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1.
Codas ; 32(5): e20180255, 2020.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33174983

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To carry out a systematic review of scientific productions that dealt with the topic of phonological processing in relation to the influence of poor academic performance, as well as its interference in the development of reading and writing. RESEARCH STRATEGY: Articles published until August 2017 were searched in electronic databases. After elaborating the guiding question of the study: "What is the influence of phonological processing on poor school performance and its relation in the development of reading and writing?", we collected and selected the reports using descriptors, gathered in a single search equation, according to three thematic axes: phonological processing, learning and poor school performance. SELECTION CRITERIA: Original researches with an evaluation of at least two phonological processing skills were included. Articles that had no relationship between phonological processing skills and school performance were excluded. DATA ANALYSIS: The titles and abstracts were read by two speech-language pathologists, separately. The results were compared and the divergences found decided by a third researcher speech therapist, also responsible for the study. The articles included were read in full and data extraction was performed to analyze the methodology and the main results. RESULTS: 982 potentially relevant studies were selected. After using the evidence matrices, 38 scientific productions were included for detailed analysis. CONCLUSION: The study of scientific productions revealed that the alteration in phonological processing skills presented a relation with poor academic performance and, together with the schooling phase, directly influenced reading and writing skills.


Assuntos
Fonética , Leitura , Humanos , Publicações , Instituições Acadêmicas , Redação
2.
Codas ; 32(5): e20190086, 2020.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33174986

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To compare the performance in phonological processing skills, reading speed and reading comprehension before and after phonological remediation in a restricted group of schoolchildren with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and with dyslexia. METHODS: Thirty-two schoolchildren from the 2nd to 8th year of Elementary School of both genders, with diagnosis of ADHD and Dyslexia according to the DSM-5, participated in this study. All patients underwent Phonological Remediation Program consisted of 18 weekly sessions. RESULTS: The results, expressed in z scores, showed a statistically significant difference between before and after remediation assessments in phonological processing skills, such as syllabic and phonemic awareness, working memory and lexical access. Rhyming task was analyzed separately because it represents another level of segmentation and, for this result, there was no significance. Besides these results, there was a statistically significant difference in reading speed and reading comprehension. CONCLUSION: The phonological remediation program contributes to the development of phonological processing, reading speed and reading comprehension in this population.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade , Dislexia , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Linguística , Masculino , Memória de Curto Prazo , Fonética , Leitura
3.
Codas ; 32(6): e20190193, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33237189

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To characterize the performance of 5th grade students from public and private elementary schools in auditory processing, receptive vocabulary, and reading comprehension. METHODS: The study sample was composed of 34 Elementary School (5th grade) students: 16 from public school (PubG) and 18 from private school (PrivG), whose parents and teachers responded to questionnaires on their language development, socioeconomic level, and academic performance. The auditory skills of figure-ground, association between auditory and visual stimuli, figure-ground for linguistic sounds, binaural integration, temporal ordering, and temporal resolution were assessed using the following auditory behavioral instruments: Pediatric Speech Intelligibility (PSI) test, Dichotic Digits Test (DDT), Auditec® Frequency Pattern Test (FPT), and Gaps-in-Noise (GIN) test. Receptive vocabulary and reading comprehension were evaluated using the TVF-usp and PROLEC tests, respectively. RESULTS: Statistically significant differences were observed between the socioeconomic level of students in both schools. Although the results obtained in the applied tests were within the reference values in both groups, there was a tendency to higher scores in the PrivG. Differences between the groups were also verified in the DDT and FPT. Values similar to normality were obtained in the temporal resolution and reading comprehension assessments. On the vocabulary test, most school children in the PrivG were concentrated in the 'high' and 'middle' categories, whereas those in the PubG were in the 'middle' and 'low' categories. CONCLUSION: There are differences in performance between students from private and public schools. Public school children presented right ear advantage in the dichotic task, whereas private school children showed more efficient mechanisms and strategies regarding auditory stimuli for the tasks of binaural integration, temporal ordering, and interhemispheric transfer. Temporal resolution reached values expected for the adult population in both groups. Better vocabulary performance was observed in the most economically favored children. Elementary School (5th grade) students from both school networks present developed reading.


