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1.
J Exp Child Psychol ; 226: 105550, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36179531

RESUMO

Recollection, rather than familiarity, seems to play a crucial part in sustaining children's reading comprehension. However, the roles of recollection and familiarity in both word reading and reading comprehension have yet to be fully understood. In this study, we examined estimates of recollection and familiarity in a working memory updating task using an adaptation of the process dissociation procedure. Our study involved 204 children aged 9-11 years. We administered a keeping track task in which lists of words belonging to various semantic categories (e.g., animals) were presented. The children had to follow two sets of instructions: (a) inclusion, which involved saying whether they had seen a word during the previous learning phase, and b) exclusion, which involved saying whether a word was the last one they had seen that belonged to a given category. Our results showed that recollection contributed to explain reading comprehension, but not word reading, performance. Familiarity, instead, did not predict either of the reading measures (word reading or reading comprehension). We discuss these findings in terms of the importance of considering recollection when studying reading processes during development. Alternative explanations considering the role of WM executive functioning are also considered.


Assuntos
Memória de Curto Prazo , Leitura , Humanos , Compreensão , Rememoração Mental , Reconhecimento Psicológico
2.
J Exp Child Psychol ; 226: 105571, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36356558

RESUMO

Studies on German and English have shown that children and adults can rely on phonological and orthographic information from the parafovea during reading, but this reliance differs between ages and languages. In the current study, we investigated the development of phonological and orthographic parafoveal processing during silent reading in Russian-speaking 8-year-old children, 10-year-old children, and adults using the gaze-contingent boundary paradigm. The participants read sentences with embedded nouns that were presented in original, pseudohomophone, control for pseudohomophone, transposed-letter, and control for transposed-letter conditions in the parafoveal area to assess phonological and orthographic preview benefit effects. The results revealed that all groups of participants relied only on orthographic but not phonological parafoveal information. These findings indicate that 8-year-old children already preprocess parafoveal information similarly to adults.


Assuntos
Linguística , Leitura , Adulto , Criança , Humanos , Idioma , Federação Russa
3.
Otol Neurotol ; 43(10): e1100-e1106, 2022 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36351224

RESUMO

HYPOTHESES: 1) Scores of reading efficiency (the Test of Word Reading Efficiency, second edition) obtained in adults before cochlear implant surgery will be predictive of speech recognition outcomes 6 months after surgery; and 2) Cochlear implantation will lead to improvements in language processing as measured through reading efficiency from preimplantation to postimplantation. BACKGROUND: Adult cochlear implant (CI) users display remarkable variability in speech recognition outcomes. "Top-down" processing-the use of cognitive resources to make sense of degraded speech-contributes to speech recognition abilities in CI users. One area that has received little attention is the efficiency of lexical and phonological processing. In this study, a visual measure of word and nonword reading efficiency-relying on lexical and phonological processing, respectively-was investigated for its ability to predict CI speech recognition outcomes, as well as to identify any improvements after implantation. METHODS: Twenty-four postlingually deaf adult CI candidates were tested on the Test of Word Reading Efficiency, Second Edition preoperatively and again 6 months post-CI. Six-month post-CI speech recognition measures were also assessed across a battery of word and sentence recognition. RESULTS: Preoperative nonword reading scores were moderately predictive of sentence recognition outcomes, but real word reading scores were not; word recognition scores were not predicted by either. No 6-month post-CI improvement was demonstrated in either word or nonword reading efficiency. CONCLUSION: Phonological processing as measured by the Test of Word Reading Efficiency, Second Edition nonword reading predicts to a moderate degree 6-month sentence recognition outcomes in adult CI users. Reading efficiency did not improve after implantation, although this could be because of the relatively short duration of CI use.


