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1.
Lancet Oncol ; 21(10): 1317-1330, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32866432

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bortezomib, lenalidomide, and dexamethasone (VRd) is a standard therapy for newly diagnosed multiple myeloma. Carfilzomib, a next-generation proteasome inhibitor, in combination with lenalidomide and dexamethasone (KRd), has shown promising efficacy in phase 2 trials and might improve outcomes compared with VRd. We aimed to assess whether the KRd regimen is superior to the VRd regimen in the treatment of newly diagnosed multiple myeloma in patients who were not being considered for immediate autologous stem-cell transplantation (ASCT). METHODS: In this multicentre, open-label, phase 3, randomised controlled trial (the ENDURANCE trial; E1A11), we recruited patients aged 18 years or older with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma who were ineligible for, or did not intend to have, immediate ASCT. Participants were recruited from 272 community oncology practices or academic medical centres in the USA. Key inclusion criteria were the absence of high-risk multiple myeloma and an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0-2. Enrolled patients were randomly assigned (1:1) centrally by use of permuted blocks to receive induction therapy with either the VRd regimen or the KRd regimen for 36 weeks. Patients who completed induction therapy were then randomly assigned (1:1) a second time to either indefinite maintenance or 2 years of maintenance with lenalidomide. Randomisation was stratified by intent for ASCT at disease progression for the first randomisation and by the induction therapy received for the second randomisation. Allocation was not masked to investigators or patients. For 12 cycles of 3 weeks, patients in the VRd group received 1·3 mg/m2 of bortezomib subcutaneously or intravenously on days 1, 4, 8, and 11 of cycles 1-8, and day 1 and day 8 of cycles nine to twelve, 25 mg of oral lenalidomide on days 1-14, and 20 mg of oral dexamethasone on days 1, 2, 4, 5, 8, 9, 11, and 12. For nine cycles of 4 weeks, patients in the KRd group received 36 mg/m2 of intravenous carfilzomib on days 1, 2, 8, 9, 15, and 16, 25 mg of oral lenalidomide on days 1-21, and 40 mg of oral dexamethasone on days 1, 8, 15, and 22. The coprimary endpoints were progression-free survival in the induction phase, and overall survival in the maintenance phase. The primary analysis was done in the intention-to-treat population and safety was assessed in patients who received at least one dose of their assigned treatment. The trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01863550. Study recruitment is complete, and follow-up of the maintenance phase is ongoing. FINDINGS: Between Dec 6, 2013, and Feb 6, 2019, 1087 patients were enrolled and randomly assigned to either the VRd regimen (n=542) or the KRd regimen (n=545). At a median follow-up of 9 months (IQR 5-23), at a second planned interim analysis, the median progression-free survival was 34·6 months (95% CI 28·8-37·8) in the KRd group and 34·4 months (30·1-not estimable) in the VRd group (hazard ratio [HR] 1·04, 95% CI 0·83-1·31; p=0·74). Median overall survival has not been reached in either group. The most common grade 3-4 treatment-related non-haematological adverse events included fatigue (34 [6%] of 527 patients in the VRd group vs 29 [6%] of 526 in the KRd group), hyperglycaemia (23 [4%] vs 34 [6%]), diarrhoea (23 [5%] vs 16 [3%]), peripheral neuropathy (44 [8%] vs four [<1%]), dyspnoea (nine [2%] vs 38 [7%]), and thromboembolic events (11 [2%] vs 26 [5%]). Treatment-related deaths occurred in two patients (<1%) in the VRd group (one cardiotoxicity and one secondary cancer) and 11 (2%) in the KRd group (four cardiotoxicity, two acute kidney failure, one liver toxicity, two respiratory failure, one thromboembolic event, and one sudden death). INTERPRETATION: The KRd regimen did not improve progression-free survival compared with the VRd regimen in patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma, and had more toxicity. The VRd triplet regimen remains the standard of care for induction therapy for patients with standard-risk and intermediate-risk newly diagnosed multiple myeloma, and is a suitable treatment backbone for the development of combinations of four drugs. FUNDING: US National Institutes of Health, National Cancer Institute, and Amgen.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Bortezomib/uso terapêutico , Mieloma Múltiplo/tratamento farmacológico , Oligopeptídeos/uso terapêutico , Inibidores de Proteassoma/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Dexametasona/uso terapêutico , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos , Feminino , Humanos , Análise de Intenção de Tratamento , Lenalidomida/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mieloma Múltiplo/patologia , Terapia Neoadjuvante , Resultado do Tratamento
2.
Lima; Instituto Nacional de Salud; jun. 2020.
Não convencional em Espanhol | BRISA/RedTESA | ID: biblio-1122091

