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1.
Ann Hematol ; 99(5): 1049-1061, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32236735

RESUMO

Real-world data on regimens for relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma (RRMM) represent an important component of therapeutic decision-making. This multi-centric, retrospective, observational study conducted by the treating physicians evaluated the effectiveness and safety of ixazomib-lenalidomide-dexamethasone (IRd) in 155 patients who received ixazomib via early access programs in Greece, the UK, and the Czech Republic. Median age was 68 years; 17% had an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status ≥ 2; median number of prior therapies was 1 (range 1-7); 91%, 47%, and 17% had received prior bortezomib, thalidomide, and lenalidomide, respectively. Median duration of exposure to ixazomib was 9.6 months. Overall response rate was 74%, including 35% very good partial response or better (16% complete response). Median progression-free survival (PFS) was 27.6 months (27.6 and 19.9 months in patients with 1 or > 1 prior lines, respectively). IRd treatment for ≥ 6 months was associated with longer PFS (hazard ratio 0.06). Fourteen patients (9%) discontinued IRd due to adverse events/toxicity in the absence of disease progression. Peripheral neuropathy was reported in 35% of patients (3% grades 3-4). These findings support the results of the phase III TOURMALINE-MM1 trial in a broader real-world RRMM population.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Mieloma Múltiplo/tratamento farmacológico , Mieloma Múltiplo/mortalidade , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Compostos de Boro/administração & dosagem , Compostos de Boro/efeitos adversos , Dexametasona/administração & dosagem , Dexametasona/efeitos adversos , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Glicina/administração & dosagem , Glicina/efeitos adversos , Glicina/análogos & derivados , Humanos , Lenalidomida/administração & dosagem , Lenalidomida/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva , Taxa de Sobrevida
2.
Ann Hematol ; 99(5): 1063-1072, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32248251

RESUMO

These are the results of phase II study of bortezomib-melphalan-prednisolone (VMP) induction therapy followed by lenalidomide-dexamethasone (Rd) consolidation and lenalidomide maintenance in transplant-ineligible patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma (NDMM). The primary end point was progression-free survival (PFS). Secondary end points included overall survival (OS), overall response rates (ORRs), and safety. Eighty-three eligible patients were enrolled between October 2012 and August 2014. The median PFS was 28.0 months (95% CI 19.6-36.7) and the median OS was 55.3 months (95% CI 51.6-NA). Among the patients who received lenalidomide maintenance therapy, median PFS was significantly improved in patients who had achieved a very good partial response (VGPR) or better (41.8 vs 20.7 months, p = 0.0070). As the best response, the rates of partial response or better were 85.5% comprising stringent complete response (sCR, 21.7%), complete response (CR, 10.8%), VGPR (18.1%), and partial response (PR, 34.9%). The most frequently observed grade 3 or higher adverse events during the VMP therapy were anemia (28.9%), neutropenia (15.6%), thrombocytopenia (6.0%), and peripheral neuropathy (2.4%). The most frequently observed grade 3 or higher adverse events during the Rd therapy were anemia (3.5%), neutropenia (1.8%), and skin rush (5.3%). The most frequently observed grade 3 or higher adverse events during lenalidomide maintenance therapy were anemia (7.4%) and neutropenia (24.1%). Thus, VMP induction therapy followed by Rd consolidation and lenalidomide maintenance is considered a well-tolerated and effective regimen in transplant-ineligible NDMM. This trial is registered with UMIN-CTR with the identification number UMIN000009042.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Mieloma Múltiplo , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Bortezomib/administração & dosagem , Bortezomib/efeitos adversos , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Lenalidomida/administração & dosagem , Lenalidomida/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Melfalan/administração & dosagem , Melfalan/efeitos adversos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mieloma Múltiplo/diagnóstico , Mieloma Múltiplo/tratamento farmacológico , Mieloma Múltiplo/mortalidade , Prednisolona/administração & dosagem , Prednisolona/efeitos adversos , Taxa de Sobrevida
3.
Cancer Sci ; 111(4): 1333-1343, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32061138

RESUMO

Cereblon (CRBN) is a target for immunomodulatory drugs. This study investigated the prognostic value of the expression of CRBN-pathway genes on the clinical relevance of lenalidomide (Len) treatment and evaluated the levels of CRBN-binding proteins and mutations in these genes after Len treatment. Forty-eight primary multiple myeloma cells were collected prior to treatment with Len and dexamethasone (Ld) and 25 paired samples were obtained post-Ld therapy. These tumor cells were used to determine the expression and mutated forms of the CRBN-pathway genes. Following normalization with CRBN levels, there was a significantly reduced IKZF1/CRBN ratio in samples that responded poorly to Ld therapy. Moreover, patients with low ratios of IKZF1/CRBN showed a significantly shorter progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) than those with higher ratios. However, patients with high ratios of KPNA2/CRBN showed a significantly shorter PFS and OS than patients with lower ratios. Of the 25 paired samples analyzed, most samples showed a reduction in the expression of CRBN and an increase in IKZF1 gene expression. No mutations were observed in CRBN, IKZF1, or CUL4A genes in the post-Ld samples. In conclusion, a decreased expression of IKZF1 and increased expression of KPNA2 compared to that of CRBN mRNA predicts poor outcomes of Ld therapy.


