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1.
PLoS Pathog ; 16(8): e1008639, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32790743

RESUMO

Leptospirosis is a worldwide re-emerging zoonosis caused by pathogenic Leptospira spp. All vertebrate species can be infected; humans are sensitive hosts whereas other species, such as rodents, may become long-term renal carrier reservoirs. Upon infection, innate immune responses are initiated by recognition of Microbial Associated Molecular Patterns (MAMPs) by Pattern Recognition Receptors (PRRs). Among MAMPs, the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is recognized by the Toll-Like-Receptor 4 (TLR4) and activates both the MyD88-dependent pathway at the plasma membrane and the TRIF-dependent pathway after TLR4 internalization. We previously showed that leptospiral LPS is not recognized by the human-TLR4, whereas it signals through mouse-TLR4 (mTLR4), which mediates mouse resistance to acute leptospirosis. However, although resistant, mice are known to be chronically infected by leptospires. Interestingly, the leptospiral LPS has low endotoxicity in mouse cells and is an agonist of TLR2, the sensor for bacterial lipoproteins. Here, we investigated the signaling properties of the leptospiral LPS in mouse macrophages. Using confocal microscopy and flow cytometry, we showed that the LPS of L. interrogans did not induce internalization of mTLR4, unlike the LPS of Escherichia coli. Consequently, the LPS failed to induce the production of the TRIF-dependent nitric oxide and RANTES, both important antimicrobial responses. Using shorter LPS and LPS devoid of TLR2 activity, we further found this mTLR4-TRIF escape to be dependent on both the co-purifying lipoproteins and the full-length O antigen. Furthermore, our data suggest that the O antigen could alter the binding of the leptospiral LPS to the co-receptor CD14 that is essential for TLR4-TRIF activation. Overall, we describe here a novel leptospiral immune escape mechanism from mouse macrophages and hypothesize that the LPS altered signaling could contribute to the stealthiness and chronicity of the leptospires in mice.


Assuntos
Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transporte Vesicular/metabolismo , Leptospira/imunologia , Leptospirose/imunologia , Lipopolissacarídeos/metabolismo , Lipoproteínas/metabolismo , Antígenos O/metabolismo , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/fisiologia , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transporte Vesicular/genética , Animais , Citocinas/metabolismo , Feminino , Leptospirose/metabolismo , Leptospirose/microbiologia , Leptospirose/patologia , Receptores de Lipopolissacarídeos/genética , Receptores de Lipopolissacarídeos/metabolismo , Lipoproteínas/genética , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Fator 88 de Diferenciação Mieloide/fisiologia , Antígenos O/genética , Transdução de Sinais , Receptor 2 Toll-Like/fisiologia
2.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(5): e0008309, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32428003

