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1.
Chemosphere ; 238: 124677, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31524616

RESUMO

Understanding the health implications of human exposure to mixtures of chemical contaminants is aided by analytical methods that can screen for a broad range of both expected and unexpected compounds. We performed a proof-of-concept analysis combining human breast milk, a biomonitoring matrix for determining contaminant exposure to mothers and infants, with a non-targeted method based on comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC×GC/TOF-MS). A total of 172 presumably anthropogenic halogenated compounds and non-halogenated cyclic and aromatic compounds were tentatively identified in breast milk from San Diego, California through mass spectral database searches. Forty of the compounds were prioritized for confirmation based on halogenation or 100% frequency of detection, and the identities of 30 were verified using authentic standards. Thirty-four (85%) of the prioritized contaminants are not typically monitored in breast milk surveys, and 31 (77%) are regulated in at least one market worldwide, indicating breast milk may be a useful biomonitoring matrix for non-targeted analysis and the assessment of human exposure to future emerging or undiscovered contaminants.


Assuntos
/estatística & dados numéricos , Leite Humano/química , Compostos Orgânicos/análise , California , Exposição Ambiental , Feminino , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Halogenação , Humanos
2.
Biosci Biotechnol Biochem ; 84(1): 17-24, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31566084

RESUMO

Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) have drawn attention for their contribution to the explosive bifidobacterial growth in the intestines of neonates. We found that bifidobacteria can efficiently metabolize lacto-N-biose I (LNB), the major building blocks of HMOs, and we have developed a method to synthesize LNB by applying this system. We produced LNB on a kilogram scale by the method. This proved that, among the enterobacteria, only bifidobacteria can assimilate LNB, and provided the data that supported the explosive growth of bifidobacteria in neonates. Furthermore, we were also able to reveal the structure of LNB crystal and the low stability for heating at neutral pH, which has not been clarified so far. In this paper, using bifidobacteria and LNB as examples, I describe the research on oligosaccharide synthesis that was conducted by utilizing a sugar metabolism.Abbreviations: LNB: lacto-N-biose I; GNB: galacto-N-biose; HMOs: human milk oligosaccharides; GLNBP: GNB/LNB phosphorylase; NahK: N-acetylhexosamine 1-kinase; GalT: UDP-glucose-hexose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase; GalE: UDP-glucose 4-epimerase; SP: sucrose phosphorylase.


Assuntos
Acetilglucosamina/análogos & derivados , Bifidobacterium/metabolismo , Glucosiltransferases/química , Leite Humano/química , Oligossacarídeos/metabolismo , Sacarose/química , Acetilglucosamina/síntese química , Acetilglucosamina/química , Acetilglucosamina/metabolismo , Resinas de Troca de Ânions/química , Bifidobacterium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cristalização , Dissacaridases/metabolismo , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Temperatura Alta , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Recém-Nascido
3.
Chemosphere ; 240: 124829, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31563722

RESUMO

In this study, we assessed the presence of four parabens in human milk of 120 mothers from Valencia (Spain) which took part in a human biomonitoring project (BETTERMILK). The detection frequency ranges of parabens were 41-60% and 61-89% for unconjugated- and total (unconjugated + conjugated)-parabens, respectively. The concentrations ranged from

Assuntos
/métodos , Aleitamento Materno/métodos , Leite Humano/química , Parabenos/química , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido
4.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(50): 13922-13928, 2019 Dec 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31746600

RESUMO

We compared phospholipids (PLs), PL fatty acid (FA) composition, and milk fat globule size and structure in human milk (n = 120) from mothers of full-term and preterm infants during lactation (colostrum, transition, 1 mo, 2 mo, and 3 mo) and 8 brands of infant formulas. The absolute quantification of PLs was analyzed using 31P NMR spectroscopy. Sphingomyelin was the dominant PLs (35.01 ± 3.31%) in human milk, whereas phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine were the dominant PLs in infant formulas. The PL content in preterm milk increased during lactation, whereas that in term milk remained stable. Saturated FAs (mainly 16:0 and 18:0) were the most abundant (>60%) PL FA in both preterm and term milk and increased throughout lactation. The mean diameter of milk fat globules in infant formulas was much smaller than that found in human milk (200 nm vs 5.63 µm). Significant differences were observed between human milk and infant formulas with regard to PLs, suggesting that more research is needed to mimic the PL profile in infant formulas.


