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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(4)2021 Feb 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33572480

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Preexisting immunity to SARS-CoV-2 could be related to cross-reactive antibodies to common human-coronaviruses (HCoVs). This study aimed to evaluate whether human milk antibodies against to S1 and S2 subunits SARS-CoV-2 are cross-reactive to S1 and S2 subunits HCoV-OC43 and HCoV-229E in mothers with a confirmed COVID-19 PCR test, in mothers with previous viral symptoms during COVID-19 pandemic, and in unexposed mothers; Methods: The levels of secretory IgA (SIgA)/IgA, secretory IgM (SIgM)/IgM, and IgG specific to S1 and S2 SARS-CoV-2, and reactive to S1 + S2 HCoV-OC43, and HCoV-229E were measured in milk from 7 mothers with a confirmed COVID-19 PCR test, 20 mothers with viral symptoms, and unexposed mothers (6 Ctl1-2018 and 16 Ctl2-2018) using ELISA; Results: The S2 SARS-CoV-2 IgG levels were higher in the COVID-19 PCR (p = 0.014) and viral symptom (p = 0.040) groups than in the Ctl1-2018 group. We detected a higher number of positive correlations between the antigens and secretory antibodies in the COVID-19 PCR group than in the viral symptom and Ctl-2018 groups. S1 + S2 HCoV-OC43-reactive IgG was higher in the COVID-19 group than in the control group (p = 0.002) but did not differ for the other antibodies; Conclusions: Mothers with a confirmed COVID-19 PCR and mothers with previous viral symptoms had preexisting human milk antibodies against S2 subunit SARS-CoV-2. Human milk IgG were more specific to S2 subunit SARS-CoV-2 than other antibodies, whereas SIgA and SIgM were polyreactive and cross-reactive to S1 or S2 subunit SARS-CoV-2.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Coronavirus Humano 229E/metabolismo , Coronavirus Humano OC43/metabolismo , Leite Humano/metabolismo , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia , Adulto , Reações Antígeno-Anticorpo , Reações Cruzadas , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Imunoglobulina G/metabolismo , Imunoglobulina M/imunologia , Mães , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , RNA Viral/metabolismo , /isolamento & purificação , /metabolismo
2.
Yakugaku Zasshi ; 140(10): 1199-1206, 2020.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32999198

RESUMO

Potential risks to the fetus or infant should be considered prior to medication during pregnancy and lactation. It is essential to evaluate the exposure levels of drugs and their related factors in addition to toxicological effects. Epilepsy is one of the most common neurological complications in pregnancy; some women continue to use antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) to control seizures. Benzodiazepines (BZDs) are widely prescribed for several women who experience symptoms such as anxiety and insomnia during the postpartum period. In this review, we describe the 1) transport mechanisms of AEDs across the placenta and the effects of these drugs on placental transporters, and 2) the transfer of BZDs into breast milk. Our findings indicated that carrier systems were involved in the uptake of gabapentin (GBP) and lamotrigine (LTG) in placental trophoblast cell lines. SLC7A5 was the main contributor to GBP transport in placental cells. LTG was transported by a carrier that was sensitive to chloroquine, imipramine, quinidine, and verapamil. Short-term exposure to 16 AEDs had no effect on folic acid uptake in placental cells. However, long-term exposure to valproic acid (VPA) affected the expression of folate carriers (FOLR1, SLC46A1). Furthermore, VPA administration changed the expression levels of various transporters in rat placenta, suggesting that sensitivity to VPA differed across gestational stages. Lastly, we developed a method for quantifying eight BZDs in human breast milk and plasma using LC/MS/MS, and successfully applied it to quantify alprazolam in breast milk and plasma donated by a lactating woman.


