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1.
Nutrients ; 13(10)2021 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34684495

RESUMO

Milk is widely considered as a beneficial product for growing children. This study was designed to describe the milk consumption status of Korean children aged 30-36 months and to investigate its association with the risk of obesity and iron deficiency anemia (IDA). This nationwide administrative study used data from the Korean national health insurance system and child health screening examinations for children born in 2008 and 2009. In total, 425,583 children were included, and they were divided into three groups based on daily milk consumption: low milk group (do not drink or drink <200 mL milk per day, n = 139,659), reference group (drink 200-499 mL milk per day, n = 255,670), and high milk group (drink ≥500 mL milk per day, n = 30,254). After adjusting variable confounding factors, the consumption of a large amount of milk of ≥500 mL per day at the age of 30-36 months was associated with an increased risk of obesity at the age of 42-72 months and IDA after the age of 30 months. These results may provide partial evidence for dietary guidelines for milk consumption in children that are conducive to health.


Assuntos
Anemia Ferropriva/epidemiologia , Saúde da Criança/estatística & dados numéricos , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Leite/estatística & dados numéricos , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Anemia Ferropriva/etiologia , Animais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Comportamento de Ingestão de Líquido , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Leite/efeitos adversos , Obesidade Pediátrica/etiologia , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco
2.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5958, 2021 10 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34645820

RESUMO

Understanding the functional potential of the gut microbiome is of primary importance for the design of innovative strategies for allergy treatment and prevention. Here we report the gut microbiome features of 90 children affected by food (FA) or respiratory (RA) allergies and 30 age-matched, healthy controls (CT). We identify specific microbial signatures in the gut microbiome of allergic children, such as higher abundance of Ruminococcus gnavus and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, and a depletion of Bifidobacterium longum, Bacteroides dorei, B. vulgatus and fiber-degrading taxa. The metagenome of allergic children shows a pro-inflammatory potential, with an enrichment of genes involved in the production of bacterial lipo-polysaccharides and urease. We demonstrate that specific gut microbiome signatures at baseline can be predictable of immune tolerance acquisition. Finally, a strain-level selection occurring in the gut microbiome of allergic subjects is identified. R. gnavus strains enriched in FA and RA showed lower ability to degrade fiber, and genes involved in the production of a pro-inflammatory polysaccharide. We demonstrate that a gut microbiome dysbiosis occurs in allergic children, with R. gnavus emerging as a main player in pediatric allergy. These findings may open new strategies in the development of innovative preventive and therapeutic approaches. Trial: NCT04750980.


Assuntos
Alérgenos/imunologia , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/imunologia , Tolerância Imunológica , Hipersensibilidade Respiratória/microbiologia , Alérgenos/efeitos adversos , Animais , Bacteroides/isolamento & purificação , Bacteroides/metabolismo , Bifidobacterium longum/isolamento & purificação , Bifidobacterium longum/metabolismo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Clostridiales/isolamento & purificação , Clostridiales/metabolismo , Alérgenos Animais/efeitos adversos , Alérgenos Animais/imunologia , Ovos/efeitos adversos , Faecalibacterium prausnitzii/isolamento & purificação , Faecalibacterium prausnitzii/metabolismo , Feminino , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/etiologia , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/imunologia , Humanos , Lipopolissacarídeos/biossíntese , Masculino , Leite/efeitos adversos , Leite/imunologia , Nozes/efeitos adversos , Nozes/imunologia , Pólen/química , Pólen/imunologia , Prunus persica/química , Prunus persica/imunologia , Pyroglyphidae/química , Pyroglyphidae/imunologia , Hipersensibilidade Respiratória/etiologia , Hipersensibilidade Respiratória/imunologia , Urease/biossíntese
3.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444795

