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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(2): e17992, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31914011

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The study aimed to determine the effectiveness of an intervention for unhealthy visual behaviors of school-age children using a wearable device (Clouclip). METHOD: The design was a self-controlled prospective study. Clouclip, with the vibration alert disabled, was first applied to measure baseline near-work behaviors in the first week. The vibration alert was then enabled to signal unhealthy visual behaviors (near-work distance < 30 cm and >5 seconds, or near-work distance <60 cm for >45 minutes) for 3 weeks. Near-work behaviors were measured again at the first week and the first month after intervention, respectively. The changes in behaviors between the baseline and the first week and the first month after intervention were analyzed. RESULTS: Sixty-seven subjects were eligible for this experiment (the mean age 10.45 ±â€Š0.50 years, 34 boys). Children who logged sufficient wearing time (12.30 ±â€Š0.18 hours on weekdays and 12.16 ±â€Š0.23 hours on weekends) were included for analysis. The average daily near-work distance was significantly increased after the vibration intervention. The time ratio of near-work activity <30 cm to the total <60 cm and the frequency of continuous near-work (distance <60 cm and continuous time >30 minutes) were significantly decreased after the intervention. Although some of the effects were reversed with time following the intervention, some were observed to be maintained until the end of the observation period, and the improvement of the behaviors was more prominent in children who had a shorter near-work distance (<30 cm) at baseline. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, Clouclip can significantly modify near-work behaviors in school-age children and it can last a certain period of time. If these behaviors are causes of myopia development and progression, Clouclip might provide a strategy for managing myopia.


Assuntos
Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Miopia/terapia , Transtornos da Visão/psicologia , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis/efeitos adversos , Criança , Saúde da Família/educação , Saúde da Família/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Miopia/etiologia , Miopia/psicologia , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Leitura , Transtornos da Visão/epidemiologia , Transtornos da Visão/prevenção & controle
2.
Prog Orthod ; 21(1): 2, 2020 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31930444

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aims of this cross-sectional study were to investigate the regulatory compliance of Dutch practice websites offering orthodontic services, readability of the available treatment information, website design as well as possible relationship with practice location and professional qualification of practitioners. METHODS: A comprehensive Internet search was performed using the Google search engine and five relevant terms in Dutch. Eligibility screening of the first 50 results of each search led to the final inclusion of 111 websites. The content of the selected websites was evaluated in terms of compliance to international regulations on ethical advertising guidelines (CED), treatment information text readability using Flesch Reading Ease Score (FRES), and website design using the BDC assessment tool. RESULTS: Reporting of websites according to CED guidelines covered on average 85% of the mandatory items. No significant differences were observed between dental and orthodontic practices, and between practices located in densely and sparsely populated regions (P > 0.05). The mean FRES of the displayed information indicated difficult-to-understand text. BDC scores of multi-location practices were significantly higher than the rest (P < 0.006). CONCLUSIONS: The websites of orthodontic practices in The Netherlands do not fully comply with CED guidelines on ethical advertising. Readability of the displayed information and website technical performance needs to be further optimized.


Assuntos
Compreensão , Ferramenta de Busca , Estudos Transversais , Internet , Países Baixos , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto , Leitura
3.
Codas ; 32(1): e20180294, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31721924

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Verify the effects of a training program held with pre-school teachers to carry out specific strategies in shared reading and generalize these strategies in other daily activities of oral language motivation. METHODS: A total of 14 teachers from low socioeconomic level schools participated in the study. The teachers were randomly distributed in an experimental group and a control group. The experimental group attended training on how to use five strategies during shared reading in the classroom and discuss how to motivate their students towards oral language. To evaluate the effectiveness of training, two instruments were applied pre- and post-intervention. The Assessment Scale of Oral Language Teaching in School (EVALOE) was applied to analyze the teaching of oral language and the Checklist was used to characterize the behavioral changes of the teachers during shared reading. RESULTS: Overall, EVALOE data were higher at post-intervention analysis for 11 of the 13 participants. Checklist showed that 10 of the 13 teachers presented higher post-intervention total scores compared with their respective pre-intervention scores. CONCLUSION: The training program provided improvement in teacher behavior during shared reading activities and demonstrated to have a positive impact on the increase of interactions, previously identified in the literature as important for oral language motivation.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Leitura , Professores Escolares , Capacitação de Professores/métodos , Educação Continuada , Humanos , Ensino
4.
Codas ; 32(1): e20180204, 2020.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31851209

