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1.
Q J Exp Psychol (Hove) ; 75(1): 169-190, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34289762

RESUMO

Various studies within the Good-Enough Approach observe that people often make errors in answering comprehension questions after reading garden-path sentences such as While Anna dressed the baby played in the crib. Recently, it has been claimed that readers form a full syntactic analysis of these sentences, but they do not completely prune the original misanalysis. This article presents evidence that these findings do not hold for all garden-path sentences. The main finding of the Good-Enough Approach-that the comprehension questions targeting the initial misanalysis yield significantly higher rates of incorrect answers after garden-path sentences, in comparison with after control sentences-was replicated here in three self-paced reading experiments on Czech. However, these experiments show a similar pattern of results for other comprehension questions, such as questions targeting an analysis that is not syntactically licensed at any point of processing. These results point out that certain garden-path structures may be very hard to process and that the process of garden-path repair might not be successful at all. Based on these results and the results of previous studies, the idea of a range of difficulty levels for garden-path structures is proposed.


Assuntos
Compreensão , Idioma , Humanos , Leitura
2.
Q J Exp Psychol (Hove) ; 75(1): 118-129, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34428974

RESUMO

How interpreting training may enhance semantic integration in general language processing (instead of language processing during interpreting) was not clear, and its neural correlates remained unexplored. Two groups of university students with different amounts of interpreting training experience (more-IE and less-IE) performed a second language (L2) reading task, in which the target sentence ended with three types of lateralized words: expected words, words of related semantic violation (related violation), and words of unrelated semantic violation (unrelated violation). N400 responses elicited by the final words were used to index semantic integration. Two major findings suggested potential contributions of interpreting training to L2 semantic integration. First, the more-IE group exhibited smaller N400 amplitudes than the less-IE group for expected words, and no group differences were obtained for the two violations. Second, N400 amplitudes for related violations were generally smaller than those for unrelated violations in the right visual field, and this difference was more fully captured (more broadly distributed over the scalp) in the more-IE group than in the less-IE group. Therefore, smaller N400 amplitudes for expected words but not for violations, and broader scalp distribution of the differences between related and unrelated violations constitute the neural correlates for the potential contributions of interpreting training to general L2 semantic integration. The results also suggest possible connections between different types of language experience.


Assuntos
Idioma , Semântica , Eletroencefalografia , Potenciais Evocados , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Leitura
3.
Q J Exp Psychol (Hove) ; 75(1): 30-42, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34184565

RESUMO

Proponents of good-enough processing suggest that readers often (mis)interpret certain sentences using fast-and-frugal heuristics, such that for non-canonical sentences (e.g., The dog was bitten by the man) people confuse the thematic roles of the nouns. We tested this theory by examining the effect of sentence canonicality on the reading of a follow-up sentence. In a self-paced reading study, 60 young and 60 older adults read an implausible sentence in either canonical (e.g., It was the peasant that executed the king) or non-canonical form (e.g., It was the king that was executed by the peasant), followed by a sentence that was implausible given a good-enough misinterpretation of the first sentence (e.g., Afterwards, the peasant rode back to the countryside) or a sentence that was implausible given a correct interpretation of the first sentence (e.g., Afterwards, the king rode back to his castle). We hypothesised that if non-canonical sentences are systematically misinterpreted, then sentence canonicality would differentially affect the reading of the two different follow-up types. Our data suggested that participants derived the same interpretations for canonical and non-canonical sentences, with no modulating effect of age group. Our findings suggest that readers do not derive an incorrect interpretation of non-canonical sentences during initial parsing, consistent with theories of misinterpretation effects that instead attribute these effects to post-interpretative processes.


