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1.
Nutr. hosp ; 36(5): 1139-1149, sept.-oct. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-184638

RESUMO

Introducción: la leche materna es el primer alimento fundamental de los neonatos y proporciona todas las fuentes de energía, nutrientes y protección inmunológica que necesitan durante sus primeros meses de vida. Lamentablemente, existen circunstancias específicas que implican que la madre no pueda alimentar correctamente a su bebé, ya que las necesidades nutricionales de la madre difieren en cierta medida durante los diversos periodos de la vida, especialmente en la lactancia, ya que se aumentan las necesidades nutricionales debido a la pérdida de nutrientes, primero por el calostro y luego a través de la leche materna. Objetivo: demostrar la influencia de la dieta de mujeres mexicanas sobre la calidad nutricional y la presencia de microorganismos benéficos en la leche humana. Métodos: se llevaron a cabo 70 encuestas descriptivas de nutrición y toma de muestras de leche a mujeres en estado lactante. Las leches fueron sometidas a diversos análisis bromatológicos y microbiológicos para evaluar su calidad nutricional y posible actividad probiótica. Resultados: se demostró que la ingesta de alimentos de la madre influye en la calidad nutricional de la leche. Asimismo, afecta el desarrollo y crecimiento de las bacterias lácticas. Se aislaron e identificaron diversas cepas en leche humana del género Lactobacillus, además de bacterias patógenas como el caso de Lodderomyces elongisporus, entre otros. Conclusiones: la alimentación de las madres se refleja directamente en la calidad nutricional de la leche. Se observó que la cantidad de nutrientes esenciales de la leche, como son los hidratos de carbono, lípidos y proteínas, varían conforme a la alimentación y el ritmo de vida de las madres, así como la disminución significativa de bacterias lácticas con potencial probiótico


Introduction: breast milk is the first fundamental food of newborns and it provides all the sources of energy, nutrients and the immunological protection they need during their first months of life. Unfortunately, there are specific circumstances that imply that the mother cannot feed her baby correctly, since the mother's nutritional needs differ to a certain extent during different periods of life. Especially in breastfeeding, since nutritional needs are increased, due to the loss of nutrients, first by colostrum and then by breast milk. Objective: to demonstrate the influence of the diet of Mexican women on the nutritional quality and the presence of beneficial microorganisms in human milk. Methods: seventy descriptive surveys of nutrition and sampling of milk to women in nursing state were carried out. The milks were subjected to various bromatological and microbiological analyzes to evaluate their nutritional quality and possible probiotic activity. Results: it was shown that the mother's food intake influences the nutritional quality of the milk. Likewise, it affects the development and growth of lactic acid bacteria. Several strains were isolated and identified in human milk of the genus Lactobacillus, as well as pathogenic bacteria such as Lodderomyces elongisporus among others. Conclusions: the mothers' nutrition is directly reflected in the nutritional quality of the milk. It was observed that the amount of essential nutrients of milk such as carbohydrates, lipids and proteins vary according to the diet and life rhythm of the mothers, as well as the significant decrease of lactic bacteria with probiotic potential


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Dieta , Leite Humano/microbiologia , Avaliação Nutricional , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Nutrientes , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Epidemiologia Descritiva , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Carboidratos , Proteínas
2.
J Hosp Infect ; 103(2): 217-222, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31301329

