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1.
Mol Med Rep ; 23(5)2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33760212

RESUMO

Although the COVID­19 epidemic has lasted for months, it has not yet been successfully controlled, and little is known about neonatal COVID­19. Therefore, literature search was conducted for references in PubMed, Science Direct, ProQuest, Web of Science and China National Knowledge Infrastructure for detailed case reports on neonatal COVID­19 published as of July 15, 2020, to facilitate the clinical treatment, epidemic prevention and control of neonatal COVID­19. Forty nonoverlapping case reports focusing mainly on the demographic characteristics, transmission modes, clinical features, treatments and prognosis of neonatal COVID­19, including 3 in Chinese and 37 in English, were available.


Assuntos
/patologia , /fisiologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/análise , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Doenças Assintomáticas , /transmissão , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Leite Humano/virologia , RNA Viral/metabolismo , /imunologia , Tórax/diagnóstico por imagem
2.
mBio ; 12(1)2021 02 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33563823

RESUMO

Whether mother-to-infant SARS-CoV-2 transmission can occur during breastfeeding and, if so, whether the benefits of breastfeeding outweigh this risk during maternal COVID-19 illness remain important questions. Using RT-qPCR, we did not detect SARS-CoV-2 RNA in any milk sample (n = 37) collected from 18 women following COVID-19 diagnosis. Although we detected evidence of viral RNA on 8 out of 70 breast skin swabs, only one was considered a conclusive positive result. In contrast, 76% of the milk samples collected from women with COVID-19 contained SARS-CoV-2-specific IgA, and 80% had SARS-CoV-2-specific IgG. In addition, 62% of the milk samples were able to neutralize SARS-CoV-2 infectivity in vitro, whereas milk samples collected prior to the COVID-19 pandemic were unable to do so. Taken together, our data do not support mother-to-infant transmission of SARS-CoV-2 via milk. Importantly, milk produced by infected mothers is a beneficial source of anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgA and IgG and neutralizes SARS-CoV-2 activity. These results support recommendations to continue breastfeeding during mild-to-moderate maternal COVID-19 illness.IMPORTANCE Results from prior studies assaying human milk for the presence of SARS-CoV-2, the causative virus of COVID-19, have suggested milk may act as a potential vehicle for mother-to-child transmission. Most previous studies are limited because they followed only a few participants, were cross-sectional, and/or failed to report how milk was collected and/or analyzed. As such, considerable uncertainty remains regarding whether human milk is capable of transmitting SARS-CoV-2 from mother to child. Here, we report that repeated milk samples collected from 18 women following COVID-19 diagnosis did not contain SARS-CoV-2 RNA; however, risk of transmission via breast skin should be further evaluated. Importantly, we found that milk produced by infected mothers is a source of anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgA and IgG and neutralizes SARS-CoV-2 activity. These results support recommendations to continue breastfeeding during mild-to-moderate maternal COVID-19 illness as milk likely provides specific immunologic benefits to infants.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes/metabolismo , Anticorpos Antivirais/metabolismo , Leite Humano/imunologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/imunologia , /imunologia , Adulto , Mama/virologia , Aleitamento Materno , /virologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa , Masculino , Leite Humano/virologia , Mães , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/virologia , RNA Viral/isolamento & purificação , /isolamento & purificação
3.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 21(1): 78, 2021 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33482757

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a novel disease which has been having a worldwide affect since December 2019. Evidence regarding the effects of SARS-CoV-2 during pregnancy is conflicting. The presence of SARS-CoV-2 has been demonstrated in biological samples during pregnancy (placenta, umbilical cord or amniotic fluid); however, maternal and fetal effects of the virus are not well known. METHODS: Descriptive, multicentre, longitudinal, observational study in eight tertiary care hospitals throughout Spain, that are referral centres for pregnant women with COVID-19. All pregnant women with positive SARS-CoV-2 real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction during their pregnancy or 14 days preconception and newborns born to mothers infected with SARS-CoV-2 will be included. They will continue to be followed up until 4 weeks after delivery. The aim of the study is to investigate both the effect of COVID-19 on the pregnancy, and the effect of the pregnancy status with the evolution of the SARS-CoV-2 disease. Other samples (faeces, urine, serum, amniotic fluid, cord and peripheral blood, placenta and breastmilk) will be collected in order to analyse whether or not there is a risk of vertical transmission and to describe the behaviour of the virus in other fluids. Neonates will be followed until 6 months after delivery to establish the rate of neonatal transmission. We aim to include 150 pregnant women and their babies. Ethics approval will be obtained from all the participating centres. DISCUSSION: There is little information known about COVID-19 and its unknown effects on pregnancy. This study will collect a large number of samples in pregnant women which will allow us to demonstrate the behaviour of the virus in pregnancy and postpartum in a representative cohort of the Spanish population.