RESUMO

INTRODUCCIÓN: Este documento técnico se realiza a solicitud del Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Neoplásicas; la cual motivó la realización de la pregunta PICO por parte de médicos y especialistas de la siguiente manera, P: Pacientes adultos con mieloma múltiple sometidos a trasplante autólogo de células madre; I: lenalidomida 10 mg; C: placebo u observación; O: sobrevida global, sobrevida libre de progresión y eventos adversos. A. Cuadro clínico: El mieloma múltiple (MM) consiste en una proliferación maligna de células plasmáticas en la médula ósea, cuyas manifestaciones clínicas incluyen afectación esquelética, hipercalcemia, anemia, insuficiencia renal y/o plasmocitoma de tejidos blandos. En Perú, se producen anualmente un promedio de 995 nuevos casos de MM y un total de 599 defunciones. El tratamiento en pacientes con buena salud y menores de 70 a 75 años comprende un fármaco inmunomodulador y un inhibidor de proteasoma en combinación con glucocorticoides, seguido de trasplante autólogo de células madre y terapia de mantenimiento con un fármaco inmunomodulador en dosis bajas o inhibidor de proteasoma. La terapia de mantenimiento tiene como objetivo extender el período de inactividad de la enfermedad. B. Tecnología sanitária: Lenalidomida es un análogo de la talidomida con propiedades inmunomoduladoras, antiangiogénicas y antineoplásicas indicado como terapia de mantenimiento después del trasplante autólogo de células madre hematopoyéticas en pacientes con MM. La dosis recomendada es de 10 mg una vez al día. Cuenta con aprobación de la Food and Drug Administration (FDA) desde el año 2017. En Perú, cuenta con diecinueve registros sanitarios vigentes y siete registros con vigencia prorrogada provisional. OBJETIVO: Describir la evidencia científica disponible sobre la eficacia y seguridad de lenalidomida como terapia de mantenimiento posterior al trasplante autólogo de células madre en pacientes con mieloma múltiple. METODOLOGÍA: Se realizó una búsqueda sistemática en Medline (Pubmed), The Cochrane Library y LILACS utilizando la estrategia de búsqueda descrita en el Anexo 01. Ésta se complementó con la búsqueda de evidencia en páginas institucionales de agencias gubernamentales y buscadores genéricos. Se priorizó la identificación y selección de ensayos clínicos aleatorizados controlados, revisiones sistemáticas (RS) con o sin meta-análisis (MA) de ensayos clínicos aleatorizados controlados, guías de práctica clínica (GPC), evaluaciones de tecnología sanitaria (ETS) y evaluaciones económicas (EE) de América Latina. La calidad de la evidencia se valoró usando AMSTAR 2 para RS y la herramienta propuesta por la colaboración Cochrane para ensayos clínicos, AGREE II para valorar el rigor metodológico de las GPC y GRADE para evaluar la calidad de los desenlaces. RESULTADOS: Se identificó tres revisiones sistemáticas, tres guías de práctica clínica y una evaluación de tecnología sanitaria que respondieron a la pregunta PICO de interés. CONCLUSIONES: Comparado con placebo u observación, la terapia de mantenimiento post trasplante con lenalidomida incrementó la sobrevida global y sobrevida libre de progresión, aunque también aumentó el riesgo de infecciones de grado 3 o 4, neutropenia, neoplasias hematológicas o tumores sólidos, y el riesgo de discontinuación del tratamiento por eventos adversos. La sobrevida global mejoró significativamente solo en menores de 59 años, de sexo masculino, con estadío de la enfermedad I/II, con respuesta parcial muy buena o superior después del trasplante y en quienes recibieron terapia de inducción basada en lenalidomida. Las GPC de NCCN, ASCO y ESMO recomiendan lenalidomida como terapia de mantenimiento posterior al trasplante autólogo de células madre. NCCN recomienda además discutir con los pacientes los beneficios y riesgos de la terapia, especialmente sobre un probable incremento del riesgo de neoplasias secundarias. Asimismo, ASCO recomienda mantener la terapia de mantenimiento durante al menos dos años. La ETS de DIGEMID recomienda no dar cobertura a lenalidomida, considerando que a la fecha de la elaboración de la ETS no cuenta con información suficiente que respalde su utilización. Dos RS fueron consideradas como nivel de confianza bajo y la restante como nivel de confianza críticamente bajo. La calidad de la evidencia según GRADE fue moderada para los desenlaces de eficacia, y moderada a baja para los desenlaces de seguridad. Las GPC incluidas obtuvieron un puntaje ligeramente superior al 60% en la valoración global de calidad.


Assuntos
Humanos , Transplante Autólogo , Lenalidomida/uso terapêutico , Mieloma Múltiplo/tratamento farmacológico , Peru , Avaliação da Tecnologia Biomédica , Análise Custo-Benefício
3.
Lancet Haematol ; 7(6): e456-e468, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32359506

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The emergence of highly active novel agents has led some to question the role of autologous haematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (HSCT) and subsequent consolidation therapy in newly diagnosed multiple myeloma. We therefore compared autologous HSCT with bortezomib-melphalan-prednisone (VMP) as intensification therapy, and bortezomib-lenalidomide-dexamethasone (VRD) consolidation therapy with no consolidation. METHODS: In this randomised, open-label, phase 3 study we recruited previously untreated patients with multiple myeloma at 172 academic and community practice centres of the European Myeloma Network. Eligible patients were aged 18-65 years, had symptomatic multiple myeloma stage 1-3 according to the International Staging System (ISS), measurable disease (serum M protein >10 g/L or urine M protein >200 mg in 24 h or abnormal free light chain [FLC] ratio with involved FLC >100 mg/L, or proven plasmacytoma by biopsy), and WHO performance status grade 0-2 (grade 3 was allowed if secondary to myeloma). Patients were first randomly assigned (1:1) to receive either four 42-day cycles of bortezomib (1·3 mg/m2 administered intravenously or subcutaneously on days 1, 4, 8, 11, 22, 25, 29, and 32) combined with melphalan (9 mg/m2 administered orally on days 1-4) and prednisone (60 mg/m2 administered orally on days 1-4) or autologous HSCT after high-dose melphalan (200 mg/m2), stratified by site and ISS disease stage. In centres with a double HSCT policy, the first randomisation (1:1:1) was to VMP or single or double HSCT. Afterwards, a second randomisation assigned patients to receive two 28-day cycles of consolidation therapy with bortezomib (1·3 mg/m2 either intravenously or subcutaneously on days 1, 4, 8, and 11), lenalidomide (25 mg orally on days 1-21), and dexamethasone (20 mg orally on days 1, 2, 4, 5, 8, 9, 11, and 12) or no consolidation; both groups received lenalidomide maintenance therapy (10 mg orally on days 1-21 of a 28-day cycle). The primary outcomes were progression-free survival from the first and second randomisations, analysed in the intention-to-treat population, which included all patients who underwent each randomisation. All patients who received at least one dose of study drugs were included in the safety analyses. This study is registered with the EU Clinical Trials Register (EudraCT 2009-017903-28) and ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01208766), and has completed recruitment. FINDINGS: Between Feb 25, 2011, and April 3, 2014, 1503 patients were enrolled. 1197 patients were eligible for the first randomisation, of whom 702 were assigned to autologous HSCT and 495 to VMP; 877 patients who were eligible for the first randomisation underwent the second randomisation to VRD consolidation (n=449) or no consolidation (n=428). The data cutoff date for the current analysis was Nov 26, 2018. At a median follow-up of 60·3 months (IQR 52·2-67·6), median progression-free survival was significantly improved with autologous HSCT compared with VMP (56·7 months [95% CI 49·3-64·5] vs 41·9 months [37·5-46·9]; hazard ratio [HR] 0·73, 0·62-0·85; p=0·0001). For the second randomisation, the number of events of progression or death at data cutoff was lower than that preplanned for the final analysis; therefore, the results from the second protocol-specified interim analysis, when 66% of events were reached, are reported (data cutoff Jan 18, 2018). At a median follow-up of 42·1 months (IQR 32·3-49·2), consolidation therapy with VRD significantly improved median progression-free survival compared with no consolidation (58·9 months [54·0-not estimable] vs 45·5 months [39·5-58·4]; HR 0·77, 0·63-0·95; p=0·014). The most common grade ≥3 adverse events in the autologous HSCT group compared to the VMP group included neutropenia (513 [79%] of 652 patients vs 137 [29%] of 472 patients), thrombocytopenia (541 [83%] vs 74 [16%]), gastrointestinal disorders (80 [12%] vs 25 [5%]), and infections (192 [30%] vs 18 [4%]). 239 (34%) of 702 patients in the autologous HSCT group and 135 (27%) of 495 in the VMP group had at least one serious adverse event. Infection was the most common serious adverse event in each of the treatment groups (206 [56%] of 368 and 70 [37%] of 189). 38 (12%) of 311 deaths from first randomisation were likely to be treatment related: 26 (68%) in the autologous HSCT group and 12 (32%) in the VMP group, most frequently due to infections (eight [21%]), cardiac events (six [16%]), and second primary malignancies (20 [53%]). INTERPRETATION: This study supports the use of autologous HSCT as intensification therapy and the use of consolidation therapy in patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma, even in the era of novel agents. The role of high-dose chemotherapy needs to be reassessed in future studies, in particular in patients with undetectable minimal residual disease after four-drug induction regimens including a monoclonal antiboby combined with an immunomodulatory agent and a proteasome inhibitor plus dexamethasone. FUNDING: Janssen and Celgene.