Assuntos
Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/genética , Fator de Transcrição Ikaros/genética , Lenalidomida/administração & dosagem , Mieloma Múltiplo/tratamento farmacológico , alfa Carioferinas/genética , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Proteínas Culina/genética , Dexametasona/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Imunomodulação , Lenalidomida/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Metilação , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mieloma Múltiplo/genética , Mieloma Múltiplo/patologia , Mutação , Prognóstico , Intervalo Livre de Progressão
4.
Ann Hematol ; 99(1): 121-126, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31773215

RESUMO

It is uncertain if different immunomodulatory drugs (IMID) pose distinct thrombotic risk in patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma (MM). Among 2397 MM patients from the SEER-Medicare database from 2007 to 2013, 78% received lenalidomide, and 22% received thalidomide. After inverse probability weighting to balance confounders, the 12-month incidences of venous thromboembolism (VTE 10%) and arterial thromboembolism (ATE 5%) were similarly high in both groups. Lenalidomide versus thalidomide had a subdistribution hazard ratio of 1.11 (0.59-2.02) for VTE and a subdistribution hazard ratio of 0.96 (0.45-1.98) for ATE. Overall survival was not significantly different with a hazard ratio of 0.88 (0.60-1.18) for lenalidomide versus thalidomide. Concurrent anticoagulant prophylaxis was infrequently prescribed in < 20% of both groups. Our study demonstrates that despite improvement in myeloma-directed therapy and supportive care, thrombosis remains an important consideration for all IMID-treated MM patients. Appropriate risk stratification and vigilant thromboprophylaxis remain essential to prevent this complication.


Assuntos
Lenalidomida , Mieloma Múltiplo , Sistema de Registros , Talidomida , Tromboembolia , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Lenalidomida/administração & dosagem , Lenalidomida/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Mieloma Múltiplo/tratamento farmacológico , Mieloma Múltiplo/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Talidomida/administração & dosagem , Talidomida/efeitos adversos , Tromboembolia/induzido quimicamente , Tromboembolia/epidemiologia
5.
Ann Hematol ; 99(1): 137-145, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31768675

RESUMO

The combinations of melphalan, bortezomib, and prednisolone (VMP) and of lenalidomide and dexamethasone (Rd) are standard treatment strategies for transplant-ineligible newly diagnosed multiple myeloma (NDMM). To make the most of these two strategies, we investigated the efficacy and feasibility of first-line treatment with 4 cycles of VMP followed by continuous Rd therapy in a multi-institutional phase 2 study in Japanese patients with transplant-ineligible NDMM. Thirty-six patients of median age 74 years old with NDMM initially received 35-day cycles of VMP: oral melphalan (6 mg/m2) and prednisolone (60 mg/m2) on days 1 to 4 and bortezomib (1.3 mg/m2) on days 1, 8, 15, and 22. After 4 cycles of VMP, treatment was switched to 28-day cycles of Rd, which was continued until disease progression or emergence of an unacceptable adverse event (AE) in 33 patients, while one patient who achieved CR after VMP continued VMP at the physician's discretion. The overall response rates after VMP and after Rd were 66.7% and 86.1%, including CR rates of 5.6% and 36.1%, respectively. In a median follow-up period of 34.3 months, the progression-free survival and overall survival rates at 3 years were 43.2% and 81.3%, respectively. Grade 3-4 hematological AEs included neutropenia (39% with VMP and 24% with Rd) and thrombocytopenia (11% with VMP and 3% with Rd). There was no death due to an AE. In conclusion, sequential therapy with VMP followed by Rd is effective and mostly feasible for transplant-ineligible NDMM. The study is registered as UMIN000034815.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Mieloma Múltiplo/tratamento farmacológico , Mieloma Múltiplo/mortalidade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Bortezomib/administração & dosagem , Bortezomib/efeitos adversos , Dexametasona/administração & dosagem , Dexametasona/efeitos adversos , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Lenalidomida/administração & dosagem , Lenalidomida/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Melfalan/administração & dosagem , Melfalan/efeitos adversos , Mieloma Múltiplo/diagnóstico , Prednisolona/administração & dosagem , Prednisolona/efeitos adversos , Taxa de Sobrevida
7.
Cien Saude Colet ; 24(10): 3783-3792, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31577009

