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1.
Pak J Biol Sci ; 25(8): 755-764, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36098202

RESUMO

<b>Background and Objective:</b> The inclusion of clay minerals in dairy nutrition is getting attention owing to their proven beneficial effects. The current study aimed to evaluate the effect of dietary supplementation of three different clay minerals (bentonite, zeolite and humic acid) on the performance of lactating Boer goats. <b>Materials and Methods:</b> Twenty lactating Boer goats (having an average body weight ~42.7 kg) were divided into four groups (5 animals each) by using a completely randomized design (CRD). Each group was fed with one of four dietary treatments: Control group with basal ration R1: Consisting of concentrate feed mixture (CFM) and clover hay (50:50%, C:R) on a dry matter (DM) basis, R2: Basal ration plus 1% bentonite, R3: Basal ration plus 1.25% zeolite and R4: Basal ration plus 0.5% humic acid. <b>Results:</b> The results revealed that bentonite and humic acid increased (p<0.05) the nutrient digestibility and nutritive values compared to zeolite and control groups. Ruminal ammonia and total volatile fatty acids (TVFAs) contents increased (p<0.05) with supplementation of bentonite. No effect of clays supplementation was observed on plasma total protein, urea and creatinine, however, it increased (p<0.05) the albumin concentration and albumin/globulin ratios compared to the control while decreasing the plasma globulin contents. Supplementation of humic acid increased (p<0.05) the AST concentrations. Bentonite supplementation recorded the highest milk yield (p<0.05) and composition, while the zeolite group had the lowest values. <b>Conclusion:</b> The present study indicated that the inclusion of clay minerals particularly bentonite (at 1%) can positively affect the performance of lactating Boer goats.


Assuntos
Rúmen , Zeolitas , Albuminas , Animais , Bentonita/metabolismo , Bentonita/farmacologia , Argila , Dieta/veterinária , Feminino , Fermentação , Cabras , Substâncias Húmicas , Lactação , Leite/metabolismo , Nutrientes/metabolismo , Rúmen/metabolismo , Zeolitas/metabolismo , Zeolitas/farmacologia
2.
Animal ; 16(9): 100627, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36084412

RESUMO

Nutrient deficit during the periparturient period leads to mobilisation of body energy and protein reserves. Research regarding fat reserves and mobilisation is extensive, while, on the contrary, investigation of muscle mobilisation during the periparturient period is limited. The aim of this cohort study was to simultaneously investigate the biological variation of skeletal muscle and subcutaneous fat reserves together with their mobilisation in transition Holstein cows of different herds, using ultrasonography, and to assess potential affecting factors. For this purpose, ultrasound measurements of longissimus dorsi muscle thickness (LDT) and backfat thickness (BFT) from 238 multiparous cows of six dairy farms were obtained at six time points across the transition period (from 21 days pre- to 28 days postpartum). Concentrations of serum creatinine and non-esterified fatty acids were determined in order to confirm the loss of muscle mass and adipose tissue, respectively. Cases of clinical postparturient diseases and subclinical ketosis (scKET) during the first 28 days postcalving were recorded. Cows mobilised on average 32.8% and 37.3% of LDT and BFT reserves, respectively. Large between-cow variation was observed for both the onset and the degree of mobilisation. Time point, initial body condition score and parity were the most important predictors of LDT variation. Cows diagnosed with metritis (MET) had lower LDT postpartum and mobilised more muscle depth compared to cows not diagnosed with MET. Initial BCS, time point, initial BW (estimated by heart girth measurement) and parity were the most important predictors of BFT variation. Cows diagnosed with MET mobilised more backfat between -7d and 7d compared to cows not diagnosed with MET. Cows with scKET mobilised more backfat between 7- and 21 days postpartum compared to healthy ones. Variation of subcutaneous fat and skeletal muscle reserves during the transition period was large and affected by herd and several cow-level factors.


Assuntos
Metabolismo Energético , Lactação , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Animais , Bovinos , Estudos de Coortes , Creatinina/metabolismo , Metabolismo Energético/fisiologia , Ácidos Graxos não Esterificados/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Lactação/fisiologia , Leite/metabolismo , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Período Pós-Parto , Gravidez
3.
Animal ; 16(9): 100626, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36087360

