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1.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371845

RESUMO

Because the world's population is deficient in dietary calcium, it is important to search for new sources of this essential mineral for the bones and the entire body. One of the innovative foods that could act as such a source is pumpkin enriched with calcium lactate by means of osmotic dehydration. Providing the body with easily absorbable calcium may have beneficial effects on the reconstruction of bone tissue. Postmenopausal osteoporosis is associated with body weight and fat mass gain, and the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of consuming enriched pumpkin on the levels of adipokines and cytokines produced by the adipose tissue. This study was conducted on 12-month-old female Wistar rats that received nutritional intervention for 12 weeks. After termination of the rats, the levels of leptin, adiponectin, interleukin 31 and interleukin 33 in serum and adipose tissue were determined, and the femurs were examined histopathologically. It was demonstrated that calcium-enriched pumpkin reduced bone marrow femoral adipocytes and also markedly decreased serum leptin levels in groups of rats after ovariectomy, which was associated with a decrease of fat content. Additionally, it seems that calcium-enriched pumpkin may reduce body weight gain often observed after menopause.


Assuntos
Cálcio na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Cucurbita , Alimentos Fortificados , Leptina/sangue , Osteoporose Pós-Menopausa/dietoterapia , Adiponectina/sangue , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Interleucinas/sangue , Osteoporose Pós-Menopausa/sangue , Ovariectomia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
2.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444945

RESUMO

Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a severe eating disorder where caloric restriction, excessive physical activity and metabolic alterations lead to life-threatening situations. Despite weight restoration after treatment, a significant part of patients experience relapses. In this translational study, we combined clinical and preclinical approaches. We describe preliminary data about the effect of weight gain on the symptomatology of patients suffering from acute AN (n = 225) and partially recovered (n = 41). We measured more precisely physical activity with continuous cardiac monitoring in a sub-group (n = 68). Using a mouse model, we investigated whether a long-term food restriction followed by nutritional recovery associated or not with physical activity may differentially impact peripheral and central homeostatic regulation. We assessed the plasma concentration of acyl ghrelin, desacyl ghrelin and leptin and the mRNA expression of hypothalamic neuropeptides and their receptors. Our data show an effect of undernutrition history on the level of physical activity in AN. The preclinical model supports an important role of physical activity in the recovery process and points out the leptin system as one factor that can drive a reliable restoration of metabolic variables through the hypothalamic regulation of neuropeptides involved in feeding behavior.


Assuntos
Anorexia Nervosa/metabolismo , Anorexia Nervosa/reabilitação , Exercício Físico , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Anorexia Nervosa/sangue , Índice de Massa Corporal , Peso Corporal , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Grelina/análogos & derivados , Grelina/sangue , Grelina/metabolismo , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Hipotálamo/metabolismo , Leptina/sangue , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Modelos Animais , Neuropeptídeos/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Recidiva , Ganho de Peso , Adulto Jovem
3.
Front Public Health ; 9: 678681, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34368053

RESUMO

Aim: This case-control study aimed to investigate the interrelations of body measurements and selected biomarkers in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Methods: We recruited 98 patients with T2DM and 98 controls from 2016 to 2018 in Taiwan. Body measurements were obtained using a three-dimensional body surface scanning system. Four biomarkers related to insulin resistance, adipokines, and inflammation were assayed. A multiple logistic regression model was used to perform multivariable analyses. Results: Four body measurements, namely waist circumference (odds ratio, OR = 1.073; 95% confidence interval, CI = 1.017-1.133), forearm circumference (OR = 1.227; 95% CI = 1.002-1.501), thigh circumference (OR = 0.841; 95% CI = 0.73-0.969), and calf circumference (OR = 1.25; 95% CI = 1.076-1.451), were significantly associated with T2DM. Leptin (OR = 1.09; 95% CI = 1.036-1.146) and adiponectin (OR = 0.982; 95% CI = 0.967-0.997) were significantly associated with T2DM. Six body measurement combinations, namely body mass index, waist-to-hip ratio, waist-to-height ratio, waist-to-thigh ratio, forearm-to-thigh ratio, and calf-to-thigh ratio (CTR), were significantly associated with T2DM. CTR had the strongest linear association with T2DM. Moderating effects of significant biomarkers, namely leptin and adiponectin, were observed. Participants with high leptin-to-adiponectin ratios and in the fourth CTR quartile were 162.2 times more prone to develop T2DM. Conclusions: We concluded that a combination of leptin and adiponectin modulated the strength of the association between body measurements and T2DM while providing clues for high-risk group identification and mechanistic conjectures of preventing T2DM.