Assuntos
Leitura , Vocabulário , Criança , Compreensão , Humanos , Instituições Acadêmicas , Estudantes
4.
Acta Ortop Mex ; 34(1): 1, 2020.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33230990

RESUMO

No Abstract available.


Assuntos
Leitura
5.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 6159-6162, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33019377

RESUMO

A computerized version of "Noo-Khor-Arn" `May I read?', a paper-based screening test for Thai children at risk with Learning Disability (LD), was developed and some core ideas of development were given in details. Six test categories with 23 subtests were conducted on 110 Thai children aged between 7-12 years old (Mean = 7.94, SD = 1.45), divided into 50 LD and 60 Typically Developing (TD) children to determine most relevant test categories and subtests for classifying between the groups. Two-factor balanced Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) revealed that a computerized version shown a significant difference between TD and LD groups in the tasks related to linguistics, decoding, and naming. These tasks were Phonological Awareness (PA), Morphological Awareness (MA), Decoding (DEC), and Rapid Naming (RN), respectively. The rest of the test categories showed non-significant factors between TD and LD. Not only the results can be used for classification but also for streamlining the test categories and subtests, to shorten the test tool.Clinical relevance- The subtests related to linguistics and decoding aspects showed promising results in screening children at risk for learning disabilities.


Assuntos
Deficiências da Aprendizagem , Fonética , Análise de Variância , Criança , Humanos , Deficiências da Aprendizagem/diagnóstico , Leitura , Tailândia
6.
Nihon Hoshasen Gijutsu Gakkai Zasshi ; 76(10): 997-1008, 2020.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33087659

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We investigated the clinical utility of a radiological technologist's (RT)'s reports (RRs) as a second opinion by the free-response receiver operating characteristic (FROC) observer study that compared the performance of medical doctors' (MDs') reading of digital mammogram with and without consulting the RR. METHOD: One hundred women (39 malignant, 61 benign or normal) who underwent diagnostic mammography were selected from among 1674 routine clinical images classified by the degree of difficulty and categories for inclusion in the FROC study. The first FROC study performed by three RTs (RT 1-3) was conducted to collect the data for RR utilized in the second FROC study. The second FROC study was performed by five MDs, and the statistical significance of MDs' performances with and without reference to the RR was investigated by figure of merit (FOM). RESULT: The FOM values of three RTs obtained in the first FROC study were 0.529, 0.576, and 0.539, respectively. In the second FROC study, RT 2 had the highest FOM, RT 1 the lowest false positives/case, and RT 3 the highest sensitivity. The average FOM values in the second FROC study for the five MDs with/without reference to the RR were as follows: RT 2's RR was 0.534/0.588 (p=0.003), RT 1's RR was 0.500/0.545 (p=0.099), and RT 3's RR was 0.569/0.592 (p=0.324). CONCLUSION: We concluded that the MDs' performance of reading mammogram was statistically improved by consulting the RR when the RT's reading skill was high.


Assuntos
Mamografia , Leitura , Feminino , Humanos , Organizações , Curva ROC , Encaminhamento e Consulta
7.
Acute Med ; 19(3): 116-117, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33020753

RESUMO

What makes us human? In 2015 Jeremy Vine asked this question to a selection of leading British thinkers and writers. The answers were as diverse as the people he interviewed. While you might have your own views about the complexity of being human I would suggest that being able to articulate thoughts and communicate them to others might be one of the characteristics that distinguishes us from other life forms. And if we think more about the achievements of human culture then being able to communicate thoughts in writing and reading other.


Assuntos
Leitura , Redação , Cognição , Humanos , Masculino
8.
Sr Care Pharm ; 35(10): 466, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32972496

RESUMO

Our monthly column provides Insights into reading the Skilled Nursing Facility and Prospective Payment System final rule from CMS.


Assuntos
Sistema de Pagamento Prospectivo , Instituições de Cuidados Especializados de Enfermagem , Medicare , Leitura , Estados Unidos
9.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239420, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32946532

RESUMO

Tablet-adapted measures provide an efficient, accurate method of data collection for large-scale studies. The Castles and Coltheart Reading Test 2 (CC2) is a standardized paper-and-pencil measure of children's reading ability. In the current study, the CC2 was administered to 603 children aged 7-8 years via iPad using electronic data capture software. Results indicate the tablet-adapted measure could be reliably administered by non-clinical staff and showed quantitative equivalence, i.e., comparable score distributions, to CC2 normative data. Internal consistency was good for regular and non-word lists. Findings suggest that the tablet-adapted CC2 is a viable tool for large research studies.