Assuntos
Compreensão , Idioma , Heurística , Humanos , Leitura
4.
Q J Exp Psychol (Hove) ; 75(1): 18-29, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34507509

RESUMO

We report a boundary paradigm eye movement experiment to investigate whether the predictability of the second character of a two-character compound word affects how it is processed prior to direct fixation during reading. The boundary was positioned immediately prior to the second character of the target word, which itself was either predictable or unpredictable. The preview was either a pseudocharacter (nonsense preview) or an identity preview. We obtained clear preview effects in all conditions, but more importantly, skipping probability for the second character of the target word and the whole target word from pretarget was greater when it was predictable than when it was not predictable from the preceding context. Interactive effects for later measures on the whole target word (gaze duration and go-past time) were also obtained. These results demonstrate that predictability information from preceding sentential context and information regarding the likely identity of upcoming characters are used concurrently to constrain the nature of lexical processing during natural Chinese reading.


Assuntos
Fixação Ocular , Leitura , Atenção , China , Movimentos Oculares , Fóvea Central , Humanos
5.
Vínculo ; 18(2): 1-12, jul.-dez. 2021. ilus
Artigo em Português | LILACS, Index Psicologia - Periódicos | ID: biblio-1341796

RESUMO

Este artigo tem como objetivo refletir sobre algumas possíveis contribuições da escrita, e mais especificamente da tarefa da escrita como objeto de mediação em grupo, como dispositivo para a clínica das drogadições. Para tal é problematizado inicialmente a temporalidade dos relatos autobiográficos de ex-usuários de drogas e a escrita enquanto objeto mediador e transferencial em grupo. Apresentamos alguns aportes da psicanálise das drogadições para problematizar as falhas das cadeias representacionais e a perda do sentido simbólico para o agir que se colocam em curso neste campo clínico para então refletir, a partir de uma vinheta clínica, sobre as potencialidades da tarefa de escrever em grupo como catalizadora de processos de simbolização. A tarefa de escrever em grupo demonstra-se mobilizadora e depositária de elementos psíquicos de inscrição precária, demonstrando-se resistente à agressividade das ações evacuatórias e dando apoio a um resgate da dimensão convocatória da linguagem. A leitura das múltiplas transferências grupais, da transferência com o objeto mediador e da transferência com a tarefa demonstram-se fundamentais para os manejos técnicos e para a função interpretante dos coordenadores no grupo.


This paper aims to reflect on some possible contributions of writing, and more specifically the task of writing as a group mediation object, as a device for the drug addiction clinic. To this end, the temporality of the autobiographical reports of former drug users and the writing as a group mediator and transference object are problematized. Some contributions of psychoanalysis of drug addictions are presented to problematize the failures of the representational chains and the loss of the symbolic meaning to act that are underway in this clinical field and then reflect, from a clinical vignette, about the potentialities of the task of group writing as a catalyst for symbolization processes. The task of group writing proves to be a mobilizer and depository of precarious inscription psychic elements, being resistant to the aggressiveness of evacuatory actions and supporting the rescue of the convocatory dimension of language. The comprehension of the multiple group transferences, the transference with the mediator object and the transference with the task prove to be of fundamental value for the technical management and the interpretative function of the coordinators.


Este articulo tiene como objetivo reflexionar sobre algunas posibles contribuciones de la escritura, y más específicamente la tarea de escribir como un objeto de mediación grupal, como un dispositivo para la clínica de drogadicción. Con este fin, la temporalidad de los informes autobiográficos de ex usuarios de drogas y la escritura como mediador grupal y objeto de transferencia se problematizan. Presentamos algunas contribuciones del psicoanálisis de las drogadicciones para problematizar las fallas de las cadenas de representación y la pérdida del significado simbólico para actuar que están en curso en este campo clínico y luego reflexionar, desde una viñeta clínica, sobre las potencialidades de la tarea de escritura grupal como catalizador de procesos de simbolización. La tarea de la escritura grupal demuestra ser un movilizador y depositario de elementos psíquicos de inscripción precaria, siendo resistente a la agresividad de las acciones de evacuación y apoyando un rescate de la dimensión de convocatoria del lenguaje. La lectura de las múltiples transferencias en los grupos, la transferencia con el objeto mediador y la transferencia con la tarea demuestran ser de valor fundamental para la gestión técnica y la función interpretativa de los coordinadores.