Assuntos
Anticonvulsivantes/metabolismo , Benzodiazepinas/metabolismo , Transporte Biológico/genética , Aleitamento Materno , Gabapentina/metabolismo , Lactação/metabolismo , Lamotrigina/metabolismo , Transportador 1 de Aminoácidos Neutros Grandes/fisiologia , Troca Materno-Fetal , Leite Humano/metabolismo , Placenta/metabolismo , Ácido Valproico/metabolismo , Anticonvulsivantes/efeitos adversos , Benzodiazepinas/efeitos adversos , Benzodiazepinas/uso terapêutico , Linhagem Celular , Epilepsia/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Receptor 1 de Folato/genética , Receptor 1 de Folato/metabolismo , Gabapentina/efeitos adversos , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Lamotrigina/efeitos adversos , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/tratamento farmacológico , Transportador de Folato Acoplado a Próton/genética , Transportador de Folato Acoplado a Próton/metabolismo , Ácido Valproico/efeitos adversos
3.
Toxicon ; 187: 203-208, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32971097

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to assess the contamination of breast milk by aflatoxin M1 among nursing mothers from Rabat, Morocco, and to explore its association with several maternal parameters and dietary habits. In addition, the health risk assessment of the newborns by the estimation of the daily intake. A competitive Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay method was used for the analysis of aflatoxin M1 in breast milk samples. Analytical results indicate that out of 82 total samples, 43 samples (52.4%) of milk were positive. Aflatoxin M1 levels ranged from undetectable to 13.33 ng/L, while the mean level was 5.75 ± 3.44 ng/L. Besides, several factors and foodstuffs seem to increase the level of AFM1 in breast milk. As regards the estimated daily intake of aflatoxin M1, it varies between immeasurable and a maximum of 1.16 ng/kg.bw. The degree of exposure to AFB1 and the levels of its metabolite AFM1 in breast milk were low, compared to some studies from other countries. Further investigations and periodic monitoring programs are recommended in large samples and in many cities of morocco to assess the level of exposure of the Moroccan population.


Assuntos
Aflatoxina M1/metabolismo , Leite Humano/metabolismo , Exposição Dietética , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Marrocos , Prevalência , Medição de Risco
4.
Toxicon ; 187: 209-213, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32971098

RESUMO

This research investigated the occurrence of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1), ochratoxin A (OTA), and zearalenone (ZEN) in human milk samples in the Hamadan city, Iran. The study was carried out using the milk of nursing mothers from ten governmental health care centers. Mycotoxin content of ninety milk samples measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). All samples that tested positive for AFM1 with the ELISA test were subsequently analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The mean ± SD concentrations of AFM1, determined by ELISA and HPLC were 5.98 ± 1.47 and 4.36 ± 1.23 ng/L, respectively. OTA and ZEN levels were below the detection limit (<5 ng/L) in all samples. None of the contaminated samples exceeded the regulation limit set by the European Commission (25 ng/L) for AFM1 in infant formula. We found a significant correlation between the AFM1 concentration in breast milk and infant age and milk consumption by the nursing mother (p < 0.05). These findings revealed that infants are susceptible to AFM1 exposure from their mother's milk. The authors recommend that additional research be conducted on the analysis of foodstuff and biological fluids for various mycotoxins.


Assuntos
Aflatoxina M1/metabolismo , Exposição Dietética/estatística & dados numéricos , Leite Humano/metabolismo , Ocratoxinas/metabolismo , Zearalenona/metabolismo , Feminino , Contaminação de Alimentos , Humanos , Lactente , Irã (Geográfico) , Exposição Materna/estatística & dados numéricos
5.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1252: 159-163, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32816277

RESUMO

Breastfeeding is an important aspect of mother-newborn relationship and is of great benefit for the baby. Unfortunately, many drugs taken by the mother may pass into her milk and exert an effect on the newborn. Very limited data is available and a cautionary approach is warranted especially when the woman receives anticancer treatment including chemotherapy , hormonal treatment and the recently introduced target agents as well as monoclonal antibodies. In all these conditions breastfeeding should be put on hold.More and more often physicians are faced with women that are pregnant years after the diagnosis of cancer: this has long been considered dangerous for the mother, but data show that prognosis is definitely not worse. If the woman is no longer being actively treated, breastfeeding is advisable every time it is possible, even if patients that received breast radiation may be unable to produce a sufficient amount of milk on that side.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno , Neoplasias da Mama/terapia , Lactação , Complicações Neoplásicas na Gravidez/terapia , Mama/efeitos da radiação , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Lactação/efeitos da radiação , Leite Humano/metabolismo , Gravidez , Fatores de Tempo
6.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237067, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32817664