RESUMO

The aim of this study was, for the first time, to simultaneously assess the association of skeletal muscle and subcutaneous fat reserves and their mobilisation, measured by ultrasonography, with the incidence of specific postparturient health, reproduction, and milk production traits. For this purpose, ultrasound measurements of longissimus dorsi thickness (LDT) and backfat thickness (BFT) from 238 multiparous cows from 6 dairy farms were obtained at 6 time points during the transition period (from 21 days pre- to 28 days postpartum). In each case, LDT and BFT measurements at each time point and LDT and BFT mobilisation variables at each study period were assessed simultaneously. Cases of specific clinical postparturient diseases and subclinical ketosis were recorded. An additional disease trait was used, defined as the presence or absence of at least one clinical condition after calving (CD_1-28). The associated disease odds with LDT/BFT variables were assessed with binary logistic regression models. The associated hazard for 1st artificial insemination (AI) and for pregnancy by 150 days-in-milk (PREG_150DIM) was assessed with Cox proportional hazard models. Moreover, binary logistic models were used to assess the associated odds for pregnancy to 1stAI (PREG_1stAI). Finally, association with 30d, 100d and 305d milk yield was assessed with linear regression models. Increased muscle depth during transition was negatively associated with odds for metritis and CD_1-28, while associations with odds for subclinical ketosis were inconclusive. Moreover, increased LDT reserves were associated with greater hazard for 1st AI by 150 days-in-milk, but results were inconclusive regarding odds for PREG_1stAI. Increased LDT mobilisation was associated with increased odds for metritis. Increased BFT reserves were positively associated with odds for metritis, CD_1-28 and subclinical ketosis and with decreased hazard for PREG_150DIM. Increased BFT mobilisation was associated with increased odds for subclinical ketosis and with decreased odds for PREG_1stAI and decreased hazard for PREG_150DIM. Cows with moderate BFT reserves performed better. Finally, increased BFT mobilisation during -21d to -7d from parturition was associated with less milk by 30d and 100d. On the contrary, increased BFT mobilisation during -7d to 7d was associated with more milk by 305d. Metabolism of muscle and fat tissue during transition period was differently associated with different postparturient health, reproduction and milk production traits. In general, greater muscle mass and moderate fat reserves with limited muscle and fat mobilisation were associated with better performance.


Assuntos
Cetose , Leite , Tecido Adiposo , Animais , Bovinos , Feminino , Cetose/veterinária , Lactação/fisiologia , Leite/metabolismo , Músculo Esquelético , Período Pós-Parto , Gravidez , Reprodução , Saúde Reprodutiva
4.
PLoS One ; 17(9): e0273916, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36048798

RESUMO

The purpose of this field study was to compare the effects of top-dressing tropical lactating cows with soybean meal (SBM) or citric waste fermented yeast waste (CWYW) on intake, digestibility, ruminal fermentation, blood metabolites, purine derivatives, milk production, and economic return. Sixteen mid-lactation Thai crossbreeds, Holstein Friesian (16.7 ± 0.30 kg/day milk yield and 490 ± 40.0 kg of initial body weight) were randomly allocated to two treatments in a completed randomized design: SBM as control (n = 8) or CWYW (n = 8). The feeding trial lasted for 60 days plus 21 days for treatment adaptation. The results showed that total dry matter intake, nutrient intake, and digestibility did not (p>0.05) differ between SBM and CWYW top-dressing. Ruminal pH and the protozoal population did not (p>0.05) differ between SBM and CWYW top-dressing. After 4 hours of feeding, CWYW top-dressing showed greater ammonia nitrogen, plasma urea nitrogen, and bacterial population compared with the top-dressing of SBM. Volatile fatty acids and purine derivatives were not different (p>0.05) between SBM and CWYW top-dressing. For milk urea nitrogen, there was a greater (p<0.05) and somatic cell count was lower (p<0.05) for cows fed the CWYW top-dress compared to cows fed the SBM top-dress. The cost of the top-dress and total feed cost were less (p<0.05) for CWYW compared to SBM top-dressing, at 0.59 vs 1.16 US dollars/cow/day and 4.14 vs 4.75 US dollars/cow/day, respectively. In conclusion, CWYW could be used as an alternative protein source to SBM without having a negative impact on tropical lactating cows.


Assuntos
Lactação , Rúmen , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Bovinos , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Digestão , Feminino , Fermentação , Leite/metabolismo , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Purinas/metabolismo , Rúmen/metabolismo , Soja/metabolismo , Tailândia , Ureia/metabolismo
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(17)2022 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36077169

RESUMO

Enzymatic diagnostics have practical applications in diseases of the liver, heart, pancreas, muscles, blood, and neoplastic diseases. This study aimed to compare enzyme activity to describe dairy cows' metabolism during early lactation. Based on their general health symptoms, the cows were assigned to one of three groups: acidotic, healthy and ketotic. Samples of milk, blood and rumen fluid were collected at 12 ± 5 days postpartum. Ketotic cows were characterized by the highest malondialdehyde (MDA, 76.098 nM/mL), glutathione reductase (GluRed, 109.852 U/L), superoxide dismutase (SOD, 294.22 U/L) and gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase (GGTP, 71.175 U/L) activity. In comparing ketotic and acidotic cows, MDA, GluRed, SOD and GGTP activity were higher by a factor of almost: 1.85, 1.89, 0.79 and 2.50, respectively. Acidotic cows were characterized by the highest aspartate aminotransferase activity (AspAT, 125.914 U/L). In comparing acidotic and ketotic cows, AspAT activity was higher by a factor of almost 1.90. The use of enzymatic markers could limit the frequency of sampling for laboratory analyses and may result in a faster diagnosis of metabolic disorders. AspAT activity in blood serum seems to be a good indicator of acidosis; GGTP may participate in the pathogenesis of ketosis.