RESUMO

In April 2017, the National Sanitary Surveillance Agency (ANVISA-Brazil) approved lenalidomide (LEN) for multiple myeloma (MM) and myelodysplastic syndrome. ANVISA had rejected the first application in 2010, and denied a request for reconsideration in 2012. The reason for rejection was the lack of comparative effectiveness studies proving that LEN was more effective than thalidomide (THAL), a strictly controlled drug regulated by Federal law 10.651/2003 and dispensed to patients (at no costs) through public health system units and hospitals. ANVISA unexplained retreat on the LEN approval for marketing was an unquestionable triumph of the lobbying that ensued the denial, at the forefront of which were politicians, Congress members, patient organizations and medical societies. Two randomized (phase III) trials and three observational (case-control and population-based cohort) compared the effectiveness of THAL- versus LEN-based therapies in MM. Overall, these studies showed no difference in efficacy between LEN- and THAL-based therapies. LEN caused less neuropathy, and more severe hematologic adverse effects. It is much costlier than THAL, and substitution of THAL by LEN shall raise considerably public healthcare costs in Brazil.


Assuntos
Inibidores da Angiogênese/administração & dosagem , Controle de Medicamentos e Entorpecentes , Lenalidomida/administração & dosagem , Talidomida/administração & dosagem , Inibidores da Angiogênese/efeitos adversos , Inibidores da Angiogênese/economia , Brasil , Análise Custo-Benefício , Custos de Medicamentos , Humanos , Lenalidomida/efeitos adversos , Lenalidomida/economia , Mieloma Múltiplo/tratamento farmacológico , Mieloma Múltiplo/economia , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas/tratamento farmacológico , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas/economia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Talidomida/efeitos adversos , Talidomida/economia , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
Blood ; 134(16): 1337-1345, 2019 10 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31484647

RESUMO

Achieving and maintaining a high-quality response is the treatment goal for patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma (NDMM). The phase 3 PETHEMA/GEM2012 study, in 458 patients aged ≤65 years with NDMM, is evaluating bortezomib (subcutaneous) + lenalidomide + dexamethasone (VRD) for 6 cycles followed by autologous stem cell transplant (ASCT) conditioned with IV busulfan + melphalan vs melphalan and posttransplant consolidation with 2 cycles of VRD. We present grouped response analysis of induction, transplant, and consolidation. Responses deepened over time; in patients who initiated cycle 6 of induction (n = 426), the rates of a very good partial response or better were 55.6% by cycle 3, 63.8% by cycle 4, 68.3% by cycle 5, and 70.4% after induction. The complete response rate of 33.4% after induction in the intent-to-treat (ITT) population, which was similar in the 92 patients with high-risk cytogenetics (34.8%), also deepened with further treatment (44.1% after ASCT and 50.2% after consolidation). Rates of undetectable minimal residual disease (median 3 × 10-6 sensitivity) in the ITT population also increased from induction (28.8%) to transplant (42.1%) and consolidation (45.2%). The most common grade ≥3 treatment-emergent adverse events during induction were neutropenia (12.9%) and infection (9.2%). Grade ≥2 peripheral neuropathy (grouped term) during induction was 17.0%, with a low frequency of grade 3 (3.7%) and grade 4 (0.2%) events. VRD is an effective and well-tolerated regimen for induction in NDMM with deepening response throughout induction and over the course of treatment. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT01916252 and EudraCT as #2012-005683-10.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Quimioterapia de Indução/métodos , Mieloma Múltiplo/tratamento farmacológico , Terapia Neoadjuvante/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Bortezomib/administração & dosagem , Bortezomib/efeitos adversos , Quimioterapia Adjuvante/métodos , Dexametasona/administração & dosagem , Dexametasona/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/métodos , Humanos , Lenalidomida/administração & dosagem , Lenalidomida/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Condicionamento Pré-Transplante/métodos , Transplante Autólogo
10.
Lancet Haematol ; 6(9): e448-e458, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31327689