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic is the most challenging global health crisis of our times. Vaccination against COVID-19 plays a key role to control the current pandemic situation. The risk of allergic reactions to new COVID-19 vaccines is low. However, there is a debate on the safety in allergic patients following post marketing findings by different agencies. Our aim is to understand from current experiences whether children with cow's milk or food allergy are at higher risk than a general population for allergic reactions to COVID-19 vaccines. Current data indicate that patients with a history of allergy to cow's milk or other foods, even if severe, should receive COVID-19 vaccine in a setting with availability of treatments for anaphylactic reactions and under medical supervision. Recipients should be discharged after a protracted observation period of 30 min if no reaction developed.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19/efeitos adversos , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/imunologia , Hipersensibilidade a Leite/imunologia , Adolescente , Alérgenos/imunologia , Anafilaxia/etiologia , Animais , Vacinas contra COVID-19/imunologia , Vacinas contra COVID-19/uso terapêutico , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina E/imunologia , Masculino , Leite/efeitos adversos , Polietilenoglicóis/efeitos adversos , Polietilenoglicóis/uso terapêutico , SARS-CoV-2 , Vacinação/efeitos adversos
4.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445060

RESUMO

Milk intake has been associated with risk of neurodegenerative diseases in observational studies. Nevertheless, whether the association is causal remains unknown. We adopted Mendelian randomization design to evaluate the potential causal association between milk intake and common neurodegenerative diseases, including multiple sclerosis (MS), Alzheimer's disease (AD), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and Parkinson's disease (PD). Genetic associations for neurodegenerative diseases were obtained from the International Multiple Sclerosis Genetics Consortium (n = 80,094), FinnGen consortium (n = 176,899), AD GWAS (n = 63,926), Web-Based Study of Parkinson's Disease (n = 308,518), PDGene (n = 108,990), and ALS GWAS (n = 80,610). Lactase persistence variant rs4988235 (LCT-13910 C > T) was used as the instrumental variable for milk intake. Genetically predicted higher milk intake was associated with a decreased risk of MS and AD and with an increased risk of PD. For each additional milk intake increasing allele, the odds ratios were 0.94 (95% confidence intervals [CI]: 0.91-0.97; p = 1.51 × 10-4) for MS, 0.97 (0.94-0.99; p = 0.019) for AD and 1.09 (95%CI: 1.06-1.12, p = 9.30 × 10-9) for PD. Genetically predicted milk intake was not associated with ALS (odds ratio: 0.97, 95%CI: 0.94-1.01, p = 0.135). Our results suggest that genetically predicted milk intake is associated with a decreased risk of MS and AD but with an increased risk of PD. Further investigations are needed to clarify the underlying mechanisms.


Assuntos
Interação Gene-Ambiente , Lactase/genética , Leite , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Doença de Alzheimer/epidemiologia , Doença de Alzheimer/genética , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral , Animais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Leite/efeitos adversos , Esclerose Múltipla/epidemiologia , Esclerose Múltipla/genética , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/diagnóstico , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/epidemiologia , Doença de Parkinson/epidemiologia , Doença de Parkinson/genética , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
5.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34205445

RESUMO

In the last decade, the role of nutritional management in pediatric gastrointestinal diseases has gained increasing popularity. Disease-specific diets have been introduced as conventional treatments by international guidelines. Patients tend to more willingly accept food-based therapies than drugs because of their relatively "harmless" nature. Apart from a diet's therapeutic role, nutritional support is crucial in maintaining growth and improving clinical outcomes in pediatric patients. Despite the absence of classical "side effects", however, it should be emphasized that any dietary modification might have negative consequences on children's growth and development. Hence, expert supervision is always advised, in order to support adequate nutritional requirements. Unfortunately, the media provide an inaccurate perception of the role of diet for gastrointestinal diseases, leading to misconceptions by patients or their caregivers that tends to overestimate the beneficial role of diets and underestimate the potential adverse effects. Moreover, not only patients, but also healthcare professionals, have a number of misconceptions about the nutritional benefits of diet modification on gastrointestinal diseases. The aim of this review is to highlight the role of diet in pediatric gastrointestinal diseases, to detect misconceptions and to give a practical guide for physicians on the basis of current scientific evidence.