RESUMO

Leptospirosis is endemic in Sri Lanka. There is a need for updated seroprevalence studies in endemic areas, to improve the understanding of disease dynamics, risk factors, control methods, and for clinical diagnosis. The cut-off titres for the microscopic agglutination test (MAT) for diagnosis of acute leptospirosis depend on community seroprevalence, and can vary based on locality and serovar. This study aimed to identify the seroprevalence, geographical determinants, and associations of seropositivity of leptospirosis in the district of Colombo in Sri Lanka, and to determine diagnostic cut-off titres for MAT in the community studied. This study utilized a stratified cluster sampling model in the Colombo district of Sri Lanka, to sample individuals living in urban and semi-urban areas. Serovar specific MAT titres were measured on recruited individuals using a panel of saprophytic (Leptospira biflexa) and 11 pathogenic Leptospira spp. serovars. Associations between environmental risk factors and MAT positivity were examined, with location mapping using GIS software. A total of 810 individuals were included. The mean age was 51.71 years (SD 14.02) with male predominance (60%). A total of 429 (53%) tested positive at a titer of 1/40 or more for the saprophytic Leptospira biflexa serovar Patoc. Pathogenic serovar MAT was positive at a titer of 1/40 or more for at least one serovar in 269 (33.2%) individuals. From the perspective of screening for clinical disease, serovar-specific cut-off titres of 1/80 for Leptospira spp. serovars Hebdomadis, Icterohaemorrhagiae, Pomona, Ratnapura and Patoc, 1/160 for serovars Pyrogenes and Cynopteri, and 1/40 for other serovars were determined, based on the 75th quartile MAT titre for each serovar. Serovar Pyrogenes (15.9%) had the highest seroprevalence, with serovars Ratnapura, Bankinang and Australis accounting for 9.9%, 9.6% and 9.3% respectively. When the proposed new cut-offs were applied, Bankinang(9.6%) Australis(9.3%), Pyrogenes(6.9%) and Ratnapura(6.9%) were the most prevalent serovars. No significant differences in seroprevalence or serovar patterns were noted between urban and semi-urban settings. Individuals seropositive for Australis, Ratnapura and Icterohaemorrhagiae were clustered around main water bodies as well as around smaller tributaries and paddy fields. Those positive for the serovar Pyrogenes were clustered around inland tributaries, smaller water sources and paddy fields. Associations of MAT positivity included high risk occupational exposure, environmental exposure including exposure to floods, bathing in rivers and lakes, using well-water for bathing, contact with stagnant water, propensity to skin injuries, presence of rats in the vicinity, and proximity to water sources. For pathogenic serovars, high-risk occupational exposure remained statistically significant following adjustment for other factors (adjusted OR = 2.408, CI 1.711 to 3.388; p<0.0001; Nagelkerke R2 = 0.546). High risk occupational exposure was determined to be independently associated with seropositivity. Baseline community MAT titres vary according to serovar, and presumably the locality. Testing against saprophytic serovars is unreliable. Thus, diagnostic MAT titre cut-offs should be determined based on region and serovar, and the use of a single diagnostic MAT cut-off for all populations is likely to result in false negatives.


Assuntos
Aglutininas/sangue , Doenças Endêmicas , Leptospira/imunologia , Leptospirose/epidemiologia , População Suburbana , População Urbana , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Testes de Aglutinação , Cidades/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Leptospira/classificação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Sri Lanka/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
3.
Acta Trop ; 207: 105497, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32330452

RESUMO

It is possible that there are peculiarities in the epidemiology of leptospirosis in regions with a semiarid climate, where the environment is often adverse, allowing the occurrence of alternative transmission routes. The objective of the work was to generate contributions to the diagnosis and epidemiology of Leptospira sp. infection in sheep reared in semiarid conditions, using serological, molecular and microbiological techniques for diagnosis in dry and rainy seasons. Samples of blood, vaginal fluid, urine, bladder, kidney, uterus, uterine tube, ovary and placenta were collected from 104 sheep (52 animals per season - dry and rainy) slaughtered in the Brazilian semiarid. Diagnostic tests performed were microscopic agglutination test (MAT), polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and bacterial isolation. Anti-Leptospira sp. antibodies were found in 26 (25%) of the animals analyzed by MAT at 1:50 dilution (cut-off 50), while 69 (66.3%) animals had at least one organ/fluid with the presence of Leptospira sp. DNA. Overall, PCR was performed on 758 fragments of organs/fluids from the genital and urinary tracts, and 519 (68.5%) samples tested positive. PCR-positivity was statistically different in dry (46.2%) and rainy (11.5%) seasons for vaginal fluid. It was possible to perform the DNA sequencing in nine samples with 99% similarity to L. interrogans and recovery of viable strains in three samples of vaginal fluid. Regardless of the biological material used in PCR to detect carrier animals and the season, the highest MAT sensitivity values were obtained with cut-off 50 compared to 100. The results obtained indicate that, even in the adverse environmental conditions of the semiarid region, leptospires may survive and propagate by alternative routes of transmission, such as sexual, and the presence of PCR-positive genital tracts in ewes suggests that sexual transmission may play an important role in the epidemiology of the disease in sheep in Brazilian semiarid. In addition, it is suggested the use of titer 50 as cut-off point at serology in semiarid conditions.