Assuntos
Glicolipídeos/química , Glicoproteínas/química , Fórmulas Infantis/química , Leite Humano/química , Fosfolipídeos/química , Gravidez/metabolismo , Adulto , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Glicolipídeos/metabolismo , Glicoproteínas/metabolismo , Humanos , Lactente , Lactação , Masculino , Leite Humano/metabolismo , Fosfolipídeos/metabolismo
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31505822

RESUMO

This study examined whether maternal nutritional intake and breast milk macronutrient content influence the weight of breastfed infants. We investigated 129 healthy mothers with singleton babies born from July 2016 to December 2017 in a university hospital in Tokyo, Japan. Information was obtained by a self-administered food frequency questionnaire at 1 (valid response n = 92; mean age, 34 years) and 3 (n = 57) months after delivery. Breast milk was sampled at 1 and 3 months and the macronutrient contents were analyzed. The average pre-pregnancy body mass index and weight gain during pregnancy were 20.7 ± 2.6 kg/m2 and 9.6 ± 3.7 kg, respectively. At 1 month, average maternal calorie intake was 1993 ± 417 kcal/day, which was lower than the intake recommended by Japanese Dietary Reference Intakes for breastfeeding mothers. There were no significant differences with regard to maternal calorie and protein intake, and breast milk macronutrient content between breastfed infants with weight above and below the 25th percentile of its distribution at both 1 and 3 months. This study suggests that suboptimal calorie intake by breastfeeding mothers and breast milk macronutrient content were not associated with weight of their infants at 1 and 3 months after delivery.


Assuntos
Peso Corporal , Aleitamento Materno , Recém-Nascido/fisiologia , Desnutrição/epidemiologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Materna , Leite Humano/química , Nutrientes/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Desnutrição/etiologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Tempo , Tóquio/epidemiologia
6.
Turk J Pediatr ; 61(1): 1-6, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31559714

RESUMO

Konak M, Minici M, Tarakçi N, Altunhan H, Toker A, Örs R. Effects of the storage of breast milk at different temperatures on total antioxidant capacity, total oxidant status, and paraoxonase-1 level. Turk J Pediatr 2019; 61: 1-6. Breast milk is a well-balanced ideal nutritional source with high bioavailability for infants. As being a fresh, biological and dynamic product, changes in the breast milk during these storage periods have been the subject of ongoing research. This study aims to evaluate total antioxidant capacity (TAC), total oxidant status (TOS), and paraoxonase-1 (PON-1) levels of fresh and freezestored breast milk. Ten cc of breast milk was obtained from the mothers as the days between 10 and 15 in the morning within a 1-hour period. TAC, TOS, and PON-1 levels were evaluated in the fresh breast milk. Collected breast milk samples were divided into two groups for storage at -20°C or -80°C. Stored samples were tested for TAC, TOS, and PON-1 levels after 72 hours. The highest TAC level was detected in fresh breast milk (p < 0.05). The TOS levels of fresh breast milk showed a statistically significant reduction in rate after storage. The TOS levels at -20°C and -80°C were significantly lower at -80°C (p < 0.05). Our study results show that oxidant and antioxidant activities are at the maximum level in the fresh breast milk. In terms of antioxidant status the effect of freezing temperatures hasn`t been determined. We conclude that it is more convenient to store the breast milk at -80°C than to store at -20°C in terms of preserving the storage TOS level.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/análise , Arildialquilfosfatase/análise , Temperatura Baixa , Criopreservação/métodos , Leite Humano/química , Oxidantes , Adulto , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Arildialquilfosfatase/sangue , Biomarcadores/sangue , Extração de Leite , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Masculino , Oxidantes/sangue , Estresse Oxidativo
7.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(44): 12237-12244, 2019 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31560847