Assuntos
Gastroenteropatias/dietoterapia , Terapia Nutricional , Dor Abdominal , Animais , Bovinos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Dieta , Enterite/dietoterapia , Enterite/fisiopatologia , Eosinofilia/dietoterapia , Eosinofilia/fisiopatologia , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar , Gastrite/dietoterapia , Gastrite/fisiopatologia , Gastroenteropatias/fisiopatologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/dietoterapia , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/fisiopatologia , Leite/efeitos adversos , Leite/imunologia , Necessidades Nutricionais , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Probióticos
7.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 21(1): 454, 2021 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34182950

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Iodine plays an important role in pregnancy. How to maintain adequate iodine intake amongst pregnant women in each trimester of pregnancy to prevent adverse birth outcomes in central China is a challenge for clinical practice. METHODS: 870 pregnant women and their infants were enrolled in the study. Urinary iodine concentration (UIC) was measured using an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Maternal and newborn information were obtained during follow-up. Multinomial logistic regression models were established. RESULTS: Median UIC of pregnant women was 172 ± 135 µg/L which is currently considered to be sufficient. Multivitamin supplements containing iodine, iodized salt intake and frequent milk intake were significantly associated with higher UIC. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that multivitamin supplements containing iodine and milk consumption were risk factors for more than adequate iodine (UIC ≥ 250 µg/L). Iodine-rich diet was significantly related to heavier birthweight, larger head circumference and longer femur length of the newborns while more than adequate iodine intake (UIC ≥ 250 µg/L) was a risk factor for macrosomia. Logistic regression models based on potential risk factors involving iodine containing supplements and iodine-rich diet were established to predict and screen pregnant women with high risk of more than adequate iodine intake among local pregnant women in different trimesters and guide them to supplement iodine reasonably to prevent the risk. CONCLUSIONS: Multivitamin supplements containing iodine and milk consumption were risk factors for maternal UIC ≥ 250 µg/L which was a risk factor for macrosomia. Iodine monitoring models were established to provide guidance for pregnant women to reduce the risk of more than adequate iodine intake, thereby contributing to reduce the risk of having a macrosomia.


Assuntos
Iodo/efeitos adversos , Modelos Teóricos , Avaliação Nutricional , Complicações na Gravidez/prevenção & controle , Cuidado Pré-Natal/métodos , Adulto , Animais , China , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Dieta/métodos , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Suplementos Nutricionais/efeitos adversos , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Ingestão de Alimentos , Feminino , Macrossomia Fetal/etiologia , Macrossomia Fetal/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Iodo/análise , Iodo/urina , Modelos Logísticos , Leite/efeitos adversos , Estado Nutricional , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/etiologia , Complicações na Gravidez/urina , Trimestres da Gravidez/urina , Fatores de Risco , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta/efeitos adversos
8.
Rocz Panstw Zakl Hig ; 72(2): 137-143, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34114770

RESUMO

Acne is one of the most common dermatological conditions affecting millions of people worldwide. It is assumed that the main etiological factors acne are considered to be the excessive production of sebum and hormones, and the colonisation of P. acnes bacteria. The relationship between diet and acne lesions is still the subject of debate and scientific criticism. On the one hand, studies suggest that an elimination diet is of no benefit in the treatment of acne, while other studies indicate that there is a close a close relationship between diet and the occurrence of acne lesions. Already in the 1970s, some scientists claimed that the course of acne could be modified by specific dietary components. Several studies have confirmed, among others, the role of a diet with a high glycemic index diet in acne exacerbation and suggested that a low glycemic index diet for several weeks may lead to a reduction in the number of acne lesions. The effect of milk consumption was also investigated in terms for its potential role in acne pathogenesis, including its ability to increase insulin levels. In the last decade, studies have also emerged to determine the effect of dark chocolate on the exacerbation of acne symptoms. To date, it has not been conclusively established which component of chocolate may have a potentially adverse effects on the course of acne. The article summaries the current knowledge on the relationship between diet and acne lesions, and discusses the results of recent studies on selected dietary components that may exacerbate acne.


