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1.
BMC Complement Altern Med ; 19(1): 135, 2019 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31215433

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sexual problems are widespread and adversely affect the interpersonal relationships and the quality of life. Currently, synthetic drugs improving sexual function are available, but expenditures for such agents are extremely high. To discover relatively inexpensive, widely available and effective natural drugs, we identified a combined extracts from Lepidium meyenii (maca) root and Allium tuberosum Rottl. (Chinese chive) seed, assessed the effects of this combined extracts on erectile dysfunction, and explored its potential mechanisms. METHODS: The extracts were obtained via supercritical fluid extraction. Male BALB/c mice received doses of extract from single plant or the combined extracts (200 mg/kg) by gastric gavage for 14 d, and Viagra was used as the positive control drug. Sexual behaviour was observed, and concentrations of serum testosterone, nitric oxide (NO), and cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) in serum as well as in penis were measured. In addition, weights of genital organs were also measured. RESULTS: The combined extracts of maca root and Chinese chive seed (1:1, w/w) had a 45-fold increase in macamide content compared with maca extract. It also led to significantly higher ejaculation frequency (P < 0.05) than single extract from maca root or Chinese chive seed, with no corresponding effect on genital indices. In addition, the NO level in serum (P < 0.01) and penis (P < 0.05) increased notably, as well as the level of cGMP in penis (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The results indicated that the combined extracts produced better synergistic effects on male sexual function than maca extract or Chinese chive extract alone. These positive effects may involve the upregulation of NO and cGMP concentrations in penis.


Assuntos
Cebolinha-Francesa/química , Disfunção Erétil/tratamento farmacológico , Lepidium/química , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Animais , Disfunção Erétil/sangue , Disfunção Erétil/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Ereção Peniana/efeitos dos fármacos , Pênis/efeitos dos fármacos , Pênis/fisiopatologia , Qualidade de Vida , Sementes/química , Comportamento Sexual Animal , Testosterona/sangue
2.
Molecules ; 24(11)2019 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31163647

RESUMO

Lepidium meyenii is now widely consumed as a functional food and medicinal product, which is known as an enhancer of reproductive health. However, the specific chemical composition and mechanism of action for improving sexual function are unclear. The present study aims at screening and determining the potential compounds, which promote mouse leydig cells (TM3) proliferation. The partial least squares analysis (PLS) was employed to reveal the correlation between common peaks of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) fingerprint of L. meyenii and the proliferation activity of TM3. The results suggested that three compounds had good activities on the proliferation of TM3 and promoting testosterone secretion, there were N-benzyl-hexadecanamide, N-benzyl-(9z,12z)-octadecadienamide and N-benzyl-(9z,12z,15z)-octadecatrienamide which might be the potential bioactive markers related to the enhancing sexual ability functions of L. meyenii. The first step in testosterone synthesis is the transport of cholesterol into the mitochondria, and the homeostasis of mitochondrial function is related to cyclophilin D (CypD). In order to expound how bioactive ingredients lead to promoting testosterone secretion, a molecular docking simulation was used for further illustration in the active sites and binding degree of the ligands on CypD. The results indicated there was a positive correlation between the binding energy absolute value and testosterone secretion activity. In addition, in this study it also provided the reference for a simple, quick method to screen the promoting leydig cell proliferation active components in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM).


Assuntos
Lepidium/química , Células Intersticiais do Testículo/citologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Ligações de Hidrogênio , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Células Intersticiais do Testículo/efeitos dos fármacos , Ligantes , Masculino , Camundongos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Análise Multivariada , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Testosterona/metabolismo
3.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 134: 798-806, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31102681

RESUMO

The objective of the present study was to determine structural and in-vitro digestibility properties of esterified maca starch with citric acid (EMSC) and explore its application in oil-in-water (O/W) pickering emulsion. EMSC was prepared by esterifying native maca starch (NMS) with different concentrations of citric acid (0, 10, 20, and 30%, w/w). The structural properties were characterized by SEM, FT-IR, XRD, and 13C and 1H NMR spectroscopy, which demonstrated that EMSC exhibited new ester linkages from citric acid in NMS. The in vitro digestibility results showed that EMSC had the significantly lower rapidly digestible starch contents and higher resistant starch contents compared to NMS. The properties of O/W pickering emulsion stabilized with NMS and EMSC were evaluated by microscopy, particle size, and zeta-potential. The results showed that the emulsion formed with EMSC had smaller particle size and improved stability than that formed with NMS. Therefore, EMSC could be used as source of the emulsifier or stabilizer in the food industry.