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Appropriate decontamination of breast pump milk collection kits (BPKs) is critical to obtain safe milk for infants and to avoid discarding donor human milk (DHM). AIM: To evaluate two strategies for BPK decontamination by assessing microbial cultures and the proportion of discarded DHM, according to the criteria of the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence for pre-pasteurization cultures. METHODS: Prospective comparative study, allocation ratio 1:1, microbiologist-blind. PARTICIPANTS: 47 new donors in a human milk bank in Madrid. INTERVENTIONS: Study group (N=21): BPKs washed with water and detergent after each use and further steam decontamination within a microwavable bag. Control group (N=26): washing, rinsing and drying only. Five samples: first sample by hand expression and four samples (one per week) collected using the same pump and method. OUTCOMES: Primary: proportion of DHM discarded due to contamination. Secondary: comparison of the microbiota between samples obtained by hand expression and breast pump in both groups. FINDINGS: In total, 217 milk samples were collected: 47 by hand expression and 170 by pump expression (78 from study group). Steam decontamination of BPKs using a microwavable bag after washing resulted in a lower proportion of discarded DHM samples (1.3% vs 18.5%, P<0.001) and samples contaminated with Enterobacteriaceae (1.3% vs 22.8%, P<0.001) and Candida spp. (1.3% vs 14.1%, P<0.05) compared with samples collected with BPKs that were washed but not steam decontaminated. There were no differences in bacterial contamination between samples obtained using steam decontaminated BPKs and those obtained by hand expression. CONCLUSIONS: Steam decontamination of BPKs using a microwavable bag after washing decreases the amount of discarded DHM and the number of samples with potentially pathogenic bacteria.


Assuntos
Descontaminação/métodos , Desinfecção/métodos , Equipamentos Médicos Duráveis , Bancos de Leite , Leite Humano/microbiologia , Adulto , Candida/isolamento & purificação , Enterobacteriaceae/isolamento & purificação , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos
3.
Nutrients ; 11(6)2019 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31226873

RESUMO

The human breast milk (HBM) bacteriome is an important, continuous source of microbes to the neonate in early life, playing an important role in shaping the infant's intestinal bacteriome. Study of the composition of the HBM bacteriome is an emerging area of research, with little information available, particularly from low- and middle-income countries. The aim of this study was to characterize the diversity of bacterial communities in HBM samples collected between 6-10 weeks postpartum from lactating South African women and to study potential influencing factors of the bacteriome. Using 16S rRNA gene sequencing of samples from 554 women, we demonstrated that the HBM bacteriome was largely dominated by the phyla Firmicutes (mean relative abundance: 71.1%) and Actinobacteria (mean relative abundance: 16.4%). The most abundant genera identified from the HBM bacteriome were Streptococcus (mean relative abundance: 48.6%), Staphylococcus (mean relative abundance: 17.8%), Rothia (mean relative abundance: 5.8%), and Corynebacterium (mean relative abundance: 4.3%). "Core" bacterial genera including Corynebacterium, Streptococcus, Staphylococcus, Rothia, Veillonella, Gemella, Acinetobacter, Micrococcus and a genus belonging to the Enterobacteriaceae family were present in 80% of samples. HBM samples were classified, according to their bacteriome, into three major clusters, dominated by the genera Staphylococcus (cluster 1), a combination of Staphylococcus and Streptococcus (cluster 2), and Streptococcus (cluster 3). The cluster groups differed significantly for Shannon and chao1 richness indices. Bacterial interactions were studied using co-occurrence networks with positive associations observed between the abundances of Staphylococcus and Corynebacteria (members of the skin microflora) and between Streptococcus, Rothia, Veillonella, and Gemella (members of the oral microflora). HBM from older mothers had a higher Shannon diversity index. The study site was associated with differences in HBM bacteriome composition (permutational multivariate analysis of variance using distance matrices (PERMANOVA), p < 0.05). No other tested socio-demographic or psychosocial factors were associated with HBM bacterial composition.


Assuntos
Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Microbiota , Leite Humano/microbiologia , Mães/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Técnicas Bacteriológicas , Feminino , Humanos , Lactação , RNA Ribossômico 16S , África do Sul
4.
Int. microbiol ; 22(2): 265-277, jun. 2019. graf, tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-184833

RESUMO

We aimed at isolating and characterising microorganisms present in human breast milk with probiotic potential. In an 8-week postpartum sampling period, two strains of bifidobacteria (Bifidobacterium longum LM7a and Bifidobacterium dentium LM8a') and four strains of lactobacilli were isolated, all during the first 4-week postpartum. B. longum LM7a and B. dentium LM8a', together with four strains previously isolated from breast milk (Bifidobacterium lactis INL1, INL2, INL4 and INL5), were considered for further studies. Susceptibility of the strains to tetracycline, erythromycin, clindamycin, streptomycin, vancomycin and chloramphenicol was evaluated and the isolates exhibited, in general, the same properties as previously reported for bifidobacteria. All isolates showed low hydrophobicity and B. lactis and B. longum strains had satisfactory resistance to gastric digestion and bile shock, but not to pancreatin. B. lactis INL1, B. longum LM7a and B. dentium LM8a' were selected for some comparative technological studies. In particular, B. lactis INL1 displayed technological potential, with satisfactory growth in cheese whey-based media in biofermentor and resistance to freeze-drying, accelerated storage conditions and simulated gastric digestion