Assuntos
/fisiopatologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/fisiopatologia , Aborto Espontâneo/epidemiologia , Adulto , Líquido Amniótico/virologia , /transmissão , Fezes/virologia , Feminino , Sangue Fetal/virologia , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/estatística & dados numéricos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Longitudinais , Leite Humano/virologia , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Mortalidade Perinatal , Placenta/virologia , Pré-Eclâmpsia/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/mortalidade , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Espanha/epidemiologia , Urina/virologia
4.
Curr Nutr Rep ; 10(1): 71-75, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33394459

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Breastfeeding is beneficial to both the newborn and the mother. During the COVID-19 pandemic, concerns have been raised on whether the SARS-CoV-2 virus could be transmitted from COVID-19 positive mother to the newborn through breastmilk. The purpose of this review is to examine the available evidence on the risks of transmission of infection from COVID-19 mothers to their newborns through breastfeeding. RECENT FINDINGS: Data is very limited in this regard, with only a few smaller case series, and case reports have been published so far. In most of the studies, breastmilk samples from COVID-19 mothers tested negative for the virus. In the case reports where the virus was detected in breastmilk and the infants were diagnosed with COVID-19, it remained unclear whether the disease was transmitted through breastmilk or direct contact or through delivery. Another hypothesis is that the viral antibodies could pass to the newborn passively through breastmilk of COVID-19 positive mothers and give immunity to the child, but data is minimal. Based on the currently available limited evidence and recognizing the benefits of breastfeeding, it may be concluded that if the health of the mother and her newborn allows, direct breastfeeding or extracted breastmilk should be encouraged by the healthcare providers after a careful discussion of the risks of vertical transmission to the mother and her family. Preventive measures should be taken by COVID-19 mothers to prevent droplet transmission of infection to the infants while breastfeeding.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno , Leite Humano/virologia , Gestantes , Anticorpos Antivirais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Leite Humano/imunologia , Mães , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Gravidez
5.
Viruses ; 13(1)2021 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33477428

RESUMO

We systematically searched regional and international databases and screened 1658 non-duplicate records describing women with suspected or confirmed ZIKV infection, intending to breastfeed or give breast milk to an infant to examine the potential of mother-to-child transmission of Zika virus (ZIKV) through breast milk or breastfeeding-related practices. Fourteen studies met our inclusion criteria and inform this analysis. These studies reported on 97 mother-children pairs who provided breast milk for ZIKV assessment. Seventeen breast milk samples from different women were found positive for ZIKV via RT-PCR, and ZIKV replication was found in cell cultures from five out of seven breast milk samples from different women. Only three out of six infants who had ZIKV infection were breastfed, no evidence of clinical complications was found to be associated with ZIKV RNA in breast milk. This review updates our previous report by including 12 new articles, in which we found no evidence of ZIKV mother-to-child transmission through breast milk intake or breastfeeding. As the certainty of the present evidence is low, additional studies are still warranted to determine if ZIKV can be transmitted through breastfeeding.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa , Leite Humano/virologia , Infecção por Zika virus/epidemiologia , Infecção por Zika virus/transmissão , Zika virus , Aleitamento Materno/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Vigilância em Saúde Pública , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Infecção por Zika virus/virologia
6.
Breastfeed Med ; 16(1): 29-38, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33393841

