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1.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234445, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32579586

RESUMO

This study aimed to describe the sand fly fauna and detect trypanosomatids in these insects from Casa Branca, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, an endemic area of both visceral (VL) and tegumentary leishmaniasis (TL). Sand flies were collected bimonthly from May 2013 to July 2014, using automatic light traps exposed for three consecutive nights in peridomiciliary areas of nine houses with previous reports of VL and TL. ITS1-PCR and DNA sequencing were performed for trypanosomatids identification. A total of 16,771 sand flies were collected belonging to 23 species. The most abundant species was Nyssomyia whitmani (Antunes & Coutinho, 1939) (70.9%), followed by Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912) (15.2%) and Migonemyia migonei (França, 1920) (9.1%). Leishmania amazonensis DNA was detected in Ny. whitmani (four pools) and Le. braziliensis DNA was detected in Psychodopygus lloydi (one pool). In seven pools of Ny. whitmani and in one pool of Lu. longipalpis positive for Leishmania DNA, the parasite species was not determined due to the low quality of the sequences. Moreover, DNA of Herpetomonas spp. was detected in Ny. whitmani (two pools) and Cortelezzii complex (one pool). DNA of Crithidia spp. was detected in Ny. whitmani and Ps. lloydi (both one pool). Our results suggest that Ny. whitmani may be involved in the transmission of Le. amazonensis in the study area. The molecular detection of Le. amazonensis suggests the presence of this species in a sylvatic cycle between vertebrate and invertebrate hosts in the region of Casa Branca. Our data also reveal the occurrence of other non-Leishmania trypanosomatids in sand flies in Casa Branca District.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Insetos Vetores/parasitologia , Leishmania/isolamento & purificação , Phlebotomus/parasitologia , Psychodidae/parasitologia , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , DNA de Protozoário/isolamento & purificação , Doenças Endêmicas/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Leishmania/genética , Leishmaniose/epidemiologia , Leishmaniose/parasitologia , Leishmaniose/prevenção & controle , Leishmaniose/transmissão , Análise de Sequência de DNA
2.
Parasit Vectors ; 13(1): 193, 2020 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32293524

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: For long time, canine leishmaniosis (CanL) was considered endemic in the southern, central, and insular regions of Italy, whereas heartworm disease (HW) caused by Dirofilaria immitis was considered endemic in the northern region and in the swampy Po Valley. Following the reports of new foci of both diseases, in this study we update the distribution patterns and occurrence of new foci of CanL and HW discussing the main drivers for the changes in the epidemiology of these two important zoonotic canine vector-borne diseases. METHODS: Based on the statistical analyses of serological assays (n = 90,633) on L. infantum exposure and D. immitis infection performed by two reference diagnostic centres in Italy over a ten-year period (2009-2019) irrespective of the anamnesis of dogs. The distribution patterns of both parasites are herein presented along with the occurrence of new foci. RESULTS: Results highlighted the changing distribution patterns of L. infantum vs D. immitis infection in Italy. CanL is endemic in some areas of northern regions and HW has endemic foci in central and southern regions and islands. Significant differences in L. infantum exposure and HW infection prevalence among the study macroareas were detected. The overall results of the positive tested samples were 28.2% in southern Italy and islands, 29.6% in central Italy and 21.6% in northern Italy for L. infantum and 2.83% in northern Italy, 7.75% in central Italy and 4.97% in southern Italy and islands for HW. HW positivity significantly varied over years (χ2 = 108.401, df = 10, P < 0.0001), gradually increasing from 0.77% in 2009 to 8.47% in 2016-2017. CONCLUSIONS: New potential epidemiological scenarios are discussed according to a range of factors (e.g. environmental modifications, occurrence of competent insect vectors, transportation of infected animals to non-endemic areas, chemoprophylaxis or vector preventative measures), which may affect the current distribution. Overall, the results advocate for epidemiological surveillance programmes, more focussed preventative and control measures even in areas where few or no cases of both diseases have been diagnosed.


Assuntos
Dirofilaria immitis/parasitologia , Dirofilariose/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Leishmania infantum/parasitologia , Leishmaniose/veterinária , Animais , Dirofilariose/prevenção & controle , Cães , Insetos Vetores/parasitologia , Itália/epidemiologia , Leishmaniose/epidemiologia , Psychodidae/parasitologia , Testes Sorológicos , Zoonoses
3.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 9(1): 30, 2020 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32183909