Assuntos
Adiponectina , Antropometria , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Leptina , Adiponectina/sangue , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Humanos , Leptina/sangue , Taiwan , Circunferência da Cintura
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299719

RESUMO

Physical exercise reduces the biochemical markers of obesity, but the effects of multicomponent interventions on these markers should be explored. The present study aimed to elucidate how overweight/obese adolescents respond to a multicomponent program approach on body composition, physical fitness, and inflammatory markers, using a quasi-experimental study with 33 overweight/obesity adolescents (control group (CG) = 16; intervention group (IG) = 17). The intervention consisted of 24 weeks with physical exercises and nutritional and psychological guidance. Both groups were evaluated at the pre/post-intervention moments on body mass index (BMI); body fat (%Fat); waist circumference (WC); waist/hip ratio (WHR); waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF); abdominal strength, flexibility; leptin; interleukin 6; interleukin 10; and tumor necrosis factor-alpha. Mixed-analysis of variance and generalized estimation equations were used for statistical analysis. There was an interaction effect between groups and time on %Fat (p = 0.002), WC (p = 0.023), WHR (p < 0.001), WHtR (p = 0.035), CRF (p = 0.050), and leptin (p = 0.026). Adolescents were classified as 82.4% responders for %Fat, 70.6% for WC, 88.2% for WHR, and 70.6% for CRF. Further, there was an association between changes in %Fat (p = 0.033), WC (p = 0.032), and WHR (p = 0.033) between responders and non-responders with CRF in the IG. There was a positive effect on body composition, physical fitness, and leptin. In addition, reductions in body composition parameters were explained by CRF improvements.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal , Leptina , Sobrepeso , Obesidade Pediátrica , Aptidão Física , Adolescente , Índice de Massa Corporal , Exercício Físico , Humanos , Leptina/sangue , Sobrepeso/prevenção & controle , Obesidade Pediátrica/prevenção & controle , Circunferência da Cintura
5.
Front Immunol ; 12: 649359, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34220807

RESUMO

Obesity is one of the foremost risk factors in coronavirus infection resulting in severe illness and mortality as the pandemic progresses. Obesity is a well-known predisposed chronic inflammatory condition. The dynamics of obesity and its impacts on immunity may change the disease severity of pneumonia, especially in acute respiratory distress syndrome, a primary cause of death from SARS-CoV-2 infection. The adipocytes of adipose tissue secret leptin in proportion to individuals' body fat mass. An increase in circulating plasma leptin is a typical characteristic of obesity and correlates with a leptin-resistant state. Leptin is considered a pleiotropic molecule regulating appetite and immunity. In immunity, leptin functions as a cytokine and coordinates the host's innate and adaptive responses by promoting the Th1 type of immune response. Leptin induced the proliferation and functions of antigen-presenting cells, monocytes, and T helper cells, subsequently influencing the pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion by these cells, such as TNF-α, IL-2, or IL-6. Leptin scarcity or resistance is linked with dysregulation of cytokine secretion leading to autoimmune disorders, inflammatory responses, and increased susceptibility towards infectious diseases. Therefore, leptin activity by leptin long-lasting super active antagonist's dysregulation in patients with obesity might contribute to high mortality rates in these patients during SARS-CoV-2 infection. This review systematically discusses the interplay mechanism between leptin and inflammatory cytokines and their contribution to the fatal outcomes in COVID-19 patients with obesity.


Assuntos
COVID-19/patologia , Leptina/imunologia , Obesidade/patologia , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Adipócitos/metabolismo , Células Apresentadoras de Antígenos/imunologia , COVID-19/mortalidade , Citocinas/imunologia , Suscetibilidade a Doenças/patologia , Humanos , Leptina/sangue , Monócitos/imunologia , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Células Th1/imunologia
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(12)2021 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34208585

RESUMO

Leptin is a principal adipose-derived hormone mostly implicated in the regulation of energy balance through the activation of anorexigenic neuronal pathways. Comprehensive studies have established that the maintenance of certain concentrations of circulating leptin is essential to avoid an imbalance in nutrient intake. Indeed, genetic modifications of the leptin/leptin receptor axis and the obesogenic environment may induce changes in leptin levels or action in a manner that accelerates metabolic dysfunctions, resulting in a hyperphagic status and adipose tissue expansion. As a result, a vicious cycle begins wherein hyperleptinaemia and leptin resistance occur, in turn leading to increased food intake and fat enlargement, which is followed by leptin overproduction. In addition, in the context of obesity, a defective thermoregulatory response is associated with impaired leptin signalling overall within the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus. These recent findings highlight the role of leptin in the regulation of adaptive thermogenesis, thus suggesting leptin to be potentially considered as a new thermolipokine. This review provides new insight into the link between obesity, hyperleptinaemia, leptin resistance and leptin deficiency, focusing on the ability to restore leptin sensitiveness by way of enhanced thermogenic responses and highlighting novel anti-obesity therapeutic strategies.