RESUMO

Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) maintain and promote infant health. Most of the current methods for HMOs quantitation require labor-intensive and time-consuming steps for sample preparation. This study presents two very simple and easy-to-operate pretreatment methods, requiring either ultrafiltration or centrifugation to separate free oligosaccharides from whole fat human milk and other milk matrix before oligosaccharides labeling for quantifying HMOs using ultrahigh pressure liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. A single chromatography run quantified 15 sialylated and neutral HMOs with high sensitivity (with an LOD less than 8 pg for all HMOs tested: about 1 pg for 2'-fucosyllactose, 3-fucosyllactose, 4'-galactosyllactose, 3'-galactosyllactose, and 6'-galactosyllactose) and good linearity with coefficient of correlation above 0.999. Accuracy and precision were satisfactory for both pretreatment methods. Overall, the centrifugation pretreatment was efficient and reliable for samples with high levels of oligosaccharides, and the ultrafiltration pretreatment was especially suitable for samples with low oligosaccharide abundance.


Assuntos
Centrifugação/métodos , Leite Humano/química , Oligossacarídeos/análise , Oligossacarídeos/isolamento & purificação , Ultrafiltração/métodos , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/instrumentação , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Feminino , Humanos
8.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(38): 10702-10712, 2019 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31490688

RESUMO

Human milk oligosaccharides are complex carbohydrates with multibiofunctional health benefits to newborns. Human milk free oligosaccharides (HMOs) are well characterized. However, changes in the N/O-glycome during lactation are poorly reported. Herein, we qualitatively and quantitatively investigated N/O-glycome profiles and their alteration in human milk at different lactation stages. N-Glycans were mainly fucosylated and nonsialylated, nonfucosylated throughout lactation. O-Glycans mainly consisted of sialylated and nonsialylated, nonfucosylated in colostrum and transitional milk, and fucosylated and nonfucosylated, nonsialylated in mature milk. Fucosylated and sialylated N-glycans gradually decreased and increased, respectively, as lactation progressed; O-glycans showed the reverse. Interestingly, changes in HMO abundance decreased during lactation, complementing HMG N/O-glycome changes. In conclusion, temporal HMG glycosylation changes provide the groundwork for developing infant formula that is closer to breast milk at different lactation stages.


Assuntos
Glicoproteínas/química , Lactação , Leite Humano/química , Adulto , Colostro/química , Feminino , Glicoproteínas/metabolismo , Glicosilação , Humanos , Espectrometria de Massas , Leite Humano/metabolismo , Oligossacarídeos/química , Oligossacarídeos/metabolismo , Polissacarídeos/química , Polissacarídeos/metabolismo
9.
Environ Pollut ; 255(Pt 2): 113142, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31563777

RESUMO

Parabens, broad-spectrum antimicrobial preservatives widely used in various consumer products and food, are suspected to be linked with several adverse health effects in humans, especially newborn babies, infants, and young children. While human exposure to parabens has been frequently reported by measuring the concentration of parabens in urine, similar measurements in breast milk have rarely been made. To determine paraben concentrations in breast milk and possible sources of exposure, four major parabens, including methylparaben (MP), ethylparaben (EP), propylparaben (PP), and butylparaben (BP) were measured in breast milk samples collected from 260 lactating women in South Korea. Demographic, socioeconomic, and behavioral factors associated with the presence of parabens in breast milk were determined. EP concentrations were detected at the highest levels in breast milk samples, followed by MP, PP, and BP. Pre-pregnancy BMI, parity, use of basic skin care products, use of cosmetics, canned beverage, and type of milk consumption were associated with higher frequencies of paraben detection. In addition, type of milk, parity, and drinking status were significantly associated with the concentration of EP. Multiple regression analyses showed that colostrum and transitional milk samples had higher levels of EP than mature milk samples. The estimated daily intake of parabens in infants via breastfeeding appears to be negligible when compared to the acceptable daily intake values set forth by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA); however, considering the vulnerability of breastfed infants and ubiquitous sources of exposure from daily use of household and personal toiletries, efforts to identify sources and mitigate exposure are warranted.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais/metabolismo , Exposição Materna/estatística & dados numéricos , Leite Humano/metabolismo , Parabenos/metabolismo , Adulto , Aleitamento Materno , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Colostro/química , Cosméticos/análise , Demografia , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Lactação , Leite Humano/química , Parabenos/análise , Gravidez , Conservantes Farmacêuticos , Análise de Regressão , República da Coreia , Adulto Jovem
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31553683