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Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Bifidobacterium/isolamento & purificação , Lactobacillus/isolamento & purificação , Leite Humano/microbiologia , Probióticos/efeitos adversos , Soro do Leite/metabolismo , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Meios de Cultura/química , Lactobacillus/efeitos dos fármacos , Lactobacillus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Probióticos/isolamento & purificação , Bifidobacterium/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácidos e Sais Biliares/toxicidade , Ácido Gástrico/metabolismo , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Viabilidade Microbiana/efeitos dos fármacos , Pancreatina/toxicidade
6.
Nutrients ; 11(5)2019 May 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31137691

RESUMO

Human milk not only contains all nutritional elements that an infant requires, but is also the source of components whose regulatory role was confirmed by demonstrating health-related deficiencies in formula-fed children. A human milk diet is especially important for premature babies in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). In cases where breastfeeding is not possible and the mother's own milk is insufficient in volume, the most preferred food is pasteurized donor milk. The number of human milk banks has increased recently but their technical infrastructure is continuously developing. Heat treatment at a low temperature and long time, also known as holder pasteurization (62.5 °C, 30 min), is the most widespread method of human milk processing, whose effects on the quality of donor milk is well documented. Holder pasteurization destroys vegetative forms of bacteria and most viruses including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) herpes and cytomegalovirus (CMV). The macronutrients remain relatively intact but various beneficial components are destroyed completely or compromised. Enzymes and immune cells are the most heat sensitive elements. The bactericidal capacity of heat-pasteurized milk is lower than that of untreated milk. The aim of the study was for a comprehensive comparison of currently tested methods of improving the preservation stage. Innovative techniques of milk processing should minimize the risk of milk-borne infections and preserve the bioactivity of this complex biological fluid better than the holder method. In the present paper, the most promising thermal pasteurization condition (72 °C-75 °C,) and a few non-thermal processes were discussed (high pressure processing, microwave irradiation). This narrative review presents an overview of methods of human milk preservation that have been explored to improve the safety and quality of donor milk.


Assuntos
Extração de Leite , Bancos de Leite , Leite Humano , Valor Nutritivo , Pasteurização/métodos , Fatores Etários , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição do Lactente , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Leite Humano/química , Leite Humano/microbiologia , Leite Humano/virologia , Estado Nutricional , Gravidez
7.
Nutrients ; 11(5)2019 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31121859

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Holder pasteurization (HoP) is the recommended method of pasteurization for donor human milk (DHM). The aim of the present study was to compare nutritional and microbiological impact on DHM of a new technique of pasteurization based on technical changes of HoP. METHODS: We analyzed milk samples from 25 donors. Each sample, derived from one breast milk expression, was subdivided into three aliquots according to pasteurization: The first was not pasteurized, the second pasteurized by HoP, and the third was pasteurized by modified HoP (MHoP). Each aliquot was assessed as to its microbiological and nutritional profile. Nutritional profile included calcium and triglycerides concentrations detected by spectrophotometry and amino acid levels assessed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). RESULTS: Triglycerides were significantly lower in pasteurized, by both methods, than in not pasteurized aliquots, while calcium and amino acids concentration were similar. Microbiological profile did not differ between HoP and MHoP aliquots. CONCLUSIONS: HoP and MHoP seem to have similar efficacy in preserving some nutritional characteristics of DHM and to confer similar microbiological safety. MHoP is time-saving and potentially costs-effective when compared to HoP, and it is; therefore, potentially of more interest from a practical point of view. Further studies are needed to confirm these findings.