Assuntos
Psicometria/métodos , Leitura , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Psicometria/normas , Padrões de Referência , Inquéritos e Questionários
10.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238715, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32898150

RESUMO

Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is a non-invasive functional brain imaging technique. NIRS is suitable for monitoring brain activation during social interactions. One of the omnipresent social interactions for employees is saying thank you and being thanked. It has been demonstrated that expressing and receiving gratitude leads to employees' well-being and performance. To date, there have been no neuroimaging studies that monitor brain activity when receiving gratitude. Thus, we designed an experiment using NIRS to monitor brain function while listening to a letter of gratitude read by a coworker. We hypothesized that listening to a letter of gratitude read aloud by a co-worker in a face-to-face setting would have different effects on PFC activity than listening to a conversation about a neutral topic. We recruited 10 pairs of healthy right-handed employees. They were asked to write a letter of gratitude to their partner 1 week before the experiment. In the experiment, each pair sat face-to-face and read their letters aloud to each other. We evaluated changes in mood state before and after the experiment. NIRS was measured in each participant while they listened to their peers in the experimental condition (gratitude letter) and control condition (talking about the weather and date). The results suggested that negative mood state decreased after the experiment. Moreover, there were interaction effects between conditions and periods. Although further studies are needed to confirm the interpretation, our findings suggested that experience of being thanked was accompanied by prefrontal cortex activation.


Assuntos
Mapeamento Encefálico , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiologia , Leitura , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oxiemoglobinas/metabolismo , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas
11.
Elife ; 92020 09 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32936074

RESUMO

Three independent studies show that a protein called ZCWPW1 is able to recognize the histone modifications that initiate the recombination of genetic information during meiosis.


Assuntos
Quebras de DNA de Cadeia Dupla , Histonas , Animais , DNA , Reparo do DNA , Epigênese Genética , Masculino , Meiose , Camundongos , Leitura
12.
PLoS Biol ; 18(9): e3000833, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32898188

RESUMO

The phonological deficit in dyslexia is associated with altered low-gamma oscillatory function in left auditory cortex, but a causal relationship between oscillatory function and phonemic processing has never been established. After confirming a deficit at 30 Hz with electroencephalography (EEG), we applied 20 minutes of transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) to transiently restore this activity in adults with dyslexia. The intervention significantly improved phonological processing and reading accuracy as measured immediately after tACS. The effect occurred selectively for a 30-Hz stimulation in the dyslexia group. Importantly, we observed that the focal intervention over the left auditory cortex also decreased 30-Hz activity in the right superior temporal cortex, resulting in reinstating a left dominance for the oscillatory response. These findings establish a causal role of neural oscillations in phonological processing and offer solid neurophysiological grounds for a potential correction of low-gamma anomalies and for alleviating the phonological deficit in dyslexia.


Assuntos
Dislexia/terapia , Leitura , Percepção da Fala , Adolescente , Adulto , Córtex Auditivo/fisiopatologia , Córtex Auditivo/efeitos da radiação , Dislexia/fisiopatologia , Eletroencefalografia , Potenciais Evocados Auditivos/fisiologia , Potenciais Evocados Auditivos/efeitos da radiação , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fonética , Percepção da Fala/fisiologia , Percepção da Fala/efeitos da radiação , Estimulação Transcraniana por Corrente Contínua/métodos , Comportamento Verbal/fisiologia , Comportamento Verbal/efeitos da radiação , Adulto Jovem
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32882960

RESUMO

By 15 April 2020, more than 1.5 billion students worldwide experienced school closures in an effort to slow the spread of a novel coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), during the worldwide coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. These interruptions in formal in-person educational experiences caused adverse consequences on school-age children's academic outcomes. Using a pre-existing database, we calculated changes in children's reading ability without formal education (i.e., the summer months). The resultant models predicted that the rate of reading ability gain in kindergarten children during COVID-19 school closures without formal in-person education will decrease 66% (2.46 vs. 7.17 points/100 days), compared to the business-as-usual scenario, resulting in a 31% less reading ability gain from 1 January 2020 to 1 September 2020. Additionally, the model predicted that kindergarten children who have books read to them daily would have 2.3 points less loss (42%) compared to those who do not, who are predicted to have a 5.6-point loss during the same time period. Even though reading books to children will not substitute the critical role of formal education in teaching children how to read, families, educators, and policy makers can promote this simple strategy to facilitate and maintain reading ability gain during school closures, which may be a common occurrence as nations see the public health benefits of physical distancing for the current and future pandemic outbreaks.