Assuntos
Quimioterapia de Consolidação/métodos , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/efeitos adversos , Mieloma Múltiplo/tratamento farmacológico , Transplante Autólogo/métodos , Administração Intravenosa , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Bortezomib/administração & dosagem , Bortezomib/uso terapêutico , Dexametasona/administração & dosagem , Dexametasona/uso terapêutico , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Gastroenteropatias/induzido quimicamente , Gastroenteropatias/epidemiologia , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/mortalidade , Humanos , Infecções/induzido quimicamente , Infecções/epidemiologia , Injeções Subcutâneas , Lenalidomida/administração & dosagem , Lenalidomida/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Melfalan/administração & dosagem , Melfalan/uso terapêutico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mieloma Múltiplo/diagnóstico , Proteínas do Mieloma/análise , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Neutropenia/induzido quimicamente , Neutropenia/epidemiologia , Plasmocitoma/patologia , Prednisona/administração & dosagem , Prednisona/uso terapêutico , Trombocitopenia/induzido quimicamente , Trombocitopenia/epidemiologia , Transplante Autólogo/mortalidade
4.
Hematol Oncol ; 38(3): 257-265, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32356913

RESUMO

We report final results of a phase II trial addressing efficacy and feasibility of lenalidomide maintenance in patients with chemosensitive relapse of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) not eligible for or failed after autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT). Patients with relapsed DLBCL who achieved at least a partial response to salvage chemoimmunotherapy were enrolled and treated with lenalidomide 25 mg/day for 21 of 28 days for 2 years or until progression or unacceptable toxicity. Primary endpoint was 1-year PFS. Forty-six of 48 enrolled patients were assessable. Most patients had IPI ≥2, advanced stage and extranodal disease before the salvage treatment that led to trial registration; 28 (61%) patients were older than 70 years. Lenalidomide was well tolerated. With the exception of neutropenia, grade-4 toxicities occurred in <1% of courses. Three patients died of complications during maintenance and three died due to second cancers at 32 to 64 months. There were 13 SAEs recorded in 12 patients; all these patients but two recovered. Lenalidomide was interrupted due to toxicity in other 6 patients, and 25 patients required dose reduction (transient in 21). At 1 year from registration, 31 patients were progression free. After a median follow-up of 65 (range 39-124) months, 22 patients remain progression free, with a 5-year PFS of 48% ± 7%. The duration of response to lenalidomide was longer than response to prior treatment in 30 (65%) patients. Benefit was observed both in de novo and transformed DLBCL, germinal-center-B-cell and nongerminal-center-B-cell subtypes. Twenty-six patients are alive (5-year OS 62% ± 7%). With the limitations of a nonrandomized design, these long-term results suggest that lenalidomide maintenance might bring benefit to patients with chemosensitive relapse of DLBCL not eligible for or failed after ASCT. Lenalidomide was associated with durable disease control and was well tolerated in this elderly population. Further investigations on immunomodulatory drugs as maintenance in these high-risk patients are warranted.


Assuntos
Inibidores da Angiogênese/uso terapêutico , Lenalidomida/uso terapêutico , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/tratamento farmacológico , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/tratamento farmacológico , Terapia de Salvação , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/patologia , Quimioterapia de Manutenção , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Prognóstico , Taxa de Sobrevida
5.
Clin Interv Aging ; 15: 619-633, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32440105