Assuntos
Leite Humano/química , Leite Humano/microbiologia , Valor Nutritivo , Pasteurização/métodos , Doadores de Tecidos , Aminoácidos/análise , Cálcio/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Bancos de Leite , Dados Preliminares , Triglicerídeos/análise
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31001489

RESUMO

The nutritional requirements of preterm infants are unique and challenging to meet in neonatal care, yet crucial for their growth, development and health. Normally, the gut microbiota has distinct metabolic capacities, making their role in metabolism of dietary components indispensable. In preterm infants, variation in microbiota composition is introduced while facing a unique set of environmental conditions. However, the effect of such variation on the microbiota's metabolic capacity and on the preterm infant's growth and development remains unresolved. In this review, we will provide a holistic overview on the development of the preterm gut microbiota and the unique environmental conditions contributing to this, in addition to maturation of the gastrointestinal tract and immune system in preterm infants. The role of prematurity, as well as the role of human milk, in the developmental processes is emphasized. Current research stresses the early life gut microbiota as cornerstone for simultaneous development of the gastrointestinal tract and immune system. Besides that, literature provides clues that prematurity affects growth and development. As such, this review is concluded with our hypothesis that prematurity of the gut microbiota may be an inconspicuous clinical challenge in achieving optimal feeding besides traditional challenges, such as preterm breast milk composition, high nutritional requirements and immaturity of the gastrointestinal tract and immune system. A better understanding of the metabolic capacity of the gut microbiota and its impact on gut and immune maturation in preterm infants could complement current feeding regimens in future neonatal care and thereby facilitate growth, development and health in preterm infants.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Trato Gastrointestinal/imunologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Microbiota , Leite Humano/microbiologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Humanos
9.
Future Microbiol ; 14: 623-641, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31025880

RESUMO

Breastfeeding is a major determinant of human health. Breast milk is not sterile and ecological large-scale sequencing methods have revealed an unsuspected microbial diversity that plays an important role. However, microbiological analysis at the species level has been neglected while it is a prerequisite before understanding which microbe is associated with symbiosis or dysbiosis, and health or disease. We review the currently known bacterial repertoire from the human breast and milk microbiota using a semiautomated strategy. Total 242 articles from 38 countries, 11,124 women and 15,489 samples were included. Total 820 species were identified mainly composed of Proteobacteria and Firmicutes. We report variations according to the analytical method (culture or molecular method), the anatomical site (breast, colostrum or milk) and the infectious status (healthy control, mastitis, breast abscess, neonatal infection). In addition, we compared it with the other human repertoires. Finally, we discuss its putative origin and role in health and disease.


Assuntos
Mama/microbiologia , Microbiota , Leite Humano/microbiologia , Abscesso/microbiologia , Archaea/classificação , Archaea/isolamento & purificação , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Aleitamento Materno , Colostro/microbiologia , Bases de Dados Factuais , Disbiose , Feminino , Humanos , Mastite/microbiologia , Simbiose
10.
Am J Med ; 132(8): 912-920, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30853481

RESUMO

Breastfeeding seems to be a low-cost intervention that provides both short- and long-term health benefits for the breastfeeding woman. Interventions to support breastfeeding can increase its rate, exclusivity, and duration. Internists often have a longitudinal relationship with their patients and can be important partners with obstetricians and pediatricians in advocating for breastfeeding. To play their unique and critical role in breastfeeding promotion, internists need to be knowledgeable about breastfeeding and its maternal health benefits. In this paper, we review the short- and long-term maternal health benefits of breastfeeding. We also discuss special considerations in the care of breastfeeding women for the internist.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno/tendências , Medicina Interna/educação , Aleitamento Materno/economia , Aleitamento Materno/métodos , Humanos , Medicina Interna/métodos , Serviços de Saúde Materna/normas , Serviços de Saúde Materna/estatística & dados numéricos , Leite Humano/metabolismo , Leite Humano/microbiologia
11.
Nutrients ; 11(2)2019 Feb 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30744134