Assuntos
Acne Vulgar/etiologia , Chocolate/efeitos adversos , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Animais , Índice Glicêmico , Humanos , Leite/efeitos adversos
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34014811

RESUMO

A 7-plex immunoassay capable of detecting cashew, egg, hazelnut, milk, peanut, shrimp, and soy allergens was used to screen meals ready-to-eat (MREs) and frozen meals that contained meat or poultry. The same food matrices were also evaluated using single individual allergen immunoassays. Multiplex and single allergen test results were compared with the allergen declared on the food label, which was considered the standard. For both the frozen meals (n = 113) and MREs (n = 24) each analytical method failed to detect allergens that were declared on product labels, but only in frozen meals were allergens detected that were not declared on the label. Undeclared allergens were detected for egg in 1.8% (2/113) and for soy in 7.1% (8/113) of frozen meals. Labelled allergens were not detected in 0.9% (1/113) of milk, 4.4% (5/113) of egg, and 15% (17/113) of soy allergens in frozen meals. Assay performance for evaluating allergens in MREs was poor.


Assuntos
Alérgenos/efeitos adversos , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/métodos , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Alimentos Congelados/efeitos adversos , Refeições/fisiologia , Animais , Ovos/análise , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/metabolismo , Rotulagem de Alimentos , Humanos , Leite/efeitos adversos , Leite/imunologia , Soja/efeitos adversos , Soja/imunologia
10.
Allergol Immunopathol (Madr) ; 49(3): 17-20, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33938184

RESUMO

Functional constipation (FC) is one of the most common disorders in childhood and has a negative impact on the quality of life of children. Scientific evidence regarding a causal relationship between FC and cow's milk allergy is controversial, as it is also reported by the latest European Society for Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition-North American Society for Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition (ESPGHAN-NASPGHAN) recommendations. In the case of FC, routine allergometric tests are not recommended and the cows' milk-free diet is only proposed in the case of laxative-resistant constipation and only following the advice of an expert. Instead, after a careful review of the literature and in view of the many clinical cases encountered in our clinical practice, we believe that it is useful to propose cows' milk-free diet as first line for the treatment of FC at least in pre-school children and in children with a personal or family history of atopy or with a previous diagnosis of cow's milk protein allergy.


Assuntos
Constipação Intestinal/dietoterapia , Hipersensibilidade a Leite/complicações , Leite/efeitos adversos , Animais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Constipação Intestinal/etiologia , Resistência a Medicamentos , Feminino , Guias como Assunto , Humanos , Laxantes/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Proteínas do Leite/administração & dosagem , Proteínas do Leite/efeitos adversos , Qualidade de Vida
11.
Nutrients ; 13(4)2021 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33918391

RESUMO

Per the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, asthma prevalence has steadily risen since the 1980s. Using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), we investigated associations between milk consumption and pulmonary function (PF). Multivariable analyses were performed, adjusted for a priori potential confounders for lung function, within the eligible total adult population (n = 11,131) and those self-reporting asthma (n = 1,542), included the following variables: milk-consumption, asthma diagnosis, forced vital capacity (FVC), FVC%-predicted (%), forced expiratory volume in one-second (FEV1), FEV1% and FEV1/FVC. Within the total population, FEV1% and FVC% were significantly associated with regular (5+ days weekly) consumption of exclusively 1% milk in the prior 30-days (ß:1.81; 95% CI: [0.297, 3.325]; p = 0.020 and ß:1.27; [0.16, 3.22]; p = 0.046). Among participants with asthma, varied-regular milk consumption in a lifetime was significantly associated with FVC (ß:127.3; 95% CI: [13.1, 241.4]; p = 0.002) and FVC% (ß:2.62; 95% CI: [0.44, 4.80]; p = 0.006). No association between milk consumption and FEV1/FVC was found, while milk-type had variable influence and significance. Taken together, we found certain milk consumption tendencies were associated with pulmonary function values among normal and asthmatic populations. These findings propound future investigations into the potential role of dairy consumption in altering lung function and asthma outcomes, with potential impact on the protection and maintenance of pulmonary health.