Assuntos
Acidose , Doenças dos Bovinos , Cetose , Ácido 3-Hidroxibutírico/metabolismo , Acidose/metabolismo , Animais , Aspartato Aminotransferases/metabolismo , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/metabolismo , Feminino , Cetose/diagnóstico , Cetose/veterinária , Lactação/metabolismo , Metaboloma , Leite/metabolismo , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , gama-Glutamiltransferase/metabolismo
6.
J Agric Food Chem ; 70(37): 11623-11630, 2022 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36057098

RESUMO

Streptococcus thermophilus is a fast-growing lactic acid bacterium (LAB) used in yoghurt and cheese manufacturing. Recently, we reported how this bacterium could serve as a cell catalyst for hydrolyzing lactose when permeabilized by nisin A. To enhance the lactose hydrolyzing activity of S. thermophilus, we mutated a dairy strain and screened for variants with elevated ß-galactosidase activity. Two isolates, ST30-8 and ST95, had 2.4-fold higher activity. Surprisingly, both strains were able to hydrolyze lactose when used as whole-cell lactase catalysts without permeabilization, and ST30-8 hydrolyzed 30 g/L lactose in 6 h at 50 °C using 0.18 g/L cells. Moreover, both strains hydrolyzed lactose while growing in milk. Genome sequencing revealed a mutation in l-lactate dehydrogenase, which we believe hampers growth and increases the capacity of S. thermophilus to hydrolyze lactose. Our findings will allow production of sweet lactose-reduced yoghurt without the use of costly purified lactase enzymes.


Assuntos
Lactase , Iogurte , Animais , Fermentação , Hidrólise , L-Lactato Desidrogenase , Lactase/genética , Ácido Láctico , Lactose , Leite/metabolismo , beta-Galactosidase/metabolismo
7.
J Proteomics ; 268: 104716, 2022 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36070816

RESUMO

1α,25(OH)2VD3 is the most active form of vitamin D3 in animals, and it plays an important role in regulating mineral metabolism and reproduction. In this study, 140 crossbred gilts (Landrace × Yorkshire) were selected, randomly divided into four groups, and fed with a commercial diet supplemented with 0, 1, 2, and 4 µg/kg of 1α,25(OH)2VD3 in the form of 1α,25(OH)2VD3-glycosides. The mammary gland tissues were sampled from sows on day 114 of gestation. The production data of sows in each group were analyzed, and the colostrum quality was evaluated. Differentially abundant proteins (DAPs) in the mammary tissues were identified by tandem mass tag (TMT) technique and were verified by Western blot and parallel reaction monitoring (PRM). The results showed that 4 µg/kg 1α,25(OH)2VD3-glycosides significantly promoted the piglet birth weight, weaning weight, colostrum quality, and lactation ability of primiparous sows. The proteomics analysis showed that of the identified 53,118 peptides, 48,868 were unique peptides. A total of 5029 DAPs were identified, of which 4292 DAPs contained quantitative information. Our data indicated that 1α,25(OH)2VD3 was involved in the regulation of the mammary gland development and lactation in a dose-dependent manner through multiple pathways during gestation of primiparous sows. SIGNIFICANCE: The mammary gland is an important lactation organ of female mammals. Our research aims to reveal the effect of dietary supplementation with 1α,25(OH)2VD3 on mammary gland development and lactation of primiparous sow. This study identified potential signaling pathways and DAPs involved in regulating the mammary gland development and lactation in sows. Our findings provides theoretical basis for improving the fecundity of sows.


Assuntos
Leite , Proteômica , Acrilatos , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Dieta , Feminino , Glicosídeos/metabolismo , Glicosídeos/farmacologia , Lactação , Leite/metabolismo , Minerais/metabolismo , Sus scrofa , Suínos , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados , Vitamina D/metabolismo , Vitamina D/farmacologia
8.
J Dairy Sci ; 105(10): 8586-8589, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36055830

RESUMO

Environmental effects on pathogen abundance and access are precursors to mastitis. Indeed, high heat and humidity, and unsanitary housing and equipment, are associated with greater pathogen load and exposure. Although less is known about effects of environment on a cow's ability to resist infection, several indicators suggest that it can affect pathogen responses. Mastitis incidence and bulk tank somatic cell count vary with season, typically peaking in summer. Recent controlled studies have revealed that heat stress exposure results in changes in the microbiome of the cow and her environment, which may relate to negative effects on milk quality and cow health. Alternatively, specific pathogen loads may vary based on housing dynamics rather than associations with physical environment. Indeed, housing-related stressors, such as overcrowding and social group challenge, influence secretion of glucocorticoids, thus affecting pathogen resistance in the cow. Two key seasonal variables are photoperiod and temperature, specifically the heat stress consequent to elevated temperature and humidity. Shifts in light duration regulate immune function in other species, but apparently have limited effect on udder health of lactating cows. In contrast, in dry cows, short days increase peripheral blood mononuclear cell number and are associated with lower somatic cell count in the next lactation, compared with long days. With heat stress, elevated body temperature directly affects expression of immune-related genes in mammary tissue. Responses depend on duration of exposure and feature acute upregulation of immune-signaling pathways, followed by enrichment of other immune-related pathways after prolonged exposure. Most responses are transient and recover within 1 wk. Functionally, heat stress impairs some aspects of acquired immunity in dry cows, including antigen responses and lymphocyte proliferation, but apparently not innate immune function. However, heat stress in late gestation reduces neutrophil phagocytosis and killing in vitro, and neutrophils in circulation are reduced in vivo as are responses to pathogen challenge in the subsequent lactation. A holistic understanding of the complex interplay of environment, pathogens, and host is needed to inform advances in this area.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Estresse por Calor , Mastite Bovina , Animais , Bovinos , Feminino , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor/veterinária , Lactação/fisiologia , Leucócitos Mononucleares , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/fisiologia , Mastite Bovina/epidemiologia , Leite/metabolismo , Gravidez
9.
J Dairy Sci ; 105(10): 8130-8142, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36055853