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Little consensus exists for growth performance of different feeding patterns in infancy. The objective of this study is to assess the growth performance of exclusively breastfed, partially breastfed and formula fed infants in China. METHODS: Data from a total of 109,052 infants aged 1-<12 months were collected from the 4th and 5th China National Surveys in 2005 and 2015. Feeding patterns were classified into three types for infants under 6 months of age: exclusive breastfeeding, partial breastfeeding and formula feeding. Exclusive breastfeeding refers to feeding exclusively from the mother's own milk (bottle-feeding included). RESULTS: 34.0% and 43.9% of infants were exclusively breastfed and 41.5% and 36.3% were partially breastfed at 4-<6 months in 2005 and 2015 respectively. Exclusively breastfed infants were generally a little heavier than partially breastfed and formula fed infants aged 1-<6 months; however, there was not a significant statistical difference between continued breastfeeding and formula feeding infants aged 6-<12 months. No significant statistical difference for length was observed among the three groups for ages 1-<6 months; however, infants who were continued to be breastfed were a little shorter compared to those who were formula fed (ages 6-<12 months). For infants aged 1-<2 months there was not a substantial difference from the 2006 WHO growth standards; however, for infants aged 2-<12 months the average weight and length of different feeding infants in China were a little heavier and longer than the 2006 WHO growth standards. CONCLUSIONS: Partial breastfed and formula fed infants were a little lighter than exclusively breastfed infants in the first half of the first year. Formula fed infants were a little longer than continued breastfed infants in the second half.


Assuntos
Alimentação Artificial/métodos , Aleitamento Materno/métodos , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Peso Corporal/fisiologia , China , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Leite Humano/metabolismo
7.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(8): 6782-6797, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32600770

RESUMO

For breast-fed infants, human milk is a source of various nutrients (e.g., proteins, peptides, antibodies) and bioactive components that promote neonatal growth and protect infants from viral and bacterial infection. Moreover, in terms of infant nutrition and protection the functions of many human milk components are very different from those of blood and other biological fluids of healthy adults. For example, catalytic antibodies ("abzymes") with synthetic activities (protein, oligosaccharide, and lipid kinase activities) have been found in human breast milk that are absent in the blood of healthy people. Abzymes with hydrolyzing functions have been detected not only in milk, but also in the blood of patients with autoimmune diseases. Obviously, feeding newborns human milk has a very specific role and it is a unique aspect of mammalian nutrition. Ribonuclease and DNase autoantibodies or abzymes are found in milk and blood of lactating women, but not in blood sera of healthy men and nonpregnant woman. Here, we present the first evidence that human milk secretory IgA molecules (sIgA) can effectively hydrolyze ribooligonucleotides containing 23 different bases [(pN)23 ribooligonucleotides] and 4 microRNAs: miR-9-5p, miR-219-2-3p, miR-137, and miR-219a-5p. Ribonuclease activity is an inherent property of sIgAs. We showed that 7 individual sIgAs hydrolyzed the ribooligonucleotides (pA)23, (pU)23, and (pC)23 nonspecifically and with comparable efficiency, whereas hydrolysis of the 4 microRNAs by sIgAs was site-specific. Sites of hydrolysis of 4 microRNAs by IgG from blood of patients with schizophrenia have been previously identified. The sites of hydrolysis of 4 microRNAs by sIgA-abzymes were very different from the previously identified sites of hydrolysis by IgG in patients with schizophrenia. In addition, in contrast to IgG, milk sIgAs efficiently hydrolyzed microRNAs in their loop and duplex regions.


Assuntos
Imunoglobulina A Secretora/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Leite Humano/metabolismo , Ribonucleotídeos/metabolismo , Adulto , Animais , Anticorpos Catalíticos/química , Anticorpos Catalíticos/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Hidrólise , Lactação , Leite Humano/imunologia , Oligossacarídeos/análise
8.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3285, 2020 07 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32620774

RESUMO

The early life human gut microbiota exerts life-long health effects on the host, but the mechanisms underpinning its assembly remain elusive. Particularly, the early colonization of Clostridiales from the Roseburia-Eubacterium group, associated with protection from colorectal cancer, immune- and metabolic disorders is enigmatic. Here, we describe catabolic pathways that support the growth of Roseburia and Eubacterium members on distinct human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs). The HMO pathways, which include enzymes with a previously unknown structural fold and specificity, were upregulated together with additional glycan-utilization loci during growth on selected HMOs and in co-cultures with Akkermansia muciniphila on mucin, suggesting an additional role in enabling cross-feeding and access to mucin O-glycans. Analyses of 4599 Roseburia genomes underscored the preponderance and diversity of the HMO utilization loci within the genus. The catabolism of HMOs by butyrate-producing Clostridiales may contribute to the competitiveness of this group during the weaning-triggered maturation of the microbiota.