Assuntos
Sucesso Acadêmico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Leitura , Betacoronavirus , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Pandemias , Instituições Acadêmicas
14.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4553, 2020 09 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32917902

RESUMO

Eye tracking has been widely used for decades in vision research, language and usability. However, most prior research has focused on large desktop displays using specialized eye trackers that are expensive and cannot scale. Little is known about eye movement behavior on phones, despite their pervasiveness and large amount of time spent. We leverage machine learning to demonstrate accurate smartphone-based eye tracking without any additional hardware. We show that the accuracy of our method is comparable to state-of-the-art mobile eye trackers that are 100x more expensive. Using data from over 100 opted-in users, we replicate key findings from previous eye movement research on oculomotor tasks and saliency analyses during natural image viewing. In addition, we demonstrate the utility of smartphone-based gaze for detecting reading comprehension difficulty. Our results show the potential for scaling eye movement research by orders-of-magnitude to thousands of participants (with explicit consent), enabling advances in vision research, accessibility and healthcare.


Assuntos
Confiabilidade dos Dados , Medições dos Movimentos Oculares , Movimentos Oculares , Smartphone , Adolescente , Adulto , Compreensão , Feminino , Fixação Ocular , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Leitura , Visão Ocular , Percepção Visual , Adulto Jovem
15.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0238309, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32866184

RESUMO

The Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test (RMET) is one of the most widely used instruments for assessing the ability to recognize emotion. To examine the psychometric properties of the Korean version of the RMET and to explore the possible implications of poor performance on this task, 200 adults aged 19-32 years completed the RMET and the Korean version of the 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20K), the cognitive empathy domain of the Korean version of the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI-C), and the Buss-Durkee Hostility Inventory-Aggression (BDHI-A). In the present study, confirmatory factor analyses confirmed that the hypothesized three-factor solution based on three different emotional valences of the items (positive, negative, or neutral) had a good fit to the data. The Korean version of the RMET also showed good test-retest reliability over a 4-week time interval. Convergent validity was also supported by significant correlations with subscales of the TAS-20K, and discriminant validity was identified by nonsignificant associations with IRI-C scores. In addition, no difference was found in RMET performance according to the sex of the photographed individuals or the sex or educational attainment of the participants. Individuals with poor RMET performance were more likely to experience alexithymia and aggression. The current findings will facilitate not only future research on emotion processing but also the assessment of conditions related to the decreased ability to decode emotional stimuli.


Assuntos
Sintomas Afetivos/diagnóstico , Emoções/fisiologia , Olho/fisiopatologia , Psicometria/métodos , Adulto , Sintomas Afetivos/psicologia , Empatia/fisiologia , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Humanos , Testes de Inteligência , Masculino , Leitura , República da Coreia , Teoria da Mente/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
16.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239134, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32941471

RESUMO

It has been shown that readers spend a great deal of time skim reading on the Web and that this type of reading can affect lexical processing of words. Across two experiments, we utilised eye tracking methodology to explore how hyperlinks and navigating webpages affect reading behaviour. In Experiment 1, participants read static Webpages either for comprehension or whilst skim reading, while in Experiment 2, participants additionally read through a navigable Web environment. Embedded target words were either hyperlinks or not and were either high-frequency or low-frequency words. Results from Experiment 1 show that while readers lexically process both linked and unlinked words when reading for comprehension, readers only fully lexically process linked words when skim reading, as was evidenced by a frequency effect that was absent for the unlinked words. They did fully lexically process both linked and unlinked words when reading for comprehension. In Experiment 2, which allowed for navigating, readers only fully lexically processed linked words compared to unlinked words, regardless of whether they were skim reading or reading for comprehension. We suggest that readers engage in an efficient reading strategy where they attempt to minimise comprehension loss while maintaining a high reading speed. Readers use hyperlinks as markers to suggest important information and use them to navigate through the text in an efficient and effective way. The task of reading on the Web causes readers to lexically process words in a markedly different way from typical reading experiments.