Assuntos
Leitura , Grupos de Autoajuda , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Usuários de Drogas , Escrita Manual
6.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(21)2021 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34770374

RESUMO

We explored the feasibility of using Bluetooth low energy (BLE) beacon sensors to determine when individuals with low vision (LV) use handheld magnifiers at home. Knowing the frequency and duration of magnifier use would be helpful to document increased magnifier use after successful rehabilitation training, or conversely, to know when someone has abandoned a magnifier and requires assistance. Estimote Sticker BLE beacon sensors were attached to the handles of optical handheld magnifiers and dispensed to eight LV subjects to use at home. Temperature and motion data from the BLE beacon sensors were collected every second by a custom mobile application on a nearby smartphone and transmitted to a secure database server. Subjects noted the date and start/end times of their magnifier use in a diary log. Each of the 99 diary-logged self-reports of magnifier use across subjects was associated with BLE beacon sensor recordings of motion (mean 407 instances; SD 365) and increased temperature (mean 0.20 °C per minute; SD 0.16 °C) (mean total magnitude 5.4 °C; SD 2.6 °C). Diary-logged duration of magnifier use (mean 42 min; SD 24) was significantly correlated with instances of motion (p < 0.001) and rate of temperature increase (p < 0.001) recorded by the BLE beacon sensors. The BLE beacon sensors reliably detected meaningfully increased temperature, coupled with numerous instances of motion, when magnifiers were used for typical reading tasks at home by people with LV.


Assuntos
Aplicativos Móveis , Baixa Visão , Humanos , Leitura , Smartphone
7.
Am J Occup Ther ; 75(4)2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34780617

RESUMO

IMPORTANCE: Fibromyalgia (FM) is a chronic pain disorder that interferes with daily activities. Because occupational adaptation varies among people, there is a need to determine which factors can influence adaptation to FM in order to better intervene with them. OBJECTIVE: To understand the occupational adaptation process of people living with FM. DATA SOURCES: A systematic review of the literature was conducted in the AMED, CINAHL, MEDLINE, OTseeker, OTDBASE, and PsycINFO databases. Articles dated before September 2020 were searched using a strategy with the keywords fibromyalgia and occupation. Study Selection and Data Collection: This article follows the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses checklist. Qualitative articles were included if they documented occupational aspects of participants with FM. Two independent reviewers screened the articles and performed the quality assessment using the Critical Appraisal Skills Program checklist. A thematic synthesis was conducted. FINDINGS: Of the 560 articles identified, 347 remained after duplicates were removed. After screening titles and abstracts, 303 articles were rejected, and 44 articles were read in their entirety. Twelve qualitative articles were included in the review. The synthesis highlights that support from relatives is a key to successfully adapting to FM. Identity is crucial to a fulfilled life, and occupational competence is greatly affected by the experience of FM. Occupational adaptation is an issue for some people, but maintaining routines and integrating management strategies would help them to achieve it. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: This review highlights the importance of considering the components of occupational adaptation while caring for people with FM. What This Article Adds: This systematic review identifies the factors influencing the occupational adaptation of people living with FM and emphasizes the importance of addressing those factors.


Assuntos
Fibromialgia , Humanos , Ocupações , Leitura
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34769878

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: After preterm birth, infants are at high risk for delays in language development. A promising intervention to reduce this risk is represented by the exposure to parental voices through book-reading in Neonatal Intensive Care Units (NICU). This study investigated the possible advantages of book-reading to preterm neonates during their NICU stay on their subsequent language development. METHODS: 100 families of preterm infants were recruited. The parents of 55 preterm infants (Reading Group) received a colored picture-book on NICU admission and were supported to read to their neonate as often as possible and to continue after hospital discharge. Forty-five infants (Control Group) were recruited before the beginning of the intervention. Infant language development was assessed with the Hearing and Language quotients of the Griffith Mental Development Scale at the corrected ages of 3, 6, 9, 12, 18 and 24 months. RESULTS: Regardless of group membership, Hearing and Language mean quotients decreased between 9 and 18 months; nevertheless, this decrease was considerably reduced in the Reading group, compared to the Control Group. CONCLUSIONS: Reading in NICUs represents a suitable intervention that could positively influence language development and parent-infant relationships in preterm children. The study findings support its implementation as a preventive measure.