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As of 2015 thousands of refugees are being hosted in temporary refugee camps in Greece. Displaced populations, travelling and living under poor conditions with limited access to healthcare are at a high risk of exposure to vector borne disease (VBD). This study sought to evaluate the risk for VBD transmission within refugee camps in Greece by analyzing the mosquito and sand fly populations present, in light of designing effective and efficient context specific vector and disease control programs. METHODS: A vector/pathogen surveillance network targeting mosquitoes and sand flies was deployed in four temporary refugee camps in Greece. Sample collections were conducted bi-weekly during June-September 2017 with the use of Centers for Disease Control (CDC) light traps and oviposition traps. Using conventional and molecular diagnostic tools we investigated the mosquito/sand fly species composition, population dynamics, pathogen infection rates, and insecticide resistance status in the major vector species. RESULTS: Important disease vectors including Anopheles sacharovi, Culex pipiens, Aedes albopictus and the Leishmania vectors Phlebotomus neglectus, P. perfiliewi and P. tobbi were recorded in the study refugee camps. No mosquito pathogens (Plasmodium parasites, flaviviruses) were detected in the analysed samples yet high sand fly Leishmania infection rates are reported. Culex pipiens mosquitoes displayed relatively high knock down resistance (kdr) mutation allelic frequencies (ranging from 41.0 to 63.3%) while kdr mutations were also detected in Ae. albopictus populations, but not in Anopheles and sand fly specimens. No diflubenzuron (DFB) mutations were detected in any of the mosquito species analysed. CONCLUSIONS: Important disease vectors and pathogens in vectors (Leishmania spp.) were recorded in the refugee camps indicating a situational risk factor for disease transmission. The Cx. pipiens and Ae. albopictus kdr mutation frequencies recorded pose a potential threat against the effectiveness of pyrethroid insecticides in these settings. In contrast, pyrethroids appear suitable for the control of Anopheles mosquitoes and sand flies and DFB for Cx. pipiens and Ae. albopictus larvicide applications. Targeted actions ensuring adequate living conditions and the establishment of integrated vector-borne disease surveillance programs in refugee settlements are essential for protecting refugee populations against VBDs.


Assuntos
Insetos Vetores/efeitos dos fármacos , Insetos Vetores/genética , Resistência a Inseticidas/genética , Leishmania , Controle de Mosquitos , Mosquitos Vetores/efeitos dos fármacos , Mosquitos Vetores/genética , Dinâmica Populacional , Campos de Refugiados , Aedes/efeitos dos fármacos , Aedes/genética , Animais , Anopheles/efeitos dos fármacos , Anopheles/genética , Culex/efeitos dos fármacos , Culex/genética , Feminino , Grécia , Leishmania/genética , Leishmania/patogenicidade , Leishmaniose/epidemiologia , Phlebotomus/efeitos dos fármacos , Phlebotomus/genética , Psychodidae
4.
Equine Vet J ; 52(1): 28-33, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31498914

RESUMO

Infection of equids by Leishmania (L.) parasites was previously described in both the Old and New World, particularly in Central and South America. Equine cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is caused by the Leishmania species, L. Viannia (V.) braziliensis and L. infantum, previously identified in humans and other parasite hosts living in the same geographic endemic areas. Sporadic autochthonous clinical cases, with no travel history, were documented in several countries including Germany, Portugal, Spain, Texas and Brazil; L. infantum and L. (Mundinia) martiniquensis were the infectious species. Prevalence of subclinical infections is extremely low and CL is observed in only a small proportion of infected animals with the appearance of single or multiple cutaneous lesions located on the head, external ear, scrotum, legs and the neck. To date, there has been no report of visceral abnormalities. However, the mild clinical profile of the disease and its spontaneous regression may indicate that skin lesions related to Leishmania infection is underdiagnosed. Importantly, although the prevalence of Leishmania infections in the equine population is low, a risk may rise from its potential involvement in the parasite transmission cycles as a source of infection for phlebotomine vectors and susceptible mammalian hosts. This review article summarises our current knowledge of the epidemiology, clinical presentation and diagnosis of Leishmania-infected equids.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Cavalos/parasitologia , Leishmania/isolamento & purificação , Leishmaniose/veterinária , Animais , Doenças dos Cavalos/epidemiologia , Cavalos , Leishmaniose/epidemiologia , Prevalência
5.
BMC Vet Res ; 15(1): 446, 2019 Dec 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31818287