RESUMO

Perchlorate is a low molecular weight highly soluble anion. It occurs naturally in the environment, primarily near potash deposits and in arid regions. The determination of perchlorate in human milk is of interest in vulnerable populations such as infants and pregnant women. In this study, a sensitive and selective isotope dilution ion chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (ID IC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated for the determination of perchlorate in human milk samples collected from the Maternal-Infant Research on Environmental Chemicals (MIREC) Study. The limit of detection (LOD) was 0.27 µg·kg-1 for human milk. A total of 439 human milk samples were analysed with measurable levels of perchlorate in most of the milk samples, and the mean value was 7.62 ± 32.7 µg·kg-1. This project provided important information related to perchlorate levels in human milk collected across Canada and the extent to which pregnant women and their infants may be exposed to perchlorate. A dietary exposure assessment was also conducted in infants based on the measured values in human milk. The mean perchlorate probable daily intakes (PDIs) for infants consuming human milk were 0.31 ± 0.07 µg/kg bw/day for infants under 1 year and 0.17 ± 0.10 µg/kg bw/day for infants between 1 and 3 years old. None of the estimates exceeded the FAO/WHO provisional maximum tolerable daily intake (PMTDI) of 10 µg/kg bw/day.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Fórmulas Infantis/química , Leite Humano/química , Percloratos/análise , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez , Adulto Jovem
11.
Bratisl Lek Listy ; 120(9): 658-662, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31475549

RESUMO

AIM: To analyse the dynamics of macronutrients in breast milk in Slovakian women and compare the dynamics between mothers of hospitalized newborns and donors of human breast milk relative to the gestational age of their babies. METHODS: Human milk samples were collected from 101 breastfeeding women and analysed once or repeatedly from September 2017 to August 2018. Group A consisted of 79 mothers of newborns hospitalized at the Neonatal Department of Intensive Medicine (NDIM) of whom 69 were mothers of premature newborns (subgroup A1) and 10 were mothers of term babies (subgroup A2). Group B consisted of 22 breast milk donors registered at the Human Milk Bank at National Institute of Children's Diseases (NICHD). Of these, 4 were mothers of premature newborns (subgroup B1) and 18 were mothers of term newborns (subgroup B2). From subgroup A1, we chose two mothers, one with a hypotrophic newborn and another with a eutrophic newborn. The results were obtained by using the MIRIS breast­milk analyzer. RESULTS: The overall dynamics of macronutrients correspond with other studies, however, we demonstrated that the level of macronutrients in individual cases were different. CONCLUSION: The determination of macronutrients in human milk is essential in neonatal care. It provides information about the nutritional value of breast milk and helps to optimise nutrition according to the individual needs of newborns (Fig. 10, Ref. 16).


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição do Lactente , Leite Humano/química , Nutrientes/análise , Aleitamento Materno , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Bancos de Leite
12.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(38): 10774-10781, 2019 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31479258