Assuntos
Leptospira/isolamento & purificação , Leptospirose/veterinária , Doenças dos Ovinos/diagnóstico , Ovinos/microbiologia , Vagina/microbiologia , Testes de Aglutinação , Animais , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Feminino , Leptospira/genética , Leptospira/imunologia , Leptospirose/diagnóstico , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Testes Sorológicos
4.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0230460, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32218590

RESUMO

Pathogenic spirochetes from genus Leptospira are etiologic agents of leptospirosis. Cellular vaccines against Leptospira infection often elicit mainly response against the LPS antigen of the serovars present in the formulation. There is no suitable protein candidate capable of replacing whole-cell vaccines, thus requiring new approaches on vaccine development to improve leptospirosis prevention. Our goal was to develop a whole-cell vaccine sorovar-independent based on LPS removal and conservation of protein antigens exposure, to evaluate the protective capacity of monovalent or bivalent vaccines against homologous and heterologous virulent Leptospira in hamster. Leptospire were subjected to heat inactivation, or to LPS extraction with butanol and in some cases further inactivation with formaldehyde. Hamsters were immunized and challenged with homologous or heterologous virulent serovars, blood and organs were collected from the survivors for bacterial quantification, chemokine evaluation, and analysis of sera antibody reactivity and cross-reactivity by Western blot. Immunization with either heated or low LPS vaccines with serovar Copenhageni or Canicola resulted in 100% protection of the animals challenged with homologous virulent bacteria. Notably, different from the whole-cell vaccine, the low LPS vaccines produced with serovar Canicola provided only partial protection in heterologous challenge with the virulent Copenhageni serovar. Immunization with bivalent formulation results in 100% protection of immunized animals challenged with virulent serovar Canicola. All vaccines produced were able to eliminate bacteria from the kidney of challenged animals. All the vaccines raised antibodies capable to recognize antigens of serovars not present in the vaccine formulation. Transcripts of IFNγ, CXCL16, CCL5, CXCL10, CXCR6, and CCR5, increased in all immunized animals. Conclusion: Our results showed that bivalent vaccines with reduced LPS may be an interesting strategy for protection against heterologous virulent serovars. Besides the desirable multivalent protection, the low LPS vaccines are specially promising due to the expected lower reatogenicity.


Assuntos
Vacinas Bacterianas , Leptospira/imunologia , Leptospirose/imunologia , Lipopolissacarídeos/química , Vacinação , Animais , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/imunologia , Vacinas Bacterianas/química , Vacinas Bacterianas/imunologia , Cricetinae , Leptospira/química , Leptospirose/prevenção & controle
5.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0228577, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32074117

RESUMO

Knowledge on the possible sources of human leptospirosis, other than rats, is currently lacking. To assess the distribution pattern of exposure and infection by Leptospira serogroups in the two main semi-aquatic rodents of Western France, coypus (Myocastor coypus) and muskrats (Ondatra zibethicus), results of micro-agglutination testing and renal tissue PCR were used. In coypus, the apparent prevalence was 11% (n = 524, CI95% = [9% - 14%]), seroprevalence was 42% (n = 590, CI95% = [38% - 46%]), and the predominant serogroup was Australis (84%). In muskrats, the apparent prevalence was 33% (n = 274, CI95% = [27% - 39%]), seroprevalence was 57% (n = 305, CI95% = [52% - 63%]), and the predominant serogroup was Grippotyphosa (47%). Muskrats should therefore be considered an important source of Grippotyphosa infection in humans and domestic animals exposed in this part of France.