Assuntos
Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal , Nascimento Prematuro , Livros , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Gravidez , Leitura
9.
Psychol Aging ; 36(7): 822-833, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34766800

RESUMO

We investigated parafoveal processing by 44 young (18-30 years) and 44 older (65+ years) Chinese readers using eye movement measures. Participants read sentences which included an invisible boundary after a two-character word (N) and before two one-character words (N + 1, N + 2). Before a reader's gaze crossed the boundary, N + 1 and N + 2 were shown normally or masked (i.e., as valid/invalid previews), after which they reverted to normal. Young adults obtained preview benefits (a processing advantage for valid over invalid previews) for both words. However, older adults obtained N + 2 preview benefits only when N + 1 was valid, suggesting their parafoveal processing is more limited. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos , Leitura , Idoso , Envelhecimento , China , Fóvea Central , Humanos
10.
Am J Speech Lang Pathol ; 30(6): 2653-2667, 2021 11 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34723624

RESUMO

Purpose This study aims to examine the predictive relation between measures obtained from African American students' written narrative language samples and reading achievement, as measured by standardized academic assessments. Method Written language samples were elicited from 207 African American students in Grades 1-8. The samples were examined for morphosyntactic variations from standardized written Generalized American English (GAE). These variations were categorized as either (a) specific to African American English (AAE) or (b) neutral across AAE and standardized written GAE (i.e., considered ungrammatical both in AAE and in standardized written GAE). Structural equation modeling was employed to then examine the predictive relation between the density of AAE-specific forms in students' writing and their performance on standardized assessments of literacy and reading vocabulary. This relation was examined while accounting for the density of dialect-neutral morphosyntactic forms, reported family income, age, and written sample length. Results The written samples were highly variable in terms of morphosyntax. Younger students and those from lower income homes tended to use AAE-specific forms at higher rates. However, the density of AAE-specific forms did not significantly predict standardized literacy scores or reading vocabulary after accounting for dialect-neutral variations, income, and sample length. Conclusions These results support the ongoing need to better understand the language, literacy, and overall academic development of students from all backgrounds. It may be essential to focus on dialect-neutral language forms (i.e., morphosyntactic forms that are consistent across both AAE and standardized written GAE) in written samples to maximize assessment validity across students who speak varying dialects of English. Supplemental Material https://doi.org/10.23641/asha.16879558.


Assuntos
Idioma , Leitura , Afro-Americanos , Humanos , Estudantes , Redação
11.
Am Ann Deaf ; 166(3): 262-283, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34719516

RESUMO

In a replication study, the researcher investigated the effects of a 4-week vocabulary intervention in which he and a teacher used direct instruction to teach 16 multiple-meaning words to three hard of hearing students in a fifth-grade classroom who read at low levels. The vocabulary intervention was adopted from a study by Alqraini and Paul (2020) in which multiple-meaning words were taught to students with profound hearing loss in Saudi Arabia. In the present study, a single-subject experimental design was used to implement the vocabulary intervention. It was found that the students' performance in word recognition and comprehension improved after the intervention. However, the three students showed different levels of improvement.


Assuntos
Compreensão , Vocabulário , Audição , Humanos , Masculino , Leitura , Estudantes
12.
J Exp Psychol Learn Mem Cogn ; 47(7): 1173-1185, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34694842