RESUMO

In addition to providing life-giving nutrients and other substances to the breastfed infant, human milk can also represent a vehicle of pathogen transfer. As such, when an infectious disease outbreak, epidemic, or pandemic occurs-particularly when it is associated with a novel pathogen-the question will naturally arise as to whether the pathogen can be transmitted through breastfeeding. Until high-quality data are generated to answer this question, abandonment of breastfeeding due to uncertainty can result. The COVID-19 pandemic, which was in full swing at the time this document was written, is an excellent example of this scenario. During these times of uncertainty, it is critical for investigators conducting research to assess the possible transmission of pathogens through milk, whether by transfer through the mammary gland or contamination from respiratory droplets, skin, breast pumps, and milk containers, and/or close contact between mother and infant. To promote the most rigorous science, it is critical to outline optimal methods for milk collection, handling, storage, and analysis in these situations, and investigators should openly share their methods in published materials. Otherwise, the risks of inconsistent test results from preanalytical and analytical variation, false positives, and false negatives are unacceptably high and the ability to provide public health guidance poor. In this study, we provide "best practices" for collecting human milk samples for COVID-19 research with the intention that this will also be a useful guide for future pandemics.


Assuntos
Benchmarking , Aleitamento Materno/métodos , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , /transmissão , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Intenção , Leite Humano/virologia , Mães/psicologia
7.
Ann Acad Med Singap ; 49(11): 857-869, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33381779

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Pregnant women are reported to be at increased risk of severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) due to underlying immunosuppression during pregnancy. However, the clinical course of COVID-19 in pregnancy and risk of vertical and horizontal transmission remain relatively unknown. We aim to describe and evaluate outcomes in pregnant women with COVID-19 in Singapore. METHODS: Prospective observational study of 16 pregnant patients admitted for COVID-19 to 4 tertiary hospitals in Singapore. Outcomes included severe disease, pregnancy loss, and vertical and horizontal transmission. RESULTS: Of the 16 patients, 37.5%, 43.8% and 18.7% were infected in the first, second and third trimesters, respectively. Two gravidas aged ≥35 years (12.5%) developed severe pneumonia; one patient (body mass index 32.9kg/m2) required transfer to intensive care. The median duration of acute infection was 19 days; one patient remained reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) positive >11 weeks from diagnosis. There were no maternal mortalities. Five pregnancies produced term live-births while 2 spontaneous miscarriages occurred at 11 and 23 weeks. RT-PCR of breast milk and maternal and neonatal samples taken at birth were negative; placenta and cord histology showed non-specific inflammation; and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-specific immunoglobulins were elevated in paired maternal and umbilical cord blood (n=5). CONCLUSION: The majority of COVID-19 infected pregnant women had mild disease and only 2 women with risk factors (obesity, older age) had severe infection; this represents a slightly higher incidence than observed in age-matched non-pregnant women. Among the women who delivered, there was no definitive evidence of mother-to-child transmission via breast milk or placenta.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia , Aborto Espontâneo/epidemiologia , Adulto , /transmissão , Estudos de Coortes , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Sangue Fetal/imunologia , Humanos , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/estatística & dados numéricos , Nascimento Vivo/epidemiologia , Idade Materna , Leite Humano/química , Leite Humano/virologia , Obesidade Materna/epidemiologia , Placenta/patologia , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/fisiopatologia , Primeiro Trimestre da Gravidez , Segundo Trimestre da Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , RNA Viral/análise , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Singapura/epidemiologia , Cordão Umbilical/patologia , Adulto Jovem
11.
Am J Perinatol ; 37(13): 1377-1384, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32898920

RESUMO

The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has resulted in changes to perinatal and neonatal care, concentrating on minimizing risks of transmission to the newborn and health care staff while ensuring medical care is not compromised for both mother and infant. Current recommendations on infant care and feeding when mother has COVID-19 ranges from mother-infant separation and avoidance of human milk feeding, to initiation of early skin-to-skin contact and direct breastfeeding. Health care providers fearing risks of severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) maternal-infant transmission may veer toward restricted breastfeeding practices. We reviewed guidelines and published literature and propose three options for infant feeding depending on various scenarios. Option A involves direct breastfeeding with the infant being cared for by the mother or caregiver. In option B, the infant is cared for by another caregiver and receives mother's expressed milk. In the third option, the infant is not breastfed directly and does not receive mother's expressed milk. We recommend joint decision making by parents and the health care team. This decision is also flexible as situation changes. We also provide a framework for counseling mothers on these options using a visual aid and a corresponding structured training program for health care providers. Future research questions are also proposed. We conclude that evidence and knowledge about COVID-19 and breastfeeding are still evolving. Our options can provide a quick and flexible reference guide that can be adapted to local needs. KEY POINTS: · SARS-CoV-2 is unlikely transmitted via human milk.. · A shared decision making on infant feeding is the preferred approach.. · Mothers can safely breastfeed with appropriate infection control measures..