RESUMO

Residual feed intake (RFI) is a measurement of the difference between actual and predicted feed intake when adjusted for energy sinks; more efficient cows eat less than predicted (low RFI) and inefficient cows eat more than predicted (high RFI). Data evaluating the relationship between RFI and feeding behaviors (FB) are limited in dairy cattle; therefore, the objective of this study was to determine daily and temporal FB in mid-lactation Holstein cows across a range of RFI values. Mid-lactation Holstein cows (n = 592 multiparous; 304 primiparous) were enrolled in 17 cohorts at 97 ± 26 d in milk (± standard deviation), and all cows within a cohort were fed a common diet using automated feeding bins. Cow RFI was calculated as the difference between predicted and observed dry matter intake (DMI) after accounting for parity, days in milk, milk energy, metabolic body weight and change, and experiment. The associations between RFI and FB at the level of meals and daily totals were evaluated using mixed models with the fixed effect of RFI and the random effects of cow and cohort. Daily temporal FB analyses were conducted using 2-h blocks and analyzed using mixed models with the fixed effects of RFI, time, RFI × time, and cohort, and the random effect of cow (cohort). There was a positive linear association between RFI and DMI in multiparous cows and a positive quadratic relationship in primiparous cows, where the rate of increase in DMI was less at higher RFI. Eating rate, DMI per meal, and size of the largest daily meal were positively associated with RFI. Daily temporal analysis of FB revealed an interaction between RFI and time for eating rate in multiparous and primiparous cows. The eating rate increased with greater RFI at 11 of 12 time points throughout the day, and eating rate differed across RFI between multiple time points. There tended to be an interaction between RFI and time for eating time and bin visits in multiparous cows but not primiparous cows. Overall, there was a time effect for all FB variables, where DMI, eating time and rate, and bin visits were greatest after the initial daily feeding at 1200 h, increased slightly after each milking, and reached a nadir at 0600 h (6 h before feeding). Considering the relationship between RFI and eating rate, additional efforts to determine cost-effective methods of quantifying eating rate in group-housed dairy cows is warranted. Further investigation is also warranted to determine if management strategies to alter FB, especially eating rate, can be effective in increasing feed efficiency in lactating dairy cattle.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Lactação , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Bovinos , Ingestão de Alimentos , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Humanos , Leite/metabolismo , Gravidez
10.
J Dairy Sci ; 105(10): 8509-8522, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36055854

RESUMO

Telomeres cap the ends of eukaryotic chromosomes, and the telomere length (TL) is related to cellular age. The mitochondrial DNA copy number (mtDNAcn) reflects the abundance of mitochondria in a cell. In addition to generating energy, mitochondria are also the main producers of reactive oxygen species, which in turn can accelerate TL attrition and impair mitochondrial function. Nutrition in early life could influence mtDNAcn and TL in later life. In the present study, we investigated the effects of feeding different levels of milk replacer (MR) on TL shortening and energetic status by examining mtDNAcn of heifers during their first year of life. In this study, whole blood samples were obtained from German Holstein heifer calves 36 to 48 h after birth (wk 1) and at wk 12 and wk 16 of life (n = 37), as well as from 31 calves when reaching 1 yr of age. Calves were fed either a high level of MR (14% solids) at 10 L/d (1.4 kg of MR/d; n = 18) or a restrictive low level at 5.7 L/d (0.8 kg of MR/d; n = 19) until linear weaning in wk 13 to 14 of life. Additional whole blood samples were taken from their respective dams 36 to 48 h after calving. Relative TL (qT) and mtDNAcn in cells from whole blood were measured by multiplex quantitative PCR. The greatest qT values were observed in neonates (36-48 h after birth), with decreasing qT values thereafter. Delta qT values were calculated as ΔqT = qT (first year of life) - initial qT (36-48 h after birth). We found no effect of the feeding regimen on qT values, but qT decreased with age. The mtDNAcn was lowest in neonates, increased until wk 12 of life, and then remained at a constant level until after weaning (wk 16). After the first year of life, mtDNAcn was decreased and returned to levels comparable to those of the neonatal stage. No differences in mtDNAcn were detectable between feeding groups within each time point. When comparing the values of qT and mtDNAcn between the calves and their dams after calving (36-48 h after birth and after calving), greater values were observed in calves than in dams. Delta qT values were negative in all but 2 calves (on the restricted diet), indicating that the change in TL with age was not uniform among individual animals, whereas no difference in mean ΔqT values occurred between the feeding groups. Additional analyses of the correlation between qT, mtDNAcn, and various indicators of oxidative status from birth until wk 16 of life did not indicate major interactions between oxidative status, qT and mtDNAcn. The results of this study support an age-dependent decrease of TL in calves independent of the MR feeding level and show the dynamic changes of mtDNAcn in early life.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Dieta , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Bovinos , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , DNA Mitocondrial , Dieta/veterinária , Feminino , Leite/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Telômero , Desmame
11.
J Dairy Sci ; 105(10): 7865-7877, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36055856