RESUMO

The gleam-glum effect is a novel sound symbolic finding that words with the /i:/-phoneme (like gleam) are perceived more positive emotionally than matched words with the /Λ/-phoneme (like glum). We provide data that not only confirm the effect but also are consistent with an explanation that /i:/ and /Λ/ articulation tend to co-occur with activation of positive versus negative emotional facial musculature respectively. Three studies eliminate selection bias by including all applicable English words from the English Lexicon Project (Balota et al., 2007) and the Warriner et al. (2013) database and every possible Mandarin Pinyin combination that differ only in the middle phoneme (/i:/ vs /Λ/). In Study 1, 61 U.S. undergraduates rated monosyllabic English /i:/ words as robustly more positive than matched /Λ/ words. Study 2 analyzed the Warriner et al. (2013) valence ratings, extending the gleam-glum effect to all applicable words in the database. In Study 3, 38 U.S. participants (using English) and 37 participants in China (using Mandarin Pinyin) rated word pairs under three conditions that moderate musculature activity: Read aloud (Enhance), read silently (Control), and read silently while chewing gum (Interfere). Indeed, the effect was both replicated and was significantly larger when facial musculature was enhanced than when interfered with, and the two language populations did not significantly differ. These findings confirm a robust gleam-glum effect, despite semantic noise, in English and Mandarin Pinyin. Furthermore, these data are consistent with the hypothesis that this type of sound symbolism arises from the overlap in muscles used both in articulation and emotion expression. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Emoções , Idioma , Humanos , Leitura , Semântica , Simbolismo
13.
Cogn Sci ; 45(10): e13052, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34614240

RESUMO

Predicates like "coloring-the-star" denote events that have a temporal duration and a culmination point (telos). When combined with perfective aspect (e.g., "Valeria has colored the star"), a culmination inference arises implying that the action has stopped, and the star is fully colored. While the perfective aspect is known to constrain the conceptualization of the event as telic, many reading studies have demonstrated that readers do not make early commitments as to whether the event is bounded or unbounded. A few visual-world studies tested the processing of telic predicates during online sentence processing, demonstrating an early integration of aspectual and temporal cues. By employing the visual-world paradigm, we tested the incremental processing of the perfective aspect in Italian in two eye-tracking studies in which listeners heard durative predicates in the perfective form in a scenario showing a completed and a non-completed event. Differently from previous studies, we compared telic durative predicates such as "coloring-the-star" to punctual predicates such as "lighting-the-candle." While for punctual predicates, the inferences of telicity (the event has a telos) and of culmination (the telos is reached) are lexically encoded in the perfective verb, for durative predicates, the degree of event completion (visually encoded) needs to be integrated with perfective aspect (linguistically encoded) for the culmination inference derivation. By modulating the interaction of visual and linguistic stimuli across the two experiments, we show that the verb's perfective aspect triggers the culmination inference incrementally during sentence processing, offering novel evidence for the continuous integration of linguistic processing with real-world visual information.


Assuntos
Idioma , Linguística , Formação de Conceito , Sinais (Psicologia) , Humanos , Leitura
14.
J Sch Psychol ; 88: 31-46, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34625209

RESUMO

Despite considerable knowledge of the factors that influence initial intervention response, little is known about how to sustain successful intervention response over time. The current study examined spring literacy outcomes for kindergarten (n = 177), second (n = 149), and third grade students (n = 204) who successfully exited an evidence-based tutoring program during the fall semester. Successful responders in kindergarten, second, and third grade were randomly assigned by school to receive either no follow-up support or access to a once-weekly oral practice session. Results were mixed across grades and outcomes, but in kindergarten and third grade, treatment corresponded to an approximately 15% increased likelihood of meeting year-end benchmarks on targeted literacy skills. Findings are discussed in the context of suggestions for higher-quality longitudinal research designs of educational interventions.


Assuntos
Alfabetização , Leitura , Seguimentos , Humanos , Instituições Acadêmicas , Estudantes
15.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0258152, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34597338

RESUMO

The registered report was targeted at identifying latent profiles of competence development in reading and mathematics among N = 15,012 German students in upper secondary education sampled in a multi-stage stratified cluster design across German schools. These students were initially assessed in grade 9 and provided competence assessments on three measurement occasions across six years using tests especially developed for the German National Educational Panel Study (NEPS). Using Latent Growth Mixture Models, Using Latent Growth Mixture Models, we aimed at identifying multiple profiles of competence development. Specifically, we expected to find at least one generalized (i.e., reading and mathematical competence develop similarly) and two specialized profiles (i.e., one of the domains develops faster) of competence development and that these profiles are explained by the specialization of interest and of vocational education of students. Contrary to our expectations, we did not find multiple latent profiles of competence development. The model describing our data best was a single-group latent growth model confirming a competence development profile, which can be described as specializing in mathematical competences, indicating a higher increase in mathematical competences as compared to reading competences in upper secondary school. Since only one latent profile was identified, potential predictors (specialization of vocational education and interest) for different profiles of competence development were not examined.