RESUMO

Complementary feeding transitions infants from a milk-based diet to solid foods, providing essential nutrients to the infant and the developing gut microbiome while influencing immune development. Some of the earliest microbial colonisers readily ferment select oligosaccharides, influencing the ongoing establishment of the microbiome. Non-digestible oligosaccharides in prebiotic-supplemented formula and human milk oligosaccharides promote commensal immune-modulating bacteria such as Bifidobacterium, which decrease in abundance during weaning. Incorporating complex, bifidogenic, non-digestible carbohydrates during the transition to solid foods may present an opportunity to feed commensal bacteria and promote balanced concentrations of beneficial short chain fatty acid concentrations and vitamins that support gut barrier maturation and immunity throughout the complementary feeding window.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Fórmulas Infantis , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição do Lactente , Leite Humano , Prebióticos , Aleitamento Materno , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/imunologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Leite Humano/química , Leite Humano/imunologia , Leite Humano/microbiologia , Oligossacarídeos/metabolismo , Desmame
12.
Cell Host Microbe ; 25(2): 324-335.e4, 2019 02 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30763539

RESUMO

Breastmilk contains a complex community of bacteria that may help seed the infant gut microbiota. The composition and determinants of milk microbiota are poorly understood. Among 393 mother-infant dyads from the CHILD cohort, we found that milk microbiota at 3-4 months postpartum was dominated by inversely correlated Proteobacteria and Firmicutes, and exhibited discrete compositional patterns. Milk microbiota composition and diversity were associated with maternal factors (BMI, parity, and mode of delivery), breastfeeding practices, and other milk components in a sex-specific manner. Causal modeling identified mode of breastfeeding as a key determinant of milk microbiota composition. Specifically, providing pumped breastmilk was consistently associated with multiple microbiota parameters including enrichment of potential pathogens and depletion of bifidobacteria. Further, these data support the retrograde inoculation hypothesis, whereby the infant oral cavity impacts the milk microbiota. Collectively, these results identify features and determinants of human milk microbiota composition, with potential implications for infant health and development.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Idade Materna , Saúde Materna , Leite Humano/microbiologia , Adulto , Bifidobacterium/genética , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Firmicutes/genética , Humanos , Lactente , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Proteobactérias/genética , Fatores Sexuais
13.
Int Microbiol ; 22(2): 265-277, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30810989

RESUMO

We aimed at isolating and characterising microorganisms present in human breast milk with probiotic potential. In an 8-week postpartum sampling period, two strains of bifidobacteria (Bifidobacterium longum LM7a and Bifidobacterium dentium LM8a') and four strains of lactobacilli were isolated, all during the first 4-week postpartum. B. longum LM7a and B. dentium LM8a', together with four strains previously isolated from breast milk (Bifidobacterium lactis INL1, INL2, INL4 and INL5), were considered for further studies. Susceptibility of the strains to tetracycline, erythromycin, clindamycin, streptomycin, vancomycin and chloramphenicol was evaluated and the isolates exhibited, in general, the same properties as previously reported for bifidobacteria. All isolates showed low hydrophobicity and B. lactis and B. longum strains had satisfactory resistance to gastric digestion and bile shock, but not to pancreatin. B. lactis INL1, B. longum LM7a and B. dentium LM8a' were selected for some comparative technological studies. In particular, B. lactis INL1 displayed technological potential, with satisfactory growth in cheese whey-based media in biofermentor and resistance to freeze-drying, accelerated storage conditions and simulated gastric digestion.


Assuntos
Bifidobacterium/isolamento & purificação , Meios de Cultura/química , Lactobacillus/isolamento & purificação , Leite Humano/microbiologia , Probióticos/efeitos adversos , Probióticos/isolamento & purificação , Soro do Leite/metabolismo , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bifidobacterium/efeitos dos fármacos , Bifidobacterium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bifidobacterium/metabolismo , Ácidos e Sais Biliares/toxicidade , Feminino , Ácido Gástrico/metabolismo , Humanos , Lactobacillus/efeitos dos fármacos , Lactobacillus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Lactobacillus/metabolismo , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Viabilidade Microbiana/efeitos dos fármacos , Pancreatina/toxicidade
14.
Food Funct ; 10(2): 554-564, 2019 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30681124