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Leishmaniosis, a disease caused by pathogenic Leishmania parasites, remains an unresolved health problem in the New World and the Old World. It is well known that lizards can be infected by a subgenus of Leishmania parasites, i.e. Sauroleishmania, which is non-pathogenic to humans. However, evidence suggests that lizards may also harbor pathogenic Leishmania species including the undetermined Leishmania sp., discovered in our previous work. Leishmania DNA in lizard blood can be detected by using molecular methods, such as the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). RESULTS: Three hundred and sixteen lizards, representing 13 species of four genera, were captured for blood samples collection in Northwest China. Two reliable molecular markers (cytochrome b and heat shock protein 70 genes) were used for detection in the lizard blood samples, to confirm a widespread presence of pathogenic Leishmania parasites and the distribution pattern of Leishmania spp. in lizards from Northwest China. The PCR data indicated positive detection rate for Leishmania in all the tested lizards with an overall prevalence of 57.91% (183/316). Apart from lizard parasites like Leishmania tarentolae and Leishmania sp., several pathogenic Leishmania including L. turanica, L. tropica and L. donovani complex were identified by using phylogenetic analysis. Co-existence of different haplotypes was observed in most Leishmania DNA-positive lizards with an overall rate of 77.6% (142/183). Even mixed infections with different Leishmania species appeared to occur in the lizards with an overall rate of 37.7% (69/183). CONCLUSIONS: Lizards can harbor pathogenic Leishmania spp. Co-existence of different haplotypes or even species of Leishmania indicates mixed infections in natural lizard host. Lizards may contribute to the spread of Leishmania parasites. The pathogenic Leishmania species detected in lizards from Northwest China may be of great eco-epidemiological importance.


Assuntos
Leishmania/classificação , Leishmaniose/epidemiologia , Lagartos/parasitologia , Animais , China/epidemiologia , DNA de Protozoário/sangue , Haplótipos , Leishmania/genética , Lagartos/sangue , Filogenia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Análise de Sequência de DNA
6.
J Epidemiol Glob Health ; 9(4): 266-273, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31854168

RESUMO

Since the Syrian conflict started, Lebanon became a common destination receiving a huge number of Syrian refugees that are living in camps spread all over the country, with the largest concentration in the Bekaa Valley. Generous steps are being taken to increase the access to formal education, such as offering free public education and opening second shifts in the public schools in the afternoon. Yet barriers, such as child labor and health-related factors like the spreading of some communicable diseases, like Leishmania, are keeping children out of classroom. The present study was done with the aim of investigating the effect of leishmaniasis on the performance and the academic achievement of Syrian refugee children. The results showed varying degrees of knowledge and dealing with the case of leishmaniasis. The disease clearly had an effect on the students' attendance in schools, and by proxy on their academic performance.


Assuntos
Desempenho Acadêmico , Leishmaniose , Desempenho Acadêmico/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Lactente , Líbano/epidemiologia , Leishmaniose/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Refugiados , Instituições Acadêmicas , Autorrelato , Síria/etnologia , Adulto Jovem
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31859845

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to perform a systematic review of scientific papers that used spatial analysis tools in cases of leishmaniasis, in Brazil. The search for articles was carried out in PubMed, SciELO, Scopus and Web of Science databases. The keywords used in the identification of the articles were Thematic map AND Leishmaniasis, Spatial analysis AND Leishmaniasis, and Geoprocessing AND Leishmaniasis, in English language. A total of 360 articles were found, and 11 of them were analyzed after screening by title and abstract as well as reading of the full articles. The States studied were Sao Paulo, Acre, Maranhao, Piaui, Minas Gerais, Parana and Tocantins. Cutaneous leishmaniasis occurred predominantly in rural areas, with clusters in forest reserve regions or modified forest areas. Conversely, visceral leishmaniasis mainly occurred in peripheral and central urban areas associated with poorer environments and urban infrastructure, including worse sanitation. We conclude that the spatial distribution of leishmaniasis is closely related to the living environment of the risk population. The analyzed articles associated geospatial data with some risk factors for the disease, pointing out the locations where most cases occur, creating a relevant source to define control strategies.


Assuntos
Leishmaniose/epidemiologia , Análise Espacial , Brasil/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Leishmaniose/classificação , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos
8.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 28(4): 790-796, Oct.-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057980

RESUMO

Abstract The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence of Leishmania spp. antibodies, and its association with feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and feline leukemia virus (FeLV), in domestic cats from an area endemic for canine and human leishmaniasis in Rio Grande do Norte State, Brazil. Ninety-one cats were subjected to a complete clinical exam, and blood samples were collected. An epidemiological questionnaire was used to investigate the risk factors. IgG anti-Leishmania spp. antibodies were detected by immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT), with a cut-off value of 1:40. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed to detect genetic material of Leishmania spp. in the blood samples. The presence of antibodies against FIV and antigens of FeLV was evaluated using an immunochromatographic test. Seropositivity for Leishmania spp., FIV, and FeLV was observed in 14/91 (15.38%), 26/91 (28.57%), and 3/91 (3.29%) cats, respectively. All samples gave negative results on PCR analysis. Based on these data, no significant statistical association was observed between seropositivity for Leishmania spp., and sex, age, presence of clinical signs, evaluated risk factors, and positivity for retroviruses. These findings demonstrated for the first time that cats from Mossoró, Rio Grande do Norte, are being exposed to this zoonosis and might be part of the epidemiological chain of transmission of visceral leishmaniasis.