RESUMO

PURPOSE: to translate and culturally adapt, for Brazil, the battery of tests "Evaluación de los procesos lectores - PROLEC-SE-R", for students of Elementary School cycle II, and Senior High School. METHODS: The following stages of translation and cultural adaptation were followed: (1) Translation; (2) Synthesis of translations; (3) Back-translation; (4) Evaluation by specialist committee; (5) Pilot study: Undertaken in a sample of 70 students, 10 from each school year, in two sessions; and (6) Evaluation and appreciation of all the reports written by the researcher and specialist committee. RESULTS: modifications to the tests of PROLEC-SE-R are not necessary as indicated in the pilot study, both in the collective and individual version. The procedure received good acceptance by the evaluated students and there were no complaints or reports of difficulty in understanding the tests and instructions. CONCLUSION: the procedure is appropriate for the Brazilian reality and can be used to evaluate Elementary School II and Senior High School students. A standardization study is necessary in a representative sample of the population.


Assuntos
Comparação Transcultural , Avaliação Educacional/normas , Leitura , Inquéritos e Questionários , Traduções , Adolescente , Brasil , Criança , Compreensão , Humanos , Testes de Linguagem , Estudantes
5.
Estud. pesqui. psicol. (Impr.) ; 18(4): 1279-1298, out.-dez. 2019.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, Index Psicologia - Periódicos técnico-científicos | ID: biblio-995091

RESUMO

Se presentan las transformaciones en la lectura y utilización de la teoría de Piaget que desarrollaron en la Argentina en la década de 1970, y cómo estas recogieron importantes problemáticas sociales de su tiempo. En primer lugar se presenta la labor de Emilia Ferreiro, sus antecedentes formativos y la investigación que dio lugar a la publicación del libro Los sistemas de escritura en el desarrollo del niño (Ferreiro & Teberosky, 1979). Luego se destacan las innovaciones que ese texto produjo en la época: la introducción de una lectura novedosa de la teoría de Piaget; la utilización de conceptos de psicología genética en un campo nuevo; la realización de una investigación empírica desde el método piagetiano; la localización del problema del acceso a la lectoescritura y su relación con el fracaso escolar involucrando aspectos hasta ese momento invisibilizados, como la pobreza y la desigualdad social en América Latina. Finalmente se analiza la recepción del texto en la Argentina, donde aparecen las marcas de la dictadura militar, como el exilio, la censura y la clandestinidad; el encuentro con el texto de Ferreiro muestra una cara de la persecución ejercida sobre los intelectuales y las formas clandestinas de circulación de saberes que una generación profesional enfrentó.(AU)


O texto apresenta as transformações na leitura e utilização da teoria de Piaget na Argentina na década de 1970, e como foram estes trabalhos levantaram importantes questões sociais da época . Primeiro, introduz-se o trabalho de Ferreiro, sua formação educacional e as pesquisas que levaram à publicação do livro Psicogênese da língua escrita (Ferreiro & Teberosky, 1979). Em seguida, apresentam-se as inovações que esse texto produziu na época: uma nova leitura da teoria de Piaget na mídia acadêmica da Argentina; a utilização da psicologia genética em um novo campo; a realização de uma pesquisa empírica a partir do método piagetiano; a localização do problema do acesso à alfabetização e sua relação com o fracasso escolar, envolvendo aspectos até então invisíveis, como a pobreza e a desigualdade social na América Latina. Finalmente, expomos os avatares da recepção do texto na Argentina, aí aparecendo as marcas da ditadura militar, como o exílio, a censura e a clandestinidade; o encontro com o texto de Ferreiro mostra o rosto da perseguição exercida sobre os intelectuais e as formas clandestinas de circulação de conhecimento que uma geração profissional teve que enfrentar.(AU)


Transformations in readings and use of the theory of Piaget in Argentina in the 1970s are presented, and how they collected social important problems of their time. First, we present the work of Emilia Ferreiro, his educational background and the research that led to the publication of the book Literacy before schooling (Ferreiro & Teberosky, 1979). Then we highlight the innovations that that text introduced: a novel reading of Piaget's theory in the academic media of Argentina; the qualification of genetic psychology concepts in a new field; an empirical research process from the Piagetian method; To place the problem of access to literacy and its relation to school failure, involving aspects that until then have been invisible, such as poverty and social inequality in Latin America. Finally we expose the vicissitudes of the reception in Argentina, were they appeared the marks of the military dictatorship, such as exile, censorship and clandestinity; the encounter with Ferreiro's text shows one side of the persecution exerted on the intellectuals and clandestine forms of circulation of knowledge that a professional generation had to face.(AU)