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lenalidomide and dexamethasone has been a standard of care in transplant-ineligible patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma. The addition of a third drug to the combination is likely to improve treatment efficacy. KEYNOTE-185 assessed the efficacy and safety of lenalidomide and dexamethasone with and without pembrolizumab in patients with previously untreated multiple myeloma. Here, we present the results of an unplanned interim analysis done to assess the benefit-risk of the combination at the request of the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). METHODS: KEYNOTE-185 was a randomised, open-label, phase 3 trial done at 95 medical centres across 15 countries (Australia, Canada, France, Germany, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan, New Zealand, Norway, Russia, South Africa, Spain, UK, and USA). Transplantation-ineligible patients aged 18 years and older with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0 or 1, and who were treatment naive were enrolled, and randomly assigned 1:1 to receive either pembrolizumab plus lenalidomide and dexamethasone or lenalidomide and dexamethasone alone using an interactive voice or integrated web response system. Patients received oral lenalidomide 25 mg on days 1-21 and oral dexamethasone 40 mg on days 1, 8, 15, and 22 of repeated 28-day cycles, with or without intravenous pembrolizumab 200 mg every 3 weeks. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival, which was investigator-assessed because of early trial termination. Efficacy was analysed in all randomly assigned patients and safety was analysed in all patients who received at least one dose of study drug. This trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02579863, and it is closed for accrual. FINDINGS: Between Jan 7, 2016, and June 9, 2017, 301 patients were randomly assigned to the pembrolizumab plus lenalidomide and dexamethasone group (n=151) or the lenalidomide and dexamethasone group (n=150). On July 3, 2017, the FDA decided to halt the study because of the imbalance in the proportion of death between groups. At database cutoff (June 2, 2017), with a median follow-up of 6·6 months (IQR 3·4-9·6), 149 patients in the pembrolizumab plus lenalidomide and dexamethasone group and 145 in the lenalidomide and dexamethasone group had received their assigned study drug. Median progression-free survival was not reached in either group; progression-free survival estimates at 6-months were 82·0% (95% CI 73·2-88·1) versus 85·0% (76·8-90·5; hazard ratio [HR] 1·22; 95% CI 0·67-2·22; p=0·75). Serious adverse events were reported in 81 (54%) patients in the pembrolizumab plus lenalidomide and dexamethasone group versus 57 (39%) patients in the lenalidomide and dexamethasone group; the most common serious adverse events were pneumonia (nine [6%]) and pyrexia (seven [5%]) in the pembrolizumab plus lenalidomide and dexamethasone group and pneumonia (eight [6%]) and sepsis (two [1%]) in the lenalidomide and dexamethasone group. Six (4%) treatment-related deaths occurred in the pembrolizumab plus lenalidomide and dexamethasone group (cardiac arrest, cardiac failure, myocarditis, large intestine perforation, pneumonia, and pulmonary embolism) and two (1%) in the lenalidomide and dexamethasone group (upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage and respiratory failure). INTERPRETATION: The results from this unplanned, FDA-requested, interim analysis showed that the benefit-risk profile of pembrolizumab plus lenalidomide and dexamethasone is unfavourable for patients with newly diagnosed, previously untreated multiple myeloma. Long-term safety and survival follow-up is ongoing. FUNDING: Merck Sharp & Dohme, a subsidiary of Merck & Co, Inc (Kenilworth, NJ, USA).


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/administração & dosagem , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Dexametasona/administração & dosagem , Lenalidomida/administração & dosagem , Mieloma Múltiplo/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/efeitos adversos , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Dexametasona/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Lenalidomida/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Mieloma Múltiplo/mortalidade , Mieloma Múltiplo/patologia , Pneumonia/etiologia , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Taxa de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
Lancet Haematol ; 6(8): e429-e437, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31296423

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lenalidomide plus rituximab is approved to treat patients with relapsed or refractory follicular lymphoma. Obinutuzumab has been shown to enhance antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity, phagocytosis, and direct B-cell killing better than rituximab. Our aim was to determine the activity and safety of lenalidomide plus obinutuzumab in previously treated patients with relapsed or refractory follicular lymphoma. METHODS: In this multicentre, single-arm, phase 2 study, patients were enrolled from 24 Lymphoma Academic Research Organisation centres in France. Eligible patients (age ≥18 years) had histologically confirmed CD20-positive relapsed or refractory follicular lymphoma of WHO grade 1, 2, or 3a; an ECOG performance status of 0-2; and received at least one previous rituximab-containing therapy. Patients received oral lenalidomide (20 mg) plus intravenously infused obinutuzumab as induction therapy (1000 mg; six 28-day cycles), 1-year maintenance with lenalidomide (10 mg; 12 28-day cycles; days 2-22) plus obinutuzumab (1000 mg; alternate cycles), and 1-year maintenance with obinutuzumab (1000 mg; six 56-day cycles; day 1). The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients who achieved an overall response at induction end as per investigator assessment using the 1999 international working group criteria. The secondary endpoints were event-free survival, progression-free survival, overall survival, and safety. Analyses were per-protocol; the efficacy population included all patients who received at least one dose of both obinutuzumab and lenalidomide, and the safety population included all patients who received one dose of either investigational drug. The study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01582776, and is ongoing but closed to accrual. FINDINGS: Between June 11, 2014, and Dec 18, 2015, 89 patients were recruited and 86 patients were evaluable for efficacy and 88 for safety. Median follow-up was 2·6 years (IQR 2·2-2·8). 68 (79%) of 86 evaluable patients (95% CI 69-87) achieved an overall response at induction end, meeting the prespecified primary endpoint. At 2 years, event-free survival was 62% (95% CI 51-72), progression-free survival 65% (95% CI 54-74), duration of response 70% (95% CI 57-79), and overall survival 87% (95% CI 78-93). Complete response was achieved by 33 (38%, 95% CI 28-50) of 86 patients at induction end, and the proportion of patients achieving a best overall response was 70 (81%, 95% CI 72-89) and 72 (84%, 74-91) of 86 patients during induction and treatment, respectively. The most common adverse events were asthenia (n=54, 61%), neutropenia (n=38, 43%), bronchitis (n=36, 41%), diarrhoea (n=35, 40%), and muscle spasms (n=34, 39%). Neutropenia was the most common toxicity of grade 3 or more; four (5%) patients had febrile neutropenia. 57 serious adverse events were reported in 30 (34%) of 88 patients. The most common serious adverse events were basal cell carcinoma (n=5, 6%), febrile neutropenia (n=4, 5%), and infusion-related reaction (n=3, 3%). One patient died due to treatment-related febrile neutropenia. INTERPRETATION: Our data shows that lenalidomide plus obinutuzumab is active in previously treated patients with relapsed or refractory follicular lymphoma, including those with early relapse, and has a manageable safety profile. Randomised trials of new immunomodulatory regimens, such as GALEN or using GALEN as a backbone, versus lenalidomide plus rituximab, are warranted. FUNDING: Lymphoma Academic Research Organisation, and Celgene and Roche.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Lenalidomida/uso terapêutico , Linfoma de Células B/tratamento farmacológico , Linfoma Folicular/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/efeitos adversos , Antígenos CD20/metabolismo , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/efeitos adversos , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Esquema de Medicação , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Humanos , Lenalidomida/efeitos adversos , Linfoma de Células B/mortalidade , Linfoma de Células B/patologia , Linfoma Folicular/mortalidade , Linfoma Folicular/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neutropenia/etiologia , Recidiva , Taxa de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
Blood ; 134(13): 1024-1036, 2019 09 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31331917