Resumo O objetivo do presente estudo foi investigar a ocorrência de anticorpos contra Leishmania spp., e sua associação com o vírus da imunodeficiência felina (FIV) e o vírus da leucemia felina (FeLV), em felinos domésticos provenientes de uma área endêmica no estado do Rio Grande do Norte, para a leishmaniose visceral canina e humana. Noventa e um gatos foram submetidos a exame clínico completo e amostras de sangue foram coletadas. Um questionário epidemiológico foi feito para investigar fatores de risco. Anticorpos IgG anti-Leishmania spp. foram identificados por meio da imunofluorescência indireta (RIFI), adotando-se como ponto de corte a diluição de 1:40. A reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR) foi executada visando detectar o material genético de Leishmania spp. a partir de amostras de sangue total. Para avaliar a presença de anticorpos contra o FIV e antígenos do FeLV foi utilizado um teste imunocromatográfico. Observou-se soropositividade em 14/91 (15,38%), 26/91 (28,57%) e 3/91 (3,29%) animais para Leishmania spp., FIV e FeLV, respectivamente. Nenhuma amostra foi positiva na PCR. Baseado nestes dados, não foi observada nenhuma associação estatística significativa entre a soropositividade para Leishmania spp. e gênero, idade, presença de sinais clínicos, fatores de risco avaliados e positividade para as retroviroses. Esses achados demonstram pela primeira vez que felinos da cidade Mossoró, Rio Grande do Norte, estão sendo expostos a esta zoonose, sugerindo que os mesmos podem estar participando da cadeia epidemiológica de transmissão da leishmaniose visceral.


Assuntos
Humanos , Animais , Gatos , Cães , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Doenças do Gato/parasitologia , Leishmaniose/veterinária , Brasil/epidemiologia , Doenças do Gato/diagnóstico , Doenças do Gato/epidemiologia , Leishmaniose/diagnóstico , Leishmaniose/epidemiologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Fatores de Risco , Vírus da Imunodeficiência Felina/imunologia , Vírus da Leucemia Felina/imunologia , Técnica Direta de Fluorescência para Anticorpo , Doenças Endêmicas
9.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 13(11): e0007748, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31730650

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We identified the species of Leishmania isolated from traveling and migrant patients attended in a reference center from 2000 to 2015, we performed the georeferencing of these species in Rio de Janeiro (RJ) state and we had knowledge about the human flows between the likely location of infection (LLI) and place of residence (PR) in RJ state, Brazil. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This is a retrospective cross-sectional study including 171 patients diagnosed with ATL. Google Maps, OpenStreetMap, and Bing Maps were tools used to georeference LLI and PR. For etiological identification, we used isoenzyme electrophoresis, polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (molecular target hsp70C with restriction enzymes HaeIII and BstUI), and sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer of ribosomal DNA. ARCGIS software was used to create maps of the geographic distribution of Leishmania species in the state and municipality of RJ, together with flows between the LLI and PR. Isolates from 104 patients were identified as: L. (Viannia) braziliensis (80.8%), L. (V.) naiffi (7.7%), L. (V.) guyanensis (6.7%), L. (Leishmania) amazonensis (1%), and genetic variants of L. (V.) braziliensis (3.8%). The flow maps showed that the LLI included 4 countries, 19 Brazilian states, and 18 municipalities of RJ state. The Brazilian states with the highest density of cases were Amazonas (n = 32), Bahia (n = 18), and Ceará (n = 15). CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This work is the first contribution to the knowledge of the routes of Leishmania species introduced in RJ state by migrants and travelers patients. L. (V.) braziliensis, L. (V.) guyanensis, L. (V.) naiffi, L. (L.) amazonensis, and genetic variants of L. (V.) braziliensis were identified in RJ state. To determine whether the autochthonous transmission of these imported species is possible it is necessary the adaptation of these species to environmental conditions as well as the presence of reservoirs and phlebotomine vectors in this region.


Assuntos
Leishmania/classificação , Leishmania/isolamento & purificação , Leishmaniose/epidemiologia , Leishmaniose/parasitologia , Migrantes , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , DNA de Protozoário/genética , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Leishmania/genética , Leishmaniose/diagnóstico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Filogenia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Polimorfismo de Fragmento de Restrição , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
10.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 28(4): 790-796, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31691733