Assuntos
Asma/fisiopatologia , Ingestão de Líquidos/fisiologia , Leite/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Asma/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Volume Expiratório Forçado , Humanos , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Leite/efeitos adversos , Análise Multivariada , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Prevalência , Testes de Função Respiratória , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Capacidade Vital , Adulto Jovem
12.
Nutrients ; 13(3)2021 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33809135

RESUMO

Coffee is widely consumed worldwide, and numerous studies indicate that coffee consumption may potentially affect the development of chronic diseases. Metabolic syndrome (MetS) may constitute a risk factor for chronic diseases. We aimed to prospectively evaluate the association between coffee consumption and MetS incidence. All participants were selected from the Health Examinees study. MetS was defined by the Adult Treatment Panel III criteria of the National Cholesterol Education Program. A multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to assess the relationship between coffee consumption and MetS incidence. In comparison with non-consumers, male moderate consumers (≤3 cups/day) showed a lower risk for low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) (≤1 cup/day, hazard ratio (HR): 0.445, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.254-0.780; 1-3 cups/day, HR: 0.507, 95% CI: 0.299-0.859) and high fasting blood glucose (FPG) (≤1 cup/day, HR: 0.694, 95% CI: 0.538-0.895; 1-3 cups/day, HR: 0.763, 95% CI: 0.598-0.972). Male 3-in-1 coffee (coffee with sugar and creamer) consumers also showed a lower risk for low HDL-C (HR: 0.423, 95% CI: 0.218-0.824) and high FPG (HR: 0.659, 95% CI: 0.497-0.874). These findings indicate a negative association between moderate coffee consumption and low HDL-C and high FPG among Korean male adults.


Assuntos
Café/efeitos adversos , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Leite/efeitos adversos , Açúcares/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Glicemia/análise , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Incidência , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/etiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Triglicerídeos/sangue
13.
Nutrients ; 13(3)2021 Mar 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33802302

RESUMO

Cow's milk is a key component of a child's diet. While the consumption of even trace amounts can result in allergy to its proteins and/or hypolactasia, excessive cow's milk consumption can result in numerous health complications, including iron deficiency, due to the diet being improperly balanced. Although the incidence of iron deficiency has declined, it remains the most widespread nutritional deficiency globally and the most common cause of anemia. One rare consequence of anemia caused by iron deficiency is protein-losing enteropathy; however, the mechanisms of its development are unclear. The following manuscript, based on a literature review, presents two rare cases of children, a 16-month-old boy and a 2.5-year-old girl, who developed severe microcytic anemia, enteropathy with hypoalbuminemia, and anasarca as a result of excessive cow's milk consumption. It highlights the possible relationship between excessive consumption of cow's milk in children and severe iron deficiency anemia with accompanying hypoalbuminemia; it may also result in serious clinical conditions, even in children that do not demonstrate food hypersensitivity.


Assuntos
Anemia/induzido quimicamente , Edema/induzido quimicamente , Hipoalbuminemia/induzido quimicamente , Leite/efeitos adversos , Enteropatias Perdedoras de Proteínas/induzido quimicamente , Animais , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino
14.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 114(1): 59-69, 2021 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33826695

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Population-based studies generally show neutral associations between dairy consumption and ischemic heart disease (IHD) mortality, whereas weak inverse associations were found for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and stroke mortality. Whether dairy consumption affects long-term survival after myocardial infarction (MI) is unknown. OBJECTIVES: We studied types of dairy and long-term mortality risk in drug-treated post-MI patients. METHODS: We included 4365 Dutch patients from the Alpha Omega Cohort aged 60-80 y (21% women) with an MI ≤10 y before enrollment. Dietary data were collected at baseline (2002-2006) using a 203-item FFQ and patients were followed for cause-specific mortality through December 2018. HRs of CVD, IHD, stroke, and all-cause mortality for types of dairy were obtained from Cox models, adjusting for age, sex, energy intake, physical activity, smoking, alcohol intake, diabetes, obesity, and dietary factors. RESULTS: Most patients were Dutch, 24% were obese, 20% had diabetes, and 97% used cardiovascular medication. Median intakes were 39 g/d for plain yogurt, 88 g/d for total nonfermented milk, and 17 g/d for hard cheeses. Of the cohort, 10% consumed high-fat milk. During ∼12 y of follow-up (48,473 person-years) 2035 deaths occurred, including 903 from CVD, 558 from IHD, and 170 from stroke. Yogurt was linearly inversely associated with CVD mortality (HR: 0.96; 95% CI: 0.93, 0.99; per 25 g/d) and nonlinearly inversely associated with all-cause mortality. Milk was not associated with any of the outcomes (HRs: ∼1.0 per 100 g/d), except for a higher mortality risk in high-fat milk consumers (HR: 1.30; 95% CI: 1.13, 1.49). Other dairy groups were not associated with mortality risk. CONCLUSIONS: In Dutch post-MI patients, yogurt consumption was inversely associated with CVD mortality and all-cause mortality. Associations for milk and other dairy products were neutral or inconsistent.This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT03192410.