RESUMO

The outcome of patients with relapsed/refractory diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is poor, particularly in patients ineligible for stem cell transplantation or who fail induction therapy or salvage therapy. The phase 1b portion of this open-label, dose-escalation (3+3+3 design) study examined the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and preliminary safety and activity of the regimen in transplant-ineligible adults with histologically confirmed relapsed/refractory DLBCL after at least 1 prior therapy. Patients received once-daily 560 mg ibrutinib, 375 mg/m2 intravenous rituximab day 1 of cycles 1 to 6, and 10, 15, 20, or 25 mg lenalidomide days 1 to 21 of each 28-day cycle. Forty-five patients were treated; median time since diagnosis was 14.1 months, and 51% of the patients had non-germinal center B-cell-like (non-GCB) DLBCL, 33% had transformed DLBCL, 60% were refractory, and 27% were primary refractory. Because of dose-limiting toxicities, a de-escalation cohort (10 mg lenalidomide) was initiated, and with subsequent re-escalation up to 25 mg lenalidomide, the MTD was not reached. In response-evaluable patients, the overall response rate (ORR) was 44% (complete response [CR], 28%); among them, the ORR was 65% (CR, 41%) in non-GCB and 69% and 56% in relapsed (n = 16) and secondary refractory (n = 27) disease, respectively. Overall and for non-GCB, median response duration was 15.9 months, with 2 patients receiving therapy beyond 3 years. Phase 2 was initiated with 20 mg lenalidomide in relapsed/refractory non-GCB, whereas the phase 1b 25-mg lenalidomide cohort was being completed; an additional 25-mg cohort in phase 2 is currently ongoing. This study was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT02077166.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Lenalidomida/uso terapêutico , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/tratamento farmacológico , Pirazóis/uso terapêutico , Pirimidinas/uso terapêutico , Rituximab/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Humanos , Lenalidomida/administração & dosagem , Lenalidomida/efeitos adversos , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/patologia , Masculino , Dose Máxima Tolerável , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/tratamento farmacológico , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Pirazóis/administração & dosagem , Pirazóis/efeitos adversos , Pirimidinas/administração & dosagem , Pirimidinas/efeitos adversos , Rituximab/administração & dosagem , Rituximab/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
Hematology ; 24(1): 498-506, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31221030