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence of Leishmania spp. antibodies, and its association with feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and feline leukemia virus (FeLV), in domestic cats from an area endemic for canine and human leishmaniasis in Rio Grande do Norte State, Brazil. Ninety-one cats were subjected to a complete clinical exam, and blood samples were collected. An epidemiological questionnaire was used to investigate the risk factors. IgG anti-Leishmania spp. antibodies were detected by immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT), with a cut-off value of 1:40. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed to detect genetic material of Leishmania spp. in the blood samples. The presence of antibodies against FIV and antigens of FeLV was evaluated using an immunochromatographic test. Seropositivity for Leishmania spp., FIV, and FeLV was observed in 14/91 (15.38%), 26/91 (28.57%), and 3/91 (3.29%) cats, respectively. All samples gave negative results on PCR analysis. Based on these data, no significant statistical association was observed between seropositivity for Leishmania spp., and sex, age, presence of clinical signs, evaluated risk factors, and positivity for retroviruses. These findings demonstrated for the first time that cats from Mossoró, Rio Grande do Norte, are being exposed to this zoonosis and might be part of the epidemiological chain of transmission of visceral leishmaniasis.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Doenças do Gato/parasitologia , Leishmaniose/veterinária , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Doenças do Gato/diagnóstico , Doenças do Gato/epidemiologia , Gatos , Cães , Doenças Endêmicas , Técnica Direta de Fluorescência para Anticorpo , Humanos , Vírus da Imunodeficiência Felina/imunologia , Leishmaniose/diagnóstico , Leishmaniose/epidemiologia , Vírus da Leucemia Felina/imunologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Fatores de Risco
11.
Vet Parasitol ; 274: 108930, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31586700

RESUMO

Despite the high prevalence of canine Leishmania infantum infection in Portugal, significant differences associated with different risk factors can be found between geographically contiguous areas. In this study, a geographical area within the central region of Portugal (municipalities of Proença-a-Nova, Mação and Vila de Rei) was investigated. An epidemiological survey involved the analysis by an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay of serum samples collected during the anti-rabies vaccination campaign from 282 dogs. Geospatial analysis showed the distribution of geospatial prevalence of leishmaniosis and has delimited two areas (clusters) with a statistically significant higher risk of seropositivity in dogs (p =  0.003 and p = 0.027, for clusters 1 and 2, respectively). The highest seroprevalence (56.0%; CI: 41.2-70.0) was found in Vila de Rei. Five land occupation types showed a possible influence on the geographic distribution of seropositivity, with statistically significant differences between seropositive and seronegative dogs. Land occupied by temporary irrigated crops (p =  0.026), olive groves (p =  0.013), complex cultural systems and parcelling (p =  0.021), open forests, logging and new plantations (p =  0.043) and watercourses (p =  0.012) influenced the geographical distribution of canine Leishmania infection. Seropositive dogs had a greater average area of occupied land (i.e. open forests, logging and new plantations) than the seronegative ones (3.1439 km2 versus 2.5650 km2, respectively; p =  0.043).


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Leishmaniose/veterinária , Animais , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Cães , Humanos , Leishmaniose/epidemiologia , Leishmaniose/parasitologia , Portugal/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
12.
PLoS One ; 14(10): e0223313, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31622369

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Leishmaniasis is a neglected tropical parasitic disease endemic in South Asia, East Africa, Latin America and the Middle East. It is associated with low socioeconomic status (SES) and responsible for considerable mortality and morbidity. Reports suggest that patients with leishmaniasis may have a higher risk of mental illness (MI), psychosocial morbidity (PM) and reduced quality of life (QoL), but this is not well characterised. The aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review to assess the reported impact of leishmaniasis on mental health and psychosocial wellbeing. METHODS: A systematic review of the literature was carried out. Pre-specified criteria were applied to identify publications including observational quantitative studies or systematic reviews. Two reviewers screened all of the titles, abstracts and full-studies and a third reviewer was consulted for disagreements. Data was extracted from papers meeting the criteria and quality appraisal of the methods was performed using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale or the Risk of Bias in Systematic Review tool. RESULTS: A total of 14 studies were identified from 12,517 records. Nine cross-sectional, three case-control, one cohort study and one systematic review were included. Eleven assessed MI outcomes and were measured with tools specifically designed for this; nine measured PM and 12 measured QoL using validated measurement tools. Quality appraisal of the studies showed that six were of good quality. Cutaneous leishmaniasis and post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis showed evidence of associated MI and PM including depression, anxiety and stigma, while all forms of disease showed decreased QoL. The findings were used to inform a proposed model and conceptual framework to show the possible links between leishmaniasis and mental health outcomes. CONCLUSION: There is evidence that leishmaniasis has an impact on MI, PM or QoL of patients and their families and this occurs in all the main subtypes of the disease. There are however large gaps in the evidence. Further research is required to understand the full extent of this problem and its mechanistic basis.