Assuntos
Alfabetização/psicologia , Fracasso Acadêmico/psicologia , Leitura , Escrita Manual
6.
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci ; 60(14): 4556-4563, 2019 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31675073

RESUMO

Purpose: To determine the importance of various vision parameters to functionality in glaucoma. Methods: Vision was measured using seven parameters: visual acuity (VA), contrast sensitivity (CS), integrated visual field (IVF), area under the log CS function (AULCSF), color vision, stereoacuity, and VA with noise (ViN). Likelihood ratio testing (LRT) determined if the full set of visual parameters significantly explained variability in 10 functional outcomes. For outcomes where the visual contribution was significant, dominance analysis determined the relative importance of the various visual parameters. Results: The analysis included 151 glaucoma patients. Mean age was 70 ± 6.8 years, and 47% were men. Significant visual contributions (LRT P < 0.05) were noted for glaucoma quality of life (GQL-15), reading speed, driving cessation, daily steps, and base of support while walking, but not for fear of falling, balance, gait velocity, stride velocity, and stride length while walking (LRT P > 0.05). The most important parameter (and percent contribution) to vision-explained variability were AULCSF for daily steps (45%), IVF for base of support (35%), VA for reading speed (34%), CS for GQL-15 (30%), and VA for driving cessation (26%). Conclusions: Measures of visual ability are important for several aspects of quality of life and functionality. The most important vision parameter for functionality differs depending on the domain studied. Reading and driving were explained by VA and IVF sensitivity. On the other hand, GQL-15 and daily steps were more heavily influenced by CS and AULCSF, which are rarely performed clinically.


Assuntos
Visão de Cores/fisiologia , Sensibilidades de Contraste/fisiologia , Glaucoma/fisiopatologia , Visão Ocular/fisiologia , Acuidade Visual/fisiologia , Campos Visuais/fisiologia , Idoso , Condução de Veículo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Qualidade de Vida , Leitura , Perfil de Impacto da Doença , Inquéritos e Questionários
7.
J Surg Orthop Adv ; 28(3): 209-214, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31675298

RESUMO

This study evaluated the readability of online patient education materials on shoulder surgery. Medical and nonmedical institution web sites were compared and it was hypothesized that medical institution materials are written at lower grade levels than nonmedical institution materials, because medical institutions understand physician-patient interactions. Eighty-six articles were scored according to 10 readability tests: cumulative combined average grade level was 12.5 ± 2.8 and average Flesch reading score was 43.5 ± 12.6 (college level). The average composite grade level readability for medical institution web sites was 13 ± 2, significantly higher than for nonmedical institution web sites (11.9 ± 2.1; p = .017). Patient education materials available online are written at a higher level than American Medical Association and National Institutes of Health guidelines. Medical institution articles are written at a statistically significant higher grade level than nonmedical institution articles, but the difference is small and both rate poorly compared with current standards. (Journal of Surgical Orthopaedic Advances 28(3):209-214, 2019).


Assuntos
Alfabetização em Saúde , Ortopedia , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto , Ombro , Compreensão , Humanos , Internet , Leitura , Ombro/cirurgia , Estados Unidos
8.
J Surg Orthop Adv ; 28(3): 232-236, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31675301

RESUMO

Increased opioid use in the United States has resulted in greater incidence of misuse. Orthopaedic patients are more likely to be prescribed opioids for pain. Low health literacy is related to opioid misuse; therefore, orthopaedic patient education tools on use of opioids must be easy to read, understand, and use for patients of all skill levels to be effective. This project aimed to review a broad array of opioid patient education tools and evaluate them from a health literacy perspective. Content evaluation revealed that not all tools expressed the same essential messaging. The mean readability score of the tools assessed was 9.5 grade; higher than the national and recommended 8th-grade reading level. Therefore, many opioid patient education tools may be difficult for patients to read and understand. Improvements in readability and other health literacy best practices are recommended to improve reading, comprehension, and use of opioid patient education tools. (Journal of Surgical Orthopaedic Advances 28(3):232-236, 2019).


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides , Alfabetização em Saúde , Procedimentos Ortopédicos , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto , Compreensão , Humanos , Internet , Leitura , Estados Unidos
10.
Psychiatr Hung ; 34(3): 327-333, 2019.
Artigo em Húngaro | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31570665

RESUMO

No abstract available.