Assuntos
Leptina/metabolismo , Obesidade/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Animais , Biomarcadores , Regulação da Temperatura Corporal , Gerenciamento Clínico , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Metabolismo Energético , Humanos , Hipotálamo/metabolismo , Leptina/sangue , Leptina/deficiência , Obesidade/diagnóstico , Obesidade/etiologia , Obesidade/terapia , Termogênese , Resultado do Tratamento
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(14)2021 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299256

RESUMO

To investigate the effect of leptin in childhood ITP, we measured plasma leptin in 39 children with acute ITP, after treatment and in remission, and in 33 healthy age/BMI-matched controls. We also cultured ITP and control peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) with recombinant leptin to assess its direct effect on pro/anti-inflammatory cytokine gene expression. A significant increase in leptin was observed in children with active disease compared to controls. A significant inverse correlation of leptin with platelet count was also observed in children with acute ITP. Leptin remained high after treatment with IVIg, whereas steroid treatment lowered leptin below control levels. In remission, leptin was in the control range. Cytokine gene expression was significantly increased in children with acute ITP compared with controls, with highest expression for IFN-γ and IL-10. IVIg/steroid treatment significantly decreased IFN-γ and IL-10 expression. In remission, IFN-γ and IL-10 expression remained low. Addition of leptin to PBMCs isolated from patients in remission resulted in a significant increase in IL-10 gene expression compared to controls. Further experiments with purified T-cells and monocytes identified monocytes as the source of leptin-induced IL-10. We suggest that leptin acts as an active anti-inflammatory agent in childhood ITP by promoting IL-10 secretion by monocytes.


Assuntos
Leptina/análise , Púrpura Trombocitopênica Idiopática/metabolismo , Adolescente , Anti-Inflamatórios/metabolismo , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Citocinas/efeitos dos fármacos , Citocinas/imunologia , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Imunoglobulinas Intravenosas/uso terapêutico , Lactente , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Interleucina-10/metabolismo , Leptina/sangue , Leptina/metabolismo , Leucócitos Mononucleares/metabolismo , Masculino , Monócitos/metabolismo , Plasma/química , Contagem de Plaquetas , Púrpura Trombocitopênica Idiopática/genética , Púrpura Trombocitopênica Idiopática/fisiopatologia , Células Th2/imunologia
8.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34208400

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Obesity is a state of excess energy storage resulting in body fat accumulation, and postmenopausal obesity is a rising issue. In this study using ovariectomized (OVX) rats, we mimicked low estrogen levels in a postmenopausal state in order to investigate the effects of different amounts and types of dietary fatty acids on body fat accumulation and body lipid metabolism. METHODS: At 9 weeks of age, rats (n = 40) were given an ovariectomy, eight of which were sham-operated to serve as a control group (S). We then divided OVX rats into four different intervention groups: diet with 5% soybean oil (C), and diet with 5% (L), 15% (M), and 20% (H) (w/w) experimental oil, containing 60% monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) and with a polyunsaturated/saturated fatty acid (P/S) ratio of 5. RESULTS: After OVX, compared to the S group, the C group showed significantly higher body weight, and insulin and leptin levels. Compared to the C group, the H group had lower hepatic triglyceride level and FAS enzyme activity, and higher hepatic ACO and CPT-1 gene expressions and enzyme activities. CONCLUSIONS: An OVX leads to severe weight gain and lipid metabolism abnormalities, while according to previous studies, high fat diet may worsen the situation. However, during our experiment, we discovered that the experimental oil mixture with 60% MUFAs and P/S = 5 may ameliorate these imbalances.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo , Gorduras Insaturadas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Gorduras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/administração & dosagem , Ácidos Graxos/administração & dosagem , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Animais , Dieta com Restrição de Gorduras , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Ácido Graxo Sintases/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Monoinsaturados/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Insulina/sangue , Leptina/sangue , Fígado/metabolismo , Ovariectomia , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Óleo de Soja/administração & dosagem , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo , Ganho de Peso
9.
Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab ; 321(1): E190-E201, 2021 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34121448