Assuntos
Laticínios/efeitos adversos , Leite/efeitos adversos , Infarto do Miocárdio/complicações , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Estudos de Coortes , Gorduras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/mortalidade , Isquemia Miocárdica/mortalidade , Países Baixos , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
15.
Biomolecules ; 11(3)2021 03 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33803410

RESUMO

The consumption of cow's milk is a part of the basic nutritional habits of Western industrialized countries. Recent epidemiological studies associate the intake of cow's milk with an increased risk of diseases, which are associated with overactivated mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling. This review presents current epidemiological and translational evidence linking milk consumption to the regulation of mTORC1, the master-switch for eukaryotic cell growth. Epidemiological studies confirm a correlation between cow's milk consumption and birthweight, body mass index, onset of menarche, linear growth during childhood, acne vulgaris, type 2 diabetes mellitus, prostate cancer, breast cancer, hepatocellular carcinoma, diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, neurodegenerative diseases, and all-cause mortality. Thus, long-term persistent consumption of cow's milk increases the risk of mTORC1-driven diseases of civilization. Milk is a highly conserved, lactation genome-controlled signaling system that functions as a maternal-neonatal relay for optimized species-specific activation of mTORC1, the nexus for regulation of eukaryotic cell growth, and control of autophagy. A deeper understanding of milk´s impact on mTORC1 signaling is of critical importance for the prevention of common diseases of civilization.


Assuntos
Acne Vulgar/patologia , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Diabetes Mellitus/patologia , Feto/patologia , Alvo Mecanístico do Complexo 1 de Rapamicina/metabolismo , Leite/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias/patologia , Degeneração Neural/patologia , Animais , Bovinos , Criança , Humanos
16.
J Int Soc Sports Nutr ; 18(1): 14, 2021 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33568169

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chocolate milk has gained recent scientific support as a recovery drink. However, it is known that high exercise-demand triggers gastrointestinal discomfort which continues post-exercise, thereby hindering this nutritional strategy. In addition, those who are lactose intolerant cannot benefit from a milk-based beverage. Thus, the aim of this preliminary study was to develop a low-fat, lactose-free, and leucine-enriched chocolate cow milk prototype (CML) representing nutrition-related recommendations for football players, as well as assess athletes' individual subjective outcomes for gastrointestinal complaints and sensorial acceptability in a field-based setting following strenuous team-sport physical demands. METHODS: This study followed a single group and repeated-measured design with 10 football players (23 ± 2 yrs., 74 ± 14 kg, 174 ± 5 cm) who consumed CML following a 90-min football match simulation protocol (FMP). The total CML intake to achieve 0.150 g leucine·kg [BW]·h- 1 occurred in aliquots of 50, 30 and 20% at 0-, 45- and 75-min post-FMP, respectively. Athletes were evaluated by the prevalence, the type and severity (bloating, nausea, flatulence, and gastric reflux) of gastrointestinal complaints and sensorial acceptability (overall perception, appearance, consistency, and flavour) after drinking each aliquot in a 4-h recovery period. RESULTS: The CML showed higher scores for "Product Acceptability Index" (88%) and sensorial acceptability (~ 8 in 9-point hedonic scale). Kendall's W with bootstrapped resample (95%CI) revealed agreement among respondents as "moderate" (overall perception, flavour) to "strong" (appearance, consistency) and with no significant agreement differences between rater response in the timeline analysis (0.57 up to 0.87; p > 0.05). Agresti-Caffo add-4 analysis (95% confidence interval, [95%CI]) revealed no differences in each time-point analysis versus baseline for athletes classified as having severe gastrointestinal symptoms, but confirmed concern with bloating (three athletes showed a transient response at 2-h and only one continued until 3-h; p = 0.051). CONCLUSIONS: These preliminary findings suggest that CML presents good taste and high acceptability by the sampled athletes. Thus, CML may be an alternative sport drink for immediate post-workout supplementation to overcome the energy deficit, offer co-ingested leucine, maintain palatability and adherence including lactose intolerance following a team sport-specific fatigue. TRIAL REGISTRATION: RBR-2vmpz9 , 10/12/2019, retrospectively registered.