Assuntos
Butiratos/metabolismo , Clostridiales/metabolismo , Leite Humano/metabolismo , Mucinas/metabolismo , Oligossacarídeos/metabolismo , Bifidobacterium/metabolismo , Clostridiales/genética , Colo/microbiologia , Eubacterium/metabolismo , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Metabolismo/fisiologia , Leite Humano/química , Polissacarídeos/metabolismo , Verrucomicrobia/metabolismo , Desmame
10.
Obstet Gynecol ; 136(1): 70-76, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32541292

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate bupivacaine concentrations in maternal plasma and transfer into breast milk in women undergoing liposomal bupivacaine infiltration in the transversus abdominis plane after cesarean birth. METHODS: Prospective cohort study of healthy pregnant women who underwent cesarean birth at term followed by a transversus abdominis plane block using 52 mg bupivacaine hydrochloride 0.25% (20 mL) and 266 mg liposomal bupivacaine 1.3% (20 mL). Simultaneous blood and milk samples were collected in a staggered fashion, three to four samples per patient at the following timepoints after block administration: 2, 6, 12, 24, 48, 72, and 96 hours. Quantification of bupivacaine was performed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Neonatal drug exposure was modeled by calculating milk/plasma area under the curve (AUC) ratios, neonatal dosage, and relative neonatal dosage of bupivacaine at each sampling time. RESULTS: Thirty patients were enrolled. Concentrations in breast milk peaked at 6 hours (mean 58 ng/mL), followed by constant and steady decline to low levels at 96 hours (mean 5.2 ng/mL). Maternal plasma concentrations had two peaks, first at 6 hours (mean 155.9 ng/mL) and then at 48 hours (mean 225.8 ng/mL), followed by steady decline. Milk/plasma AUC0-t ratios ranged between AUC0-2 of 0.45 (80% CI 0.38-0.52) and AUC0-96 of 0.15 (80% CI 0.14-0.17). Neonatal dosage ranged between a mean of 355.9 ng/kg at 0-2 hours and a mean of 15,155.4 ng/kg at 0-96 hours. Relative neonatal dosage was less than 1% at all time intervals. No serious adverse reactions occurred in any neonate. CONCLUSION: Bupivacaine is excreted in breast milk after local infiltration of liposomal bupivacaine and bupivacaine hydrochloride mixture into transversus abdominis plane blocks after cesarean birth. Relative neonatal dosages of less than 1% (less than 10% is considered to be unlikely to be of clinical concern) suggest minimal risks for breastfeeding healthy, term neonates after the administration of this combination of local anesthetics to mothers. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03526419.


Assuntos
Anestésicos Locais/farmacocinética , Bupivacaína/farmacocinética , Cesárea , Leite Humano/metabolismo , Bloqueio Nervoso , Adulto , Anestésicos Locais/administração & dosagem , Anestésicos Locais/sangue , Área Sob a Curva , Bupivacaína/administração & dosagem , Bupivacaína/sangue , Estudos de Coortes , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Cuidado Pré-Natal , Estudos Prospectivos , Adulto Jovem
11.
Enferm. clín. (Ed. impr.) ; 30(supl.5): 202-205, jun. 2020. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-196669

RESUMO

Based on preliminary studies, it is known that 80% of working mothers fail to make exclusive breastfeeding, on average babies are given formula milk 2-4 months old and stop breastfeeding at 6-18 months of age. Papaya leaves are one of the galactagogues that contain quercetin which can activate the hormone prolactin and help increase breastmilk. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of giving papaya leaf juice for nursing mothers who work toward increasing levels of the hormone prolactin and infant weight in Tangerang. The research design used was a pre-experimental model with one group pretest-posttest design. Samples taken as many as 10 mothers who have babies aged 0-6 months who have difficulty in breastfeeding because the amount of breastmilk was a little. The study was conducted in several clinics in Tangerang. The intervention was giving papaya leaf juice for 7 consecutive days. The results obtained from this study are as follows: 90% of mothers aged between 20 and 35 years, 70% of mothers have a history of spontaneous labor and have no complications at the time of delivery, 40% of mother's education is junior high school (SMP), and 70% of mothers are primiparas. The average increase in the amount of prolactin after the intervention was 19.59ng/ml, while the average weight gain of the newborn after the intervention was 165g. Wilcoxon test results for increased levels of the hormone prolactin p-value of 0.047<0.05 and for an increase in body weight of newborns p-value of 0.009<0.05. CONCLUSION: There is an effect of giving papaya leaf juice for nursing mothers who work on increasing levels of the hormone prolactin and infant weight in Tangerang. Papaya leaf juice can be a galactagogue for mothers who experience problems with a small amount of breastmilk