RESUMO

Multiple myeloma is a hematologic malignancy that predominantly affects older adults, with a median age at diagnosis of 70 years old. A mainstay of multiple myeloma treatment is lenalidomide, which is an immunomodulatory drug (IMiD) that changed the treatment paradigm for multiple myeloma. This is particularly true for older adults who do not undergo autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT). Several pivotal trials summarized in this review demonstrate the efficacy and safety of lenalidomide in older adults with multiple myeloma, including significant improvements in response rates, progression-free survival and overall survival in the first-line and relapsed/refractory settings. Potential adverse effects include venous thromboembolism, cytopenias, and second malignancies and the doses tolerated in real-world older patients are often lower than those utilized in clinical trials enrolling select older patients. Given the heterogeneity of aging, several approaches to measuring frailty have been developed and validated to aid in predicting which older adults may benefit from empiric dose reduction to reduce the risk of toxicity and improve the tolerability of treatment. A number of randomized trials have explored a range of approaches utilizing lenalidomide in older adults in both the up-front and relapsed setting, ranging from attenuated maintenance strategies through quadruplet combination therapies including proteasome inhibitors and monoclonal antibodies. This wealth of literature provides a great number of options, which can make it difficult for a clinician to determine a single optimal recommendation for an individual patient. While lenalidomide is currently part of standard of care, the treatment of multiple myeloma is growing rapidly. There is a need to expand clinical trials participation to older adults with multiple myeloma. Incorporation of validated comprehensive geriatric assessments in clinical trials for multiple myeloma could provide a more accurate depiction of the older patient population and is an area for future exploration.


Assuntos
Fatores Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Lenalidomida/uso terapêutico , Mieloma Múltiplo/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Anticorpos Monoclonais/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Humanos , Fatores Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Fatores Imunológicos/efeitos adversos , Lenalidomida/administração & dosagem , Lenalidomida/efeitos adversos
6.
Rinsho Ketsueki ; 61(3): 262-267, 2020.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32224588

RESUMO

A 70-year-old woman experienced pain in both gastrocnemius muscles, numbness in the toes, and muscle weakness in both the legs that lasted for two months. After getting admitted to our hospital, the muscle weakness extended to both her arms, and nerve conduction studies revealed decreased nerve conduction velocity, which was more prominent in the elbow and the axilla than in the wrist. A magnetic resonance imaging revealed a tumor in the right femoral neck, which was histologically diagnosed as plasmacytoma. Laboratory findings revealed IgA lambda type M protein and an elevated VEGF level of 2,320 pg/ml; edema was present in both the legs. After a diagnosis of POEMS syndrome, lenalidomide and dexamethasone treatment were initiated simultaneously, along with irradiation. The treatment improved polyneuropathy, along with a decrease in the VEGF level. Increased vascular permeability due to elevated VEGF led to the development of neuropathy of POEMS syndrome, and treatment against proliferating monoclonal plasma cells is effective. In the present case, we believe that a prompt control of the plasmacytoma with novel therapeutic agents for myeloma with irradiation resulted in the improvement of the neurological symptoms.


Assuntos
Dexametasona/uso terapêutico , Lenalidomida/uso terapêutico , Síndrome POEMS , Plasmocitoma , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Síndrome POEMS/tratamento farmacológico , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular
7.
Ann Hematol ; 99(8): 1709-1725, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32296915

RESUMO

Lenalidomide is an integral, yet evolving, part of current treatment pathways for both transplant-eligible and transplant-ineligible patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma (NDMM). It is approved in combination with dexamethasone as first-line therapy for transplant-ineligible patients with NDMM, and as maintenance treatment following autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT). Although strong clinical trial evidence has supported the integration of lenalidomide into current treatment paradigms for NDMM, applying those paradigms to individual patients and determining which patients are most likely to benefit from lenalidomide treatment are more complex. In this paper, we utilize the available clinical trial evidence to provide recommendations for patient selection and lenalidomide dosing in both the first-line setting in patients ineligible for ASCT and the maintenance setting in patients who have undergone ASCT. In addition, we provide guidance on management of those adverse events that are most commonly associated with lenalidomide treatment, and consider the optimal selection and sequencing of next-line agents following long-term frontline or maintenance treatment with lenalidomide.


Assuntos
Lenalidomida/uso terapêutico , Mieloma Múltiplo , Transplante de Células-Tronco , Autoenxertos , Humanos , Mieloma Múltiplo/diagnóstico , Mieloma Múltiplo/terapia , Seleção de Pacientes , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Fatores de Tempo
9.
Lancet Haematol ; 7(5): e381-e394, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32171061

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Treatment of multiple myeloma is not curative, but targeting CD38 improves patient survival. To further explore this therapeutic approach, we investigated the safety and activity of MOR202, a novel monoclonal antibody targeting CD38, in patients with multiple myeloma. METHODS: This is a multicentre, open-label, phase 1-2a trial done at ten hospitals in Germany and Austria. Enrolled patients were aged 18 years or older with relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma and Karnofsky performance status of 60% or higher. Patients were assigned to the different treatment regimens with MOR202 ranging between 0·01 mg/kg and 16 mg/kg in a 3 + 3 design. Dose-escalation and expansion was done either with MOR202 intravenous infusions alone (MOR202 q2w [twice a week] and q1w [weekly] groups) or in combination with dexamethasone (MOR202 with dexamethasone group), with dexamethasone plus pomalidomide (MOR202 with dexamethasone plus pomalidomide group) or plus lenalidomide (MOR202 with dexamethasone plus lenalidomide group). Primary endpoints were safety, MOR202 maximum tolerated dose (or recommended dose) and regimen, and immunogenicity. The primary analysis was assessed in the safety population, which included patients who received at least one dose of any study drug. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01421186. FINDINGS: Between Aug 24, 2011, and Aug 1, 2017, 91 patients were treated, 35 with MOR202 monotherapy, and 56 with MOR202 combination regimens (18 in the MOR202 with dexamethasone group, 21 in the MOR202 with dexamethasone plus pomalidomide group, and 17 in the MOR202 with dexamethasone plus lenalidomide group). MOR202 intravenous infusions were safely administered within 30 min. Infusion-related reactions occurred in 14 (40%) of 35 patients receiving MOR202 monotherapy without steroids, and in four (7%) of 56 patients receiving MOR202 combination treatment. MOR202 maximum tolerated dose was not reached and the recommended regimens were MOR202 administered as an intravenous infusion for 30 min at doses up to 16 mg/kg with dexamethasone (40 mg), or in combination with dexamethasone plus lenalidomide (25 mg) or pomalidomide (4 mg). 35 (38%) of 91 patients developed lymphopenia, 30 (33%) developed neutropenia, and 27 (30%) developed leukopenia; these were the most common grade 3 or higher treatment-emergent adverse events. Serious adverse events were reported in 51 (56%) of 91 patients. None of the deaths were associated with MOR202. One pomalidomide-associated death occurred in the MOR202 with dexamethasone plus pomalidomide group. No anti-MOR202 antibodies were detected in patients. INTERPRETATION: MOR202 is safe and its clinical activity in patients with relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma is promising. Further clinical investigations of combinations with an immunomodulatory drug and dexamethasone are recommended. FUNDING: MorphoSys AG.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Mieloma Múltiplo/tratamento farmacológico , ADP-Ribosil Ciclase 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Idoso , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Dexametasona/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Lenalidomida/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/tratamento farmacológico , Talidomida/análogos & derivados , Talidomida/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
Ann Hematol ; 99(4): 677-692, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32078008