Assuntos
Ácido Cítrico/química , Emulsificantes/química , Emulsões/química , Lepidium/química , Óleos/química , Amido/química , Água/química , Esterificação , Ésteres , Hidrólise , Análise Espectral , Amido/ultraestrutura , Termogravimetria
4.
Molecules ; 24(10)2019 May 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31126050

RESUMO

The present study was conducted to assess the chemical composition of Yellow Maca (Lepidium meyenii) and its biological activity on stallions following oral administration of hypocotyl powder. Maca was subjected to methanolic extraction and the chemical analysis was carried out by LC-MS-QTOF (liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry). Our results showed that Maca contains some effective antioxidants, a high percentage of glucosinolates, and other important components with a high antioxidant capacity. To evaluate the plant biological activity in stallions fed with Maca powder for 60 days, the redox status and some reproductive parameters were investigated. Blood and semen samples were collected at 0, 30, 60, and 90 days from the beginning of this study. Blood samples showed a decrease of the reactive oxygen metabolites, evaluated by d-ROMs test, and an increase of the antioxidant barrier in terms of biological antioxidant potential (BAP test), powerful oxidant capacity (OXY-Adsorbent test), and thiols evaluation (-SHp test). Furthermore, semen samples showed a positive trend during Maca administration in the following parameters: ejaculate volumes and sperm concentrations, total and progressive motility, and acrosome integrity.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/administração & dosagem , Lepidium/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/administração & dosagem , Sêmen/fisiologia , Administração Oral , Animais , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Glucosinolatos/administração & dosagem , Glucosinolatos/química , Glucosinolatos/farmacologia , Cavalos , Hipocótilo/química , Masculino , Oxirredução/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Pós/administração & dosagem , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/sangue , Sêmen/efeitos dos fármacos , Motilidade Espermática/efeitos dos fármacos
5.
Food Funct ; 10(5): 2894-2905, 2019 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31070610

RESUMO

Maca protein isolate (MPI) was extracted from maca root, and its physicochemical and functional properties, and the secondary structure and immunomodulatory activity of its major protein component, MMP, were investigated. The MPI lacked essential amino acids compared with soybean protein isolate (SPI) and casein, but was rich in cysteine and proline. The MPI had rich free sulfhydryl (20.6 µmol g-1), and its surface hydrophobicity (H0, 812.4), oil absorption capacity (7.4 g g-1), foaming capacity (100%) and emulsifying activity (58.2 m2 g-1) were higher than that of SPI. However, the thermal stability (Td, 87.4 °C), foaming stability (75%) and emulsifying stability (26.3 min) of the MPI were weaker than that of the SPI. MMP was a pentamer with a molecular weight of 22 kDa and rich in ß-sheets. MMP could significantly enhance the phagocytic capacity and promote the NO, TNF-α and IL-6 secretion of RAW 264.7 cells, involving toll-like receptor 4 and complement receptor 3 mainly.


Assuntos
Fatores Imunológicos/química , Lepidium/química , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Animais , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Fatores Imunológicos/farmacologia , Interleucina-6/genética , Interleucina-6/imunologia , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/imunologia , Camundongos , Peso Molecular , Proteínas de Plantas/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas de Plantas/farmacologia , Estrutura Secundária de Proteína , Células RAW 264.7 , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/genética , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/imunologia , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/genética , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/imunologia
6.
Phytomedicine ; 59: 152915, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30981185