No disponible


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Recém-Nascido , Lactente , Adulto , Carica/metabolismo , Aleitamento Materno/métodos , Hormônio Liberador de Prolactina , Leite Humano/metabolismo , Mães , Comportamento Alimentar , Glândulas Mamárias Humanas/metabolismo , Glândulas Mamárias Humanas/fisiologia , Prolactina/metabolismo
12.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 112(1): 106-112, 2020 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32401307

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Oligosaccharides are the third most abundant component in human milk. They are a potential protective agent against neonatal sepsis. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to explore the association between human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) and late-onset sepsis in very-low-birth-weight infants, and to describe the composition and characteristics of HMOs in Peruvian mothers of these infants. METHODS: This is a secondary data analysis of a randomized clinical trial. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of mothers and their very-low-birth-weight (<1500 g) infants with ≥1 milk sample and follow-up data for >30 d. HMOs were measured by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). We used factor analysis and the Mantel-Cox test to explore the association between HMOs and late-onset neonatal sepsis. RESULTS: We included 153 mother-infant pairs and 208 milk samples. Overall, the frequency of the secretor phenotype was 93%. Secretors and nonsecretors were defined by the presence and near-absence of α1-2-fucosylated HMOs, respectively. The most abundant oligosaccharides were 2'-fucosyllactose, lacto-N-fucopentaose (LNFP) I, and difucosyllacto-N-tetraose in secretors and lacto-N-tetraose and LNFP II in nonsecretors. Secretors had higher amounts of total oligosaccharides than nonsecretors (11.45 g/L; IQR: 0.773 g/L compared with 8.04 g/L; IQR: 0.449 g/L). Mature milk samples were more diverse in terms of HMOs than colostrum (Simpson's Reciprocal Diversity Index). We found an association of factor 3 in colostrum with a reduced risk of late-onset sepsis (HR: 0.63; 95% CI: 0.41, 0.97). Fucosyl-disialyllacto-N-hexose (FDSLNH) was the only oligosaccharide correlated to factor 3. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that concentrations of different HMOs vary from one individual to another according to their lactation period and secretor status. We also found that FDSLNH might protect infants with very low birth weight from late-onset neonatal sepsis. Confirming this association could prove 1 more mechanism by which human milk protects infants against infections and open the door to clinical applications of HMOs.This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01525316.


Assuntos
Recém-Nascido de muito Baixo Peso/metabolismo , Leite Humano/química , Leite Humano/metabolismo , Sepse Neonatal/metabolismo , Oligossacarídeos/metabolismo , Adulto , Idade de Início , Colostro/química , Colostro/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Oligossacarídeos/análise , Peru , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
13.
Am J Physiol Cell Physiol ; 318(6): C1166-C1177, 2020 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32320289

RESUMO

Suboptimal lactation is a common, yet underappreciated cause for early cessation of breastfeeding. Molecular regulation of mammary gland function is critical to the process lactation; however, physiological factors underlying insufficient milk production are poorly understood. The zinc (Zn) transporter ZnT2 is critical for regulation of mammary gland development and maturation during puberty, lactation, and postlactation gland remodeling. Numerous genetic variants in the gene encoding ZnT2 (SLC30A2) are associated with low milk Zn concentration and result in severe Zn deficiency in exclusively breastfed infants. However, the functional impacts of genetic variation in ZnT2 on key mammary epithelial cell functions have not yet been systematically explored at the cellular level. Here we determined a common mutation in SLC30A2/ZnT2 substituting serine for threonine at amino acid 288 (Thr288Ser) was found in 20% of women producing low milk volume (n = 2/10) but was not identified in women producing normal volume. Exploration of cellular consequences in vitro using phosphomimetics showed the serine substitution promoted preferential phosphorylation of ZnT2, driving localization to the lysosome and increasing lysosome biogenesis and acidification. While the substitution did not initiate lysosome-mediated cell death, cellular ATP levels were significantly reduced. Our findings demonstrate the Thr288Ser mutation in SLC30A2/ZnT2 impairs critical functions of mammary epithelial cells and suggest a role for genetic variation in the regulation of milk production and lactation performance.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Transporte de Cátions/metabolismo , Metabolismo Energético , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Lactação/metabolismo , Lisossomos/metabolismo , Glândulas Mamárias Humanas/metabolismo , Leite Humano/metabolismo , Mutação , Trifosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Proteínas de Transporte de Cátions/genética , Linhagem Celular , Metabolismo Energético/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Lactação/genética , Lisossomos/genética , Biogênese de Organelas , Fosforilação , Adulto Jovem
14.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 111(6): 1190-1202, 2020 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32330237