RESUMO

The by-products of milk fermentation by lactic acid bacteria provide potential health benefits to the balance of host intestinal microflora. In this study, the anti-inflammatory properties of fatty acids from monoculture-strain (Lactiplantibacillusplantarum A3) and multiple-strain (Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus bulgaricus, and L. plantarum A3 1:1:2) fermented milk were evaluated in a mouse model of dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis, and the gut microbiota regulation properties of the fatty acids were also investigated. Results showed that fatty acids can attenuate the inflammatory response by inhibiting the expression of inflammatory factors IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α, and blocking the phosphorylation of the JNK in MAPK signal pathway. In addition, the relative abundance of the taxa Akkermansia and Lactobacillus were both enriched after the fatty acid intervention. This finding suggests that fatty acids from the milk fermentation with mixed lactic acid bacteria starters can reduce the severity of dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis and enhance the abundance of the probiotics in the mice intestinal tract.


Assuntos
Colite , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Doenças dos Roedores , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/metabolismo , Colite/induzido quimicamente , Colite/veterinária , Colo/microbiologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Sulfato de Dextrana/efeitos adversos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Leite/metabolismo , Doenças dos Roedores/metabolismo , Doenças dos Roedores/patologia , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
12.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 54(5): 278, 2022 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36074215

RESUMO

Direct measurement of dry matter intake (DMI) presents a major challenge in estimating gross feed efficiency (GFE) in dairy cattle. This challenge can, however, be resolved through the prediction of DMI and GFE from easy-to-measure traits such as milk production (i.e. milk yield, energy-corrected milk (ECM), butterfat, protein, lactose) and live weight (LW). The main objective of this study was, therefore, to investigate the feasibility of predicting dry matter intake and gross feed efficiency for first-parity Holstein cows using milk production traits and LW. Data comprised of 30 daily measurements of DMI and milk production traits, and 25 daily LW records of a group of 100 first-parity Holstein cows, fed a total mixed ration. Gross feed efficiency was calculated as kg ECM divided by kg DMI. The initial step was to estimate correlations of milk production traits and LW with DMI and GFE, to identify the best potential predictors of DMI and GFE. Subsequently, a forward stepwise regression analysis was used to develop models to predict DMI and GFE from LW and milk production traits, followed by within-herd validations. Means for DMI, butterfat yield (BFY) and LW were 21.91 ± 2.77 kg/day, 0.95 ± 0.14 kg/day and 572 ± 15.58 kg/day, respectively. Mean GFE was 1.32 ± 0.22. Dry matter intake had positive correlations with milk yield (MY) (r = 0.32, p < 0.001) and LW (r = 0.76, p < 0.0001) and an antagonistic association with butterfat percent (BFP) (r = - 0.55, p < 0.001). On the other hand, GFE was positively associated with MY (r = 0.36, p < 0.001), BFP (r = 0.53, p < 0.001) and BFY (r = 0.83, p < 0.0001), and negatively correlated with LW (r = - 0.23, p > 0.05). Dry matter intake was predicted reliably by a model comprising of only LW and MY (R2 = 0.79; root mean squared error (RMSE) = 1.05 kg/day). A model that included BFY, MY and LW had the highest ability to predict GFE (R2 = 0.98; RMSE = 0.05). Live weight and BFY were the main predictor traits for DMI and GFE, respectively. The best models for predicting DMI and GFE were as follows: DMI (kg/day) = - 54.21 - 0.192 × MY (kg/day) + 0.146 × LW (kg/day) and GFE (kg/day) = 4.120 + 0.024 × MY (kg/day) + 1.000 × BFY (kg/day) - 0.008 × LW (kg/day). Thus, daily DMI (kg/day) and GFE can be reliably predicted from LW and milk production traits using these developed models in first-parity Holstein cows. This presents a big promise to generate large quantities of data of individual cow DMI and GFE, which can be used to implement genetic improvement of feed efficiency.


Assuntos
Lactação , Leite , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Bovinos , Dieta/veterinária , Ingestão de Alimentos/genética , Feminino , Lactação/genética , Leite/metabolismo , Paridade , Gravidez
13.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 54(5): 313, 2022 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36131188