RESUMO

This experiment investigated which hypothalamic nuclei were activated by a dose of leptin that inhibited food intake. Foodnot intake, energy expenditure, respiratory exchange ratio (RER), and intrascapular brown adipose tissue (IBAT) temperature were measured in male and female Sprague Dawley rats for 36 h following an intraperitoneal injection of 0, 50, 200, 500, or 1,000 µg leptin/kg with each rat tested with each dose of leptin in random order. In both males and females, RER and 12-h food intake were inhibited only by 1,000 µg leptin/kg, but there was no effect on energy expenditure or IBAT temperature. At the end of the experiment, phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (pSTAT3) immunoreactivity was measured 1 h after injection of 0, 50, 500, or 1,000 µg leptin/kg. In male rats, the lowest dose of leptin produced a maximal activation of STAT3 in the Arc and nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS). There was no response in the dorsomedial hypothalamus, but there was a progressive increase in ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (VMH) pSTAT3 with increasing doses of leptin. In female rats, there was no significant change in Arc and pSTAT3 NTS activation was maximal with 500 mg leptin/kg, but only the highest dose of leptin increased VMH pSTAT3. These results suggest that the VMH plays an important role in the energetic response to elevations of circulating leptin but do not exclude the possibility that multiple nuclei provide the appropriate integrated response to hyperleptinemia.NEW & NOTEWORTHY The results of this experiment show that doses of leptin too small to inhibit food intake produce a maximal response to leptin in the arcuate nucleus. By contrast the VMH shows a robust response that correlates with inhibition of food intake. This suggests that the VMH plays an important role in the energetic response to hyperleptinemia.


Assuntos
Ingestão de Alimentos/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipotálamo/metabolismo , Leptina/administração & dosagem , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo Marrom/efeitos dos fármacos , Tecido Adiposo Marrom/metabolismo , Animais , Núcleo Arqueado do Hipotálamo/metabolismo , Temperatura Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Metabolismo Energético/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Hipotálamo/química , Leptina/sangue , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/análise , Núcleo Solitário/metabolismo , Núcleo Hipotalâmico Ventromedial/metabolismo
10.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 May 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34070968

RESUMO

Future deep space astronauts must maintain adequate nutrition despite highly stressful, isolated, confined and dangerous environments. The present case-study investigated appetite regulating hormones, nutrition status, and physical and emotional stress in a space analog condition: an explorer conducting a 93-day unsupported solo crossing of Antarctica. Using the dried blood spot (DBS) method, the subject drew samples of his blood on a regular basis during the expedition. The DBSs were later analyzed for the appetite regulating hormones leptin and adiponectin. Energy intake and nutritional status were monitored by analysis of albumin and globulin (including their ratio). Interleukin-6 (IL-6) was also analyzed and used as an energy sensor. The results showed a marked reduction in levels of the appetite-reducing hormone, leptin, and the appetite stimulating hormone, adiponectin, during both extreme physical and psychological strain. Nutrition status showed a variation over the expedition, with below-normal levels during extreme psychological strain and levels abutting the lower bounds of the normal range during a phase dominated by extreme physical hardship. The IL-6 levels varied substantially, with levels above the normal range except during the recovery phase. It was concluded that a daily intake of 5058 to 5931 calories seemed to allow recovery of both appetite and nutritional status between extreme physical and psychological hardship during a long Arctic expedition. Furthermore, IL-6 may be a sensor in the muscle-liver, muscle-fat and muscle-brain crosstalk. These results may help guide nutrition planning for future astronaut crews, mountaineers and others involved in highly demanding missions.


Assuntos
Adiponectina/sangue , Regulação do Apetite , Expedições , Leptina/sangue , Estado Nutricional , Adulto , Regiões Antárticas , Apetite , Temperatura Baixa , Ingestão de Energia , Exercício Físico , Humanos , Interleucina-6/sangue , Masculino , Angústia Psicológica , Albumina Sérica/análise , Soroglobulinas/análise
11.
J Sport Health Sci ; 10(3): 360-367, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33993922

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study was aimed to analyze the mediation role of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) on the association between fatness and cardiometabolic risk scores (CMRs) in European adolescents. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in adolescents (n = 525; 46% boys; 14.1 ± 1.1 years old, mean ± SD) from 10 European cities involved in the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence study. CRF was measured by means of the shuttle run test, while fatness measures included body mass index (BMI), waist to height ratio, and fat mass index estimated from skinfold thicknesses. A clustered CMRs was computed by summing the standardized values of homeostasis model assessment, systolic blood pressure, triglycerides, total cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio, and leptin. RESULTS: Linear regression models indicated that CRF acted as an important and partial mediator in the association between fatness and CMRs in 12-17-year-old adolescents (for BMI: coefficients of the indirect role ß = 0.058 (95% confidence interval (95%CI): 0.023-0.101), Sobel test z = 3.11 (10.0% mediation); for waist to height ratio: ß = 4.279 (95%CI: 2.242-7.059), z =3.86 (11.5% mediation); and for fat mass index: ß = 0.060 (95%CI: 0.020-0.106), z = 2.85 (9.4% mediation); all p < 0.01). CONCLUSION: In adolescents, the association between fatness and CMRs could be partially decreased with improvements to fitness levels; therefore, CRF contribution both in the clinical field and public health could be important to consider and promote in adolescents independently of their fatness levels.


