Sudan. After thorough deliberation, four studies for CL-ND and five studies for VL-ND relationships were selected for meta-analysis. The results showed increases in the leishmaniases incidences after NDs, although not robustly. CONCLUSION: The lack of a strong leishmaniases-ND relationship could be attributed to the local compilations of such data in scattered regions of the endemic countries. Therefore, currently a substantial knowledge gap on leishmaniases-ND relationship is apparent.


Assuntos
Leishmaniose Cutânea/epidemiologia , Leishmaniose Visceral/epidemiologia , Desastres Naturais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Saúde Global , Humanos , Incidência , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Sudão/epidemiologia
16.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 3537968, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33575327

RESUMO

Sri Lanka reports a large focus of Leishmania donovani-induced cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) with CL as the main clinical entity. Two independent, long existed, and clinicoepidemiologically different transmission foci in the northern region (NR) and southern region (SR) were recently reported. Current project is an extension to this previous study. Clinical diversity within a profile of classical cutaneous leishmaniasis (CCL) in a focus of L. donovani-induced CL is described for the first time. Patients with laboratory confirmed CCL (n = 550) from NF and SF were evaluated. Lesions in both foci were found to have all classical developmental stages (small and large nodules, ulcerating nodules, and ulcers) and other identified changes (multiplication, ulceration, and enlargement). Main difference was in the proportions of lesions progressing in to each different stages, proportions of lesion undergoing the main changes, and in timing of these changes during the course of a lesion. Northern focus reported a smaller proportion of lesions showing enlargement and ulceration, and a longer period of time was also required for these changes when compared to same in southern focus. In northern focus, most lesions remained small and nonulcerating and showed a higher tendency to multiply while most lesions reported in southern focus enlarged and ulcerated rapidly and remained single. Current study also evidenced a wider spectrum in the rate and pattern of progression of a skin lesion and high individual variation which could mask these region-based differences. Parasitic, vector-related, or a host etiology is suggested. Slow progressing nonulcerating infections in North may be the result of a well-adopted parasite strain that coevolved with its host for a long period while inducing only a minimal host response. This could be one among many reasons for previously observed silent expansion in northern focus while southern focus remained more confined and stable over time. Small nonprogressive, nondisturbing lesions can play a major role as silent parasite reservoirs in a community. In addition, the laboratory detection rate declined significantly when lesions multiplied and enlarged indicating the need for early laboratory confirmation. Usefulness of identified features in clinical screening and management needs to be considered.


Assuntos
Leishmania donovani/parasitologia , Leishmaniose Cutânea/patologia , Leishmaniose Cutânea/parasitologia , Leishmaniose Visceral/patologia , Leishmaniose Visceral/parasitologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Leishmaniose Cutânea/epidemiologia , Leishmaniose Visceral/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo , Sri Lanka/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
17.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 30(1): e018620, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33533796

RESUMO

Visceral leishmaniasis is a widely distributed zoonosis and canine infection is an important indicator of risk for the occurrence of the disease in humans. The goal of this analysis was to study the spatial clustering of canine leishmaniasis (CL) in the municipality of Santa Luzia, state of Paraíba. For this, 749 samples of canine plasma were tested using three serological tests. The dog was considered positive if it reacted in two serological tests. The location of the residences was performed with a Global Positioning System receiver (GPS Garmin® eTrex 30), and used to perform georeferencing and spatial analysis. The prevalence of CL was 15.49% and it was observed that most cases of the urban area were concentrated in the Frei Damião neighborhood, on the outskirts of the city, where a high-risk cluster for the occurrence of the disease was formed (p = 0.02; RR = 2.48). No statistically significant cluster was observed in rural areas. CL is widely distributed in the municipality of Santa Luzia in a heterogeneous manner and with a tendency to urbanization. The areas identified with high prevalence and highest risk should be prioritized to maximize the efficiency of the Visceral Leishmaniasis Surveillance and Control Program and minimize the chance of new canine and human cases.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão , Leishmaniose Visceral , Análise Espacial , Animais , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Brasil/epidemiologia , Cidades/epidemiologia , Clima Desértico , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Cães , Leishmaniose Visceral/diagnóstico , Leishmaniose Visceral/epidemiologia , Leishmaniose Visceral/veterinária
18.
Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg ; 115(3): 229-235, 2021 03 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33580952