Assuntos
Matemática/normas , Competência Mental/normas , Leitura , Instituições Acadêmicas/normas , Adolescente , Educação/normas , Feminino , Alemanha , Humanos , Masculino , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
16.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0258287, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34634097

RESUMO

Predictive relations between language and literacy skills during the preschool years and children's future reading achievement are well-documented, leading to development and evaluation of preschool interventions targeting early skill development. Although educational researchers have developed and found some positive short- and mid-term effects of language and literacy intervention supplements implemented in early childhood education (ECE) settings, fade-out is a concern. Most studies have targeted children experiencing risk, rather than a more representative sample. Additionally, there are very few studies of long-term intervention effects, and heterogeneity of long-term effects has not been well described. In the present study, we build on initial reports of one of the largest studies of a language and literacy intervention supplement, the SPELL randomized controlled trial implemented as part of the universal ECE system in Denmark. SPELL was delivered to an unselected sample of children at 3-5 years of age (n = 7,076). Results of the base intervention (SPELL) and two enhanced versions featuring extended professional development for teachers (SPELL+PD) or an add-on home-based program for parents (SPELL+HOME) showed short-term effects for literacy outcomes for all children for all SPELL conditions compared to business as usual (BAU). In this follow-up study, we utilized follow-up assessments of 2,700 SPELL 4-5-year-old participants with national reading tests in second grade. The main analyses based on the whole sample showed no significant differences in reading scores in second grade for those in any of the three SPELL conditions relative to the BAU condition. However, moderation analyses demonstrated heterogeneity in intervention effects with children whose mothers had low-mid education showing sustained and mostly large-sized effects. Other risk factors, including income and immigrant background, and condition interacted with at least one outcome variables. These findings suggest that at-risk children in some cases derive long-term benefits from early language and literacy intervention enhancing learning opportunities in ECE settings.


Assuntos
Idioma , Alfabetização , Instituições Acadêmicas , Criança , Dinamarca , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Leitura
17.
Conscious Cogn ; 95: 103211, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34600297

RESUMO

A widely held account asserts that single words are automatically identified in the absence of an intent to process them in the form of identifying a task set, and implementing it. We provide novel evidence that there is no fixed relation between intention and visual word identification. Subjects were randomly cued on a trial-by-trial basis as to whether to read aloud a single target word (Go) or not (No-go). When the Go-No Go probability was 50% (Experiment 1) the effect of stimulus quality (bright vs. dim targets) was the same size as in a separate block of 100% Go trials. In Experiment 2, where the Go-No Go probability was 80% in the cued condition, the stimulus quality effect was smaller than in the block of all Go trials. These results can be understood in terms of Go trial probability moderating whether subjects (i) hold off beginning to process the target until an intention in the form of a Task Set has been implemented, or (ii) begin to identify the target during the time taken to implement a Task Set. The additivity of stimulus quality and cueing conditions in Experiment 1 support the view that target processing only begins when a Task Set is in place, whereas the under-additivity of stimulus quality and cueing condition in Experiment 2 supports the interpretation that target identification can start during the time that a Task Set is being implemented. Taken together with other results, we conclude that there is no fixed relation between an intention and word identification; context is everything.


Assuntos
Intenção , Leitura , Sinais (Psicologia) , Humanos , Tempo de Reação
18.
Aliment Pharmacol Ther ; 54(11-12): 1442-1453, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34614208