Assuntos
Adiposidade , Fatores de Risco Cardiometabólico , Aptidão Cardiorrespiratória/fisiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Adolescente , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Colesterol/sangue , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Estilo de Vida Saudável , Humanos , Leptina/sangue , Modelos Lineares , Lipoproteínas HDL/sangue , Masculino , Exame Físico , Pregas Cutâneas , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Razão Cintura-Estatura
12.
Cancer Causes Control ; 32(8): 871-881, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33999316

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Obesity is a known risk factor for colorectal cancer (CRC) and adenoma. Obese individuals have higher circulating concentrations of certain endocrine and immune factors produced by adipocytes thought to partially underlie the association between obesity and colorectal neoplasia. Thus, we evaluated the association of plasma concentrations of adiponectin, leptin, and soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor-2 (sTNFR2) with CRC and adenoma. METHODS: We ascertained 193 CRC cases and 193 matched controls, and 131 colorectal adenoma cases and 131 matched controls who had had an endoscopy nested in the CLUE II cohort of Washington County, MD. Plasma markers were measured using ELISA. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated from conditional logistic regression for quartiles of the plasma markers separately for CRC and adenoma. RESULTS: Adjusting for leptin and adiponectin, sTNFR2 was positively associated with CRC only in men (Q4 vs. Q1: OR = 3.14, 95% CI 1.11-8.86), which was unchanged adjusting for BMI (3.46, 95% CI 1.19-10.06). Leptin and adiponectin were not associated with CRC risk overall or in men or women. Adiponectin, leptin, and sTNFR2 were not associated with adenoma risk overall or in men or women. CONCLUSION: In this study, leptin and adiponectin were not associated with colorectal carcinogenesis and thus do not appear to underlie the association between obesity and colorectal carcinogenesis. sTNFR2, which we measured as a correlate of TNF-α, was positively associated with CRC in men adjusting for BMI, suggesting that TNF-α may influence colorectal carcinogenesis independent of adipocyte production.


Assuntos
Adenoma/sangue , Adipocinas/sangue , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Adiponectina/sangue , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Leptina/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/complicações , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/sangue
13.
Cancer Epidemiol ; 73: 101958, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34020315

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Leptin and adiponectin are adipokines which have been commonly implicated in carcinogenesis. As such, many studies have investigated the association of circulating leptin and adiponectin levels with colorectal cancer (CRC) risk. However, the results remained inconsistent. METHODS: In this work, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to precisely examine the association between circulating levels of leptin and adiponectin and CRC risk. A systematic literature search was performed in PubMed/MEDLINE, Scopus, Web of Science, and EMBASE databases from inception until October 2020. The pooled effect size was then estimated by calculating the odds ratio (OR). RESULTS: A total of 23 records (comprising 26 studies) were included in the meta-analysis. The overall analysis found that circulating levels of leptin and adiponectin were not significantly associated with CRC risk (P > 0.05). Interestingly, subgroup analysis revealed that a higher level of adiponectin was significantly associated with an increased CRC risk among overweight individuals (OR = 1.16; 95 % CI: 1.02, 1.32), and a decreased CRC risk among normal weight individuals (OR = 0.76; 95 % CI: 0.62, 0.92). Besides, a higher level of adiponectin was also significantly associated with a decreased risk of CRC in men (OR = 0.76; 95 % CI: 0.59, 0.98). CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, circulating leptin level was not associated with CRC risk, but that of adiponectin was associated with CRC risk only in specific subgroups.