Assuntos
Arvicolinae/microbiologia , Portador Sadio/microbiologia , Leptospira/patogenicidade , Animais , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Arvicolinae/sangue , Arvicolinae/imunologia , Portador Sadio/sangue , Portador Sadio/imunologia , Clima , Ecossistema , Rim/microbiologia , Leptospira/imunologia
6.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 179, 2020 Feb 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32103771

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The burden of leptospirosis in Indonesia is poorly understood. Data from an observational study conducted from 2013 to 2016 in seven cities across Indonesia was used to estimate the incidence of leptospirosis and document its clinical manifestations in patients requiring hospitalization. METHODS: Specimens from patients hospitalized with acute fever were collected at enrollment, 14-28 days, and 3 months. Demographic and clinical information were collected during study visits and/or retrieved from medical records and double-entered into clinical report forms. After initially screening for dengue virus and other pathogens, specimens were tested at a central Reference Laboratory for anti-Leptospira IgM using commercial ELISA kits and for Leptospira DNA using an in-house quantitative real-time PCR assay. RESULTS: Of 1464 patients enrolled, 45 (3.1%) confirmed cases (by PCR and/or sero-coversion or four-fold increase of IgM) and 6 (0.4%) probable cases (by high titer IgM) of leptospirosis were identified by the Reference Laboratory. Disease incidence at sites ranged from 0 (0%) cases in Denpasar to 17 (8.9%) cases in Semarang. The median age of patients was 41.2 years (range of 5.3 to 85.0 years), and 67% of patients were male. Twenty-two patients (43.1%) were accurately diagnosed at sites, and 29 patients (56.9%) were clinically misdiagnosed as having another infection, most commonly dengue fever (11, 37.9%). Clinically, 20 patients (39.2%) did not present with hyperbilirubinemia or increased creatinine levels. Two patients (3.9%) died, both from respiratory failure. Fifteen patients (29.4%) clinically diagnosed with leptospirosis at sites were negative based on IgM ELISA and/or PCR at the Reference Laboratory. CONCLUSIONS: Leptospirosis remains an important cause of hospitalization in Indonesia. It can have diverse clinical presentations, making it difficult to differentiate from other common tropical infections. PCR combined with ELISA is a powerful alternative to the cumbersome gold-standard microscopic agglutination test, particularly in resource-limited settings.


Assuntos
Leptospirose/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina M/sangue , Indonésia/epidemiologia , Laboratórios , Leptospira/imunologia , Leptospirose/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
7.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 9(1): 140-147, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31914888

RESUMO

Leptospirosis is a worldwide zoonotic disease that causes acute kidney injury, liver disease, bleeding disorders, and even death. Treatment of the disease is largely dependent on the use of antibiotics, but recent studies on pathogenesis of leptospirosis have shown that immunomodulation may also be an effective treatment for this disease. Since the delay in inflammation correlates with higher pathogenicity of leptospira, we studied the effect of inducing inflammation on leptospirosis by using TLR4 activator LPS. In accordance with our hypothesis, treatment with LPS protected against leptospirosis by enhancing the inflammatory response in hamsters. The gene expression levels of TLR2, TLR4, NLRP3 and inflammatory factors were higher in LPS-treated group during leptospira infection in hamsters. Although the levels of NO and iNOS were higher in LPS-treated group than in Leptospira-infected group, the protective effect induced by LPS is iNOS-independent. Treatment with LPS induced higher anti-leptospira IgG level than infection with leptospira alone. Then, expressions of costimulatory molecules and maturation markers were analysed. The data showed that treatment with LPS enhanced the expression of CD40, CD80 and CD86. Our results indicate that increased inflammation induced by LPS derived from Escherichia coli (E. coli) protects against leptospirosis in hamsters.