Assuntos
Literatura Moderna , Leitura , Humanos
11.
Psychon Bull Rev ; 26(5): 1697-1704, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31512087

RESUMO

Previewing words prior to fixating them leads to faster reading, but does it lead to word identification (i.e., semantic encoding)? We tested this with a gaze-contingent display change study and a subsequent plausibility manipulation. Both the preview and the target words were plausible when encountered, and we manipulated the end of the sentence so that the different preview was rendered implausible (in critical sentences) or remained plausible (in neutral sentences). Regressive saccades from the end of the sentence increased when the preview was rendered implausible compared to when it was plausible, especially when the preview was high frequency. These data add to a growing body of research suggesting that linguistic information can be obtained during preview, to the point where word meaning is accessed. In addition, these findings suggest that the meaning of the fixated target does not always override the semantic information obtained during preview.


Assuntos
Movimentos Oculares/fisiologia , Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos/fisiologia , Psicolinguística , Leitura , Adulto , Medições dos Movimentos Oculares , Humanos
12.
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci ; 60(12): 3835-3841, 2019 09 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31529080

RESUMO

Purpose: To assess the presence of binocular gain in macular telangiectasia type 2 (MacTel) and its correlation to paracentral scotomas. Methods: Sixty-eight patients with MacTel were consecutively recruited for a cross-sectional analysis. Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), reading acuity, and reading speed were tested monocularly and binocularly. Macular retinal sensitivity was examined with fundus-controlled perimetry (microperimetry). Scotomas were quantified by their size, their depth, and their proximity to the fovea. Results: Binocular reading speed and acuity were lower than monocular reading speed and acuity in the functionally better eye (142 vs. 159 words per minute and 0.43 vs. 0.28 log reading acuity determination, P < 0.001). Magnitude of binocular inhibition of reading speed was correlated to the degree of interocular functional difference (R2 = 0.61, P < 0.001). This correlation was not found for reading acuity or BCVA (R2 < 0.03). Binocular reading speed was negatively correlated to size of right and left eye scotomas, with bigger effect size for left eye scotomas. The magnitude of binocular inhibition was correlated to size of left eye scotomas, but not of right eye scotomas. When both eyes had similar scotoma characteristics, the right eye was more frequently the better reading eye. Conclusions: We provide evidence for the presence of binocular inhibition of reading performance in MacTel, likely due to binocular rivalry. This may result from the characteristic paracentral scotomas in noncorresponding retinal fields and, in particular, a disruptive projection of scotomas in reading direction arising from the left eyes. Patients may benefit from occluding one eye while reading.


Assuntos
Leitura , Telangiectasia Retiniana/fisiopatologia , Escotoma/fisiopatologia , Visão Binocular/fisiologia , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Retina/fisiopatologia , Acuidade Visual/fisiologia , Testes de Campo Visual , Campos Visuais/fisiologia
13.
Exp Psychol ; 66(4): 266-280, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31530246

RESUMO

Research on implicit sequence learning with the Serial Reaction Task (SRT) has demonstrated that people automatically acquire knowledge about fixed repeating sequences of responses and can transfer response sequence knowledge to novel stimuli. Such demonstrations are, however, mostly limited to setups with visual stimuli and manual responses. Here we systematically follow up on scarce attempts to demonstrate implicit sequence learning in word reading. While the literature on implicit sequence learning can be taken to suggest that sequence knowledge is acquired and affecting performance in word reading, we show that neither is the case in a series of four experiments. Sequence knowledge was acquired and affecting performance in color naming but not in word reading. On the one hand, we observed slowing of voice-onset times in off-sequence as compared to regularly sequenced trials when people named the color of a centrally presented disk. Yet, hardly any effect was observed when the very same sequence of words was verbalized in word reading instead. Transfer of sequence knowledge to and from color naming was not observed, either. This contrasts with sequence learning studies with manual responses, which have been taken to suggest that a fixed and repeating sequence of responses is sufficient for learning to occur even in fast choice reaction tasks and to transfer across stimuli as long as the sequence of responses remains intact. Rather, in line with dimensional action accounts of task performance, the results underline the role of translation between processing streams for implicit sequence learning.


Assuntos
Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Leitura , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
14.
Rev Med Suisse ; 15(664): 1703-1706, 2019 Sep 25.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31553534

RESUMO

The scientific abstract is an essential part of an article. It resumes it clearly and synthetically in few sentences, while captivating the reader. Being the first paragraph, and sometimes the only one to be read, it should be comprehensive and needs to represent the paper as much as possible in order to motivate readers to continue reading if it corresponds to the subject of interest. It is also the only text to be submitted to conferences, and it is important in the process of application for research fundings too. In this article, we propose a practical guide to help you write a structured and accurate scientific abstract, with some practical tips.