RESUMO

The development in the therapeutic landscape of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) has substantially lagged behind other hematologic malignancies with no new drug approvals for MDS for 13 years since the approval of decitabine in the United States in 2006. While therapeutic concepts for MDS patients continue to be primarily defined by clinical-pathologic risk stratification tools such as the International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS) and its revised version IPSS-R, our understanding of the genetic landscape and the molecular pathogenesis of MDS has greatly evolved over the last decade. It is expected that the therapeutic approach to MDS patients will become increasingly individualized based on prognostic and predictive genetic features and other biomarkers. Herein, we review the current treatment of lower-risk MDS patients and discuss promising agents in advanced clinical testing for the treatment of symptomatic anemia in lower-risk MDS patients such as luspatercept and imetelstat. Lastly, we review the clinical development of new agents and the implications of the wider availability of mutational analysis for the management of individual MDS patients.


Assuntos
Síndromes Mielodisplásicas/terapia , Anemia/tratamento farmacológico , Anemia/etiologia , Anemia/terapia , Transfusão de Sangue , Terapia por Quelação , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Síndrome do Miado do Gato , Drogas em Investigação/uso terapêutico , Previsões , Hematínicos/uso terapêutico , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Humanos , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Sobrecarga de Ferro/tratamento farmacológico , Sobrecarga de Ferro/etiologia , Lenalidomida/uso terapêutico , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas/complicações , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas/tratamento farmacológico , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas/genética , Medicina de Precisão , Prognóstico , Medição de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
11.
Intern Med ; 59(9): 1149-1153, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32009091

RESUMO

Objective A randomized controlled trial has shown the efficacy of thalidomide against polyneuropathy, organomegaly, endocrinopathy, M-protein, and skin changes (POEMS) syndrome; however, there are still refractory patients. We studied the effects of lenalidomide, a derivative of thalidomide, on patients refractory to thalidomide. Methods This prospective single-arm trial evaluated the safety and efficacy of lenalidomide plus dexamethasone in refractory or recurrent patients with POEMS syndrome. The regimen was administered as six 28-day cycles with lenalidomide on days 1-21 (15 mg in cycle 1, and 25 mg in cycle 2-6) plus dexamethasone once a week (20 mg). The primary endpoints were the rate of reduction in the serum vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) level at 24 weeks and the incidence of adverse events. This trial was registered with ClinicalTrial.gov, NCT02193698. Results Between July 2014 and December 2015, five men were enrolled. All patients had been refractory to thalidomide plus dexamethasone for more than 24 weeks. The mean rate of reduction in the serum VEGF level at 24 weeks was 59.6%±8.3% (p=0.0003). The mean serum VEGF level decreased from 2,466±771 pg/mL to 974±340 pg/mL. No serious adverse events were observed, and all patients completed six cycles treatment. Discussion Lenalidomide is a therapeutic option for thalidomide-refractory patients with POEMS syndrome.


Assuntos
Lenalidomida/uso terapêutico , Síndrome POEMS/tratamento farmacológico , Dexametasona/administração & dosagem , Dexametasona/uso terapêutico , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Humanos , Fatores Imunológicos , Lenalidomida/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Síndrome POEMS/sangue , Estudos Prospectivos , Talidomida/administração & dosagem , Talidomida/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/sangue , Adulto Jovem
12.
Hematol Oncol ; 38(2): 162-170, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31922287

RESUMO

Mogamulizumab (Mog) and lenalidomide (Len) are new therapeutic candidates for relapsed adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). In the present study, we retrospectively analyzed 12 patients who received Mog or Len monotherapy for relapsed ATL after allo-HSCT. Eight and three patients received Mog and Len, respectively. The remaining patient received Mog for the first relapse and Len for the third relapse. A complete response was achieved by three and two patients who received Mog and Len, respectively, two and one of whom remained alive with a complete response for more than 20 months. In terms of adverse events, the emergence or progression of graft-versus-host disease was observed in three out of four patients treated with Len and in none of the patients treated with Mog. The development or progression of cytomegalovirus reactivation was detected in four out of eight patients treated with Mog and in none of those treated with Len. The present results suggest that Mog and Len would be promising treatment options for relapsed ATL after allo-HSCT and need to be selected based on adverse event profiles.