Assuntos
Leishmaniose/epidemiologia , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Humanos , Leishmaniose/complicações , Leishmaniose/diagnóstico , Transtornos Mentais/diagnóstico , Transtornos Mentais/etiologia , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Vigilância em Saúde Pública , Viés de Publicação , Qualidade de Vida , Fatores de Risco
13.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 31(4): 353-355, 2019 Sep 24.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31612666

RESUMO

Following the concerted efforts for nearly 70 years, great achievements have been obtained in parasitic diseases control in China, and some important parasitic diseases have been eliminated or moving towards elimination in the country. With the socioeconomic development, the implementation of the "Road and Belt Initiative" and the increase in the international communication and overseas investment, there is a rise in the number of overseas labors, businessmen, students, travelers, visitors and participants in national and international communication activities, resulting in a gradual increase in the number of cases with parasitic diseases imported from endemic to non-endemic areas of China and from foreign countries to China. The increase in the number of imported cases causes new challenges for the elimination of parasitic diseases in China. The paper describes the current status of malaria, schistosomiasis and leishmaniasis, analyzes the challenges for the current control activities, and proposes the control strategies and interventions.


Assuntos
Leishmaniose , Malária , Esquistossomose , China/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Importadas/epidemiologia , Humanos , Leishmaniose/epidemiologia , Leishmaniose/prevenção & controle , Malária/epidemiologia , Malária/prevenção & controle , Fatores de Risco , Esquistossomose/epidemiologia , Esquistossomose/prevenção & controle
14.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 13(10): e0007765, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31593563

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In endemic regions, asymptomatic Leishmania infection is common. In HIV patients, detection of asymptomatic Leishmania infection could potentially identify those at risk of visceral leishmaniasis (VL). However, data on the prevalence, incidence, and determinants of asymptomatic infection, and the risk of VL are lacking. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional survey at a single ART centre, followed by a prospective cohort study amongst HIV-infected adults in HIV care in a district hospital in a VL-endemic area in North-West Ethiopia (9/2015-8/2016). Asymptomatic Leishmania infection was detected using the direct agglutination test (DAT), rK39-rapid diagnostic test (RDT)), PCR on peripheral blood and the KAtex urine antigen test, and defined as positivity on any Leishmania marker. All individuals were followed longitudinally (irrespective of the Leishmania test results). Risk factors for asymptomatic Leishmania infection were determined using logistic regression. RESULTS: A total of 534 HIV-infected individuals enrolled in HIV care were included in the study. After excluding 13 patients with a history of VL and an 10 patients with incomplete baseline Leishmania tests, 511 were included in analysis. The median age was 38 years (interquartile range (IQR) 30-45), 62.6% were male. The median follow-up time was 12 months (IQR 9-12). No deaths were reported during the study period. Most (95.5%) were on antiretroviral treatment at enrolment, for a median of 52 months (IQR 27-79). The median CD4 count at enrolment was 377 cells/mm3 (IQR 250-518). The baseline prevalence of Leishmania infection was 12.8% in males and 4.2% in females. Overall, 7.4% tested positive for rK39, 4.3% for DAT, 0.2% for PCR and 0.2% for KAtex. Independent risk factors for a prevalent infection were male sex (odds ratio (OR) 3.2; 95% confidence intervals (CI) 14-7.0) and concurrent malaria infection (OR 6.1; 95% CI 1.9-18.9). Amongst the 49 prevalent (baseline) infections with further follow-up, the cumulative incidence of losing the Leishmania markers by one year was 40.1%. There were 36 incident infections during the course of the study, with a cumulative one-year risk of 9.5%. Only one case of VL was detected during follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: We found a high prevalence of asymptomatic Leishmania infection, persisting in most cases. The incidence was more modest and overt VL was rare. Larger and longer studies with more complete follow-up may help to decide whether a test and treat strategy would be justified in this context. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02839603.


Assuntos
Infecções Assintomáticas , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Leishmaniose/complicações , Leishmaniose/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Testes de Aglutinação , Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Estudos Transversais , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Leishmaniose/diagnóstico , Leishmaniose Visceral/diagnóstico , Leishmaniose Visceral/epidemiologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Projetos Piloto , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
15.
BMC Vet Res ; 15(1): 331, 2019 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31533745