Assuntos
Escherichia coli/imunologia , Leptospirose/prevenção & controle , Lipopolissacarídeos/imunologia , Doença Aguda , Animais , Cricetinae , Feminino , Humanos , Leptospira/imunologia , Leptospira/fisiologia , Leptospirose/imunologia , Leptospirose/microbiologia , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/genética , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/imunologia
8.
Ecohealth ; 16(4): 712-725, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31728795

RESUMO

A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the seroprevalence of Brucella spp. and Leptospira spp. and risk factors of exposure in cattle in three zones with varying land use types and wildlife-livestock interactions. Five villages were selected purposively; two in areas with intensive livestock-wildlife interactions (zone 1), another two in areas with moderate livestock-wildlife interactions (zone 2) and one in areas where wildlife-livestock interactions are rarer (zone 3). Sera samples were collected from 1170 cattle belonging to 390 herds in all the zones and tested for antibodies against Brucella abortus and Leptospira interrogans serovar hardjo using ELISA kits. Data on putative risk factors for seropositivity of these pathogens in cattle were collected using a questionnaire. The overall apparent animal-level seroprevalence of brucellosis and leptospirosis was, respectively, 36.9% (95% CI 34.1-39.8) and 23.5% (95% CI 21.1-26.0). Brucella spp. seroprevalence was higher in zone 1 than in zones 2 and 3 (χ2 = 25.1, df = 2, P < 0.001). Zones 1 and 2 had significantly higher Leptospira spp. seroprevalence than zone 3 (χ2 = 7.0, df = 2, P = 0.029). Results of multivariable analyses identified animal sex (female) and zones (high interface area) as significant predictors (P < 0.05) of animal-level seropositivity of Brucella spp. For Leptospira spp., important predictors of animal-level seropositivity were animal sex (female), zones (moderate interface area) and herds utilizing a communal grazing reserve. The seroprevalences of Brucella spp. and Leptospira spp. in cattle were higher in areas with moderate to high wildlife-livestock interactions than those with rare interactions.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Brucelose/imunologia , Leptospirose/imunologia , Gado/imunologia , Gado/microbiologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Zoonoses/imunologia , Animais , Animais Selvagens/microbiologia , Brucella/imunologia , Brucella/isolamento & purificação , Brucelose/epidemiologia , Brucelose/fisiopatologia , Bovinos , Estudos Transversais , Quênia/epidemiologia , Leptospira/imunologia , Leptospira/isolamento & purificação , Leptospirose/epidemiologia , Leptospirose/fisiopatologia , Leptospirose/veterinária , Fatores de Risco , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/fisiopatologia
9.
BMC Vet Res ; 15(1): 403, 2019 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31703588

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Leptospirosis is a neglected zoonosis of public health importance transmitted through contact with contaminated soil, water or urine of infected animals. In pigs the disease is characterized by abortion, still births and weak piglets. A cross-sectional study was conducted in May to July 2018 to estimate the sero-prevalence of leptospirosis and factors associated with seropositivity in slaughter pigs. A questionnaire was used to collect information on animal demographics. Serum was tested for anti-leptospiral antibodies using microscopic agglutination test (MAT) with a panel of 8 serovars. Sera were considered positive for sero-reactivity at a MAT titre ≥1:40 against at least one serovar. Chi-square tests were used to measure the strength of association between the MAT test result and exploratory variables. RESULTS: A total of 252 pig serum samples from seven slaughterhouses were tested for Leptospira antibodies by MAT. Of the 252 pigs sampled, 88.8% (244/252) were indigenous breeds; 55.6% (140/252) were female and 88.7% (220/252) were reared in extensive production systems. Eighty-three (32.9%; 83/252) sera samples tested positive on MAT against at least one serovar. Of the 8 serovars, the highest prevalence was recorded for serovar Lora 21.4% followed by Kenya 5.2%, Sokoine 3.6% and Grippotyphosa at 3.2%. Risk factors for leptospirosis seropositivity in pigs were: originating from farms with other types of livestock (OR 2.3; 95% CI 1.0-4.5) and mature pigs (OR 1.9; 95% CI 1.1-3.3). CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates that there is a high prevalence of leptospirosis positive pigs at slaughter in a small-holder livestock keeping region of the Lake Victoria basin. The potential for cross species transmission of pathogenic serovars is highlighted as well as the potential for occupational exposure to slaughterhouse personnel. Improvements in husbandry practices (confinement and rodent control) and public health education among slaughterhouse workers and other high-risk groups is recommended.