Assuntos
Inibidores da Angiogênese/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/mortalidade , Lenalidomida/uso terapêutico , Leucemia-Linfoma de Células T do Adulto/tratamento farmacológico , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Leucemia-Linfoma de Células T do Adulto/patologia , Leucemia-Linfoma de Células T do Adulto/terapia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/terapia , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Terapia de Salvação , Taxa de Sobrevida , Transplante Homólogo
13.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0226879, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31995577

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is incurable through conventional chemoimmunotherapy regimens. Despite durable responses to front-line therapy and sustained remission rates in patients with CLL, a majority of patients eventually relapse in 5 years of initial treatment. The depth of the response may affect the length of response. Maintenance therapies were aimed to deep remissions and extend the period of disease quiescence. Lenalidomide, rituximab and ofatumumab had demonstrated some efficacy as a maintenance therapy compared to no intervention for CLL patients. The relative effect on disease control and safety between different maintenance therapies were unclear. METHODS: We performed a systematic literature review and network meta-analysis to evaluate relative effect on disease control and safety of current available maintenance therapies. We searched PubMed, Embase and Cochrane database up to March 6, 2019. Relevant reference of review article and conference abstract including European Hematology Association Annual Meeting (EHA 2018), American Society of Hematology Annual Meeting (ASH 2018) and American Society of Clinical Oncology Annual Meeting (ASCO 2018) were searched. Randomized controlled trials (RCT) involving current available maintenance therapy including "Lenalidomide", "Rituximab", "Ofatumumab", "Ibrutinib", "Idelalisib", "Venetoclax"and "Obinutuzumab"were eligible. Outcomes of interest included progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS) and serious adverse events (SAE) in CLL patients received subsequent maintenance therapy. Two authors CHL and CL) independently assessed eligibility for all identified citations and extracted data from the original trial reports. The selected studies' risk of bias was assessed following the guidelines of Cochrane Collaboration Handbook. RESULTS: In total, six phase III RCTs with total 1,615 CLL patients were identified. Maintenance therapy using lenalidomide, rituximab, and ofatumumab demonstrated a statistically significant effect in prolongation of progression-free survival (HR:0.37, 95% CI: 0.27-0.50 of lenalidomide; HR:0.50, 95% CI: 0.38-0.66 of rituximab; HR:0.52, 95% CI:0.41-0.66 of ofatumumab, separately) compared with no intervention; however, for overall survival, the effect of maintenance therapy showed no significant difference versus no intervention (HR: 0.89, 95% CI: 0.70-1.14). Lenalidomide showed the best efficacy for PFS (HR: 0.37, 95% CI: 0.27-0.50, Probability of being best treatment: 96%). CONCLUSIONS: Our network meta-analysis provided an integrated overview of relative efficacy and safety of different maintenance therapies in CLL. All maintenance therapies were effective in reducing the risk of disease progression versus no intervention. Based on current best evidence, maintenance therapy with lenalidomide is the most efficacious option.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/tratamento farmacológico , Quimioterapia de Manutenção/métodos , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Ensaios Clínicos Fase III como Assunto , Humanos , Lenalidomida/uso terapêutico , Metanálise em Rede , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Rituximab/uso terapêutico , Análise de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys ; 106(3): 589-596, 2020 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31707123

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The study evaluates the results of the concurrent use of lenalidomide-dexamethasone with intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for solitary plasmacytoma in terms of toxicity and outcome. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Forty-six patients were treated for histologically proven solitary plasmacytoma (SP) between June 2007 and June 2018 in our Department (Curie Institute, Paris, France). All patients received IMRT. The median total dose was 40 Gy (range, 40-46). Prescription of concurrent lenalidomide-dexamethasone with radiation therapy was left to the discretion of the referring hematologist-oncologist and started the first day of radiation therapy for 4 cycles. RESULTS: Twenty-seven solitary plasmacytoma were treated with IMRT alone and 19 with lenalidomide-dexamethasone in association with IMRT. At 5 years, the local control, multiple myeloma-free survival (MMFS), and progression-free survival (PFS) rates were 96.3%, 85.4%, and 60%. MMFS and PFS were significantly higher in the IMRT plus lenalidomide-dexamethasone group compared with IMRT alone group (100% vs 77.1%, P = .02 and 81.7% vs 48.4%, P = .047, respectively). No major toxicity was found in either group. CONCLUSIONS: Lenalidomide-dexamethasone in association with IMRT in the treatment of solitary plasmacytoma is safe and improves MMFS and PFS. Further prospective and comparative studies are needed to confirm these results.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Quimiorradioterapia/métodos , Dexametasona/uso terapêutico , Lenalidomida/uso terapêutico , Plasmocitoma/terapia , Radioterapia de Intensidade Modulada , Adulto , Idoso , Quimiorradioterapia/efeitos adversos , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mieloma Múltiplo , Plasmocitoma/mortalidade , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Radioterapia de Intensidade Modulada/efeitos adversos , Taxa de Sobrevida
15.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol ; 146(3): 749-759, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31788741

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The German Maintenance Study (GERMAIN) was designed to evaluate the impact of lenalidomide maintenance after induction therapy with bortezomib, melphalan and prednisolone (VMP) in transplant-ineligible newly diagnosed multiple myeloma (MM) patients. METHODS: Due to poor accrual and high dropout rate, only 85 patients (planned 286) entered the trial and 40 (planned 200) were randomized to lenalidomide maintenance (n = 19) vs. observation (n = 21). RESULTS: The primary endpoint, improved progression-free survival, was not met (p = 0.3572). After a median follow-up of 12.9 months, median progression-free survival in the lenalidomide arm was 14.4 months and 11.4 months with placebo. The hazard ratio 0.621 (95% confidence interval: [0.224, 1.725]) was about the same as expected (0.625). However, with only 40 patients randomized, the actual power to detect a difference was 11%. Of patients receiving at least one dose of induction, 54% were frail according to a modified International Myeloma Working Group frailty score. Discontinuations were high during induction (47%), and affected mainly frail patients (54%). Despite a higher rate of adverse events in the lenalidomide arm (p = 0.0061), only 2 patients discontinued lenalidomide due to toxicity. CONCLUSION: A frailty assessment with appropriate dose modification for induction therapy should be mandatory for all elderly non-transplant-eligible myeloma patients.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Fragilidade , Quimioterapia de Indução/métodos , Lenalidomida/uso terapêutico , Quimioterapia de Manutenção/métodos , Mieloma Múltiplo/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Bortezomib/uso terapêutico , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Idoso Fragilizado , Humanos , Quimioterapia de Indução/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Melfalan/uso terapêutico , Mieloma Múltiplo/mortalidade , Prednisolona/uso terapêutico , Intervalo Livre de Progressão
16.
Ann Hematol ; 99(1): 7-19, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31650290