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The consumption of botanical dietary supplements (BDS) is a common practice among the US population. However, the potential for botanical-drug interactions exists, and their mechanisms have not been thoroughly studied. CYP3A4 is an important enzyme that contributes to the metabolism of about 60% of clinically used drugs. PURPOSE: To investigate the potential for botanical-drug interactions of Lepidium meyenii Walpers (maca) root and Euterpe oleracea Mart. (açaí) berries, two commonly used BDS, when co-administered with CYP3A4-metabolized drugs. METHODS: In an attempt to decrease the general discrepancy between in vivo and in vitro studies, the absorption profiles, particularly for passive diffusion, of plant extracts were investigated. Specifically, the parallel artificial membrane permeability assay (PAMPA) model was utilized to simulate intestinal filtration of passively diffused constituents of açaí and maca extracts. These were subsequently screened for in vitro liver CYP3A4 inhibition and induction. In the inhibition assay, midazolam was used as the probe substrate on genotyped human liver microsomes (CYP3A5 null), and the production of its 1'-substituted metabolite when co-cultured with extract treatments was monitored. In the induction assay, extract treatments were applied to human primary hepatocytes, and quantitative PCR analysis was performed to determine CYP3A4 mRNA expression. RESULTS: Passively diffused constituents of the methanol açaí extract (IC50 of 28.03 µg/µl) demonstrated the highest inhibition potential, and, at 1.5 µg/µl, induced significant changes in CYP3A4 gene expression. The composition of this extract was further investigated using the chemometric tool Mass Profiler Professional (MPP) on liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy (LC-MS) data. Subsequently, five compounds of interest characterized by high abundance or high permeability were extracted for further study. This included efforts in effective passive permeability determination and structural elucidation by tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). CONCLUSION: The passively absorbable portion of a methanol açaí extract exhibited inhibition and induction effects on CYP3A4 suggesting the potential to produce botanical-drug interactions.


Assuntos
Inibidores do Citocromo P-450 CYP3A/farmacologia , Euterpe/química , Frutas/química , Lepidium/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Permeabilidade da Membrana Celular , Citocromo P-450 CYP3A/metabolismo , Suplementos Nutricionais , Humanos , Membranas Artificiais , Microssomos Hepáticos/efeitos dos fármacos , Microssomos Hepáticos/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/química , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos
7.
Food Chem ; 288: 422-443, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30902313

RESUMO

Maca (Lepidium meyenii Walpers) has emerged as a popular functional plant food due to various claimed health effects. This review details the major (i.e., starch, dietary fiber, and protein) and minor constituents (i.e., minerals, non-starch polysaccharides, polyphenols (flavonolignans), macaenes, macamides, glucosinolates, and alkaloids) of maca (root and aerial parts). Diverse health effects of maca are also summarized. Various bioactivities of maca include enhanced reproductive health, antifatigue, antioxidation, neuroprotection, antimicrobial activity, anticancer, hepatoprotection, immunomodulation, and improving skin health and digestive system's function. Plant genetics, botanical parts, processing, extraction, and experimental protocols represent the major factors affecting the chemical composition, physicochemical attributes, and health effects of maca-based products. However, clinical studies to support the claimed health effects of maca and related mechanisms appear to be lacking. Product innovation and diversification in food and non-food utilization of different parts of maca to maximize the value perceptions are suggested.


Assuntos
Lepidium/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Animais , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Humanos , Lepidium/metabolismo , Componentes Aéreos da Planta/química , Componentes Aéreos da Planta/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/química , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Substâncias Protetoras/química , Substâncias Protetoras/metabolismo , Reprodução/efeitos dos fármacos
8.
Phytother Res ; 33(4): 1074-1083, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30768733

RESUMO

Osteoporosis is characterized by low bone mineral density and microarchitectural deterioration of bone tissue. N-(3-methoxybenzyl)-(9Z,12Z,15Z)-octadecatrienamide (MBOC) is one of the macamides isolated from Maca (Lepidium meyenii Walp.), a cruciferous plant from the Andes of Peru. In this study, C3H/10T1/2 mesenchymal stem cells were treated with MBOC in osteogenic induction medium. An ovariectomized (OVX) mouse model was used to investigate the effect of 1-month MBOC treatment on the prevention of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Remarkably, trabecular thickness, trabecular number, and bone volume/tissue volume of the distal femoral metaphysis were significantly increased in OVX + MBOC mice compared with OVX mice, as revealed by microcomputed tomography analysis. Trabecular separation was decreased in OVX + MBOC mice compared with OVX mice. Consistently, MBOC increased the levels of osteocalcin and runt-related transcription factor 2 in OVX mice, as well as the expression of runt-related transcription factor 2, osterix, and alkaline phosphatase in C3H/10T1/2 cells. Mechanistically, MBOC activates the canonical Wnt/ß-catenin signaling pathway via inhibiting phosphorylation of GSK-3ß at Tyr216 and maintaining ß-catenin expression. Collectively, the current study demonstrates the robustness of MBOC in the induction of mesenchymal stem cells osteogenic differentiation and consequent bone formation, suggesting that MBOC may be a potentially effective drug to treat postmenopausal osteoporosis.