RESUMO

Breast milk bacteria play an important role in the early development of the gut microbiota and the immune system. Dominant living bacteria of 89 healthy Chinese women from 11 cities in five regions were analysed by broad-range yeast extract, casitone, and fatty acid and de Man, Rogosa, and Sharpe-based culturing coupled with 16S rRNA sequence and quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Principal coordinate analysis showed that human breast milk samples were classified into three groups, driven by Enterococcus (abundance in group 1, 63.13%), Streptococcus (abundance in group 2, 68.16%) and Staphylococcus (abundance in group 3, 55.17%). The microbiota profile was highly region-specific. Samples from the Northwest and North of China showed higher alpha diversity compared to other regions (p < 0.05). Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, and Enterococcus were the dominant genera in all samples. Lactobacillus had a high occurrence in samples from the Northwest and North, dominated by Lactobacillus reuteri and Lactobacillus gasseri. Samples of mothers with a high postpartum body mass index showed more Staphylococcus and less Lactobacillus and Streptococcus. Staphylococcus was negatively correlated with Lactobacillus and Streptococcus. The mode of delivery also affected the composition of microbiota, even after culture. These findings indicate differences between the North and South, provide effective information for collection of samples in which Lactobacillus is the predominant genus, and lower the detection limit for small amounts of bacteria.


Assuntos
Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Microbiota/genética , Leite Humano/microbiologia , Adulto , Bactérias/genética , China , Demografia , Feminino , Humanos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , RNA Bacteriano/genética , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
15.
Microb Ecol ; 78(2): 517-527, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30627762

RESUMO

The development of the gut microbiome is influenced by several factors. It is acquired during and after birth and involves both maternal and environmental factors as well as the genetic disposition of the offspring. However, it is unclear if the microbiome development is directly triggered by the mode of delivery and very early contact with the mother or mostly at later stages of initial development mainly by breast milk provided by the mother. To investigate to what extent the gut microbiome composition of the offspring is determined by the nursing mother, providing breast milk, compared to the birth mother during early development, a cross-fostering experiment involving two genetically different mouse lines was developed, being prone to be obese or lean, respectively. The microbiome of the colon was analyzed by high-throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing, when the mice were 3 weeks old. The nursing mother affected both α- and ß-diversity of the offspring's gut microbiome and shaped its composition. Especially bacterial families directly transferred by breast milk, like Streptococcaceae, or families which are strongly influenced by the quality of the breast milk like Rikenellaceae, showed a strong response. The core microbiome transferred from the obese nursing mother showed a higher robustness in comparison to the microbiome transferred from the lean nursing mother. Overall, the nursing mother impacts the gut microbial composition of the offspring during early development and might play an important role for health and disease of the animals at later stages of life.


Assuntos
Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Leite Humano/microbiologia , Obesidade/microbiologia , Magreza/microbiologia , Animais , Animais Endogâmicos , Animais não Endogâmicos , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Mães/estatística & dados numéricos , Linhagem , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
16.
Biotechnol Lett ; 41(2): 263-272, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30535881

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Four kinds of oligosaccharides were used as co-encapsulating agents to test the effect of extrusion-based microencapsulation on protection of Lactobacillus fermentum L7 against exposure to simulated gastric and intestinal juices as well as long-term refrigeration storage at 4 °C. RESULTS: The combination of alginate with galacto-oligosaccharides, isomalto-oligosaccharides, fructo-oligosaccharides, and xylo-oligosaccharides, or alginate alone exhibited good properties of the beads. The diameters of the cell beads co-encapsulated with oligosaccharides and encapsulated with alginate alone were similar, in the range of 2.34-2.51 mm. However, the encapsulation yield of L. fermentum cells co-encapsulated with oligosaccharides, which was in the range of 79.52-89.75%, was significantly higher than that of cells encapsulated with alginate alone. The capsules were stable in gastric conditions and can disintegrated when exposed to intestinal conditions. Additionally, the viability of microencapsulated cells after exposure to the simulated gastric and intestinal juices as well as long-term refrigeration storage was better than that of free cells, and the viability of cells co-encapsulated with oligosaccharides was better than that of cells encapsulated with alginate alone. Furthermore, fructo-oligosaccharides used as co-encapsulating agent showed the best performance. CONCLUSIONS: Microencapsulating L. fermentum with oligosaccharides protected cells well at a low temperature and offered effective gastrointestinal delivery of probiotics, and thus has the potential to maintain bacterial survival in probiotic products and will provide the research basis for design of effective probiotic-prebiotic combinations to maximize host benefit.