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Leite Humano/virologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Aconselhamento/métodos , Tomada de Decisões , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Comportamento Materno , Mães/psicologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/prevenção & controle , Risco Ajustado/métodos
14.
Int Breastfeed J ; 15(1): 68, 2020 08 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32762723

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In China, mothers with confirmed or suspected COVID-19 pneumonia are recommended to stop breastfeeding. However, the evidence to support this guidance is lacking. There have been relatively few cases reported about direct breastfeeding an infant by a mother with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia. Therefore, it is necessary to assess the safety of breastfeeding and the possible protective effects of breast milk on infants. CASE PRESENTATION: This report analyzes the case of a mother who continued breastfeeding her 13 month-old child when both were diagnosed with confirmed COVID-19 pneumonia. We describe the clinical presentation, diagnosis, treatment, and outcome. The presence of SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid was determined in maternal serum, breast milk, nasopharyngeal (NP) swabs and feces, and in infant serum, NP swabs and feces. IgM and IgG antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 were assessed in maternal serum and breast milk and in infant serum. SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid was not detected in the breast milk, and antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 were detected in the mother's serum and milk. CONCLUSIONS: The present case further confirms that the possibility of mother-to-child transmission about SARS-CoV-2 via breast milk alone was very small, and breast milk is safe for direct feeding of infants.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/análise , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Aleitamento Materno , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Leite Humano/virologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle
16.
Rev Esp Salud Publica ; 942020 Jul 09.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32643708

RESUMO

The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has had a major impact on birth care and lactation. The lack of knowledge regarding the transmission mechanisms and the potential risks for the mother and the newborn, even when the vertical transmission of the virus has not been demonstrated, has led to the abandonment of practices such as skin-to-skin and the early initiation of breastfeeding (BF), which offer great benefits for maternal and child health. Taking into account the available scientific evidence and the protective effect of BF, the World Health Organization (WHO), and other organisms recommend, in cases of suspected or confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection of the mother, maintaining mother-child contact and BF, adopting preventive measure procedures to minimize the risk of contagion. These measures include hand hygiene, before and after contact with the newborn and the use of a mask. If a temporary separation of mother and child is required, it is recommended to feed the newborn with expressed breast milk. The presence of IgA antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 has been confirmed in the milk of infected women, so BF could reduce the clinical impact of the disease in the infant, if it becomes infected.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Leite Humano/virologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Anticorpos Antivirais/análise , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Feminino , Higiene das Mãos , Humanos , Imunoglobulina A/análise , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Máscaras , Leite Humano/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Espanha , Organização Mundial da Saúde
17.
Breastfeed Med ; 15(8): 492-494, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32644841

RESUMO

Aim: The objective of our study was to determine whether the SARS-CoV-2-positive mothers transmit the virus to their hand-expressed colostrum. Methods: This is an observational prospective study that included pregnant women who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 by PCR test on a nasopharyngeal swab at the moment of childbirth and who wanted to breastfeed their newborns. A colostrum sample was obtained from the mothers by manual self-extraction. To collect the samples, the mothers wore surgical masks, washed their hands with an 85% alcohol-based gel, and washed their breast with gauze that was saturated with soap and water. Results: We obtained seven colostrum samples from different mothers in the first hours postdelivery. SARS-CoV-2 was not detected in any of the colostrum samples obtained in our study. Conclusion: In our study, breast milk was not a source of SARS-CoV-2 transmission. Hand expression (assuring that a mask is used and that appropriate hygienic measures are used for the hands and the breast), when direct breastfeeding is not possible, appears to be a safe way of feeding newborns of mothers with COVID-19.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Aleitamento Materno/métodos , Extração de Leite/métodos , Colostro/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus , Leite Humano/virologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez , Adulto , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/métodos , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/normas , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Masculino , Triagem Neonatal/métodos , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/diagnóstico , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Espanha/epidemiologia
18.
CMAJ ; 192(31): E871-E874, 2020 08 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32646870