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Neonatal diet has a large influence on child health and might modulate changes in fecal microbiota and metabolites. OBJECTIVES: The aim is to investigate fecal microbiota and metabolites at different ages in infants who were breastfed (BF), received dairy-based milk formula (MF), or received soy-based formula (SF). METHODS: Fecal samples were collected at 3 (n = 16, 12, and 14, respectively), 6 (n = 20, 19, and 15, respectively), 9 (n = 12, 11, and 12, respectively), and 12 mo (n = 14, 14, and 15, respectively) for BF, MF, and SF infants. Infants that breastfed until 9 mo and switched to formula were considered as no longer breastfeeding at 12 mo. Microbiota data were obtained using 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing. Untargeted metabolomics was conducted using a Q-Exactive Hybrid Quadrupole-Orbitrap mass spectrometer. The data were analyzed using R (version 3.6.0) within the RStudio (version 1.1.463) platform. RESULTS: At 3, 6, and 9 mo of age BF infants had the lowest α-diversity, SF infants had the highest diversity, and MF was intermediate. Bifidobacterium was 2.6- to 5-fold lower in SF relative to BF infants through 1 y of life. An unidentified genus from Ruminococcaceae higher in the SF (2%) than in the MF (0.4%) and BF (0.08%) infants at 3 mo of age was observed. In BF infants higher levels of butyric acid, d-sphingosine, kynurenic acid, indole-3-lactic acid, indole-3-acetic acid, and betaine were observed than in MF and SF infants. At 3 mo Ruminococcaceae was positively correlated to azelaic, gentisic, isocitric, sebacic, and syringic acids. At 6 mo Oscillospira was negatively correlated with 3-hydroxybutyric-acid, hydroxy-hydrocinnamic acid, and betaine whereas Bifidobacterium was negatively associated with 5-hydroxytryptamine. At 12 mo of age, Lachnospiraceae was negatively associated with hydroxyphenyllactic acid. CONCLUSIONS: Infant diet has a large impact on the fecal microbiome and metabolome in the first year of life.This study was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00616395.


Assuntos
Alimentação Artificial , Aleitamento Materno , Fezes/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Metaboloma , Leite Humano/metabolismo , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Fórmulas Infantis/análise , Masculino
15.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 194: 110339, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32143103

RESUMO

Serum and breast milk are both important biological samples to evaluate body burden of dioxin-like compounds which include polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs). We collected maternal serum at early pregnancy, and breast milk at 3-8 weeks after delivery from 55 mothers living in Beijing, China, and measured 29 dioxin-like compounds in these samples. The sampling intervals in this study were extended up to 10 months to analyze differences of contents between serum and breast milk under long sampling intervals. The results showed that mean TEq level of PCDD/Fs in serum (9.8 pg TEq g-1 lipid) was 1.7 times higher than that in milk (4.5 pg TEq g-1 lipid), while the TEq concentrations of dl-PCBs in serum (1.2 pg TEq g-1 lipid) was significantly lower than that in milk (2.0 pg TEq g-1 lipid). There were only two congeners, OCDD (r = 0.32) and PCB105 (r = 0.33), the correlations of which between serum and milk were significant. The differences in distributions of congeners in serum and milk might be influenced by number of chlorine substituents and structures of congeners. In addition, maternal age and BMI were positively and negatively correlated with mass concentrations of dioxin-like compounds in milk and serum respectively. These results suggest that, compared with serum, it is limited to use breast milk to assess long-term exposure for the wider population.