RESUMO

Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are hematopoietic stem cell malignancies associated with an erythroid maturation defect, resulting in anemia. Treatments for MDS include erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs). The identification of prognostic markers is important to help predict response and improve outcomes. Various scoring systems have been developed to help predict response to ESAs. Despite limitations in its assessment, serum erythropoietin (sEPO) level is an important predictor of hematologic response to ESAs in patients with lower-risk MDS. Numerous studies have reported significantly lower sEPO levels among responders versus non-responders. Furthermore, treatment response is significantly more likely among those with sEPO levels below versus those above various cutoffs. Other prognostic indicators for response to ESAs include lower transfusion requirement, fewer bone marrow blasts, higher hemoglobin, lower serum ferritin, lower-risk MDS, and more normal cytogenetics. Studies of other MDS therapies (e.g., lenalidomide and luspatercept) have also reported that lower sEPO levels are indicative of hematologic response. In addition, lower sEPO levels (up to 500 IU/L) have been included in treatment algorithms for patients with lower-risk MDS to define whether ESAs are indicated. Lower sEPO levels are predictive of hematologic response-particularly to ESAs. Further, clinical trials should use sEPO thresholds to ensure more homogeneous cohorts.


Assuntos
Receptores de Activinas Tipo II/uso terapêutico , Eritropoetina/sangue , Fragmentos Fc das Imunoglobulinas/uso terapêutico , Lenalidomida/uso terapêutico , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas/sangue , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas/tratamento farmacológico , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/uso terapêutico , Células da Medula Óssea/metabolismo , Células da Medula Óssea/patologia , Feminino , Ferritinas/sangue , Hemoglobinas/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas/diagnóstico , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas/patologia , Prognóstico , Fatores de Risco
17.
Acta Med Okayama ; 73(6): 547-552, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31871340

RESUMO

Elderly multiple myeloma (MM) patients, who are generally ineligible for transplantation, have high risks of death and treatment discontinuation, and require a regimen incorporating novel agents that balance safety, tolerability, and efficacy. We evaluated alternating bortezomib-dexamethasone and lenalidomide-dexamethasone treatments administered over a 63-day cycle in transplant-ineligible elderly patients with newly diagnosed MM. Subcutaneous bortezomib 1.3 mg/m2 was administered weekly on Days 1, 8, 15, and 22; oral lenalidomide 15 mg daily on Days 36-56; and oral dexamethasone 20 mg on Days 1, 8, 15, 22, 36, 43, 50, and 57 for 6 cycles. The primary endpoint was the overall response rate.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Bortezomib/uso terapêutico , Dexametasona/uso terapêutico , Lenalidomida/uso terapêutico , Mieloma Múltiplo/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anti-Inflamatórios/administração & dosagem , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Bortezomib/administração & dosagem , Dexametasona/administração & dosagem , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Humanos , Fatores Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Fatores Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Lenalidomida/administração & dosagem , Masculino
18.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 2019(11)2019 11 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31765002

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Multiple myeloma is a bone marrow-based hematological malignancy accounting for approximately two per cent of cancers. First-line treatment for transplant-ineligible individuals consists of multiple drug combinations of bortezomib (V), lenalidomide (R), or thalidomide (T). However, access to these medicines is restricted in many countries worldwide. OBJECTIVES: To assess and compare the effectiveness and safety of multiple drug combinations of V, R, and T for adults with newly diagnosed transplant-ineligible multiple myeloma and to inform an application for the inclusion of these medicines into the World Health Organization's (WHO) list of essential medicines. SEARCH METHODS: We searched CENTRAL and MEDLINE, conference proceedings and study registries on 14 February 2019 for randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing multiple drug combinations of V, R and T for adults with newly diagnosed transplant-ineligible multiple myeloma. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included RCTs comparing combination therapies of V, R, and T, plus melphalan and prednisone (MP) or dexamethasone (D) for first-line treatment of adults with transplant-ineligible multiple myeloma. We excluded trials including adults with relapsed or refractory disease, trials comparing drug therapies to other types of therapy and trials including second-generation novel agents. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently extracted data and assessed risk of bias of included trials. As effect measures we used hazard ratios (HRs) for overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) and risk ratios (RRs) for adverse events. An HR or RR < 1 indicates an advantage for the intervention compared to the main comparator MP. Where available, we extracted quality of life (QoL) data (scores of standardised questionnaires). Results quoted are from network meta-analysis (NMA) unless stated. MAIN RESULTS: We included 25 studies (148 references) comprising 11,403 participants and 21 treatment regimens. Treatments were differentiated between restricted treatment duration (treatment with a pre-specified amount of cycles) and continuous therapy (treatment administered until disease progression, the person becomes intolerant to the drug, or treatment given for a prolonged period). Continuous therapies are indicated with a "c". Risk of bias was generally high across studies due to the open-label study design. Overall survival (OS) Evidence suggests that treatment with RD (HR 0.63 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.40 to 0.99), median OS 55.2 months (35.2 to 87.0)); TMP (HR 0.75 (95% CI 0.58 to 0.97), median OS: 46.4 months (35.9 to 60.0)); and VRDc (HR 0.49 (95% CI 0.26 to 0.92), median OS 71.0 months (37.8 to 133.8)) probably increases survival compared to median reported OS of 34.8 months with MP (moderate certainty). Treatment with VMP may result in a large increase in OS, compared to MP (HR 0.70 (95% CI 0.45 to 1.07), median OS 49.7 months (32.5 to 77.3)), low certainty). Progression-free survival (PFS) Treatment withRD (HR 0.65 (95% CI0.44 to 0.96), median PFS: 24.9 months (16.9 to 36.8)); TMP (HR 0.63 (95% CI 0.50 to 0.78), median PFS:25.7 months (20.8 to 32.4)); VMP (HR 0.56 (95% CI 0.35 to 0.90), median PFS: 28.9 months (18.0 to 46.3)); and VRDc (HR 0.34 (95% CI 0.20 to 0.58), median PFS: 47.6 months (27.9 to 81.0)) may result in a large increase in PFS (low certainty) compared to MP (median reported PFS: 16.2 months). Adverse events The risk of polyneuropathies may be lower with RD compared to treatment with MP (RR 0.57 (95% CI 0.16 to 1.99), risk for RD: 0.5% (0.1 to 1.8), mean reported risk for MP: 0.9% (10 of 1074 patients affected), low certainty). However, the CIs are also compatible with no difference or an increase in neuropathies. Treatment with TMP (RR 4.44 (95% CI1.77 to 11.11), risk: 4.0% (1.6 to 10.0)) and VMP (RR 88.22 (95% CI 5.36 to 1451.11), risk: 79.4% (4.8 to 1306.0)) probably results in a large increase in polyneuropathies compared to MP (moderate certainty). No study reported the amount of participants with grade ≥ 3 polyneuropathies for treatment with VRDc. VMP probably increases the proportion of participants with serious adverse events (SAEs) compared to MP (RR 1.28 (95% CI 1.06 to 1.54), risk for VMP: 46.2% (38.3 to 55.6), mean risk for MP: 36.1% (177 of 490 patients affected), moderate certainty). RD, TMP, and VRDc were not connected to MP in the network and the risk of SAEs could not be compared. Treatment with RD (RR 4.18 (95% CI 2.13 to 8.20), NMA-risk: 38.5% (19.6 to 75.4)); and TMP (RR 4.10 (95% CI 2.40 to 7.01), risk: 37.7% (22.1 to 64.5)) results in a large increase of withdrawals from the trial due to adverse events (high certainty) compared to MP (mean reported risk: 9.2% (77 of 837 patients withdrew)). The risk is probably slightly increased with VMP (RR 1.06 (95% CI 0.63 to 1.81), risk: 9.75% (5.8 to 16.7), moderate certainty), while it is much increased with VRDc (RR 8.92 (95% CI 3.82 to 20.84), risk: 82.1% (35.1 to 191.7), high certainty) compared to MP. Quality of life QoL was reported in four studies for seven different treatment regimens (MP, MPc, RD, RMP, RMPc, TMP, TMPc) and was measured with four different tools. Assessment and reporting differed between studies and could not be meta-analysed. However, all studies reported an improvement of QoL after initiation of anti-myeloma treatment for all assessed treatment regimens. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Based on our four pre-selected comparisons of interest, continuous treatment with VRD had the largest survival benefit compared with MP, while RD and TMP also probably considerably increase survival. However, treatment combinations of V, R, and T also substantially increase the incidence of AEs, and lead to a higher risk of treatment discontinuation. Their effectiveness and safety profiles may best be analysed in further randomised head-to-head trials. Further trials should focus on consistent reporting of safety outcomes and should use a standardised instrument to evaluate QoL to ensure comparability of treatment-combinations.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Mieloma Múltiplo/tratamento farmacológico , Anticorpos Monoclonais/uso terapêutico , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Bortezomib/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Lenalidomida/uso terapêutico , Metanálise em Rede , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Talidomida/uso terapêutico
19.
Best Pract Res Clin Haematol ; 32(4): 101099, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31779983