Assuntos
Implante Coclear , Implantes Cocleares , Surdez , Percepção da Fala , Adulto , Humanos , Leitura , Surdez/cirurgia , Surdez/reabilitação
4.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 18740, 2022 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36335170

RESUMO

Grammar acquisition by non-native learners (L2) is typically less successful and may produce fundamentally different grammatical systems than that by native speakers (L1). The neural representation of grammatical processing between L1 and L2 speakers remains controversial. We hypothesized that working memory is the primary source of L1/L2 differences, by considering working memory within the predictive coding account, which models grammatical processes as higher-level neuronal representations of cortical hierarchies, generating predictions (forward model) of lower-level representations. A functional MRI study was conducted with L1 Japanese speakers and highly proficient Japanese learners requiring oral production of grammatically correct Japanese particles. We assumed selecting proper particles requires forward model-dependent processes of working memory as their functions are highly context-dependent. As a control, participants read out a visually designated mora indicated by underlining. Particle selection by L1/L2 groups commonly activated the bilateral inferior frontal gyrus/insula, pre-supplementary motor area, left caudate, middle temporal gyrus, and right cerebellum, which constituted the core linguistic production system. In contrast, the left inferior frontal sulcus, known as the neural substrate of verbal working memory, showed more prominent activation in L2 than in L1. Thus, the working memory process causes L1/L2 differences even in highly proficient L2 learners.


Assuntos
Multilinguismo , Humanos , Japão , Leitura , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Memória
6.
Perspect Health Inf Manag ; 19(4): 1f, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36348731

RESUMO

This study evaluated the readability and suitability of a university health center public website. Readability formulas estimated the reading grade and age required for comprehension of health information. The Suitability Assessment of Materials (SAM) instrument determined adequacy of the webpages for the intended audience. Readability showed the reading grade level, representing the youngest reader able to process the material, ranged from 10.1 to 14.6, averaging 12.5 (midway through 12th grade in the US educational system). Full comprehension required higher education levels, up to postgraduate. Suitability scores for some webpages indicated deficiencies in readability, motivation to learn, and instructions for healthy behavior changes. Content on the website may be difficult for some students to comprehend based on the reading grade level, but overall suitability results are satisfactory. All webpage updates should bear these parameters in mind to ensure content is fully accessible to college students, faculty, and staff.


Assuntos
Compreensão , Letramento em Saúde , Humanos , Universidades , Leitura , Escolaridade , Internet
7.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0277116, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36355749

RESUMO

When asked to decide if an ungrammatical sequence of words is grammatically correct or not readers find it more difficult to do so (longer response times (RTs) and more errors) if the ungrammatical sequence is created by transposing two words from a correct sentence (e.g., the white was cat big) compared with a set of matched ungrammatical sequences for which transposing any two words could not produce a correct sentence (e.g., the white was cat slowly). Here, we provide a further exploration of transposed-word effects while imposing serial reading by using rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) in Experiments 1 (respond at the end of the sequence) and 2 (respond as soon as possible-which could be during the sequence). Crucially, in Experiment 3 we compared performance under serial RSVP conditions with parallel presentation of the same stimuli for the same total duration and with the same group of participants. We found robust transposed-word effects in the RSVP conditions tested in all experiments, but only in error rates and not in RTs. This contrasts with the effects found in both errors and RTs in our prior work using parallel presentation, as well as the parallel presentation conditions tested in Experiment 3. We provide a tentative account of why, under conditions that impose a serial word-by-word reading strategy, transposed-word effects are only seen in error rates and not in RTs.


Assuntos
Idioma , Leitura
8.
Dyslexia ; 28(4): 431-447, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36329601

RESUMO

Dorsal stream is an important pathway for visual information transmission. As a part of the dorsal pathway, the middle temporal visual motion areas (V5/MT+) are mainly responsible for visual motion processing and the ability of visual motion processing is closely related to reading. Compared with alphabetic scripts, the visual structure of Chinese characters is more complex and there are no clear grapheme-phoneme correspondence rules. So the ability of visual analysis plays an important role in Chinese character processing. This study first investigated the brain activation of Chinese dyslexic children and children of the same chronological age when they observed coherent motion stimuli. ROI analysis indicated that only the activation of left V5/MT+ was significantly weaker in dyslexics than that in the control group. The activity of the magnocellular-dorsal stream was closely related to orthographic awareness in the combined data (two groups) and the typical children. In dyslexia group, the stronger the activation of V5/MT+ was, the worse the phonological awareness, rapid naming performance and orthographic awareness were. In short, Chinese dyslexic children were deficient in the activation of the left V5/MT+ and the activity of the magnocellular-dorsal pathway was closely related to orthographic awareness in Chinese pupils.