RESUMO

This study aimed to rank potential drivers of cow productivity and welfare in tropical smallholder dairy farms (SDFs) in Vietnam. Forty-one variables were collected from 32 SDFs located in four geographically diverse dairy regions, with eight SDFs per region. Twelve variables, including milk yield (MILK), percentages of milk fat (mFA), protein (mPR), dry matter (mDM), energy-corrected milk yield (ECM), heart girth (HG), body weight (BW), ECM per 100 kg BW (ECMbw), body condition score (BCS), panting score (PS), inseminations per conception (tAI), and milk electrical resistance (mRE) of cows, were fitted as outcome variables in the models. Twenty-one other variables describing farm altitude, housing condition, and diet for the cows, cow genotypes, and cow physiological stage were fitted as explanatory variables. Increased farm altitude was associated with increases in ECM and mRE and with decreases in PS and tAI (P < 0.05). Increases in roof heights and percentage of shed side open were associated with increases in ECM, mFA, and mDM (P < 0.05). Increased dry matter intake and dietary densities of dry matter and fat were associated with increased MILK, ECM, and ECMbw and decreased tAI (P < 0.05). Increased dietary lignin density was associated with increased PS. Increased genetic proportion of Brown Swiss in the herd was associated with increased MILK, ECM, and ECMbw (P < 0.05). Thus, to improve cow productivity and welfare in Vietnamese SDFs, the following interventions were identified for testing in future cause-effect experiments: increasing floor area per cow, roof heights, shed sides open, dry matter intake, dietary fat density, and the genetic proportion of Brown Swiss and decreasing dietary lignin density.


Assuntos
Lignina , Leite , Animais , Peso Corporal , Bovinos , Indústria de Laticínios , Dieta/veterinária , Fazendas , Feminino , Lactação , Lignina/metabolismo , Leite/metabolismo , Análise Multivariada , Vietnã
14.
J Dairy Sci ; 105(10): 8470-8484, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35940920

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to determine the effect of early lactation body condition (BC) loss in multiparous dairy cows on serum lipids and the effect of these changes on oocyte and cumulus cell transcriptomes. Body condition loss in dairy cattle after parturition is associated with reduced fertility and increased pregnancy loss. The complex interplay between BC, nutrition, dry matter intake, milk production, and time of calving has presented a barrier to understanding mechanisms leading to reduced fertility. We identified cows that lost BC (L group; n = 10) or maintained or gained BC (M/G group; n = 8) during the first 27 to 33 d in milk and investigated changes in serum fatty acids and oocyte and cumulus cell transcriptomes at 75 to 81 d in milk. The L group had increased serum levels of nonesterified fatty acids and mead acid, and reduced serum levels of petroselaidic acid and behenic acid. Transcriptome analyses revealed 38 differentially expressed genes (DEG) in oocytes and 71 DEG in cumulus cells of L (n = 3) compared with M/G group (n = 3). Network analysis connected serum fatty acid changes to downstream effects including reduced inflammatory response and mitochondrial membrane depolarization, increased production of reactive oxygen species, and functions related to fatty acid metabolism and cytoplasmic organization in oocytes. These effects were associated with predicted effects on signaling in oocytes through calcium, insulin, O-GlcNAcase (OGA), fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 (FGF4R), peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma coactivator 1 α (PPARGC1A), and phospholipase D2 (PLD2) pathways, with a connection to the cumulus cell via calcium signaling. These results connect BC loss following parturition to changes in serum lipid levels, and changes potentially affecting oocyte quality; thus, these results provide new insight into mechanism of reduced fertility.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos não Esterificados , Insulinas , Ácido 3-Hidroxibutírico , Animais , Cálcio/metabolismo , Bovinos , Células do Cúmulo/metabolismo , Dieta/veterinária , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Feminino , Lactação/fisiologia , Leite/metabolismo , Oócitos , Coativador 1-alfa do Receptor gama Ativado por Proliferador de Peroxissomo , Período Pós-Parto/metabolismo , Gravidez , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Receptor Tipo 4 de Fator de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Transcriptoma
15.
Animal ; 16(9): 100619, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35964479

RESUMO

Short-term nutrient restrictions can occur naturally in extensive beef cattle production systems due to low feed quality or availability. The aims of the study were to (1) model the curves of milk yield, plasma non-esterified fatty acids (NEFAs) and ß-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) contents of beef cows in response to short nutritional challenges throughout lactation; (2) identify clusters of cows with different response profiles; (3) quantify differences in cows' response between the clusters and lactation stages. Data of BW, body condition score (BCS), milk yield, NEFA, and BHB plasma concentration from 31 adult beef cows (626 ± 48 kg at calving) were used to study the effect of 4-day feed restriction repeated over months 2, 3 and 4 of lactation. On each month, all cows received a single diet calculated to meet the requirements of the average cow: 100 % requirements for 4 days (d-4 to d-1, basal period), 55 % requirements on the next 4 days (d0 to d3, restriction period) and 100 % requirements for 4 days (d4 to d7, refeeding period). Natural cubic splines were used to model the response of milk yield, NEFA and BHB to restriction and refeeding in the 3 months. The new response variables [baseline value, peak value, days to peak and to regain baseline, and areas under the curve (AUC) during restriction and refeeding] were used to cluster cows according to their metabolic response (MR) into two groups: Low MR and High MR. The month of lactation affected all the traits, and basal values decreased as lactation advanced. Cows from both clusters had similar BW and BCS values, but those in the High MR cluster had higher basal milk yield, NEFA and BHB contents, and responded more intensely to restriction, with more marked peaks and AUCs. Reaction times were similar, and baseline values recovered during refeeding in both clusters. Our results suggest that the response was driven by cows' milk potential rather than size or body reserves, and despite high-responding cattle's higher milk yield, they were able to activate metabolic pathways to respond to and recover from the challenge.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos não Esterificados , Lactação , Ácido 3-Hidroxibutírico , Animais , Bovinos , Dieta/veterinária , Metabolismo Energético/fisiologia , Feminino , Lactação/fisiologia , Leite/metabolismo , Nutrientes
16.
J Dairy Sci ; 105(10): 8115-8129, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35965125