Assuntos
Relatório de Pesquisa/normas , Redação/normas , Motivação , Leitura , Apoio à Pesquisa como Assunto
15.
Codas ; 31(4): e20170241, 2019 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31483038

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study investigated the effects of two levels of noise on the performance of young students of three educational levels and tested their ability to maintain attentional focus in reading and writing tasks. METHODS: 162 school children in the third, fourth and fifth grades were placed in three groups according to their educational level: Control Group (CG), Experimental Group A (GEA) and Experimental Group B (GEB). All groups were submitted to a Sustained Attention Test, Reading Assessment and Isolated Words Test and Writing Dictation Sub-test (part of the International Dyslexia Test). The GEA and GEB performed the tests in a noisy environment: 20dB and 40dB, respectively. The CG was assessed in the usual school environmental noise at the same time of the day. The data was submitted to an ANOVA, the Kruskal-Wallis test and Spearman correlation test. RESULTS: The higher the score on the Sustained Attention Test, the shorter the time spent reading and fewer errors in the dictation task. There were no differences across the three grades within the GEA (lower levels of noise) with regard to the effect of noise on attention and in the reading and writing task performance. The higher levels of noise for the GEB, however, decreased the attention levels, therefore increasing mistakes on the dictation test. Comparing the performance across educational levels on the reading tasks, the fourth grade presented decreased reading time, while the third and fifth grades spent more time reading. CONCLUSION: Auditory interference can influence the ability to focus attention as well as worsen performance in reading and writing tasks at more intense noise levels.


Assuntos
Atenção/fisiologia , Ruído , Leitura , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Redação , Análise de Variância , Criança , Humanos , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Estudantes
16.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 3798, 2019 09 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31481673

RESUMO

Females tend to perform worse than males on math and science tests, but they perform better on verbal reading tests. Here, by analysing performance during a cognitive test, we provide evidence that females are better able to sustain their performance during a test across all of these topics, including math and science (study 1). This finding suggests that longer cognitive tests decrease the gender gap in math and science. By analysing a dataset with multiple tests that vary in test length, we find empirical support for this idea (study 2).


Assuntos
Cognição/fisiologia , Fatores Sexuais , Habilidades para Realização de Testes , Adolescente , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Matemática , Leitura , Ciência , Estudantes , Fatores de Tempo
17.
J Autism Dev Disord ; 49(12): 4929-4940, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31493156

RESUMO

This study examined Chinese character recognition and its cognitive and linguistic correlates in preschool children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Forty-seven children with ASD and 51 IQ-matched typically developing (TD) children were tested on Chinese character recognition, rapid automatized naming, inhibitory control, digit span, IQ, vocabulary, phonological awareness, morphological awareness, and listening comprehension. Chinese children with ASD showed strong character recognition skills. Unlike TD children's character recognition, which was correlated with all the measured cognitive and linguistic skills, character recognition of children with ASD was only significantly correlated with rapid automatized naming, inhibitory control, and phonological awareness. Our findings suggest that phonological awareness and rapid automatized naming may serve as important predictors for possible advantage in emergent literacy acquisition in Chinese children with ASD.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/psicologia , Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Leitura , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Conscientização , Pré-Escolar , Compreensão , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Vocabulário
18.
Dyslexia ; 25(4): 360-373, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31414528

RESUMO

During the last decades, rapid automatized naming (RAN) has been widely examined as a predictor of reading ability, but very few studies have examined the development of RAN itself. The present study followed children from ages 4 until 10, focusing on RAN performance in a developmental perspective. Relations within and between alphanumeric and nonalphanumeric RAN were investigated both concurrently and over time. The result shows that individual differences in RAN objects are stable between ages 4 and 10, with the most rapid growth of mean performance between ages 4 and 6. Early performance on RAN objects predicts both performance on RAN digits and RAN letters at age 8 and the further development between ages 8 and 10. Further, low-performing children at age 4 develop their performance on RAN digits and RAN letters later compared with high-performing children, and RAN digits performance reaches a plateau earlier than RAN letters performance.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil , Linguagem Infantil , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Dislexia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Leitura
19.
Undersea Hyperb Med ; 46(3): 299-311, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31394600