Assuntos
Trato Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Lactobacillus fermentum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Oligossacarídeos/administração & dosagem , Probióticos/administração & dosagem , Alginatos/administração & dosagem , Alginatos/química , Composição de Medicamentos , Glucuronatos/administração & dosagem , Glucuronatos/química , Humanos , Viabilidade Microbiana , Leite Humano/microbiologia , Oligossacarídeos/química
17.
Int J Hyg Environ Health ; 222(2): 183-187, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30266237

RESUMO

This study analyzes the bacteriological quality of breast milk samples destined to direct milk donation to preterm infants under 34 Gestational Weeks (GW) hospitalized in a neonatology and a neonatal intensive care unit of a French university hospital. All samples of breast milk destined to direct milk donation between April 2007 and December 2016 were included. A sample was defined as compliant if its total flora was less than 106 Colony Forming Units per milliliter (CFU/mL) and in the absence of Staphylococcus aureus and other pathogens. A total of 777 samples were taken from 629 mothers. The overall non-compliance rate for the initial sample was 21.3%; 63 samples (10.0%) had a total flora ≥ 106 CFU/mL, 63 (10.0%) were contaminated by a pathogenic bacteria and 8 (1.3%) were non-compliant because of both. An increase of the non-compliance rate was observed between 2008 and 2016 (10.2%-26.1%). The increase of the total flora non-compliance rate began in 2011, in link with the doubling of the number of samples taken, to reach a peak in 2013 then decreased in link with development of portable pump. No statistically significant difference of the presence of S. aureus in breast milk was observed. For the other pathogenic bacteria, the rate increased significantly in 2014. The increase of the non-compliance rate could be explained by a decrease of best practices in milk collection. Education of mothers should be strengthened.


Assuntos
Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Leite Humano/microbiologia , Extração de Leite/métodos , Feminino , França , Hospitais Universitários , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal
18.
Microbiologyopen ; 8(1): e00618, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29577668

RESUMO

Recent reports have shown that food-borne or commensal bacteria can function as reservoirs of antibiotic resistance. However, the antibiotic susceptibility of bacterial isolates of most milk samples or the total bacterial counts (TBC) in human milk from healthy donors, are not fully understood in Taiwan. Thus, five healthy mothers were randomly recruited each month, and totally 30 mothers without any symptoms of infection were recruited over 6 months. Milk samples were then harvested and analyzed immediately after collection. The antibiotic susceptibility was analyzed in bacteria isolated from milk samples using nine clinically relevant antibiotics, such as oxacillin, ampicillin, cephalothin, amoxicillin, ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, clindamycin, gentamicin, and oxytetracycline. The Staphylococcus strains (48 isolates) found in milk resisted to 48.6 ± 20.1% selected antibiotics. Streptococcus-related isolates (8 isolates) exhibited resistance to 41.7 ± 26.4% selected antibiotics. Acinetobacter isolates (5 isolates) were resistant to 66.7 ± 13.6% antibiotics, and Enterococcus isolates (5 isolates) were resistant to 73.3 ± 6.1% tested antibiotics. Rothia-related isolates (4 isolates) were resisted to 58.2 ± 31.9% of tested antibiotics. In contrast, Corynebacterium isolates (5 isolates) were sensitive to 66%-100% of selected antibiotics. Furthermore, the TBC ranged from 40 to 710,000 CFU/ml, implying a wide spectrum of bacteria in milk from healthy mothers. Despite this, all milk donors were healthy during sampling, and they did not show any symptoms related to mastitis or subclinical mastitis. According to the previously described TBC criteria for the use of donated human milk, only 73% of the current milk samples could be accepted for the milk bank. In conclusion, the majority of the isolated bacterial strains from current human milk samples are multiresistant strains. In milk samples for preterm infants or milk banks, higher TBC levels or potentially antibiotic-resistant bacteria in some milk samples have supported people using approaches to disinfect human milk partially.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Leite Humano/microbiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Taiwan , Adulto Jovem
19.
Benef Microbes ; 10(2): 155-163, 2019 Mar 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30574804