Assuntos
Dislexia , Criança , Humanos , Dislexia/diagnóstico por imagem , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Leitura , China
9.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0277342, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36331935

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In Italy, abortion services are public: therefore, health Institutions should provide clear and easily readable web-based information. We aimed to 1) assess variation in abortion services utilisation; 2) analyse the readability of institutional websites informing on induced abortion; 3) explore whether easier-to-read institutional websites influenced the correct fruition of abortion services. METHODS: We identified from the 2021 administrative databases of Tuscany all women having an abortion, and-among them-women having an abortion with the certification provided by family counselling centres, following the pathway established by law. We assessed variation in total and certified abortion rates by computing the Systematic Component of Variation. We analysed the readability of the Tuscan health authorities' websites using the readability assessment tool READ-IT. We explored how institutional website readability influenced the odds of having certified abortions by running multilevel logistic models, considering health authorities as the highest-level variables. RESULTS: We observed high variation in the correct utilization of the abortion pathway in terms of certified abortion rates. The READ-IT scores showed that the most readable text was from the Florence Teaching Hospital website. Multilevel models revealed that higher READ-IT scores, corresponding to more difficult texts, resulted in lower odds of certified abortions. CONCLUSIONS: Large variation in the proper fruition of abortion pathways occurs in Tuscany, and such variation may depend on readability of institutional websites informing on induced abortion. Therefore, health Institutions should monitor and improve the readability of their websites to ensure proper and more equitable access to abortion.


Assuntos
Aborto Induzido , Informação de Saúde ao Consumidor , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Compreensão , Estudos Transversais , Leitura , Centros Médicos Acadêmicos , Internet
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36361302

RESUMO

The present study aims to observe the patterns of newspaper subscription and reading and further explore the structural relationship between parent-child interactions, children's reading motivation, and academic achievement in families with school-age children. Online surveys were administered to 1361 parents of elementary students from grade 1 to 6 across South Korea. Collected data were analyzed using SPSS and AMOS to conduct frequency analysis, correlation analysis, structural equation modeling, and bootstrapping analysis. Results showed the following. First, 17.0% of households subscribed to a newspaper, 28.5% of parents read paper newspapers, and 97.1% of parents read online newspapers. Second, parent-child interaction using newspapers had an indirect effect on children's academic achievement through the mediating effect of reading motivation. Overall results revealed the functions of newspaper as part of home literacy environment and the newspaper's positive contribution to a child's reading motivation and academic achievement.


Assuntos
Sucesso Acadêmico , Humanos , Criança , Leitura , Motivação , Relações Pais-Filho , Escolaridade
11.
Behav Brain Sci ; 45: e306, 2022 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36396408

RESUMO

The authors do not compare readers who prefer imaginary world fiction to readers with other reading preferences, failing to rule out the hypothesis that their findings apply to all readers. The authors also do not test their hypotheses against plausible alternative ones, several of which are suggested here.


Assuntos
Leitura , Humanos
12.
J Lesbian Stud ; 26(4): 367-381, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36369937

RESUMO

This article argues for the usefulness of deploying a trans lens to examine the diaries of Anne Lister (1791-1840). The author contends that a trans reading may expand possibilities for critical analysis of Lister's gender practices within the context of early-nineteenth-century white, upper-class Halifax society, in addition to existing labels such as "lesbian" and "queer." Examples to illustrate these possibilities are drawn from Lister's reading habits, facilitated by some initial quantitative analysis of Lister's own indexing practices. The article concludes that Lister structures their literary life to enable them to trans certain gender practices, and to fashion a livable gendered existence amidst the competing pressures of class, nationhood, financial security, self-determination, and sexual desire.