RESUMO

Patients diagnosed with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) often ask their physicians whether earlier detection of disease or more prompt initiation of treatment might have resulted in a better outcome. The concept of starting therapy at an early point in the disease process when the clonal burden of abnormal hematopoietic stem cells may be lower and somatic mutational complexity less, and therefore treatment more likely to be effective, is attractive. However, at present there is no evidence that therapy with any of the available drugs for MDS (ie, erythropoiesis stimulating agents, lenalidomide, azacitidine or decitabine) early after diagnosis is associated with better outcomes than later initiation of drug therapy. For those patients who are eligible for allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant and have a suitable donor, early transplant of lower-risk MDS is associated with worse outcomes compared to nontransplant approach, whereas early transplant therapy of higher-risk disease improves outcomes compared to delaying transplant. Here I review available data about MDS diagnostic patterns and early versus later diagnosis and therapy initiation.


Assuntos
Azacitidina/uso terapêutico , Decitabina/uso terapêutico , Hematínicos/uso terapêutico , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Lenalidomida/uso terapêutico , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas , Aloenxertos , Diagnóstico Precoce , Humanos , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas/diagnóstico , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas/terapia , Fatores de Risco
20.
BMC Cancer ; 19(1): 1147, 2019 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31775673

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The advent of the immunomodulatory imide drugs (IMiDs) lenalidomide and thalidomide for the treatment of patients with plasma cell myeloma (PCM), has contributed to more than a doubling of the overall survival of these individuals. As a result, PCM patients join survivors of other malignancies such as breast and prostate cancer with a relatively new clinical problem - second primary malignancies (SPMs) - many of which are a result of the treatment of the initial cancer. PCM patients have a statistically significant increased risk for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and Kaposi sarcoma. IMiD treatment has also been associated with an increased risk of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), AML, and squamous cell carcinoma of the skin. However, within these overlapping groups, acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is much less common. CASE PRESENTATION: Herein, we describe an elderly man with PCM and a 14-year cumulative history of IMiD therapy who developed persistent pancytopenia and was diagnosed with B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL). He joins a group of 17 other patients documented in the literature who have followed a similar sequence of events starting with worsening cytopenias while on IMiD maintenance for PCM. These PCM patients were diagnosed with B-ALL after a median time of 36 months after starting IMiD therapy and at a median age of 61.5 years old. CONCLUSIONS: PCM patients with subsequent B-ALL have a poorer prognosis than their de novo B-ALL counterparts, however, the very low prevalence rate of subsequent B-ALL and high efficacy of IMiD maintenance therapy in PCM should not alter physicians' current practice. Instead, there should be a low threshold for bone marrow biopsy for unexplained cytopenias.


Assuntos
Lenalidomida/efeitos adversos , Mieloma Múltiplo/diagnóstico , Mieloma Múltiplo/etiologia , Segunda Neoplasia Primária/diagnóstico , Segunda Neoplasia Primária/etiologia , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras B/diagnóstico , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras B/etiologia , Talidomida/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Medula Óssea , Humanos , Fatores Imunológicos/efeitos adversos , Fatores Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Lenalidomida/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Talidomida/uso terapêutico
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