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The addition of lenalidomide (LEN) to azacitidine (AZA) may further improve the outcomes of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients as well as patients with high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML) patients although the evidence for this combination treatment is still relatively limited. This meta-analysis aimed to evaluate efficacy and adverse effects of AZA plus LEN for the treatment of patients with high-risk MDS, AML or CMML. METHODS: The current study systematically identified all cohort studies of patients with AML and/or MDS and/or CMML who received AZA in combination with LEN that reported the overall complete remission (CR) rate and/or overall response rate (ORR). A DerSimonian-d random-effects model with double arcsine transformation was used for the pooled rates and 95% confidence interval (CI) of the all outcomes. RESULTS: A total of 10 studies with 406 patients were identified and included into the meta-analysis. The pooled CR rate after the treatment with AZA-plus-LEN regimen was 33.0% (95% CI, 27.7%-38.7%, I2 = 18%) while the pooled ORR was 49.9% (95% CI, 38.4%-61.5%, I2 = 72%). Nonetheless, adverse events including grade 3-4 neutrophil toxicity events, platelet toxicity events and febrile neutropenia were common with AZA-plus-LEN regimen. CONCLUSIONS: The current study may serve as a preliminary data to suggest that the addition of LEN may offer incremental benefit to patients with high-risk MDS, AML and CMML. However, randomized-controlled studies that directly compare the efficacy and adverse events of AZA-plus-LEN regimen versus AZA monotherapy are still needed.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Leucemia Mielomonocítica Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Azacitidina/administração & dosagem , Azacitidina/efeitos adversos , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Doenças Hematológicas/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Lenalidomida/administração & dosagem , Lenalidomida/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
Int J Hematol ; 110(4): 506-511, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31152415

RESUMO

Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) is considered the curative treatment option in patients with aggressive adult T cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL), but the treatment of relapse after allo-HSCT remains a major challenge. We report a case of ATLL that was treated with sequential mogamulizumab (MOG) and lenalidomide (LEN) for early relapse after allo-HSCT. A 73-year-old Japanese male with acute-type ATLL underwent haploidentical-HSCT with post-transplant cyclophosphamide. He attained a complete response. However, ATLL relapse was diagnosed by biopsy of skin lesions that appeared on day 67. Discontinuation of immunosuppressant therapy alone did not result in improvement of ATLL, however, the skin lesions disappeared after an immune response was induced by sequential MOG and LEN. Following MOG and LEN, very serious toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) developed requiring high-dose intravenous immunoglobulin and methylprednisolone pulse therapy. Although graft-versus-host disease exacerbated and progressed to TEN, a complete response was achieved after successful treatment of TEN. These agents may thus enhance anti-ATLL activity by immune modulation. Further investigation is necessary to determine the optimal use of MOG and LEN in relapsed ATLL after allo-HSCT.


Assuntos
Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Leucemia-Linfoma de Células T do Adulto/terapia , Síndrome de Stevens-Johnson/tratamento farmacológico , Transplante Haploidêntico , Idoso , Aloenxertos , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/administração & dosagem , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/efeitos adversos , Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Terapia Combinada , Ciclofosfamida/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Imunoglobulinas Intravenosas/administração & dosagem , Lenalidomida/administração & dosagem , Lenalidomida/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Metilprednisolona/administração & dosagem , Pulsoterapia , Recidiva , Síndrome de Stevens-Johnson/etiologia , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
N Engl J Med ; 380(22): 2104-2115, 2019 05 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31141632

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lenalidomide plus dexamethasone is a standard treatment for patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma who are ineligible for autologous stem-cell transplantation. We sought to determine whether the addition of daratumumab would significantly reduce the risk of disease progression or death in this population. METHODS: We randomly assigned 737 patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma who were ineligible for autologous stem-cell transplantation to receive daratumumab plus lenalidomide and dexamethasone (daratumumab group) or lenalidomide and dexamethasone alone (control group). Treatment was to continue until the occurrence of disease progression or unacceptable side effects. The primary end point was progression-free survival. RESULTS: At a median follow-up of 28.0 months, disease progression or death had occurred in 240 patients (97 of 368 patients [26.4%] in the daratumumab group and 143 of 369 patients [38.8%] in the control group). The estimated percentage of patients who were alive without disease progression at 30 months was 70.6% (95% confidence interval [CI], 65.0 to 75.4) in the daratumumab group and 55.6% (95% CI, 49.5 to 61.3) in the control group (hazard ratio for disease progression or death, 0.56; 95% CI, 0.43 to 0.73; P<0.001). The percentage of patients with a complete response or better was 47.6% in the daratumumab group and 24.9% in the control group (P<0.001). A total of 24.2% of the patients in the daratumumab group, as compared with 7.3% of the patients in the control group, had results below the threshold for minimal residual disease (1 tumor cell per 105 white cells) (P<0.001). The most common adverse events of grade 3 or 4 were neutropenia (50.0% in the daratumumab group vs. 35.3% in the control group), anemia (11.8% vs. 19.7%), lymphopenia (15.1% vs. 10.7%), and pneumonia (13.7% vs. 7.9%). CONCLUSIONS: Among patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma who were ineligible for autologous stem-cell transplantation, the risk of disease progression or death was significantly lower among those who received daratumumab plus lenalidomide and dexamethasone than among those who received lenalidomide and dexamethasone alone. A higher incidence of neutropenia and pneumonia was observed in the daratumumab group. (Funded by Janssen Research and Development; MAIA ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02252172.).