RESUMO

Arginine, one of the conditionally essential AA, has been reported to affect fat synthesis and metabolism in nonruminant animals by influencing adenosine monophosphate activated protein kinase (AMPK) in some organs. In dairy cows, the effect of Arg on milk fat production is not clear, and any potential mechanism that underlies the effect is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that Arg infusion would improve the production of milk fat, and explored possible mechanism that might underlie any effect. We used 6 healthy lactating cows at 20 ± 2 d in milk, in fourth parity, with a body weight of 508 ± 14 kg, body condition score of 3.0 ± 0, and a milk yield of 30.6 ± 1.8 kg/d (mean ± standard deviation). The cows were blocked by days in milk and milk yield and each cow received 3 treatments in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design, with each of the experimental periods lasting 7 d with a 14-d washout between each period. The treatments, delivered in random order, were (1) infusion of saline (control); (2) infusion of 0.216 mol/d of l-Arg in saline (Arg); (3) infusion of 0.868 mol/d of l-Ala in saline (the Arg and Ala treatments were iso-nitrogenous) through a jugular vein. On the last day of each experimental period, blood was sampled to measure insulin, nitric oxide, glucose, and nonesterified fatty acid, and the liver and mammary gland were biopsied to measure the expression of genes. Milk yield was recorded, and milk fat percentage was measured daily during each of the experimental periods. The yield and composition of fatty acid (FA) in milk was measured daily on the last 3 d during each of the experimental periods. The data were analyzed using a mixed model with treatment as a fixed factor, and cow, period, and block as random factors. The daily milk yield and milk fat yield when the cows were infused with Arg were 2.2 kg and 76 g, respectively, higher than that in control, and 1.8 kg and 111 g, respectively, higher than that in Ala. When the cows were infused with Arg they had higher concentration and yield of de novo synthesized FA, than when they received the control or Ala infusions, although milk fat percentage, daily feed intake, and the digestibility of nutrients were not affected by treatment. The serum concentration of nitric oxide and insulin were higher during Arg than during control or Ala, with no difference between control and Ala. In the liver, the expression of the genes coding for AMPK (PRKAA1, PRKAB1, and PRKAG1) and genes related to the oxidation of FA were higher during Arg than during control or Ala, whereas in the mammary gland the expression PRKAB1 was lowest, and the expression of genes involved in the synthesis of milk fat were highest, during Arg infusion. The results suggest the intravenous infusion of Arg enhanced the production of milk fat by promoting the de novo synthesis of FA and increasing milk yield.


Assuntos
Insulinas , Leite , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/metabolismo , Monofosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo , Monofosfato de Adenosina/farmacologia , Animais , Arginina , Bovinos , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Feminino , Glucose/metabolismo , Lactação , Leite/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Gravidez
17.
J Dairy Sci ; 105(10): 8069-8086, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36028348

RESUMO

We determined the effect of prepartum plane of energy intake on liver function and metabolism pre- and postpartum by combining in vivo and in vitro data with mRNA expression data. A subset of multiparous prepartal Holsteins (n = 18) from a previously conducted experiment consumed 1 of 3 amounts of dietary energy intake, relative to their requirements. A diet formulated to allow consumption of ≥150% of net energy requirements during the far-off dry period and the close-up dry period was fed for ad libitum intake (150E) or in restricted amounts so that cows consumed 80% of requirements for energy (80E). A second diet was formulated to include wheat straw (26.1% of dry matter) to limit energy intake to 100% of NRC (2001) requirements for energy when fed ad libitum during the far-off period (100E). In the close-up period, 100E was fed the 150E diet for ad libitum intake. Expression of mRNA for genes related to fatty acid oxidation (PPARA, CPT1A, ACOX1) was greater for 100E cows than 150E cows on d 14 postpartum. These expression patterns were related to in vitro data for conversion of palmitate to CO2, acid-soluble products, and esterified products by liver slices. Abundance of mRNA for PC displayed a sharp peak for all groups on d 1 postpartum, but serum glucose did not reflect this peak. The mRNA expression of SREBF1 was greater for 150E and 100E cows prepartum compared with 80E, and was positively related to rate of palmitate esterification postpartum. Expression of NR1H3 (LXRA) mRNA was greater for 100E cows on d 14 postpartum compared with 150E cows, which corresponded to expression of PPARA. An inflammatory response occurred in the liver around the time of parturition for 150E cows, as expression of IL1B was elevated both pre- and postpartum compared with 100E cows. The spike in IL1B expression for 150E cows on d 14 postpartum corresponded to the peak concentration of total lipids in liver tissue for all groups in this experiment. Overconsumption of energy prepartum was detrimental to the expression of important genes related to PPAR and liver function, especially postpartum. Furthermore, results provide evidence for inflammation related to accumulation of lipids in liver and overnutrition prepartum.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos , Receptores Ativados por Proliferador de Peroxissomo , Animais , Dióxido de Carbono/metabolismo , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/metabolismo , Dieta/veterinária , Ingestão de Energia/fisiologia , Metabolismo Energético , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Feminino , Glucose/metabolismo , Inflamação/metabolismo , Inflamação/veterinária , Lactação/fisiologia , Fígado/metabolismo , Leite/metabolismo , Palmitatos/metabolismo , Receptores Ativados por Proliferador de Peroxissomo/metabolismo , Período Pós-Parto/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo
18.
Genes (Basel) ; 13(8)2022 08 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36011348