RESUMO

Human milk is an important source of microorganisms for infant gut colonisation. Although the maternal antibiotic prophylaxis is an important strategy to prevent maternal/neonatal sepsis, it has to be investigated how it may affect the human milk microbiota, especially the genus Bifidobacterium, which has been associated to health benefits. Here, we investigated the impact of the maternal antibiotic prophylaxis on the human milk Bifidobacterium spp. and total bacteria counts, in the first week (short-term) and first month (medium-term) after delivery. Human milk samples were collected from 55 healthy lactating women recruited from the University Hospital of the University of São Paulo at days 7±3 and 30±4 after vaginal delivery. Twenty one volunteers had received maternal antibiotic prophylaxis (MAP group) and 34 had not received MAP (no-MAP group) during or after labour. Total DNA was isolated from milk samples, and the bacterial counts were estimated by quantitative PCR (qPCR). We found lower levels of Bifidobacterium in the MAP group in the first week after delivery (median = 2.1 vs 2.4 log of equivalent cells/ml of human milk, for MAP and no-MAP groups, respectively; P=0.01), although there were no statistical differences in total bacteria count. However, no differences were found in Bifidobacterium counts between the groups at day 30±4 (median = 2.5 vs 2.2 log of equivalent cells/ml of human milk, for MAP and no-MAP groups, respectively; P=0.50). Our results suggest that MAP has a significant impact on Bifidobacterium counts in human milk, reducing this population in the first week after delivery. However, throughout the first month after delivery, the Bifidobacterium counts tend to recover, reaching similar counts to those found in no-MAP group at day 30±4 after delivery.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Antibioticoprofilaxia/métodos , Carga Bacteriana , Bifidobacterium/efeitos dos fármacos , Bifidobacterium/isolamento & purificação , Leite Humano/microbiologia , Período Pós-Parto , Adolescente , Adulto , Antibacterianos/efeitos adversos , Antibioticoprofilaxia/efeitos adversos , Brasil , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Hospitais Universitários , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Gravidez , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Adulto Jovem
20.
Clin Rev Allergy Immunol ; 57(1): 83-97, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30564985

RESUMO

Emerging evidence suggests that the increasing prevalence of food allergies is associated with compositional and functional changes in our gut microbiota. Microbiota-host interactions play a key role in regulating the immune system. Development of a healthy gut microbiota and immune system occurs early in life and is largely shaped by exposure to maternal microbes through vaginal/natural delivery and breast milk, whereas use of antibiotics can disrupt gut homeostasis and significantly raise the risk of allergic diseases. Thus, changes in the quantity or diversity of gut microbes affect oral toleranace through interations of microbial molecules with pattern recognition receptors on immune cells and confer susceptibility to food allergies. On the other hand, short chain fatty acids which are fermentation end products of insoluble fibers by intestinal micoorganisms have been shown to confer protective effects on food allergy. As a preventive and therapeutic treatment for food allergies, probiotics have gained widespread attention in recent years. Reintroducing certain commensal microbes, such as Clostridia, both in animal models and clinical trials led to the prevention or resolution of allergic symptoms. This review highlights recent progress in our understanding of the gut microbiota's role in food allergy. However, mechanistic details underlying the anti-allergic effects of probiotics and the interaction between the gut microbiota and the immune system remain circumstantial and are not fully understood. Future studies should address possible factors and underlying mechanisms for microbiota-host interactions and gut immunity, as well as the efficacy, safety, and appropriate use of probiotics in establishing a standard treatment regimen for food allergies.


Assuntos
Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/epidemiologia , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/imunologia , Animais , Antibacterianos/efeitos adversos , Pré-Escolar , Disbiose/imunologia , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/imunologia , Feminino , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/prevenção & controle , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/terapia , Humanos , Hipótese da Higiene , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Leite Humano/imunologia , Leite Humano/microbiologia , Parto/imunologia , Gravidez , Prevalência , Probióticos/uso terapêutico
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