Assuntos
Leptospirose/veterinária , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Doenças dos Suínos/microbiologia , Matadouros , Criação de Animais Domésticos , Animais , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Quênia/epidemiologia , Leptospira/imunologia , Leptospira/isolamento & purificação , Leptospirose/epidemiologia , Leptospirose/imunologia , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/imunologia , Zoonoses
10.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 13(11): e0007789, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31675378

RESUMO

Leptospirosis, caused by pathogenic Leptospira species, has emerged as an important neglected zoonotic disease. Few studies have reported the preventable effects of immunoregulators, except for antibiotics, against leptospirosis. Generally, immunostimulatory agents are considered effective for enhancing innate immune responses. Many studies have found that beta-glucan (ß-glucan) could be a potent and valuable immunostimulant for improving immune responses and controlling diseases. In this study, we investigated the preventable role of ß-glucan against Leptospira infection in hamsters. First, ß-glucan was administered 24 h prior to, during and after infection. The results showed that ß-glucan increased the survival rate to 100%, alleviated tissue injury, and decreased leptospire loads in target organs. Additionally, we found using quantitative real-time PCR that application of ß-glucan significantly enhanced the expression of Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2, interleukin (IL)-1ß and iNOS at 2 dpi (days post infection) and reduced the increase of TLR2, IL-1ß and iNOS induced by Leptospira at 5 dpi. Furthermore, to induce memory immunity, ß-glucan was administered 5 days prior to infection. ß-Glucan also significantly increased the survival rates and ameliorated pathological damage to organs. Moreover, we demonstrated that ß-glucan-trained macrophages exhibited elevated expression of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1ß and IL-6) in vitro, indicating that ß-glucan induces an enhanced inflammatory response against Leptospira infection. These results indicate that administration of ß-glucan and other immunostimulants could be potential valuable options for the control of Leptospira infection.


Assuntos
Adjuvantes Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Leptospirose/imunologia , Leptospirose/prevenção & controle , beta-Glucanas/uso terapêutico , Adjuvantes Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Animais , Cricetinae , Citocinas/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Imunidade Inata/efeitos dos fármacos , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Leptospira/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Leptospira/imunologia , Leptospira/patogenicidade , Leptospira interrogans/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Leptospira interrogans/imunologia , Leptospirose/patologia , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/imunologia , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/metabolismo , Receptor 2 Toll-Like/metabolismo , beta-Glucanas/administração & dosagem
11.
BMC Vet Res ; 15(1): 372, 2019 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31655601

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The stranding events of cetaceans in the Philippines provide opportunities for gathering biological information and specimens, especially from the pelagic forms. As part of an effort to monitor the health of wild cetaceans, this study detected Leptospira spp. and Toxoplasma gondii, causative agents of the emerging zoonotic diseases leptospirosis and toxoplasmosis respectively, in their stranded representatives. From October 2016-August 2018, 40 cetaceans (representing 14 species) that stranded nationwide were sampled for brain, cardiac muscle, skeletal muscle, kidney, and blood tissues, urine, and sera. These were subjected to molecular, serological, culture, and histopathological analyses to detect the target pathogens. RESULTS: T. gondii was detected in 20 (71%) of the 28 cetaceans with biological samples subjected to either molecular detection through RE gene amplification or IgG antibodies detection through agglutination-based serological assay. On the other hand, Leptospira was detected in 18 (64%) of 28 cetaceans with biological samples subjected to bacterial culture, molecular detection through 16S rDNA amplification, or IgM antibodies detection through ELISA-based serological assay. CONCLUSIONS: There is the plausibility of toxoplasmosis and leptospirosis in cetacean populations found in the Philippines, however, acute or chronic phases of infections in sampled stranded individuals cannot be confirmed in the absence of supporting pathological observations and corroborating detection tests. Further studies should look for more evidences of pathogenicity, and explore the specific mechanisms by which pelagic cetacean species become infected by Leptospira spp. and T. gondii. As there is growing evidence on the role of cetaceans as sentinels of land-sea movement of emerging pathogens and the diseases they cause, any opportunity, such as their stranding events, should be maximized to investigate the health of their populations. Moreover, the role of leptospirosis or toxoplasmosis in these stranding events must be considered.