RESUMO

Our preliminary work had suggested two genes, aldehyde dehydrogenase 18 family member A1 (ALDH18A1) and methionine adenosyltransferase 2A (MAT2A), related to amino acid synthesis and metabolism as candidates affecting milk traits by analyzing the liver transcriptome and proteome of dairy cows at different lactation stages. In this study, the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of ALDH18A1 and MAT2A genes were identified and their genetic effects and underlying causative mechanisms on milk production traits in dairy cattle were analyzed, with the aim of providing effective genetic information for the molecular breeding of dairy cows. By resequencing the entire coding and partial flanking regions of ALDH18A1 and MAT2A, we found eight SNPs located in ALDH18A1 and two in MAT2A. Single-SNP association analysis showed that most of the 10 SNPs of these two genes were significantly associated with the milk yield traits, 305-day milk yield, fat yield, and protein yield in the first and second lactations (corrected p ≤ 0.0488). Using Haploview 4.2, we found that the seven SNPs of ALDH18A1 formed two haplotype blocks; subsequently, the haplotype-based association analysis showed that both haplotypes were significantly associated with 305-day milk yield, fat yield, and protein yield (corrected p ≤ 0.014). Furthermore, by Jaspar and Genomatix software, we found that 26:g.17130318 C>A and 11:g.49472723G>C, respectively, in the 5' flanking region of ALDH18A1 and MAT2A genes changed the transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs), which might regulate the expression of corresponding genes to affect the phenotypes of milk production traits. Therefore, these two SNPs were considered as potential functional mutations, but they also require further verification. In summary, ALDH18A1 and MAT2A were proved to probably have genetic effects on milk production traits, and their valuable SNPs might be used as candidate genetic markers for dairy cattle's genomic selection (GS).


Assuntos
Leite , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Animais , Bovinos/genética , China , Feminino , Lactação/genética , Leite/metabolismo , Fenótipo
19.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 54(5): 262, 2022 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35953733

RESUMO

Licuri cake (LC) is an interesting alternative nutritional component for high-grain diets for ruminants due to its high protein (21.6% CP), fat (12.0% EE), and fiber (62.8% NDF) contents. We investigated the effect of increasing levels of LC inclusion on the intake, digestibility, feeding behavior, performance, and carcass traits of cull cows fed high-grain diets. Forty Zebu cows with an initial weight of 318 ± 38.1 kg, at 105 months of age, were confined in collective stalls and fed (ad libitum) a diet containing 0, 50, 100, or 150 g/kg LC on a diet dry matter (DM) basis. Licuri cake inclusion induced quadratic responses (P < 0.05) in the intakes of DM (9.57 kg/day at 97.8 g/kg LC), crude protein (CP; 1.02 kg/day at 91.7 g/kg LC), and total digestible nutrients (6.68 kg/day at 75.2 g/kg LC). The digestibility of DM, CP, and non-fibrous carbohydrates decreased linearly (P < 0.05). Neutral detergent fiber (NDF) intake and rumination efficiencies increased linearly (P < 0.05) with the inclusion of LC in the diet. The inclusion of LC did not influence (P > 0.05) on daily weight gain, hot carcass weight, or back fat thickness in the carcass. Therefore, we recommend the inclusion of up to 150 g/kg LC in high-grain diets for feedlot cull cows.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Digestão , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Bovinos , Dieta/veterinária , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Digestão/fisiologia , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Lactação/fisiologia , Leite/metabolismo , Rúmen/metabolismo
20.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 14506, 2022 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36008507

RESUMO

Differential maternal allocation theory states that mothers will invest more heavily in the offspring sex that will secure higher reproductive output. Senescence theory is concerned with the gradual deterioration of physiological function with age. We analysed the offspring sex-dependent response of calf growth and milk traits to mother age in an Iberian population of captive red deer (Cervus elaphus) using a 22 year time series longitudinal data set. Previous studies revealed that there was little evidence for the differential allocation theory on milk traits and that most studies lacked proper control for confounding factors. Our results indicated that (i) calf growth was offspring male-biased, negatively affected by mother age and positively influenced by mother weight and parity, and (ii) there was no support for differential allocation offspring sex-dependence in milk traits (yield, energy density, fat, protein and lactose content). Our findings suggest that maternal allocation responds to offspring energy requirements, which are mainly driven by offspring body weight, and contingent on mother age and weight and previous maternal reproductive effort.


Assuntos
Cervos , Leite , Animais , Cervos/fisiologia , Feminino , Lactação/fisiologia , Lactose/metabolismo , Masculino , Idade Materna , Leite/metabolismo , Gravidez
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