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Provision of pasteurized donor human milk, as a bridge to mother's own milk, is the standard of care for very low-birth-weight infants in hospital. The aim of this research was to confirm that Holder pasteurization (62.5°C for 30 min) would be sufficient to inactivate severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in donated human milk samples. METHODS: We spiked frozen milk samples from 10 donors to the Rogers Hixon Ontario Human Milk Bank with SARS-CoV-2 to achieve a final concentration of 1 × 107 TCID50/mL (50% of the tissue culture infectivity dose per mL). We pasteurized samples using the Holder method or held them at room temperature for 30 minutes and plated serial dilutions on Vero E6 cells for 5 days. We included comparative controls in the study using milk samples from the same donors without addition of virus (pasteurized and unpasteurized) as well as replicates of Vero E6 cells directly inoculated with SARS-CoV-2. We reported cytopathic effects as TCID50/mL. RESULTS: We detected no cytopathic activity in any of the SARS-CoV-2-spiked milk samples that had been pasteurized using the Holder method. In the SARS-CoV-2-spiked milk samples that were not pasteurized but were kept at room temperature for 30 minutes, we observed a reduction in infectious viral titre of about 1 log. INTERPRETATION: Pasteurization of human milk by the Holder method (62.5°C for 30 min) inactivates SARS-CoV-2. Thus, in the event that donated human milk contains SARS-CoV-2 by transmission through the mammary gland or by contamination, this method of pasteurization renders milk safe for consumption and handling by care providers.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Bancos de Leite , Leite Humano/virologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pasteurização/métodos , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Inativação de Vírus , Temperatura Alta , Humanos , Leite Humano/química , Ontário , Fatores de Tempo , Ensaio de Placa Viral
19.
Breastfeed Med ; 15(8): 488-491, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32614251

RESUMO

Background: Limited data are available on the perinatal and postnatal transmission of novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and World Health Organization (WHO) recommended breastfeeding with necessary precautions to mothers with COVID-19. Case Presentation: A 20-year-old pregnant woman with no symptoms of COVID-19 presented to the hospital for delivery at 39 weeks of gestation. She was tested for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) because her father had been diagnosed with COVID-19. A nasopharyngeal swab RT-PCR test was positive for SARS-CoV-2. Therefore, the baby and the mother were cared for separately after delivery. Breast milk obtained after first lactation was tested by real-time RT-PCR and was positive for SARS-CoV-2. Conclusions: In this article, we aimed to report the presence of SARS-CoV-2 in breast milk. Although further studies are needed, this situation may have an impact on breastfeeding recommendations.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Aleitamento Materno , Infecções por Coronavirus , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Leite Humano/virologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez , Adulto , Doenças Assintomáticas/terapia , Aleitamento Materno/efeitos adversos , Aleitamento Materno/métodos , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Parto Obstétrico , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/diagnóstico , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/fisiopatologia
20.
Paediatr Respir Rev ; 35: 31-37, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32709462

RESUMO

Beginning in late 2019, a novel coronavirus labeled SARS-CoV-2 spread around the world, affecting millions. The impact of the disease on patients and on health care delivery has been unprecedented. Here, we review what is currently known about the effects of the virus and its clinical condition, Covid-19 in areas of relevance to those providing care to neonates. While aspects of pregnancy, including higher expression of the cell receptor for the virus, ACE2, could put these women at higher risk, preliminary epidemiological information does not support this. Viral carriage prevalence based on universal screening show that rates vary from 13% in "hot spots" such as New York City, to 3% in areas with lower cases. Vertical transmission risks are unknown but 3.1% of 311 babies born to mothers with Covid-19 were positive within a week of birth. The clinical description of 26 neonates <30 days of age showed no deaths and only one requiring intensive care. Risks for breast-feeding and for milk banks are discussed.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Leite Humano/virologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Aborto Induzido , Aborto Espontâneo/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa , Bancos de Leite , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/fisiopatologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/terapia
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