Assuntos
Dioxinas/metabolismo , Poluentes Ambientais/metabolismo , Leite Humano/metabolismo , Pequim , Benzofuranos/análise , Carga Corporal (Radioterapia) , China , Cloretos/análise , Cloro/análise , Dibenzofuranos , Dibenzofuranos Policlorados/análise , Dioxinas/análise , Dioxinas/sangue , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Poluentes Ambientais/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Lipídeos/análise , Exposição Materna/estatística & dados numéricos , Leite Humano/química , Bifenilos Policlorados , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas/análise , Gravidez
16.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(14): 7941-7949, 2020 04 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32179676

RESUMO

Late-onset sepsis (LOS) is a highly consequential complication of preterm birth and is defined by a positive blood culture obtained after 72 h of age. The causative bacteria can be found in patients' intestinal tracts days before dissemination, and cohort studies suggest reduced LOS risk in breastfed preterm infants through unknown mechanisms. Reduced concentrations of epidermal growth factor (EGF) of maternal origin within the intestinal tract of mice correlated to the translocation of a gut-resident human pathogen Escherichia coli, which spreads systemically and caused a rapid, fatal disease in pups. Translocation of Escherichia coli was associated with the formation of colonic goblet cell-associated antigen passages (GAPs), which translocate enteric bacteria across the intestinal epithelium. Thus, maternally derived EGF, and potentially other EGFR ligands, prevents dissemination of a gut-resident pathogen by inhibiting goblet cell-mediated bacterial translocation. Through manipulation of maternally derived EGF and alteration of the earliest gut defenses, we have developed an animal model of pathogen dissemination which recapitulates gut-origin neonatal LOS.


Assuntos
Translocação Bacteriana/imunologia , Receptores ErbB/metabolismo , Infecções por Escherichia coli/imunologia , Escherichia coli/imunologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/imunologia , Leite Humano/imunologia , Sepse Neonatal/imunologia , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Antígenos de Bactérias/imunologia , Antígenos de Bactérias/metabolismo , Aleitamento Materno , Colo/metabolismo , Colo/microbiologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Fator de Crescimento Epidérmico/metabolismo , Receptores ErbB/genética , Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Infecções por Escherichia coli/microbiologia , Fezes/química , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro/imunologia , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Mucosa Intestinal/microbiologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Leite Humano/metabolismo , Sepse Neonatal/metabolismo , Sepse Neonatal/microbiologia , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia , Fatores de Tempo
17.
J Pediatr ; 222: 236-239, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32171562

RESUMO

Lactation is contraindicated for women with sickle cell anemia receiving hydroxyurea therapy, despite sparse pharmacokinetics data. In 16 women who were lactating volunteers, we documented hydroxyurea transferred into breastmilk with a relative infant dosage of 3.4%, which is below the recommended 5%-10% safety threshold. Breastfeeding should be permitted for women taking daily oral hydroxyurea.


Assuntos
Anemia Falciforme/tratamento farmacológico , Hidroxiureia/farmacocinética , Lactação/efeitos dos fármacos , Leite Humano/metabolismo , Adulto , Anemia Falciforme/metabolismo , Antineoplásicos/farmacocinética , Antidrepanocíticos , Feminino , Humanos , Leite Humano/efeitos dos fármacos
18.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 4270, 2020 03 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32144305

RESUMO

Several factors affect gut microbiota development in early life, among which breastfeeding plays a key role. We followed 24 mother-infant pairs to investigate the associations between concentrations of selected human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) in breastmilk, infant faeces, and the faecal microbiota composition in healthy, breastfed infants at two, six and 12 weeks of age. Lactation duration had a significant effect on breastmilk HMO content, which decreased with time, except for 3-fucosyllactose (3FL) and Lacto-N-fucopentaose III (LNFP III). We confirmed that microbiota composition was strongly influenced by infant age and was associated with mode of delivery and breastmilk LNFP III concentration at two weeks, with infant sex, delivery mode, and concentrations of 3'sialyllactose (3'SL) in milk at six weeks, and infant sex and Lacto-N-hexaose (LNH) in milk at 12 weeks of age. Correlations between levels of individual breastmilk HMOs and relative abundance of OTUs found in infant faeces, including the most predominant Bifidobacterium OTUs, were weak and varied with age. The faecal concentration of HMOs decreased with age and were strongly and negatively correlated with relative abundance of OTUs within genera Bifidobacterium, Parabacteroides, Escherichia-Shigella, Bacteroides, Actinomyces, Veillonella, Lachnospiraceae Incertae Sedis, and Erysipelotrichaceae Incertae Sedis, indicating the likely importance of these taxa for HMO metabolism in vivo.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno , Fezes/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Leite Humano/metabolismo , Oligossacarídeos/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Lactação , Masculino , Mães
19.
Chemosphere ; 249: 126149, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32062213