Assuntos
Lepidium/química , Osteoporose/tratamento farmacológico , Via de Sinalização Wnt/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Diferenciação Celular , Proliferação de Células , Feminino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Osteoporose/patologia
9.
Chem Biodivers ; 16(4): e1800661, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30714673

RESUMO

The cultivated Lepidium latifolium L. was investigated to decipher its glucosinolate profile, antimicrobial, and cytotoxic activities. HPLC/ESI-MS analyses of the intact glucosinolates and GC/MS analysis of their hydrolysis products showed the presence of sinigrin (1), glucocochlearin (2), glucotropaeolin (3), and 4-methoxyglucobrassicin (4). Hydrodistillate, extract, and allyl isothiocyanate, the main volatile resulting from sinigrin degradation, showed antimicrobial activity against all eleven tested pathogenic and food spoilage bacteria and fungi, with highest effect observed against Candida albicans with MIC50 8 and 16 µg/mL. Hydrodistillate and extract showed the best cytotoxic activity on bladder cancer UM-UC-3 cell line during an incubation time of 24 h (IC50 192.9 and 133.8 µg/mL, respectively), while the best effect on glioblastoma LN229 cell line was observed after 48 h (IC50 110.8 and 30.9 µg/mL, respectively). Pure allyl isothiocyanate displayed a similar trend in cytotoxic effect on both cell lines (IC50 23.3 and 36.5 µg/mL after 24 h and 48 h, respectively).


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Candida albicans/efeitos dos fármacos , Isotiocianatos/farmacologia , Lepidium/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Antifúngicos/química , Antifúngicos/isolamento & purificação , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/química , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/isolamento & purificação , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Humanos , Isotiocianatos/química , Isotiocianatos/isolamento & purificação , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Estrutura Molecular , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
10.
J Sci Food Agric ; 99(3): 1405-1412, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30120787

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Macamides, the main active components contained in maca, have attracted increasing attention due to their various bioactivities. In this study, crude macamide extract (CME) and purified macamide extract (PME) were prepared by enzyme-assisted extraction and macroporous resin separation, and the anti-fatigue effects of CME and PME were evaluated in a forced swimming model. RESULTS: The composition analysis results revealed that both CME and PME mainly contain eight kinds of macamide. Based on the results of a weight-loaded forced swimming test, compared with a control group, CME and and PME groups could prolong exhaustive swimming time, increase levels of liver glycogen (LG) and muscle glycogen (MG), accelerate fatty acid oxidation in serum to provide energy, eliminate the accumulation of blood lactic acid (BLA) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN), and decrease the serum biomarkers for muscle damage, such as lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and creatine kinase (CK). Histological analysis also indicated that CME and PME attenuated damage to skeletal muscle and the myocardium in mice during exercise. CONCLUSION: Two macamide extracts have a beneficial effect on relieving physical fatigue by attenuating the damage of skeletal muscle and myocardium during exercise, and a better effect was observed in the PME group. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Amidas/administração & dosagem , Fadiga/tratamento farmacológico , Lepidium/química , Fadiga Muscular/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Amidas/química , Amidas/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Nitrogênio da Ureia Sanguínea , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Creatina Quinase/metabolismo , Fadiga/metabolismo , Fadiga/fisiopatologia , Glicogênio/metabolismo , Humanos , L-Lactato Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Músculo Esquelético/efeitos dos fármacos , Músculo Esquelético/enzimologia , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Natação
11.
J Pharm Biomed Anal ; 164: 768-776, 2019 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30481640