Assuntos
Adiponectina , Neoplasias Colorretais , Leptina , Adiponectina/sangue , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Neoplasias Colorretais/sangue , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Humanos , Leptina/sangue , Risco
14.
Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis ; 32(4): 273-277, 2021 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33955862

RESUMO

This study aimed to establish standard reference values for soluble thrombomodulin in healthy prepubertal school-aged children and elucidate the relationship between soluble thrombomodulin levels and obesity, metabolic syndrome-associated indices, and other markers of vascular endothelial damage. The participants in this study were healthy Japanese children aged 9-10 years (315 boys and 267 girls). Blood tests for soluble thrombomodulin, leptin, fibrinogen, and general biochemical markers were performed, and the mean and 10th, 50th, and 90th percentiles for each marker were determined. Participants were divided into two groups based on their waist circumference (≥75 vs. <75 cm), and each parameter was compared between the two groups. Analyses were performed to compare subgroups with different numbers of risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). We found that as CVD risk factors accumulated, the levels of total cholesterol, alanine aminotransferase, uric acid, soluble thrombomodulin, fibrinogen, and leptin were significantly elevated, whereas the level of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol significantly decreased. We determined reference values for soluble thrombomodulin in prepubertal children, and our results suggest that soluble thrombomodulin levels contribute to the latent progress of arteriosclerosis from childhood.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Trombomodulina/sangue , Criança , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , Feminino , Fibrinogênio/análise , Fatores de Risco de Doenças Cardíacas , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Leptina/sangue , Masculino , Obesidade/sangue , Obesidade/etiologia , Circunferência da Cintura
15.
J Nutr ; 151(5): 1175-1189, 2021 05 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33851198

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cholecalciferol (D3) may improve inflammation, and thus provide protection from cardiometabolic diseases (CMD), although controversy remains. Omega-3 fatty acids (ω-3FA) may also prevent the development of CMD, but the combined effects of ω-3FA and D3 are not fully understood. OBJECTIVES: We determined the chronic independent and combined effects of D3 and ω-3FA on body weight, glucose homeostasis, and markers of inflammation in obese mice. METHODS: We gave 8-week-old male C57BL/6J mice, which had been fed a high-fat, high-sucrose (HF) diet (65.5% kcal fat, 19.8% kcal carbohydrate, and 14% kcal protein) for 12 weeks, either a standard D3 dose (+SD3; 1400 IU D3/kg diet) or a high D3 dose (+HD3; 15,000 IU D3/kg diet). We fed 1 +SD3 group and 1 +HD3 group with 4.36% (w/w) fish oil (+ω-3FA; 44% eicosapentaenoic acid, 25% docosahexaenoic acid), and fed the other 2 groups with corn oil [+omega-6 fatty acids (ω-6FA)]. A fifth group was fed a low-fat (LF; 15.5% kcal) diet. LF and HF+ω-6+SD3 differences were tested by a Student's t-test and HF treatment differences were tested by a 2-way ANOVA. RESULTS: D3 supplementation in the +HD3 groups did not significantly increase plasma total 25-hydroxyvitamin D and 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 [25(OH)D3] versus the +SD3 groups, but it increased 3-epi-25-hydroxyvitamin D3 levels by 3.4 ng/mL in the HF+ω-6+HD3 group and 4.0 ng/mL in the HF+ω-3+HD3 group, representing 30% and 70%, respectively, of the total 25(OH)D3 increase. Energy expenditure increased in those mice fed diets +ω-3FA, by 3.9% in the HF+ω-3+SD3 group and 7.4% in the HF+ω-3+HD3 group, but it did not translate into lower body weight. The glucose tolerance curves of the HF+ω-3+SD3 and HF+ω-3+HD3 groups were improved by 11% and 17%, respectively, as compared to the respective +ω-6FA groups. D3 supplementation, within the ω-3FA groups, altered the gut microbiota by increasing the abundance of S24-7 and Lachnospiraceae taxa compared to the standard dose, while within the ω-6FA groups, D3 supplementation did not modulate specific taxa. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, D3 supplementation does not prevent CMD or enhance the beneficial effects of ω-3FA in vitamin D-sufficient obese mice.


Assuntos
Colecalciferol/administração & dosagem , Colecalciferol/farmacologia , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/farmacologia , Síndrome Metabólica/prevenção & controle , Obesidade/induzido quimicamente , Animais , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Sacarose na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Sacarose na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Suplementos Nutricionais , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/administração & dosagem , Intolerância à Glucose , Humanos , Leptina/sangue , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Obesos , Obesidade/complicações , Distribuição Aleatória
16.
Nutrients ; 13(4)2021 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33915788