RESUMO

The released milk N-glycome has been found to possess antipathogenic activity. Natively, they are covalently linked onto proteins. Whether the conjugated N-glycans still have antipathogenic properties and how the glycosylation influences the antipathogenic activity of proteins remain unclear. Herein, we compared the quantitative differences of milk protein N-glycosylation and the antilisterial differences of native milk proteins, released N-glycan pools, and deglycosylated proteins between human and bovine milk. N-glycosylation exhibited to be quantitatively species-specific. The entire growth inhibitory activity and the majority of the antiadhesive activity against Listeria monocytogenes of milk whey proteins, although not as high as the released N-glycans, are attributed to N-glycosylation. Moreover, all N-glycan-bearing samples from human milk showed better growth inhibitory activities than those from bovine milk. Generally, N-glycosylation significantly contributes to the antilisterial function of milk proteins and to the functional differences between species. This gives novel insights into the role of these glycoconjugates in nature.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Listeria monocytogenes/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas do Leite/química , Proteínas do Leite/farmacologia , Leite Humano/química , Animais , Aderência Bacteriana/efeitos dos fármacos , Células CACO-2 , Bovinos , Glicosilação , Humanos , Listeria monocytogenes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Listeria monocytogenes/fisiologia , Polissacarídeos/química , Especificidade da Espécie
13.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 13(8): e0007647, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31415566

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Treatment with nifurtimox (NF) for Chagas disease is discouraged during breast-feeding because no information on NF transfer into breast milk is available. NF is safe and effective for paediatric and adult Chagas disease. We evaluated the degree of NF transfer into breast milk in lactating women with Chagas disease. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Prospective study of a cohort of lactating women with Chagas disease. Patients were treated with NF for 1 month. NF was measured in plasma and milk by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Breastfed infants were evaluated at admission, 7th and 30th day of treatment (and monthly thereafter, for 6 months). RESULTS: Lactating women with chronic Chagas disease (N = 10) were enrolled (median age 28 years, range 17-36). Median NF dose was 9.75 mg/kg/day three times a day (TID). Six mothers had mild adverse drug reactions (ADRs), but no ADRs were observed in any of the breastfed infants. No interruption of breastfeeding was observed. Median NF concentrations were 2.15 mg/L (Inter quartil range (IQR) 1.32-4.55) in milk and 0.30 mg/L (IQR 0.20-0.95) in plasma. Median NF milk/plasma ratio was 16 (range 8.75-30.25). Median relative infant NF dose (assuming a daily breastmilk intake of 150 mL/kg/day) was 6.7% of the maternal dose/kg/day (IQR 2.35-7.19%). CONCLUSIONS: The low concentrations of NF in breast milk and the normal clinical evaluation of the breastfed babies imply that maternal NF treatment for Chagas disease during breastfeeding is unlikely to lead to clinically relevant exposures in the breastfed infants. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinical trial registry name and registration number: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01744405.


Assuntos
Doença de Chagas/tratamento farmacológico , Leite Humano/química , Nifurtimox/administração & dosagem , Nifurtimox/análise , Tripanossomicidas/administração & dosagem , Tripanossomicidas/análise , Adolescente , Adulto , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Plasma/química , Estudos Prospectivos , Adulto Jovem
14.
Environ Pollut ; 254(Pt A): 112900, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31394347

RESUMO

Breast milk, especially colostrum, is not just a source of nutrients and immune factors for the newborn, but also accumulates environmental persistent pollutants and its diverse microbes affect the early colonization of the newborn's gut. Little is known about associations between environmental pollutants and the microbial composition of human colostrum. We assessed the influence of hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), a persistent organic pollutant (POP), in colostrums on the microbial composition of human colostrum samples. HCH concentrations in 89 colostrum samples collected from a population living on the easternmost island of China were measured via gas chromatography equipped with mass spectrometer (GC-MS), HCH exposure risks for infants via dietary intake of breast milk were assessed, and for 29 colostrum samples the microbiota were profiled using 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing to assess the association with HCH exposure levels. Our study confirmed high colostrum exposure levels of total HCHs (12.19 ±â€¯13.68 µg L-1) in this Chinese population. We predominantly identified Proteobacteria (67.6%) and Firmicutes (25.1%) in colostrum and microbial diversity at the genus level differed between samples with different HCH levels; e.g., Pseudomonas which contains several HCH degrading strains was found in significantly higher abundance in γ-HCH rich samples. Also, microbes that were statistically significantly associated with HCH levels were also highly correlated with each other (false discovery rate (FDR)<0.01) and clustered in network analysis. Microbial diversity is associated with HCH levels in human colostrum and these associations might be attributable to their HCH degrading ability. These finding provide first insights into the role that environmental persistent pollutants may play in the microbial composition of human colostrum and the colonization of the infant gut.