RESUMO

Originally cultivated in the Peruvian Andes, Maca (Lepidium meyenii) is now widely consumed as functional food which is known for its functional characteristic like relieving fatigue and enhancing stamina. Macamides are the unique fatty acids with long-chain and N-benzylamides among the various constituents extracted from Maca. N-benzyl-(9Z, 12Z, 15Z)-octadecatrienamide, N-benzyl-(9Z, 12Z)-octadecadienamide, N-benzylhexadecanamide and N-benzyl-9Z-octadecenamide were isolated from crude Maca extracts in two steps by using a combination of high-speed countercurrent chromatography (HSCCC) and semi-preparative HPLC. The four macamides were identified by NMR, UV, HRMS and IR spectra. The thermal stability and autoxidative kinetics for N-benzyl-(9Z, 12Z, 15Z)-octadecatrienamide and N-benzyl-(9Z, 12Z)-octadecadienamide in the air were also studied at various temperatures and the apparent activation energies were 28.4 kJ/mol and 29.9 kJ/mol, respectively. The purity of the isolated macamides was up to 98% and the amount was enough for application as a reference substance.


Assuntos
Lepidium/química , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Alcamidas Poli-Insaturadas/análise , Fracionamento Químico/métodos , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Distribuição Contracorrente/métodos , Estabilidade de Medicamentos , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Estrutura Molecular , Extratos Vegetais/química , Alcamidas Poli-Insaturadas/química , Temperatura Ambiente
12.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 125: 829-838, 2019 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30557639

RESUMO

Three Andean grains - amaranth (Amaranthus caudatus), quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa), canihua (Chenopodium pallidicaulle) - and two Andean roots starches - achira (Canna indica), maca (Lepidium meyenii) - were studied. Physicochemical properties such as granule size, crystallinity, pasting properties among other as well as structural properties such as root-mean-square radius (rrms), weight-average molar mass (Mw) and apparent density (ρapp) were analyzed in order to evaluate the relation between them. Grains were similar in most of their characteristics as roots in their i.e. granule size, shape, type of crystallinity, Mw and rrms varied according to botanical source. The starch granules from grains were in a narrow diameter range (0.5 to 2 µm) and displayed A-type X-ray diffraction pattern (XRD). Roots starch had a wide granule diameter range (1 to 100 µm) and displayed a B-type XRD. The amylose content varied between 0 and 48% where amaranth had the lowest value and achira had the highest. Furthermore, quinoa and canihua starches had very low breakdown in pasting properties, indicating high stability during cooking. A model is proposed that relates pasting properties i.e. peak viscosity and final viscosity with ρapp, gelatinization enthalpy, granule size and amylose content.


Assuntos
Produtos Agrícolas/química , Grão Comestível/química , Amido/química , Amaranthus/química , Amilose/química , Bolívia , Chenopodium quinoa/química , Lepidium/química , Raízes de Plantas/química , Viscosidade , Difração de Raios X/métodos
13.
Nat Prod Res ; 33(19): 2731-2737, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30124345

RESUMO

A new benzylated alkamide, N-(3,4-dimethoxybenzyl)-9Z-oleamide (1), along with two known ones (2 and 3) were isolated from the roots of Lepidium meyenii collected from Lijiang, Yunnan Province of China. Their structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analyses and the new compound further confirmed by a one-step synthesis. All the isolated alkamides were evaluated for their cytotoxicity against five human cancer cell lines. However, no significant activities were detected at concentrations up to 40 µM.


Assuntos
Compostos de Benzil/isolamento & purificação , Lepidium/química , Alcamidas Poli-Insaturadas/isolamento & purificação , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/síntese química , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/química , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Compostos de Benzil/química , Compostos de Benzil/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , China , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Humanos , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Estrutura Molecular , Raízes de Plantas/química , Alcamidas Poli-Insaturadas/química , Alcamidas Poli-Insaturadas/farmacologia
14.
Nat Prod Res ; 33(17): 2480-2489, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29544368

RESUMO

A polysaccharide was obtained from Lepidium meyenii Walp by hot water extraction and purification by Millipore (100 kD) and Sephadex G-200. The content of polysaccharide was examined to be 89.9% with phenol-sulfuric acid method. Its average molecular weight was estimated to be 2.213 × 106 Da by High Performance Gel Permeation Chromatography (HPGPC). Monosaccharide analysis showed that the polysaccharide was composed of arabinose, mannose, glucose and galactose with the molar ratio of 2.134: 1: 2.78: 2.82. After Smith degradation, methylation, infrared spectroscopy and NMR, the primary structure of the polysaccharide was identified. The backbone of the polysaccharide was composed of →4)-ß-D-Galp-(1→ and →4)-α-D-Galp-(1→, while the branches were comprised of →6)-ß-D-Glup-(1→, →5)- ß-D-Araf-(1→, →3,6)-α-D-Manp-(1→, →3)-α-D-Galp-(1→, and α-D-Glup-(1→. The anti-fatigue effect of the polysaccharide was evaluated using exhaustive swimming test and biochemical indexes. The results indicated the polysaccharide has anti-fatigue effect.