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: High protein intake in early life is associated with an increased risk of childhood obesity. Dietary protein intake may be a key mechanistic modulator through alterations in endocrine and metabolic responses. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to determine the impact of different protein intake of infants on blood metabolic and hormonal markers at the age of four months. We further aimed to investigate the association between these markers and anthropometric parameters and body composition until the age of two years. DESIGN: Term infants received a modified low-protein formula (mLP) (1.7 g protein/100 kcal) or a specifically designed control formula (CTRL) (2.1 g protein/100 kcal) until 6 months of age in a double blinded RCT. The outcomes were compared with a breast-fed (BF) group. Glucose, insulin, leptin, IGF-1, IGF-BP1, -BP2, and -BP3 levels were measured at the age of 4 months. Anthropometric parameters and body composition were assessed until the age of 2 years. Groups were compared using linear regression analysis. RESULTS: No significant differences were observed in any of the blood parameters between the formula groups (n = 53 mLP; n = 44 CTRL) despite a significant difference in protein intake. Insulin and HOMA-IR were higher in both formula groups compared to the BF group (n = 36) (p < 0.001). IGF-BP1 was lower in both formula groups compared to the BF group (p < 0.01). We found a lower IGF-BP2 level in the CTRL group compared to the BF group (p < 0.01) and a higher IGF-BP3 level in the mLP group compared to the BF group (p = 0.03). There were no significant differences in glucose, leptin, and IGF-1 between the three feeding groups. We found specific associations of all early-life metabolic and hormonal blood parameters with long-term growth and body composition except for IGF-1. CONCLUSIONS: Reducing protein intake by 20% did not result in a different metabolic profile in formula-fed infants at 4 months of age. Formula-fed infants had a lower insulin sensitivity compared to breast-fed infants. We found associations between all metabolic and hormonal markers (except for IGF-1) determined at age 4 months and growth and body composition up to two years of age.


Assuntos
Proteínas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Proteínas na Dieta/química , Fórmulas Infantis/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição do Lactente , Biomarcadores/sangue , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Glicemia , Composição Corporal , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Insulina/sangue , Proteínas de Ligação a Fator de Crescimento Semelhante a Insulina/sangue , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/metabolismo , Leptina/sangue , Masculino
17.
Nutrients ; 13(5)2021 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33925808

RESUMO

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains a major problem for people with type 2 diabetes (T2DM), and the leading cause of death worldwide. We aimed to determine cardiovascular benefits of weight loss with or without remission of diabetes, and to assess utility of plasma biomarkers. 29 people with T2DM were studied at baseline and after dietary weight loss. Change in plasma adipokines and lipid related markers was examined in relation to weight loss, diabetes remission, 10-year cardiovascular risk (QRISK), and duration of diabetes. QRISK decreased markedly after weight loss (18.9 ± 2.2 to 11.2 ± 1.6%, p < 0.0001) in both responders and non-responders, but non-responders remained at higher risk (15.0 ± 2.0 vs. 5.8 ± 1.6%, p < 0.0001). At baseline, plasma GDF-15 was higher in longer diabetes duration (1.19 ± 0.14 vs. 0.82 ± 0.09 ng/mL, p = 0.034), as was the QRISK (22.8 ± 2.6 vs. 15.3 ± 3.4%, p = 0.031). Leptin, GDF-15 and FGF-21 decreased whereases adiponectin increased after weight loss in responders and non-responders. However, the level of FGF-21 remained higher in non-responders (0.58 [0.28-0.71] vs. 0.25 [0.15-0.42] ng/mL, p = 0.007). QRISK change correlated with change in plasma VLDL1-TG (r = 0.489, p = 0.007). There was a positive correlation between rise in HDL cholesterol and the decrease in leptin (r = 0.57, p = 0.001), or rise in adiponectin (r = 0.58, p = 0.001) levels. In conclusion, weight loss markedly decreases cardiometabolic risk particularly when remission of diabetes is achieved. Leptin, adiponectin, GDF-15 and FGF-21 changes were related to weight loss not remission of diabetes. Normalization of 10-year cardiovascular risk and heart age is possible after substantial dietary weight loss and remission of T2DM.


Assuntos
Restrição Calórica , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/dietoterapia , Perda de Peso , Adiponectina/sangue , Biomarcadores/sangue , Glicemia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Fatores de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/genética , Fatores de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Fator 15 de Diferenciação de Crescimento/genética , Fator 15 de Diferenciação de Crescimento/metabolismo , Humanos , Insulina , Leptina/sangue , Leptina/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco
18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(9)2021 Apr 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33925454

RESUMO

Leptin is secreted by the placenta and has a multi-facetted role in the regulation of functions related to pregnancy. Metabolic disorders and insufficient homeostatic compensatory mechanisms involving leptin during pregnancy play a decisive role in the development of pre-eclampsia (PE) and give rise to compromised intrauterine growth conditions and aberrant birth weight of offspring. This review was compiled to elucidate the metabolic background of PE and its relationship with adverse intrauterine growth conditions through the examination of leptin as well as to describe possible mechanisms linking leptin to fetal growth restriction. This review illustrates that leptin in PE is dysregulated in maternal, fetal, and placental compartments. There is no single set of unifying mechanisms within the spectrum of PE, and regulatory mechanisms involving leptin are specific to each situation. We conclude that dysregulated leptin is involved in fetal growth at many levels through complex interactions with parallel pregnancy systems and probably throughout the entirety of pregnancy.