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/administração & dosagem , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Dexametasona/administração & dosagem , Lenalidomida/administração & dosagem , Mieloma Múltiplo/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticorpos Monoclonais/efeitos adversos , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Dexametasona/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Lenalidomida/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neutropenia/induzido quimicamente , Intervalo Livre de Progressão
16.
Am J Hematol ; 94(6): 635-640, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30859608

RESUMO

The risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) is higher in myeloma patients receiving immunomodulatory compounds. A VTE prophylaxis using low-molecular-weight heparin or aspirin is therefore proposed. Apixaban is an oral direct anti-Xa. Several studies have shown the efficacy and safety of apixaban in VTE prophylaxis compared to enoxaparin. The objective of this prospective phase 2 pilot study was to assess the risk of VTE and bleeding in patients with myeloma treated with immunomodulatory compounds lenalidomide (len) or thalidomide (thal), using apixaban in a preventive scheme. Myeloma patients requiring Melphalan-Prednisone-Thalidomide in the first line, or Lenalidomide-Dexamethasone in the relapse setting received apixaban, 2.5 mg x 2/day for 6 months. Venous (pulmonary embolism-PE, or symptomatic proximal or distal deep vein thrombosis-DVT, or all proximal asymptomatic events detected by systematic proximal bilateral compression ultrasound) or arterial thrombotic events, and bleeding events (ISTH 2005) were registered. One hundred and four patients were enrolled (mean age 69.8 ± 7.8 years), 11 in first line and 93 in relapse. Two venous thrombotic events were observed, for example, an asymptomatic proximal DVT and a symptomatic distal DVT, in the context of apixaban stopped 14 days before, due to lenalidomide-induced thrombocytopenia. No PE or arterial cardiovascular events were reported. Only one major and 11 CRNM hemorrhages were reported. These data must now be confirmed on a randomized large study.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Mieloma Múltiplo/tratamento farmacológico , Pirazóis/administração & dosagem , Piridonas/administração & dosagem , Tromboembolia Venosa/prevenção & controle , Idoso , Dexametasona/administração & dosagem , Dexametasona/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Lenalidomida/administração & dosagem , Lenalidomida/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Melfalan/administração & dosagem , Melfalan/efeitos adversos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prednisolona/administração & dosagem , Prednisolona/efeitos adversos , Talidomida/administração & dosagem , Talidomida/efeitos adversos , Tromboembolia Venosa/induzido quimicamente
17.
Neoplasma ; 66(3): 499-505, 2019 May 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30784289

RESUMO

Lenalidomide (LEN) is an immunomodulator with clinical activity against myeloma cells. Based on the pivotal phase 3 trials MM-009 and MM010, the combination of lenalidomide and dexamethasone(DEX) was approved for patients with multiple myeloma who received at least one prior therapy. Here, we evaluated LEN/DEX therapy in unselected population and subsequently in selected sub-groups of patients with relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma followed in the Registry of Monoclonal Gammopathies of the Czech Myeloma Group. Altogether 858 patients were treated with LEN/DEX in the Czech Republic and Slovakia until end of 2017. The analyzed sub-groups were defined as patients with high risk cytogenetic aberrations and patients with relapsed and refractory MM. The overall response rate (ORR; partial remission or better response, PR) in the whole group of patients was 46.3% for all lines of therapy, 26.4% for high-risk group and 32.1% for relapsed and refractory group. Medians of overall survival (OS) in the same cohorts were as follows: 25.6, 15.7 and 18.5 months, progression free survival (PFS) was: 11.2, 6.4 and 9.0 months respectively. The most common adverse events were hematologic and infectious. In conclusion we found that our results correlated with those found in other studies in terms of response rates, survival measures, and also of treatment toxicity.


Assuntos
Dexametasona , Lenalidomida , Mieloma Múltiplo , Sistema de Registros , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica , República Tcheca , Dexametasona/efeitos adversos , Dexametasona/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Lenalidomida/efeitos adversos , Lenalidomida/uso terapêutico , Mieloma Múltiplo/tratamento farmacológico , Mieloma Múltiplo/mortalidade , Sistema de Registros/estatística & dados numéricos , Eslováquia , Análise de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
Cancer ; 125(11): 1830-1836, 2019 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30707764