Assuntos
Fadiga/tratamento farmacológico , Lepidium/química , Polissacarídeos/química , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Animais , Sequência de Carboidratos , Cromatografia em Gel , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos/métodos , Galactose/análise , Glucose/análise , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Camundongos , Peso Molecular , Monossacarídeos/análise , Extratos Vegetais/química , Polissacarídeos/isolamento & purificação , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Natação
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30241071

RESUMO

The phenotypes of Lepidium meyenii (Maca) relate to their difference of chemical compositions and biological activities. Essential oils, lipids and polysaccharides are the main active components in Maca, all of which showed potential antioxidant effect. The essential oil, lipid and polysaccharide compositions were analyzed by GC-MS after the samples were properly pre-treated from yellow, red and black Maca. The antioxidant properties of the three types of components were examined using the DPPH scavenging assay. The correlation of main compositions and the antioxidant activities was evaluated by a statistical method. In Maca essential oil, lipid and polysaccharide samples, thirty volatile compounds, twenty-nine fatty acids and six monosaccharides had been detected, in which benzeneacetonitrile, unsaturation fatty acids and mannose were predominant ingredients, respectively. In three types of components, the DPPH scavenging effect of essential oil was stronger. All of black Maca essential oil, lipid and polysaccharide showed higher effect than yellow and red phenotype. The total activity of the three types of components showed about 60% of the antioxidant activity of entire Maca. Canonical correlation analysis (CCA) results showed that four essential oils, three fatty acids and four monosaccharaides were positively related to the antioxidant activity. The research is helpful to address the quality attributes and the comprehensive application of different phenotypes of Maca.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/análise , Lepidium/química , Lipídeos/análise , Óleos Voláteis/análise , Polissacarídeos/análise , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Lipídeos/química , Óleos Voláteis/química , Fenótipo , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Extratos Vegetais/química , Polissacarídeos/química
16.
Phytochemistry ; 155: 45-52, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30075391

RESUMO

Ten uridine derivatives (lepidiumuridine B-K) were isolated from the seeds of Lepidium apetalum Willd. Lepidiumuridine B-J were previously undescribed compounds, and were structurally characterized using analysis of their NMR and MS data. Lepidiumuridine C, D, I, and J increased cell proliferation and expression of ERα in the MCF-7 cell line. In addition, blockage of ERα completely abolished cell proliferation and expression of ERα in MCF-7 cells, suggesting that the proliferation effects of lepidiumuridine C, D, I, and J were ERα-mediated. The uridine derivatives might belong to undescribed phytoestrogens.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Receptor alfa de Estrogênio/antagonistas & inibidores , Estrogênios/farmacologia , Lepidium/química , Sementes/química , Uridina/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/química , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/isolamento & purificação , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Receptor alfa de Estrogênio/biossíntese , Estrogênios/química , Estrogênios/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Células MCF-7 , Conformação Molecular , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Uridina/química , Uridina/isolamento & purificação
17.
J Oleo Sci ; 67(7): 789-800, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29962450

RESUMO

Herbal cosmetics are the focus of attention nowadays, they have various therapeutics, including, anti-oxidant, anti-radiation, anti-aging, anti-inflammatory. Maca contains polysaccharides, phenolics, alkaloids, minerals and amino acids, which is said to suitable component for cosmetics due to the single action or synergy action. The review summarized the existed and potential therapeutic effects of maca ingredients in cosmetics. And compared to the marketed cosmetics, maca cosmetics have the merits of mild, low-toxicity and the clear relationship efficacy.