Assuntos
Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/etiologia , Leptina/metabolismo , Pré-Eclâmpsia/metabolismo , Animais , Feminino , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/metabolismo , Humanos , Leptina/sangue , Leptina/fisiologia , Placenta/metabolismo , Gravidez , Receptores para Leptina/metabolismo
19.
Vet J ; 271: 105652, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33840485

RESUMO

Metabolic and endocrine disorders, such as dyslipidemia, are common in donkeys. Negative energy balance due to fasting, stressful conditions, or disease is a major trigger for fat mobilization often leading to dyslipidemia. The hormonal response to fasting has not been well characterized in donkeys. Therefore, this work aimed to study variations in insulin, glucagon, leptin, total adiponectin, ghrelin, and insulin-like growth factor-1 concentrations, insulin-to-glucagon (IGR) and glucagon-to-insulin (GIR) molar ratios, and lipid and carbohydrate parameters during a 66 h fasting period in 8 adult donkeys, and to determine differences depending on body condition. Obese donkeys developed earlier lipid mobilization (increased plasma total triglyceride and total cholesterol concentrations) compared to non-obese donkeys. Plasma glucose and leptin concentrations decreased in obese animals. After 60 h fasting, obese donkeys showed a significant increase in glucagon and decrease in leptin. GIR significantly increased, while insulin and IGR decreased in both groups. These findings support faster lipid mobilization in response to negative energy status in obese donkeys during fasting, which could be linked to greater glucagonemia and could explain the predisposition of these animals to dyslipidemia.


Assuntos
Dislipidemias/veterinária , Metabolismo Energético/fisiologia , Equidae/sangue , Jejum/sangue , Obesidade/veterinária , Adiponectina/sangue , Animais , Glicemia/análise , Dislipidemias/sangue , Dislipidemias/etiologia , Feminino , Grelina/sangue , Glucagon/sangue , Insulina/sangue , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/análise , Leptina/sangue , Lipídeos/sangue , Obesidade/sangue
20.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 185(1): 87-97, 2021 May 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33914701

RESUMO

Objective: We aimed to examine prospective associations between circulating fatty acids in early pregnancy and incident gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) among Chinese pregnant women. Methods: Analyses were based on two prospective nested case-control studies conducted in western China (336 GDM cases and 672 matched controls) and central China (305 cases and 305 matched controls). Fasting plasma fatty acids in early pregnancy (gestational age at enrollment: 10.4 weeks(s.d., 2.0)) and 13.2 weeks (1.0), respectively) were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and GDM was diagnosed based on the International Association of Diabetes in Pregnancy Study Groups criteria during 24-28 weeks of gestation. Multiple metabolic biomarkers (HOMA-IR (homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance), HbA1c, c-peptide, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, adiponectin, leptin, and blood lipids) were additionally measured among 672 non-GDM controls at enrollment. Results: Higher levels of saturated fatty acids (SFAs) 14:0 (pooled odds ratio, 1.41 for each 1-s.d. increase; 95% CI: 1.25, 1.59) and 16:0 (1.19; 1.05, 1.35) were associated with higher odds of GDM. Higher levels of n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) 18:2n-6 were strongly associated with lower odds of GDM (0.69; 0.60, 0.80). In non-GDM pregnant women, higher SFAs 14:0 and 16:0 but lower n-6 PUFA 18:2n-6 were generally correlated with unfavorable metabolic profiles. Conclusions: We documented adverse associations of 14:0 and 16:0 but a protective association of 18:2n-6 with GDM among Chinese pregnant women. Our findings highlight the distinct roles of specific fatty acids in the onset of GDM.


Assuntos
Glicemia/metabolismo , Diabetes Gestacional/sangue , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-6/sangue , Ácidos Graxos/sangue , Resistência à Insulina , Adiponectina/sangue , Adulto , Peptídeo C/sangue , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , China , Diabetes Gestacional/metabolismo , Jejum , Ácidos Graxos Monoinsaturados/sangue , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/sangue , Feminino , Hemoglobina A Glicada/metabolismo , Humanos , Leptina/sangue , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
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