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dogs that have clinical leishmaniosis (ClinL), caused by the parasite Leishmania infantum, are commonly co-infected with other pathogens, especially vector-borne pathogens (VBP). A recent PCR-based study found that ClinL dogs are more likely to be additionally infected with the rickettsial bacteria Ehrlichia canis. Further information on co-infections in ClinL cases with VBP, as assessed by serology, is required. The research described in this report determined if dogs with ClinL are at higher risk of exposure to VBP than healthy control dogs using a case-control serology study. RESULTS: Of the 47 dogs with ClinL, anti-E. canis/ Ehrlichia ewingii antibodies were detected in 17 (36.2%), anti-Anaplasma phagocytophilum/Anaplasma platys antibodies in 5 (10.6%) and antigen for Dirofilaria immitis in 2 (4.3%). Of the 87 control dogs, anti-E. canis/E. ewingii antibodies were detected in 14 (16.1%) and anti-A. phagocytophilum/A. platys antibodies in 2 (2.3%). No anti-Borrelia burgdorferi antibody tests were positive. No statistical differences between the ClinL dogs and control dogs regarding lifestyle or use of ectoparasitic prevention, were identified. The ClinL was significantly associated with anti-E. canis/E. ewingii antibodies (odds ratio = 2.9, 95% confidence interval: 1.3-6.7, P = 0.010) compared to controls by both multivariable logistic regression and structural equation modelling. CONCLUSIONS: It was demonstrated that an increased risk for E. canis/E. ewingii seropositivity is present in dogs with ClinL compared to clinically healthy control dogs, despite similar ectoparasitic prevention use and lifestyle. Based on these findings it is suggested that dogs with ClinL should not only be tested for E. canis co-infection using PCR but also serologically for E. canis/E. ewingii.


Assuntos
Coinfecção/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Leishmaniose/veterinária , Anaplasma/imunologia , Anaplasmose/epidemiologia , Animais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Coinfecção/microbiologia , Coinfecção/parasitologia , Chipre/epidemiologia , Dirofilaria immitis/imunologia , Dirofilariose/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/sangue , Doenças do Cão/microbiologia , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Cães , Ectoparasitoses/prevenção & controle , Ehrlichia/imunologia , Ehrlichiose/sangue , Ehrlichiose/veterinária , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/veterinária , Feminino , Leishmania infantum/imunologia , Leishmaniose/epidemiologia , Masculino , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
17.
Biomedica ; 39(2): 278-290, 2019 06 15.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31529815

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Knowledge of the geographical distribution of Leishmania species allows guiding the sampling to little-studied areas and implementing strategies to define risk zones and priority areas for control. OBJECTIVE: Given that there is no publication that collects this information, the search, review, and compilation of the available scientific literature that has identified species in Colombia is presented in this paper. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A bibliographic search was performed in PubMed, Web of Knowledge, Google Scholar, SciELO and LILACS with the terms "(Leishmania OR Leishmaniasis) AND species AND Colombia", without restrictions on publication year, language or infected organism; records of national scientific events and repositories of theses from Colombian universities were also included. RESULTS: Eighty-six scientific documents published between 1985 and 2017 were found in which the species of Leishmania and their geographical origin were indicated. The species reported, in descending order of frequency, were: Leishmania (Viannia) panamensis, L. (V.) braziliensis, L. (V.) guyanensis, L. (Leishmania) infantum, L. (L.) amazonensis, L. (L.) mexicana, L. (V.) colombiensis, L. (V.) lainsoni and L. (V.) equatorensis; the last three were found with the same frequency. Leishmania species were reported from 29 departments. CONCLUSION: Information on the distribution of Leishmania species in Colombia is limited; therefore, it is necessary to gather existing data and propose studies that consolidate the distribution maps of Leishmania species in Colombia. This would allow the detection of areas where species have not been identified as well as the comparison of existing parasite and vector distributions.


Assuntos
Leishmania , Animais , Colômbia , Reservatórios de Doenças/parasitologia , Geografia Médica , Humanos , Insetos Vetores/parasitologia , Leishmania/classificação , Leishmaniose/epidemiologia , Leishmaniose/parasitologia , Leishmaniose/veterinária , Mamíferos/parasitologia , Parasitologia/métodos , Psychodidae/parasitologia , Especificidade da Espécie
18.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 13(8): e0007708, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31469834

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) blockers are recognized as a risk factor for reactivation of granulomatous infections. Leishmaniasis has been associated with the use of these drugs, although few cases have been reported. METHODOLOGY: We performed a retrospective observational study including patients with confirmed leishmaniasis acquired in the Mediterranean basin that were under TNF-α blockers therapy at the moment of the diagnosis. Patients diagnosed in our hospital from 2008 to 2018 were included. Moreover, a systematic review of the literature was performed and cases fulfilling the inclusion criteria were also included. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Forty-nine patients were analyzed including nine cases from our series. Twenty-seven (55.1%) cases were male and median age was 55 years. Twenty-five (51%) patients were under infliximab treatment, 20 (40.8%) were receiving adalimumab, 2 (4.1%) etanercept, one (2%) golimumab and one (2%) a non-specified TNF-α blocker. Regarding clinical presentation, 28 (57.1%) presented as cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL), 16 (32.6%) as visceral leishmaniasis (VL) and 5 (10.2%) as mucocutaneous leishmaniasis (MCL). All VL and MCL patients were treated with systemic therapies. Among CL patients, 13 (46.4%) were treated with a systemic drug (11 received L-AmB, one intramuscular antimonials and one miltefosine) while 14 (50%) patients were given local treatment (13 received intralesional pentavalent antimonials, and one excisional surgery). TNF-α blockers were interrupted in 32 patients (65.3%). After treatment 5 patients (10.2%) relapsed. Four patients with a CL (3 initially treated with local therapy maintaining TNF-α blockers and one treated with miltefosine) and one patient with VL treated with L-AmB maintaining TNF-α blockers. CONCLUSIONS: This data supports the assumption that the blockage of TNF-α modifies clinical expression of leishmaniasis in endemic population modulating the expression of the disease leading to atypical presentations. According to the cases reported, the best treatment strategy would be a systemic drug and the discontinuation of the TNF-α blockers therapy until clinical resolution.