Assuntos
Internet , Leitura , Adolescente , Adulto , Atenção , Compreensão , Movimentos Oculares , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Semântica , Adulto Jovem
17.
An. psicol ; 36(2): 283-294, mayo 2020. ilus, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-192065

RESUMO

Identificar factores instruccionales específicos relacionados con progresos en comprensión lectora es esencial para optimizar el aprendizaje y orientar la intervención, especialmente en contextos de desventaja socio-cultural o dificultades de aprendizaje. Este estudio pretende identificar patrones instruccionales de mediación eficaces en la explicación del progreso en comprensión. Se grabaron, transcribieron y analizaron sistemáticamente 82 sesiones-clase, y se registraron pautas de mediación relativas a diferentes procesos lectores. Los patrones de mediación fueron analizados mediante codificación y categorización del contenido con el programa Maxqdea-7. Fueron consideradas 19 categorías, que aglutinaron 178 unidades de información significativas (pautas/conductas de mediación). La muestra estuvo compuesta por 21 docentes y 821 estudiantes de tercero a octavo grado de Educación Básica de escuelas públicas de Chile ubicadas en contextos de-privados socialmente. El progreso lector se midió con la prueba estandarizada CL-PT, aplicada al principio y al final del curso escolar. Los resultados permitieron identificar pautas específicas de mediación significativas en la explicación del progreso, especialmente el patrón M_17 (Mediación del uso de estrategias para la activación e integración de conocimientos previos) explicaba el 26% de la varianza (r = .55, p < .01; R2ajustado = .26, F (1, 19) = 8.19, p = .01). Se discuten las implicaciones educativas de estos resultados


Identifying specific instructional factors related to progress in reading comprehension is essential to optimize learning and guide intervention, especially in contexts of sociocultural disadvantage or learning difficulties. This study aims to identify effective mediational instructional patterns in the explanation of progress in reading comprehension. Teaching guidelines were systematically recorded in relation to different reading processes. Eighty-two sessions were recorded, transcribed and analyzed by coding and categorizing the content of the sessions through the Maxqdea-7 program. Nineteen categories were considered, which comprised 178 significant units of information (mediation guidelines). The sample consisted of 21 teachers and 821 students from third to the eighth grade of public schools of Chile located in deprived contexts. Reading progress was measured with the standardized CL-PT test, which was applied at the beginning and end of the school year. The results have allowed identifying mediation patterns with a significant relevance in the explanation of reading progress, especially the pattern M_P17 (Mediation of the use of strategies for the activation and integration of previous knowledge) managed to explain 26% of the variance in the progress (r = .55, p < .01; R2adjusted = .26, F(1, 19) = 8.19, p = .01). The educational implications of these results are discussed


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Compreensão , Populações Vulneráveis , Leitura , Aprendizagem , Docentes/normas , Desempenho Acadêmico/psicologia , Estudantes/psicologia , Metacognição/fisiologia , Estudos Transversais , 25783 , Recursos Audiovisuais/normas , Ajustamento Social , Análise de Regressão , Desempenho Acadêmico/normas
18.
An. psicol ; 36(2): 295-303, mayo 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-192066

RESUMO

Este estudio compara las estrategias para leer oraciones utilizadas por un grupo de escolares con dislexia (n = 107) y un grupo con sordera e implante coclear (n = 61) de lengua castellana. Los resultados indican que solo los participantes con sordera adoptan la estrategia de palabras clave (EPC), que consiste en identificar algunas de las palabras de la oración con contenido semántico propio, e ignorar las palabras funcionales. Se observa además que el uso de la EPC está asociado con un déficit sintáctico. Por otra parte, cuando los dos grupos se emparejan en el nivel lector con niños con desarrollo típico en lectura (Grupo Control, n = 785), las diferencias entre los Grupos Disléxico y Control desaparecieron. Sin embargo, los niños con sordera mantenían su tendencia a usar la EPC y seguían presentando dificultades para procesar las palabras funcionales. Estos resultados excluyen la hipótesis de que la EPC sea un procedimiento utilizado de forma general para compensar los déficits de lectura, pareciendo depender, más específicamente, de dificultades en la capacidad sintáctica