Assuntos
Colostro/microbiologia , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Hexaclorocicloexano/toxicidade , Microbiota/efeitos dos fármacos , Aleitamento Materno , China , Colostro/química , Colostro/metabolismo , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Exposição Materna , Leite Humano/química , Mães , Gravidez , RNA Ribossômico 16S
15.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(30): 30988-30999, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31452126

RESUMO

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in breast milk has been determined. Therefore, it was necessary to develop and adapt an analytical method to analyze PCB compounds. The whole procedure was applied to 31 breast milk samples, which were collected from Polish mothers. The QuEChERS method was optimized as a fast and cheap sample preparation method. The procedure allowed us to obtain recovery values between 96.46% and 119.98% with acceptable relative standard deviations (3.36-12.71%). Gas chromatography with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used for final determination. The method was validated using parameters such as linearity, limit of detection and quantification, intra-day precision, and reproducibility. The mean concentration of ∑iPCBs in this study was 30.94 ng/g of lipid. Assigned daily intake of PCBs was lower than the tolerable daily intake, which shows that the analyzed milk is safe to the infants. However, the monitoring of PCBs in milk is still important, and the QuEChERS method with GC-MS can be an effective tool for tracking organic impurities in breast milk.


Assuntos
Fracionamento Químico/métodos , Leite Humano/química , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Feminino , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Humanos , Limite de Detecção , Polônia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Extração em Fase Sólida/métodos
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31416171

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study was carried out to evaluate enteral feeding advancement and tolerance in preterm infants receiving one of two marketed formulas: intact protein preterm formula (IPF) or extensively hydrolyzed formula (EHF) for the first 14 feeding days. METHODS: Primary outcome was days to full enteral feeding (≥140 mL/kg/day). Per protocol analyses included the following: all participants who met study entrance criteria and completed study feeding (primary) and those who received ≥75% enteral intake from study formula (subset). Mothers were encouraged to provide their breast milk. RESULTS: Of the 65 enrolled (IPF: n = 32; EHF: n = 33), 60 completed study feeding per protocol (IPF: n = 30; EHF: n = 30), 37 (62%) received predominantly breast milk, and 23 (38%) received ≥75% study formula intake (IPF: n = 11; EHF: n = 12). No group differences were detected in tolerance measures. No necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) was reported. Median time to achievement of full enteral feeding was significantly shorter for the IPF vs. EHF group (day 10 vs. 14, p < 0.05) (subset analysis). Mean enteral intake significantly increased by day 14 for the IPF group (p < 0.05), reflecting group divergence as achieved feeding volumes increased. CONCLUSIONS: Results suggest shorter time to full enteral feeding and higher feeding volume achieved by study end in preterm infants receiving intact protein preterm formula versus extensively hydrolyzed formula.


Assuntos
Nutrição Enteral/métodos , Fórmulas Infantis/química , Recém-Nascido Prematuro/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Recém-Nascido de muito Baixo Peso/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Leite Humano/química , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Itália , Fatores de Tempo
17.
Nutrients ; 11(7)2019 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31336991

RESUMO

This study determined fatty acid (FA) concentrations in maternal milk and investigated the association between omega-3 fatty acid levels and their maternal current dietary intake (based on three-day dietary records) and habitual dietary intake (based on intake frequency of food products). Tested material comprised 32 samples of human milk, coming from exclusively breastfeeding women during their first month of lactation. Milk fatty acids were analyzed as fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) by gas chromatography using a Hewlett-Packard 6890 gas chromatograph with MS detector 5972A. We did not observe any correlation between current dietary intake of omega-3 FAs and their concentrations in human milk. However, we observed that the habitual intake of fatty fish affected omega-3 FA concentrations in human milk. Kendall's rank correlation coefficients were 0.25 (p = 0.049) for DHA, 0.27 (p = 0.03) for EPA, and 0.28 (p = 0.02) for ALA. Beef consumption was negatively correlated with DHA concentrations in human milk (r = -0.25; p = 0.046). These findings suggest that current omega-3 FA intake does not translate directly into their concentration in human milk. On the contrary, their habitual intake seems to markedly influence their milk concentration.