Assuntos
Imunossupressores/administração & dosagem , Imunossupressores/efeitos adversos , Leishmaniose/epidemiologia , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/antagonistas & inibidores , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Injeções Intramusculares , Leishmaniose/patologia , Masculino , Região do Mediterrâneo/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva , Estudos Retrospectivos , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto , Adulto Jovem
19.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 66(6): 2546-2561, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31376338

RESUMO

The epidemiological cycle of zoonotic phlebotomine-borne Leishmania infantum is a complex system in which domestic animals and wildlife interact and participate in its maintenance and transmission. In this study, we combined entomological surveillance, xenomonitoring of L. infantum and identification of host feeding sources of engorged females to investigate the potential contribution of a periurban wildlife park to leishmaniosis in neighbouring residential areas. Overall, 7,309 sand flies were collected in 111 trap-days during the summers of 2016-2018 in an endemic area in south-east Spain. Five different sand fly species were captured, with Phlebotomus perniciosus, the main L. infantum vector in this region, representing the most common species. Sand fly distribution was spatially heterogeneous in terms of species, sexes and female physiological stage (unfed, gravid and engorged females) and related to host distribution and management, and environmental features. None of the 602 sand flies analysed for L. infantum infection by kinetoplast real-time PCR were positive. We used molecular tools to identify the vertebrate hosts of sand flies and identified 17 host species, mainly mammals. Human DNA was not identified in engorged sand flies. This study provides evidence that wildlife parks in south-east Spain are ideal grounds for sand fly vectors but do not necessarily increase L. infantum infection risk to humans and dogs living in surrounding residential areas. This is probably because vectors feed mostly on non-L. infantum competent hosts and this should be investigated for a better understanding of the contribution of wildlife parks to the local epidemiology of L. infantum.


Assuntos
Insetos Vetores/parasitologia , Leishmaniose/epidemiologia , Parques Recreativos , Psychodidae/parasitologia , Animais , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Humanos , Leishmania infantum , Leishmaniose/parasitologia , Vigilância da População , Espanha/epidemiologia
20.
Onderstepoort J Vet Res ; 86(1): e1-e11, 2019 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31170780

RESUMO

Canine leishmaniasis is a vector-borne disease caused by protozoa of the genus Leishmania that affect dogs, humans and wildlife. Sandflies of the genera Phlebotomus and Lutzomyia are the primary vectors. Canine leishmaniasis is an exotic and controlled disease in South Africa. The main purpose of our risk assessment study was to evaluate the likelihood that this exotic disease could enter and be established in South Africa through importation of live dogs. Risk analysis to the spread of the disease follows the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) formal method of quantitative risk assessment documented as a step-by-step process. We have identified and discussed 11 possible risk factors involved in three steps for final assessment. The annual average number of diagnostic tests performed on imported dogs from 44 countries for 2011-2015 was 1158. Leishmania is reported to occur in 21/44 (47.7%) exporting countries. A total of 71.1% of Leishmania positive dogs were imported from these endemic countries. The yearly percentage of Leishmania positive dogs ranged from 0.2% to 2%. Three confirmed clinical and fatal cases of leishmaniasis in dogs of unidentified origin have been reported by our laboratory and the state veterinarians. The disease has been reported in neighbouring countries as well as the putative sandfly vectors. This study concluded that the risk for the introduction and degree of uncertainty of Leishmania in imported dogs in South Africa are moderate. Risk mitigation and recommendations such as investigations into possible occurrence of autochthonous leishmaniasis in the country, surveillance in its wildlife reservoirs and systematic surveillance of sandfly populations are discussed.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Leishmaniose/veterinária , Quarentena/veterinária , Animais , Doenças do Cão/prevenção & controle , Doenças do Cão/transmissão , Cães , Leishmaniose/epidemiologia , Leishmaniose/prevenção & controle , Leishmaniose/transmissão , Fatores de Risco , África do Sul/epidemiologia
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