RESUMO

Purpose: Eye movements may offer a sensitive method to measure response to intervention in mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). Methods: The Brain Injury and Mechanisms of Action of Hyperbaric Oxygen for Persistent Post-Concussive Symptoms after Mild Traumatic Brain Injury Study (BIMA) randomized 71 participants to 40 sessions of hyperbaric oxygen or sham. A companion normative study (Normal) enrolled 75 participants. An eye tracking system measured left and right eye movements for saccadic and smooth pursuit. At baseline two smooth pursuit tasks, circular and horizontal ramp, and four saccadic tasks, horizontal and vertical step, reading, and memory guided-on tasks differentiated BIMA from Normal participants. The change from baseline in these tasks were measured and compared between interventions and against Normal participants at 13 weeks and six-month follow-up using the two-sample t-test. The Holm-Bonferroni procedure was used to adjust for multiple testing. Results: Change from baseline in eyetracker measures for participants assigned to the hyperbaric oxygen arm did not significantly differ from those assigned to the sham arm at post-randomization time points 13 weeks and six months. Consistent shifts of BIMA participant values toward Normal values at 13 weeks and six months were observed for overall fixation duration, forward saccadic duration, and number of lines read for the reading task, number of misses on the memory guided-on task, and absolute intersaccadic interval velocity and absolute saccadic amplitude on the circular task. The distributions between Normal and BIMA participants were no longer statistically significantly different at 13 weeks and six months post enrollment for these measures. Conclusion: The baseline differences between BIMA and Normal suggest potential vulnerability of the smooth pursuit system and the saccadic system. During the six-month follow-up period, improvement toward Normal was seen on some measures in both the hyperbaric oxygen and sham intervention arms without difference between intervention groups. IDs: clinicaltrials.gov Identifiers NCT01611194 and NCT01925963.


Assuntos
Medições dos Movimentos Oculares , Oxigenação Hiperbárica , Síndrome Pós-Concussão/terapia , Acompanhamento Ocular Uniforme , Movimentos Sacádicos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Método Duplo-Cego , Medições dos Movimentos Oculares/instrumentação , Movimentos Oculares , Feminino , Fixação Ocular , Humanos , Masculino , Memória , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Militares , Síndrome Pós-Concussão/fisiopatologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Leitura , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/fisiopatologia , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
20.
BMC Med Educ ; 19(1): 295, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31370838

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is a dearth of published literature that demonstrates the impact of a Guide to Reading Biomedical English Literature course on new Chinese medical postgraduates. Keeping this gap in mind, the objectives of this study were to assess the factors associated with course effectiveness using the teacher, postgraduate and organizational factors. METHODS: This study was conducted at Nanjing Medical University from December 2014 to December 2015. The participants were 440 new graduate students from different medical specialties. At baseline, each student was assessed for teacher factors, individual factors and organizational factors using a self-administered structured scored anonymous questionnaire. After that, Pearson chi-square analysis was conducted to evaluate the factors that impact teacher factors (knowledge level, teaching style, individualized teaching, logical teaching, heuristic teaching, literature difficulty, bilingual teaching), individual factors (gender, attitude toward studying, previewing literature, English literacy level) and course management (such as teaching objectives and assessment system) on this course. Furthermore, multiple logistic regression analyses were performed to determine the impact of the above factors on our outcome variables (knowledge level, teaching style, individualized teaching, heuristic teaching, study attitude, previewing literature, management). RESULTS: Nearly all of the participants (420 of 440, 95.5%) thought this course was helpful for learning to read scientific literature and understanding scientific research design. Multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that the participants perception of the course as effective was associated with teachers' high knowledge level (Adjusted Odds Ratio, AOR = 49.673; 95% confidence interval, 95% CI = 4.28, 575.90). In addition, heuristic teaching was found to be significantly associated with a positive teaching effect of teaching (AOR = 12.76; 95% CI = 1.78, 91.64). Furthermore, the participants perception of the course as effective was associated with positive attitude toward studying (AOR = 25.004; 95% CI = 2.51, 249.09). Previewing literature was also associated with course effectiveness (AOR = 0.02; 95% CI = 0.04, 0.11). CONCLUSIONS: This study indicated that the course effectiveness of the Guide for Reading Biomedical English Literature was associated with i) teachers' knowledge, ii) heuristic teaching, iii) students' positive attitude, and iv) students' previewing literature.


Assuntos
Educação de Pós-Graduação em Medicina , Linguagem , Publicações , Leitura , Adulto , China , Estudos Transversais , Avaliação Educacional , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Análise de Regressão , Estudantes de Medicina , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
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