The present study compares the strategies to read sentences used by Spanish-speaking children with dyslexia (n = 107) and cochlear-implanted children with deafness (n = 61). The results show that children with deafness, but not with dyslexia, adopt the key-word-strategy (KWS), which consists of identifying some content words of the sentence while ignoring the function words. Furthermore, it appeared that the KWS was associated with poor syntactic ability. Moreover, when Dyslexic and Deaf Groups were carefully matched at reading level with normally developing children (Control Group, n = 785) all of the differences between dyslexics and normally developing children disappeared. Children with hearing loss however were still poor at dealing with function words and consequently maintained their tendency to use the KWS. These results exclude the hypothesis that the KWS is a broadly used procedure to compensate for reading deficits but seems, rather, to depend on poor syntactic ability


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Adolescente , Dislexia/psicologia , Leitura , Surdez/psicologia , Estratégias , Estudantes/psicologia , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/etiologia , Implantes Cocleares , Deficiências da Aprendizagem/psicologia
19.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(34): 20483-20494, 2020 08 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32788359

RESUMO

In 2005, we reported evidence indicating that upcoming phonological word forms-e.g., kite vs. airplane-were predicted during reading. We recorded brainwaves (electroencephalograms [EEGs]) as people read word-by-word and then correlated the predictability in context of indefinite articles that preceded nouns ( a kite vs. an airplane) with the average event-related brain potentials (ERPs) they elicited [K. A. DeLong, T. P. Urbach, M. Kutas, Nat. Neurosci. 8, 1117-1121 (2005)]. Amid a broader controversy about the role of word-form prediction in comprehension, those findings were recently challenged by a failed putative direct replication attempt [M. S. Nieuwland et al., eLife 7, e33468 (2018); nine labs, one experiment, and 2.6e4 observations]. To better understand the empirical justification for positing an association between prenominal article predictability and scalp potentials, we conducted a wide-ranging exploratory data analysis (EDA), pooling our original data with extant data from two followup studies (one lab, three experiments, and 1.2e4 observations). We modeled the time course of article predictability in the single-trial data by fitting linear mixed-effects regression (LMER) models at each time point and scalp location spanning a 3-s interval before, during, and after the article. Model comparisons based on Akaike information criteria (AIC) and slope-regression ERPs [rERPs; N. J. Smith, M. Kutas, Psychophysiology 52, 157-168 (2015)] provide substantial empirical support for a small positive association between article predictability and scalp potentials approximately 300 to 500 ms after article onset, predominantly over bilateral posterior scalp. We think this effect may reasonably be attributed to prediction of upcoming word forms.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiologia , Leitura , Eletroencefalografia , Potenciais Evocados , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Adulto Jovem
20.
J Vis Exp ; (161)2020 07 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32744523

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to describe a Spanish protocol that includes reading, writing, and math Curriculum-Based Measures (CBMs) aimed at early detection of students at risk of presenting learning disabilities (LD). Early identification of LD is a critical component of the Response to Intervention (RtI) model. In early grades, the screening of foundational skills mentioned above can provide a data-based guideline for identifying students requiring a more intensive response-based intervention before starting elementary school. We designed different CBMs based on indicators of basic early reading, writing, and math skills [Indicadores de Progreso de Aprendizaje en Lectura, Escritura y Matemáticas, IPAL, IPAE, and IPAM respectively] that aim to fulfill the twofold objective of universal screening and evaluation of the Spanish students' progress. For reading, IPAL includes alphabetic principle, phonological awareness, concepts about print, and riddles in kindergarten. In first and second grades, IPAL includes alphabetic principle, nonsense words fluency, maze sentences, and oral reading fluency. In addition, it includes phonemic segmentation for first grade and prosody for second grade. For writing, IPAE includes copying letters, writing allographs, dictated letters, dictated words with arbitrary spelling, dictated words with rule-based spelling, dictated nonsense words, dictated sentences, writing sentences, and writing a story for first-third grades. Finally, for math, IPAM includes number comparison, missing number, number identification, quantity array, and counting aloud for kindergarten, and number comparison, multi-digit computation, missing number, single-digit computation, and place value for first-third grades.


Assuntos
Deficiências da Aprendizagem , Matemática , Leitura , Ensino , Redação , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Idioma , Masculino , Estudantes
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