Assuntos
Homossexualidade Feminina , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Humanos , Feminino , Leitura , Emoções , Existencialismo
13.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0277823, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36399450

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Fibroadenomas are benign lesions found in the breast tissue. Widespread access to and use of the internet has resulted in more individuals using online resources to better understand health conditions, their prognosis and treatment. The aim of this study was to investigate the readability and visual appearance of online patient resources for fibroadenoma. METHODS: We searched GoogleTM, BingTM and YahooTM on 6 July 2022 using the search terms "fibroadenoma", "breast lumps", "non-cancerous breast lumps", "benign breast lumps" and "benign breast lesions" to identify the top ten websites that appeared on each of the search engines. We excluded advertised websites, links to individual pdf documents and links to blogs/chats. We compiled a complete list of websites identified using the three search engines and the search terms and analysed the content. We only selected pages that were relevant to fibroadenoma. We excluded pages which only contained contact details and no narrative information relating to the condition. We did not assess information where links were directed to alternative websites. We undertook a qualitative visual assessment of each of the websites using a framework of pre-determined key criteria based on the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services toolkit. This involved assessing characteristics such as overall design, page layout, font size and colour. Each criterion was scored as: +1- criterion achieved; -1- criterion not achieved; and 0- no evidence, unclear or not applicable (maximum total score 43). We then assessed the readability of each website to determine the UK and US reading age using five different readability tests: Flesch Kincaid, Gunning Fog, Coleman Liau, SMOG, and the Automated Readability Index. We compared the readability scores to determine if there were any significant differences across the websites identified. We also generated scores for the Flesh Reading Ease as well as information about sentence structure (number of syllables per sentence and proportion of words with a high number of syllables) and proportion of people the text was readable to. RESULTS: We identified 39 websites for readability and visual assessment. The visual assessment scores for the 39 websites identified ranged from -19 to 31 points out of a possible score of 43. The median readability score for the identified websites was 8.58 (age 14-15), with a range of 6.69-12.22 (age 12-13 to university level). There was a statistically significant difference between the readability scores obtained across websites (p<0.001). Almost half of the websites (18/39; 46.2%) were classified as very difficult by the Flesch Reading Ease score, with only 13/39 (33.33%) classified as being fairly easy or plain English. CONCLUSION: We found wide differences in the general appearance, layout and focus of the fibroadenoma websites identified. The readability of most of the websites was also much higher than the recommended level for the public to understand. Fibroadenoma website information needs to be simplified to reduce the use of jargon and specificity to the condition for individuals to better comprehend it. In addition, their visual appearance could be improved by changing the layout and including images and diagrams.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Fibroadenoma , Fibroma , Idoso , Humanos , Estados Unidos , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Compreensão , Medicare , Leitura , Ferramenta de Busca
14.
BMJ ; 379: o2803, 2022 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36400452

Assuntos
Livros , Leitura , Humanos
15.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 18708, 2022 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36333460

RESUMO

Eye movements provide a sensitive window into cognitive processing during reading. In the present study, we investigated beginning readers' longitudinal changes in temporal and spatial measures of eye movements during oral versus silent reading, the extent to which variation in eye movements is attributable to individual differences and text differences, and the functional form of growth trajectories of eye-movement variables. Data were from 363 English-speaking children (52% male; 59.8% White) in the US who were followed longitudinally from Grade 1 to Grade 3. Results showed a rapid decrease in temporal eye-movement measures (e.g., first fixation) and an increase in spatial eye-movement measures (initial landing position) in both oral and silent reading. The majority of variance in eye movements was attributable to individual differences whereas some variance in initial landing position was due to text differences. Most eye-movement measures had nonlinear growth trajectories where fast development tapered off near the end of Grade 3 while initial fixation count and total gaze count in silent reading had a linear growth trajectory. The findings provide a first large-scale look into the developmental progression of eye movements during oral and silent reading during a critical period when reading skills rapidly develop.