Assuntos
Chocolate , Alimentos Fortificados , Leucina , Leite/química , Futebol/fisiologia , Paladar , Animais , Bovinos , Ingestão de Energia , Flatulência/etiologia , Alimentos Fortificados/efeitos adversos , Refluxo Gastroesofágico/etiologia , Gastroenteropatias/etiologia , Humanos , Lactose , Intolerância à Lactose/complicações , Leucina/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Leite/efeitos adversos , Náusea/etiologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Esportiva , Adulto Jovem
17.
Allergol Immunopathol (Madr) ; 49(2): 53-59, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33641294

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Inclusion of baked-milk products to the diet appears to markedly accelerate tolerance to unheated milk compared to a strict avoidance diet. OBJECTIVE: : The present study aims to investigate the predictors of baked-milk tolerance in children with Immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated cow's milk (CM) allergy. METHODS: The study included 80 patients diagnosed with IgE-mediated CM allergy upon oral food challenge (OFC) testing at our clinic. Patients who developed and did not develop reactions during OFC with baked milk were compared considering clinical and laboratory parameters. RESULTS: Eighty patients with CM allergy comprised 48 male and 32 female infants with an average age of 7.25 ± 2.45 (3-13) months. We found that 62.5% of them showed tolerance to baked milk in the OFC test performed with cakes containing 2.6-g milk protein. When the patients who tolerated and could not tolerate baked-milk products were compared for test results, we detected a statistically significant intergroup difference regarding diameter of wheal in skin prick test (SPT) performed with muffin slurry, levels of specific Immunoglobulin E (sIgE) in CM, sheep's milk (SM), goat's milk (GM), casein, and the amount of unheated milk consumed until a reaction developed in the OFC test performed with unheated milk (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: We defined novel decision points based on CM, SM, GM, casein sIgE levels, wheal diameter in SPT with muffin slurry, and the amount of milk ingested during OFC performed with unheated milk that may be useful in predicting outcomes of baked-milk ingestion.


Assuntos
Alérgenos/administração & dosagem , Culinária , Imunoglobulina E/sangue , Hipersensibilidade a Leite/diagnóstico , Leite/imunologia , Administração Oral , Alérgenos/efeitos adversos , Alérgenos/imunologia , Animais , Caseínas/administração & dosagem , Caseínas/efeitos adversos , Caseínas/imunologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Cabras , Humanos , Imunoglobulina E/imunologia , Lactente , Masculino , Leite/efeitos adversos , Leite/química , Hipersensibilidade a Leite/sangue , Hipersensibilidade a Leite/imunologia , Hipersensibilidade a Leite/prevenção & controle , Estudos Prospectivos , Ovinos , Testes Cutâneos
18.
Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol ; 127(1): 36-41, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33450397

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Scoping review on IgE-mediated cow's milk allergy prevention. DATA SOURCES: Literature search of PubMed database and gray literature. STUDY SELECTIONS: Peer-reviewed relevant observational and randomized controlled studies in the pediatric population in the English language were selected and reviewed. RESULTS: There is increasing literature supporting the role of early and ongoing cow's milk ingestion in the prevention of cow's milk allergy. The studies supporting a preventive role with early cow's milk ingestion suggest cow's milk introduction at a very early age (most within the first month of life), suggesting the possibility of a different mechanism of sensitization than other common allergens. It is possible that gut colonization and the diversity and intensity of microbial exposure may play a role in inducing cow's milk tolerance. It is also possible that vitamin D may have a role in modulating those immune functions. CONCLUSION: Further research regarding the role that early cow's milk ingestion plays in the prevention of cow's milk allergy is required, and questions remain. The absolute amount required for tolerance is unclear. Studies in higher risk populations are required. However, there is an intriguing and increasingly more pervasive association between early ongoing cow's milk ingestion and cow's milk allergy prevention.