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In March 2020, India declared a nationwide lockdown to control the spread of coronavirus disease 2019. As a result, control efforts against visceral leishmaniasis (VL) were interrupted. METHODS: Using an established age-structured deterministic VL transmission model, we predicted the impact of a 6- to 24-month programme interruption on the timeline towards achieving the VL elimination target as well as on the increase of VL cases. We also explored the potential impact of a mitigation strategy after the interruption. RESULTS: Delays towards the elimination target are estimated to range between 0 and 9 y. Highly endemic settings where control efforts have been ongoing for 5-8 y are most affected by an interruption, for which we identified a mitigation strategy to be most relevant. However, more importantly, all settings can expect an increase in the number of VL cases. This increase is substantial even for settings with a limited expected delay in achieving the elimination target. CONCLUSIONS: Besides implementing mitigation strategies, it is of great importance to try and keep the duration of the interruption as short as possible to prevent new individuals from becoming infected with VL and continue the efforts towards VL elimination as a public health problem in India.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/organização & administração , Leishmaniose Visceral/epidemiologia , Leishmaniose Visceral/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Doenças Negligenciadas/epidemiologia , Doenças Negligenciadas/prevenção & controle , Pandemias
19.
Vet Immunol Immunopathol ; 233: 110198, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33548792

RESUMO

Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is an important zoonotic vector-borne disease and domestic dogs are considered the main domiciliary and peri-domiciliary reservoir of Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum in South America. Distinct eco-epidemiological scenarios associated to the prevalence of the disease, clusters of parasite genotypes and chemotypes of vectors population are described in Brazil, especially in the state of São Paulo (SP). In this context, the purpose of the present study is to evaluate the clinical signs, histopathological lesions, parasite load and cytokine profile by immunohistochemistry (IHC) in popliteal lymph nodes of canines naturally infected with L. infantum, from different municipalities of the state of SP. Eighty-three dogs with VL, 61 from northwest SP (NWSP) and 22 from southeast SP (SESP), were clinically classified in stage II, with no babesiosis and ehrlichiosis. Subcapsular inflammatory infiltration and histiocytosis were significantly higher in the SESP group (p = 0.0128; 0.0077, respectively). On the other hand, dogs from NWSP revealed 4.6-fold significantly higher parasite burden (p = 0.0004) and higher IHC scores of IL-1ß (p = 0.0275) and IL-4 (p = 0.0327) in the popliteal lymph node tissues, which may be associated with the susceptibility and progression of the disease in these dogs. Differences in immune response profile associated with higher parasite load in dogs can also contribute to explain the distinct eco-epidemiological patterns of VL in specific geographic regions.


Assuntos
Citocinas/imunologia , Doenças do Cão/imunologia , Leishmania infantum , Leishmaniose Visceral/veterinária , Linfonodos/parasitologia , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Doenças do Cão/patologia , Cães , Feminino , Leishmania infantum/imunologia , Leishmaniose Visceral/epidemiologia , Leishmaniose Visceral/imunologia , Leishmaniose Visceral/patologia , Linfonodos/patologia , Masculino , Carga Parasitária
20.
Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen ; 141(3)2021 02 23.
Artigo em Inglês, Norueguês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33624958

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Leishmaniasis is a rare but potentially severe tropical infectious disease, and Norwegian clinicians are generally unfamiliar with its diagnosis and treatment. This study aimed to investigate the number of cases diagnosed, performance of diagnostic methods and treatment of leishmaniasis at five university hospitals in Norway. MATERIAL AND METHOD: The number of cases, diagnosis and treatment of suspected leishmaniasis were registered prospectively in the period March 2014 - September 2017 at the university hospitals of Bergen, Oslo, Stavanger, Trondheim and Tromsø. RESULTS: A total of 13 patients with leishmaniasis were registered in the period. Visceral leishmaniasis was diagnosed in two patients infected in the Mediterranean region, after 7 and 8 weeks with symptoms. The diagnosis was made by serology as well as microscopy and/or polymerase chain reaction tests (PCR) on spleen, blood and bone marrow. Both patients were treated effectively with liposomal amphotericin B. Cutaneous leishmaniasis was diagnosed in 11 patients, and samples from 10 of these tested positive with PCR. Two patients were infected with potentially mucotropic species. Liposomal amphotericin B was the first-line choice for all those who received treatment, but one patient recovered only after local therapy with sodium stibogluconate. INTERPRETATION: Assessment of visceral leishmaniasis was undertaken according to international guidelines. The patients were diagnosed late in the disease course, presumably because the disease is rare and not well known in Norway. Cutaneous leishmaniasis was diagnosed with PCR, but none of the patients received local treatment as the first-line choice, as recommended in suitable cases, presumably because the drugs are not readily available in Norway and many clinicians are unfamiliar with the route of administration with local infiltration.


Assuntos
Antiprotozoários , Leishmaniose Visceral , Antiprotozoários/uso terapêutico , Medula Óssea , Humanos , Leishmaniose Visceral/diagnóstico , Leishmaniose Visceral/tratamento farmacológico , Leishmaniose Visceral/epidemiologia , Região do Mediterrâneo , Noruega/epidemiologia
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