Assuntos
Movimentos Oculares , Leitura , Criança , Masculino , Humanos , Feminino , Individualidade , Processos Mentais , Percepção Social
16.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0276643, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36395160

RESUMO

Although phonological deficits are unanimously recognized as one of the key manifestations of developmental dyslexia, a growing body of research has reported impairments in morphological abilities. Our study aimed at casting further light on this domain by investigating the morphological awareness skills of 21 children with dyslexia (mean age 9.10 years old) and 24 children with typical development (mean age 10.3 years old). All children were monolingual speakers of Italian, which is a morphologically rich language characterized by complex inflectional and derivational paradigms. We developed an experimental protocol inspired by Berko's Wug test and composed of 11 tasks addressing inflectional and derivational processes. Participants were asked to manipulate nonwords of various lexical categories, modeled after the phonotactic structure of Italian, and manipulation involved both word formation and base retrieval. Conditions of the experiments were based on verb conjugation classes differing in frequency, productivity, regularity, and formal transparency. Results confirmed that morphological skills are impaired in dyslexic children, who performed significantly more poorly than their age-matched peers in all tasks. Children with dyslexia were especially challenged by tasks and conditions requiring advanced morphological awareness skills, such as the retrieval of infinitives of infrequent and irregular conjugation classes. The educational and clinical implications of these findings are discussed.


Assuntos
Dislexia , Idioma , Criança , Humanos , Leitura , Fonética , Testes de Linguagem
17.
F1000Res ; 11: 1070, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36415205

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In language learning, reading is a skill that enables interaction with a text in whatever field of knowledge the learner is pursuing. Readers tend to use strategies such as comprehension, interpretation and conception of decoding written language and texts to enhance their reading capacity. This research explores the reading strategies applied by Saudi English as a Foreign Language (EFL) learners and compares the reading abilities of male and female EFL students. METHODS: The study interviewed three EFL students about the reading strategies they applied while reading passages and texts. Then an International English Language Testing System (IELTS) reading test was handed over to 26 randomly selected students. RESULTS: The study found that the reading strategies used by the students interviewed involved skimming, scanning, guessing the meaning from context, identifying the mean idea, and summarizing the body of the text in question. Moreover, the study revealed that both male and female students scored low in the IELTS tests that the researchers conducted. The average mean score they reached was 7.15 out of 20. However, even in the low scoring ratio, female students (M=7.69) outperformed male students (M= 6.62) and the difference between them remained significant, P=.000. CONCLUSIONS: The study recommends that the language instructors help EFL learners in developing their reading strategies and applying them every time they read any text.


Assuntos
Multilinguismo , Leitura , Masculino , Feminino , Humanos , Idioma , Arábia Saudita , Aprendizagem , Estudantes
18.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 20028, 2022 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36414688

RESUMO

The left ventral occipito-temporal cortex (left-vOT) plays a key role in reading. Interestingly, the area also responds to speech input, suggesting that it may have other functions beyond written word recognition. Here, we adopt graph theoretical analysis to investigate the left-vOT's functional role in the whole-brain network while participants process spoken sentences in different contexts. Overall, different connectivity measures indicate that the left-vOT acts as an interface enabling the communication between distributed brain regions and sub-networks. During simple speech perception, the left-vOT is systematically part of the visual network and contributes to the communication between neighboring areas, remote areas, and sub-networks, by acting as a local bridge, a global bridge, and a connector, respectively. However, when speech comprehension is explicitly required, the specific functional role of the area and the sub-network to which the left-vOT belongs change and vary with the quality of speech signal and task difficulty. These connectivity patterns provide insightful information on the contribution of the left-vOT in various contexts of language processing beyond its role in reading. They advance our general understanding of the neural mechanisms underlying the flexibility of the language network that adjusts itself according to the processing context.