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Endoscopy is routine in trials of ulcerative colitis therapies. AIM: To investigate agreement between central and local Mayo endoscopic subscore (MES) reads in the OCTAVE programme METHODS: Flexible sigmoidoscopy was performed in tofacitinib induction (OCTAVE Induction 1&2, NCT01465763 and NCT01458951), maintenance (OCTAVE Sustain, NCT01458574) and open-label, long-term extension (OCTAVE Open, NCT01470612) studies. Kappa statistics and Bowker's tests evaluated agreement/disagreement between centrally and locally read MES, with potential determinants of differences analysed by logistic regression. RESULTS: Moderate-to-substantial agreement was observed between central and local reads at screening (77.1% agreement; kappa 0.62 [95% confidence interval 0.59-0.66]), OCTAVE Induction 1&2 week (Wk) 8 (63.8%; 0.62 [0.59-0.66]), OCTAVE Sustain Wk 52 (55.6%; 0.56 [0.50-0.62]) and for induction non-responders at OCTAVE Open month 2 (59.9%; 0.54 [0.48-0.60]). Where disagreements occurred, local reads were systematically lower than central reads at OCTAVE Induction 1&2 Wk 8, OCTAVE Sustain Wk 52 and OCTAVE Open month 2 (Bowker's P < 0.0001); this difference was not observed at screening (P = 0.0852). Using multivariable logistic regression, geographical region, C-reactive protein (Wk 8), partial Mayo score (Wk 8) and prior tumour necrosis factor antagonist failure were associated with disparity at OCTAVE Induction 1&2 Wk 8 (P < 0.05). In OCTAVE Induction 1&2 and OCTAVE Sustain, significantly higher proportions of patients endoscopic improvement, remission and endoscopic remission with tofacitinib vs placebo, using either central or local reads. CONCLUSION: Moderate-to-substantial agreement was observed between central and local endoscopic reads. Where disagreements occurred, local reads were systematically lower than central reads at most timepoints, suggesting potential bias. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01465763, NCT01458951, NCT01458574, NCT01470612.


Assuntos
Colite Ulcerativa , Colite Ulcerativa/tratamento farmacológico , Endoscopia , Humanos , Piperidinas , Pirimidinas/uso terapêutico , Leitura
19.
Neuropsychologia ; 162: 108059, 2021 11 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34637801

RESUMO

While dyslexia is typically described as a phonological deficit, recent evidence suggests that ventral stream regions, important for visual categorization and object recognition, are hypoactive in dyslexic readers who might accordingly show visual recognition deficits. By manipulating featural and configural information of faces and houses, we investigated whether dyslexic readers are disadvantaged at recognizing certain object classes or using particular visual processing mechanisms. Dyslexic readers found it harder to recognize objects (houses), suggesting that visual problems in dyslexia are not completely domain-specific. Face recognition accuracy was equivalent in the two groups. Lower recognition accuracy for houses was also related to reading difficulties even when accuracy for faces was kept constant, which could indicate a specific relationship between visual word processing and visual processing of non-face objects. Representational similarity analyses (RSA) revealed that featural and configural processes were clearly separable in typical readers, which was not the case for dyslexic readers who appear to rely on a single process. This was not restricted to particular visual categories, occurring for both faces and houses. We speculate that reading deficits in some dyslexic readers reflect their reliance on a single process for object recognition.


Assuntos
Dislexia , Reconhecimento Facial , Humanos , Leitura , Reconhecimento Psicológico , Percepção Visual
20.
Dyslexia ; 27(4): 510-524, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34612546

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dyslexia is a neurobiological condition affecting phonological processing and characterized by reading and phonological awareness difficulties. We assessed correlations between dyslexia knowledge and five independent variables among early elementary teachers in Massachusetts. METHODS: We designed a survey based on two published assessment tools and surveyed 92 early elementary teachers. Using univariate and multivariate linear regression models, we assessed the relationships among knowledge (dependent variable) and confidence, feelings of preparedness, years of teaching experience, informal education and professional development opportunities (independent variables). RESULTS: The mean knowledge score was 68 ± 14%; teachers performed best on questions about perceptions of dyslexia, classroom management/teaching strategies and some dyslexia characteristics. Informal education and years of teaching experience were consistently positively associated with knowledge. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: Formal training and professional development opportunities may need to focus more specifically on learning disabilities and dyslexia. Teachers should also have input on professional development needs. Our findings suggest a need for additional studies on strategies to improve educator knowledge of dyslexia and assess outcomes.


Assuntos
Dislexia , Capacitação de Professores , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Massachusetts , Leitura
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