Assuntos
Hipersensibilidade a Leite/imunologia , Hipersensibilidade a Leite/prevenção & controle , Proteínas do Leite/efeitos adversos , Leite/efeitos adversos , Animais , Bovinos , Criança , Humanos , Tolerância Imunológica , Leite/imunologia , Hipersensibilidade a Leite/epidemiologia , Proteínas do Leite/imunologia , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
19.
Int Arch Allergy Immunol ; 182(4): 319-323, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33053550

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Cow's milk protein allergy (CMA) is the most common type of food allergy in childhood and exclusion diet is a challenge for patients. OBJECTIVE: The study aim was to investigate the frequency of tolerance to baked foods containing milk and evaluate immediate skin prick test (SPT) and specific IgEs for different cow's milk (CM) protein types as predictors of tolerance to baked foods containing milk for CMA patients. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed. Fifty-four CMA patients were enrolled and oral food challenge (OFC) was performed with baked product, 6 different milk SPTs and specific IgEs to CM, casein, α-lactalbumin, and ß-lactoglobulin. RESULTS: Thirty-nine (72.2%) patients tolerated OFC with baked milk cupcake. CM-specific IgE and casein SPT showed statistical difference between positive and negative OFC groups. Probability curves for baked milk tolerance were created for specific CM IgE (Z = 2.542, p < 0.0110) and casein SPT (Z = 2.290, p < 0.0220) using logistic regression. CONCLUSIONS: The high percentage of patients able to tolerate baked goods enables an improvement in intake possibilities and quality of life of CMA patients and families. Specific CM IgE and casein SPT demonstrated to be useful predictors in relation to baked milk tolerance.


Assuntos
Tolerância Imunológica , Hipersensibilidade a Leite/imunologia , Leite/efeitos adversos , Animais , Biomarcadores , Bovinos , Estudos Transversais , Manipulação de Alimentos , Humanos , Imunoglobulina E/imunologia , Leite/imunologia , Hipersensibilidade a Leite/diagnóstico , Hipersensibilidade a Leite/prevenção & controle , Testes Cutâneos
20.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2223: 67-78, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33226587

RESUMO

Cow's milk allergy is one of the most prevalent food allergies in both children and adults. As dairy products are common dietary ingredients and the prevalence of chronic conditions is on the rise, milk allergy is a growing public health concern. To elucidate underlying mechanisms and develop therapeutic strategies, reliable animal models are essential research tools. Sensitization to a milk protein is the principal procedure for establishing animal models of cow's milk allergy. However, the methods of sensitization vary from laboratory to laboratory, using different milk proteins with different amounts, routes, and durations of allergen exposure during sensitization of varying sex and strains of mice, likely resulting in diverse immunological and physical responses. Furthermore, the sources and potential impurities of milk protein may also produce variable responses. Thus, standardization of sensitization protocol is important, particularly when results are compared across studies. Here, we describe a method to generate a mouse model of cow's milk allergy using purified ß-lactoglobulin as the milk allergen with cholera toxin as an adjuvant in a 5-week oral sensitization protocol.


Assuntos
Anafilaxia/imunologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Lactoglobulinas/imunologia , Hipersensibilidade a Leite/imunologia , Leite/imunologia , Adjuvantes Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Administração Oral , Alérgenos/administração & dosagem , Alérgenos/imunologia , Anafilaxia/sangue , Anafilaxia/patologia , Animais , Bovinos , Toxina da Cólera/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina E/sangue , Imunoglobulina E/imunologia , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Lactoglobulinas/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Leite/efeitos adversos , Hipersensibilidade a Leite/sangue , Hipersensibilidade a Leite/patologia
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