RESUMO

The toxicity of endocrine disruptors depends on the synergistic interactions of biological, environmental, and behavioral factors. The specific effects of diet, consumer product use, and behaviors, however, are debated in the literature, particularly with regard to endocrine disruptors found in breast milk. This study aimed to measure the levels of phthalate metabolites, bisphenol A, parabens, and triclosan in breast milk and to investigate their associations with various lifestyle factors. The breast milk samples as well as surveys were collected from 221 first-time mothers throughout South Korea and each sample was analyzed for the presence of 15 endocrine disruptors. Phthalate metabolites were detected in 5.4-83.3% of the samples, with median concentrations of 0.08-1.72 µg/L, while bisphenol A, parabens, and triclosan were detected in 25.8-88.2% of the samples, with median concentrations of 0.12-1.47 µg/L. High levels of endocrine disruptors were associated with frequent consumption of fish and cup noodles; the use of plastic and disposable food containers; the use of air fresheners, lotions and make-up; the purchase of new furniture; and socioeconomic status. We also observed the potential role of moderate walking activity on the reduction of these chemicals in breast milk. Our data provide evidence of the potential effects of diet, consumer products, and behavior on the presence of phthalate metabolites, bisphenol A, parabens, and triclosan in breast milk. Future studies should include community or regional impact on a mothers' exposure to endocrine disruptors, to assess the joint contribution of both individual and neighborhood factors.


Assuntos
Compostos Benzidrílicos/metabolismo , Poluentes Ambientais/metabolismo , Exposição Materna/estatística & dados numéricos , Leite Humano/metabolismo , Parabenos/metabolismo , Fenóis/metabolismo , Ácidos Ftálicos/metabolismo , Triclosan/metabolismo , Dieta , Disruptores Endócrinos , Feminino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Leite Humano/química , Mães , Parabenos/análise , República da Coreia , Inquéritos e Questionários
20.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 111(4): 769-778, 2020 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32068776

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Breastfeeding modulates infant growth and protects against the development of obesity. However, whether or not maternal variation in human milk components, such as human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs), is associated with programming of child growth remains unknown. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to determine the association between maternal HMO composition and child growth during the first 5 y of life. In addition, the association between maternal prepregnancy BMI and HMO composition was assessed. METHODS: Human milk samples from 802 mothers were obtained from a prospective population-based birth cohort study, Steps to healthy development of Children (STEPS), conducted in Turku, Finland. HMO composition in these milk samples was analyzed by HPLC. Child growth data from 3 mo to 5 y were collected from municipal well-baby clinics and linked to maternal HMO composition data to test for associations. RESULTS: Maternal HMO composition 3 mo after delivery was associated with height and weight during the first 5 y of life in children of secretor mothers. Specifically, HMO diversity and the concentration of lacto-N-neo-tetraose (LNnT) were inversely associated and that of 2'-fucosyllactose (2'FL) was directly associated with child height and weight z scores in a model adjusted for maternal prepregnancy BMI, mode of delivery, birthweight z score, sex, and time. Maternal prepregnancy BMI was associated with HMO composition. CONCLUSIONS: The association between maternal HMO composition and childhood growth may imply a causal relation, which warrants additional testing in preclinical and clinical studies, especially since 2'FL and LNnT are among the HMOs now being added to infant formula. Furthermore, altered HMO composition may mediate the impact of maternal prepregnancy BMI on childhood obesity, which warrants further investigation to establish the cause-and-effect relation.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil , Leite Humano/metabolismo , Adulto , Estatura , Peso Corporal , Aleitamento Materno , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Finlândia , Humanos , Lactente , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Leite Humano/química , Oligossacarídeos/análise , Oligossacarídeos/metabolismo , Estudos Prospectivos , Adulto Jovem
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