Assuntos
Registros de Dieta , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/administração & dosagem , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/química , Leite Humano/química , Adulto , Gorduras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Gorduras na Dieta/metabolismo , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Análise de Alimentos , Humanos , Lactação/metabolismo , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Materna
18.
Cien Saude Colet ; 24(7): 2491-2498, 2019 Jul 22.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31340268

RESUMO

This paper aims to identify the effects of maternal morbidities on the nutritional composition of human milk. This systematic review of the literature employed a PRISMA's protocol for searching, selecting, and extracting data. The flowchart proposed for bibliographic search resulted in 1,582 papers, of which 14 were selected for this work. The papers selected for this review were published between 1987 and 2016. Nine studies found significant differences in the nutritional composition of the milk of mothers with diabetes mellitus, arterial hypertension, or overweight compared to the control group. Most studies have shown that the presence of chronic diseases leads to changes in the nutritional composition of human milk. The main results showed a lower concentration of lactose and fat in the milk of women with diabetes mellitus. Concerning hypertension, higher levels of total protein were found in colostrum and mature milk. A higher fat and energy content was observed in overweight mothers. It is imperative that these women have continuous nutritional monitoring to minimize the impact of these morbidities on the nutritional composition of breast milk.


Assuntos
Colostro/química , Leite Humano/química , Mães/estatística & dados numéricos , Doença Crônica/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos
19.
Nutrients ; 11(7)2019 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31323989

RESUMO

Human breast milk (HBM) may have beneficial effects on Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938 (LR 17938) -mediated immunomodulation. We aimed to determine the effects of HBM on proliferation of LR 17938 in vitro and its associated proteins and metabolites in culture, in order to provide mechanistic insights into the health benefits of LR 17938. LR 17938 was cultured anaerobically in MRS bacterial culture media, HBM (from 6 mothers), and 2 types of cow-milk formula. The colony-forming unit (CFU) was calculated to evaluate LR 17938 growth. Sixteen-hour-fermented supernatants were used for metabolomics, and bacterial lysates were used for proteomics analysis. We found that growth of LR 17938 was 10 times better in HBM than in formula. We detected 261/452 metabolites upregulated when LR 17938 cultured in HBM compared to in formula, mainly participating in the glyoxylate cycle (succinate), urea cycle (citrulline), methionine methylation (N-acetylcysteine), and polyamine synthesis (spermidine). The significantly up-regulated enzymes were also involved in the formation of acetyl-CoA in the glyoxylate cycle and the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine. In conclusion, HBM enhances the growth of LR 17938 compared to formula and promotes LR 17938-associated metabolites that relate to energy and antioxidant status, which may be linked to the physiological effects of L. reuteri.


Assuntos
Lactobacillus reuteri/metabolismo , Leite Humano/química , Probióticos , Proliferação de Células , Meios de Cultura , Humanos , Lactente , Fórmulas Infantis , Lactobacillus reuteri/classificação , Lactobacillus reuteri/efeitos dos fármacos , Lipídeos/farmacologia
20.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1140: 451-467, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31347064

RESUMO

Innovations in approaches for early detection and individual risk assessment of different cancers, including breast cancer (BC), are needed to reduce cancer morbidity and associated mortality. The assessment of potential cancer biomarkers in accessible bodily fluids provides a novel approach to identify the risk and/or onset of cancer. Biomarkers are biomolecules, such as proteins, that are indicative of an abnormality or a disease. Human milk is vastly underutilized biospecimen that offers the opportunity to investigate potential protein BC-biomarkers in young, reproductively active women. As a first step, we have examined the entire protein pattern in human milk samples from breastfeeding mothers with cancer, who were diagnosed either before or after milk donation, and from women without cancer, using mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomics.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/análise , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Eletroforese , Leite Humano/química , Proteômica , Animais , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Feminino , Humanos , Espectrometria de Massas
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