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dual translocation of MYC and BCL2 or the dual overexpression of these proteins in patients with aggressive B-cell lymphomas (termed double-hit lymphoma [DHL] and double-expressor lymphoma [DEL], respectively) have poor outcomes after chemoimmunotherapy with the combination of rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (R-CHOP). Retrospective reports have suggested improved outcomes with dose-intensified regimens. In the current study, the authors conducted a phase 1 study to evaluate the feasibility, toxicity, and preliminary efficacy of adding lenalidomide to dose-adjusted etoposide, prednisone, vincristine, cyclophosphamide, and doxorubicin with rituximab (DA-EPOCH-R) in patients with DHL and DEL. METHODS: The primary objective of the current study was to determine the maximum tolerated dose of lenalidomide in combination with DA-EPOCH-R. A standard 3+3 design was used with lenalidomide administered on days 1 to 14 of each 21-day cycle (dose levels of 10 mg, 15 mg, and 20 mg). Patients attaining a complete response after 6 cycles of induction therapy proceeded to maintenance lenalidomide (10 mg daily for 14 days every 21 days) for 12 additional cycles. RESULTS: A total of 15 patients were enrolled, 10 of whom had DEL and 5 of whom had DHL. Two patients experienced dose-limiting toxicities at a lenalidomide dose of 20 mg, consisting of grade 4 sepsis. The maximum tolerated dose of lenalidomide was determined to be 15 mg. The most common nonhematologic grade ≥3 adverse events included thromboembolism (4 patients; 27%) and hypokalemia (2 patients; 13%) (toxicities were graded according to the National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events [version 4.0]). The preliminary efficacy of the regimen was encouraging, especially in the DEL cohort, in which all 10 patients achieved durable and complete metabolic responses with a median follow-up of 24 months. CONCLUSIONS: The combination of lenalidomide with DA-EPOCH-R appears to be safe and feasible in patients with DHL and DEL. These encouraging results have prompted an ongoing phase 2 multicenter study.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Lenalidomida/administração & dosagem , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/tratamento farmacológico , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-myc/genética , Rituximab/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Ciclofosfamida/administração & dosagem , Ciclofosfamida/efeitos adversos , Doxorrubicina/administração & dosagem , Doxorrubicina/efeitos adversos , Esquema de Medicação , Etoposídeo/administração & dosagem , Etoposídeo/efeitos adversos , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Lenalidomida/efeitos adversos , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/genética , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/metabolismo , Quimioterapia de Manutenção , Masculino , Dose Máxima Tolerável , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prednisona/administração & dosagem , Prednisona/efeitos adversos , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-myc/metabolismo , Rituximab/efeitos adversos , Translocação Genética , Resultado do Tratamento , Vincristina/administração & dosagem , Vincristina/efeitos adversos
20.
J Clin Oncol ; 37(7): 589-597, 2019 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30653422

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Single-cycle melphalan 200 mg/m2 and autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation (AHCT) followed by lenalidomide (len) maintenance have improved progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) for transplantation-eligible patients with multiple myeloma (MM). We designed a prospective, randomized, phase III study to test additional interventions to improve PFS by comparing AHCT, tandem AHCT (AHCT/AHCT), and AHCT and four subsequent cycles of len, bortezomib, and dexamethasone (RVD; AHCT + RVD), all followed by len until disease progression. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with symptomatic MM within 12 months from starting therapy and without progression who were age 70 years or younger were randomly assigned to AHCT/AHCT + len (n = 247), AHCT + RVD + len (n = 254), or AHCT + len (n = 257). The primary end point was 38-month PFS. RESULTS: The study population had a median age of 56 years (range, 20 to 70 years); 24% of patients had high-risk MM, 73% had a triple-drug regimen as initial therapy, and 18% were in complete response at enrollment. The 38-month PFS rate was 58.5% (95% CI, 51.7% to 64.6%) for AHCT/AHCT + len, 57.8% (95% CI, 51.4% to 63.7%) for AHCT + RVD + len, and 53.9% (95% CI, 47.4% to 60%) for AHCT + len. For AHCT/AHCT + len, AHCT + RVD + len, and AHCT + len, the OS rates were 81.8% (95% CI, 76.2% to 86.2%), 85.4% (95% CI, 80.4% to 89.3%), and 83.7% (95% CI, 78.4% to 87.8%), respectively, and the complete response rates at 1 year were 50.5% (n = 192), 58.4% (n = 209), and 47.1% (n = 208), respectively. Toxicity profiles and development of second primary malignancies were similar across treatment arms. CONCLUSION: Second AHCT or RVD consolidation as post-AHCT interventions for the up-front treatment of transplantation-eligible patients with MM did not improve PFS or OS. Single AHCT and len should remain as the standard approach for this population.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Bortezomib/administração & dosagem , Dexametasona/administração & dosagem , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Lenalidomida/administração & dosagem , Mieloma Múltiplo/terapia , Adulto , Idoso , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Bortezomib/efeitos adversos , Quimioterapia de Consolidação , Dexametasona/efeitos adversos , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/efeitos adversos , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/mortalidade , Humanos , Lenalidomida/efeitos adversos , Quimioterapia de Manutenção , Masculino , Melfalan/administração & dosagem , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mieloma Múltiplo/mortalidade , Mieloma Múltiplo/patologia , Agonistas Mieloablativos/administração & dosagem , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Estudos Prospectivos , Indução de Remissão , Reoperação , Fatores de Tempo , Transplante Autólogo , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
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