Assuntos
Lobo Occipital , Fala , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Lobo Temporal , Leitura
19.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(10): e2236102, 2022 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36301547

RESUMO

Importance: Developmental dyslexia is a heritable learning disability affecting 7% to 10% of the general population and can have detrimental impacts on mental health and vocational potential. Individuals with dyslexia show altered functional organization of the language and reading neural networks; however, it remains unknown how early in life these neural network alterations might emerge. Objective: To determine whether the early emergence of large-scale neural functional connectivity (FC) underlying long-term language and reading development is altered in infants with a familial history of dyslexia (FHD). Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study included infants recruited at Boston Children's Hospital between May 2011 and February 2019. Participants underwent structural and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging in the Department of Radiology at Boston Children's Hospital. Infants with FHD were matched with infants without FHD based on age and sex. Data were analyzed from April 2019 to June 2021. Exposures: FHD was defined as having at least 1 first-degree relative with a dyslexia diagnosis or documented reading difficulties. Main Outcomes and Measures: Whole-brain FC patterns associated with 20 predefined cerebral regions important for long-term language and reading development were computed for each infant. Multivariate pattern analyses were applied to identify specific FC patterns that differentiated between infants with vs without FHD. For classification performance estimates, 99% CIs were calculated as the classification accuracy minus chance level. Results: A total of 98 infants (mean [SD] age, 8.5 [2.3] months; 51 [52.0%] girls) were analyzed, including 35 infants with FHD and 63 infants without FHD. Multivariate pattern analyses identified distinct FC patterns between infants with vs without FHD in the left fusiform gyrus (classification accuracy, 0.55 [99% CI, 0.046-0.062]; corrected P < .001; Cohen d = 0.76). Connections linking left fusiform gyrus to regions in the frontal and parietal language and attention networks were among the paths with the highest contributions to the classification performance. Conclusions and Relevance: These findings suggest that on the group level, FHD was associated with an early onset of atypical FC of regions important for subsequent word form recognition during reading acquisition. Longitudinal studies linking the atypical functional network and school-age reading abilities will be essential to further elucidate the ontogenetic mechanisms underlying the development of dyslexia.


Assuntos
Mapeamento Encefálico , Dislexia , Criança , Lactente , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudos de Coortes , Dislexia/diagnóstico por imagem , Dislexia/patologia , Leitura
20.
J Speech Lang Hear Res ; 65(10): 3776-3788, 2022 10 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36194778

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to characterize the local (utterance-level) temporal regularities of child-directed speech (CDS) that might facilitate phonological development in Spanish, classically termed a syllable-timed language. METHOD: Eighteen female adults addressed their 4-year-old children versus other adults spontaneously and also read aloud (CDS vs. adult-directed speech [ADS]). We compared CDS and ADS speech productions using a spectrotemporal model (Leong & Goswami, 2015), obtaining three temporal metrics: (a) distribution of modulation energy, (b) temporal regularity of stressed syllables, and (c) syllable rate. RESULTS: CDS was characterized by (a) significantly greater modulation energy in the lower frequencies (0.5-4 Hz), (b) more regular rhythmic occurrence of stressed syllables, and (c) a slower syllable rate than ADS, across both spontaneous and read conditions. DISCUSSION: CDS is characterized by a robust local temporal organization (i.e., within utterances) with amplitude modulation bands aligning with delta and theta electrophysiological frequency bands, respectively, showing greater phase synchronization than in ADS, facilitating parsing of stress units and syllables. These temporal regularities, together with the slower rate of production of CDS, might support the automatic extraction of phonological units in speech and hence support the phonological development of children. SUPPLEMENTAL MATERIAL: https://doi.org/10.23641/asha.21210893.


Assuntos
Percepção da Fala , Fala , Adulto , Pré-Escolar , Família , Feminino , Humanos , Idioma , Leitura , Fala/fisiologia , Percepção da Fala/fisiologia
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