Assuntos
Alcaloides/análise , Aminoácidos/análise , Cosméticos/química , Lepidium/química , Minerais/análise , Fenóis/análise , Extratos Vegetais/química , Polissacarídeos/análise , Alcaloides/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios , Antifúngicos , Antioxidantes , Fenóis/farmacologia , Fitoterapia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia
18.
Food Funct ; 9(6): 3456-3465, 2018 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29878016

RESUMO

Lepidium meyenii Walp. (maca) has been utilized in the Andean region because of its edibleness and medicinal value. The aerial parts of maca (APM) were analyzed for protein, total sugar, vitamins, amino acids, and minerals and its characteristic active ingredients at five different growth stages. The results showed the high protein, total sugar, vitamin C, niacin, potassium, and calcium contents of APM. All 17 amino acids and the characteristic active ingredients, namely, macamide, glucosinolates, adenosine, and total saponins, were detected. We examined the effects of maca plant powders on gastric emptying and intestinal propulsion and the levels of serum motilin and gastrin in atropine-treated mice. Benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC) was investigated to identify the potential active material in APM. The results revealed that both maca plant powders and BITC can promote the gastrointestinal prokinetic efficacy. Thus, APM feature potential as new functional vegetable sources.


Assuntos
Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Lepidium/metabolismo , Componentes Aéreos da Planta/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Verduras/metabolismo , Aminoácidos/análise , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Animais , Ácido Ascórbico/análise , Ácido Ascórbico/metabolismo , Cálcio/análise , Cálcio/metabolismo , Feminino , Trato Gastrointestinal/química , Glucosinolatos/análise , Glucosinolatos/metabolismo , Lepidium/química , Masculino , Camundongos , Niacina/análise , Niacina/metabolismo , Valor Nutritivo , Componentes Aéreos da Planta/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Proteínas de Plantas/análise , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Verduras/química
19.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 118(Pt A): 816-833, 2018 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29953890

RESUMO

The structural characterization, antioxidant activity and protective effect against H2O2-induced injury RAW264.7 cells of a new polysaccharide (MP1) isolated from Lepidium meyenii Walp. were investigated. The molecular weight was estimated to be 4.67 × 105 Da by HPLC-ELSD analysis. Monosaccharide composition was determined to be arabinose and galactose in a molar ratio of 2:1 by GC-MS and PMP-HPLC-UV analysis. Methylation combined with 1D and 2D NMR spectrum analysis revealed that MP1 was an arabinogalactan. MP1 possessed a moderate antioxidant activity in vitro in DPPH, ABTS, superoxide and hydroxyl radicals scavenging, Fe2+ chelating, lipid peroxidation inhibition and reducing power assays. MP1 could also effectively protect RAW264.7 cells from H2O2-induced injury by maintaining stable cell viability, decreasing ROS, MDA and LDH level and enhancing SOD, GSH-Px and CAT activity. These results suggested the potential utilization of MP1 as a natural antioxidant for food and pharmaceutical applications.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/efeitos adversos , Lepidium/química , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Polissacarídeos , Animais , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/farmacologia , Radical Hidroxila/metabolismo , Camundongos , Polissacarídeos/química , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Células RAW 264.7 , Superóxidos/metabolismo
20.
Phytother Res ; 32(9): 1675-1687, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29744941

RESUMO

Carvacrol (CV) is a phenolic monoterpenoid found in essential oils of oregano (Origanum vulgare), thyme (Thymus vulgaris), pepperwort (Lepidium flavum), wild bergamot (Citrus aurantium bergamia), and other plants. Carvacrol possesses a wide range of bioactivities putatively useful for clinical applications such antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anticancer activities. Carvacrol antimicrobial activity is higher than that of other volatile compounds present in essential oils due to the presence of the free hydroxyl group, hydrophobicity, and the phenol moiety. The present review illustrates the state-of-the-art studies on the antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anticancer properties of CV. It is particularly effective against food-borne pathogens, including Escherichia coli, Salmonella, and Bacillus cereus. Carvacrol has high antioxidant activity and has been successfully used, mainly associated with thymol, as dietary phytoadditive to improve animal antioxidant status. The anticancer properties of CV have been reported in preclinical models of breast, liver, and lung carcinomas, acting on proapoptotic processes. Besides the interesting properties of CV and the toxicological profile becoming definite, to date, human trials on CV are still lacking, and this largely impedes any conclusions of clinical relevance.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Monoterpenos/farmacologia , Animais , Citrus/química , Humanos , Lepidium/química , Monoterpenos/farmacocinética , Óleos Voláteis/química , Origanum/química , Thymus (Planta)/química
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