Assuntos
Cetáceos/microbiologia , Cetáceos/parasitologia , Leptospira/isolamento & purificação , Toxoplasma/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Anticorpos Antibacterianos , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/veterinária , Feminino , Leptospira/imunologia , Leptospirose/epidemiologia , Leptospirose/veterinária , Masculino , Filipinas/epidemiologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/epidemiologia
12.
Infect Immun ; 87(12)2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31548314

RESUMO

Leptospirosis is one of the most widespread zoonoses caused by pathogenic Leptospira spp. In this study, we report that the LIC11966/ErpY-like lipoprotein is a surface-exposed outer membrane protein exclusively present in pathogenic species of Leptospira The recombinant ErpY (rErpY)-like protein is recognized by the immunoglobulins of confirmed leptospirosis sera of diverse hosts (human, bovine, and canine), suggesting the expression of the native leptospiral surface protein during infection. Circular dichroism of pure rErpY-like protein showed the secondary structural integrity to be uncompromised during the purification process. Analysis of the rErpY-like protein by native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, chemical cross-linking, dynamic light scattering, and field emission transmission electron microscopy demonstrated it undergoes supramolecular assembly. The rErpY-like protein can bind to diverse host extracellular matrices, and it presented a saturable and strong binding affinity (dissociation constant [KD ] of 70.45 ± 4.13 nM) to fibrinogen, a central host plasma component involved in blood clotting. In the presence of the rErpY-like supramolecule, thrombin-catalyzed fibrin clot formation is inhibited up to 7%, implying its role in inhibiting blood coagulation during Leptospira infection. In addition, binding of the rErpY-like supramolecule to complement factors H and I suggests the protein also contributes to Leptospira evading innate host defense during infection by inactivating alternative complement pathways. This study reveals that rErpY-like protein is functionally active in the supramolecular state and performs moonlighting activity under the given in vitro conditions.


Assuntos
Proteínas da Membrana Bacteriana Externa/metabolismo , Coagulação Sanguínea/fisiologia , Fator H do Complemento/metabolismo , Fator I do Complemento/metabolismo , Leptospira/imunologia , Leptospirose/diagnóstico , Animais , Dicroísmo Circular , Via Alternativa do Complemento/imunologia , Feminino , Tempo de Lise do Coágulo de Fibrina , Lipoproteínas/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Ligação Proteica , Estrutura Secundária de Proteína , Trombina/metabolismo
13.
Biomedica ; 39(s1): 150-162, 2019 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31529857

RESUMO

Introduction: Leptospirosis represents a public health problem and is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in the region of Urabá. However, its notification reveals diagnostic limitations. Objective: To establish the incidence of leptospirosis in the municipalities of the so-called eje bananero in the Urabá region, to describe the magnitude of underreporting, and to propose guidelines for laboratory diagnosis by the public health network. Materials and methods: Two leptospirosis information sources were used: The national official surveillance system and a cross-sectional study of 479 acute-phase patients from April, 2010, to May, 2012. The diagnosis was made using three different tests: Indirect immunofluorescence, microagglutination test, and blood cultures. The exhaustiveness percentage of each information source was calculatedusing the capture and recapture test. Results: From the total number of cases, 58% (278/479) were positive for leptospirosis at least by a test and 10.43% (29/278) of cases were positive by all three methods. The inclusion of a native strain in the microagglutination test panel increased the percentage of positivity by 15%. The cumulative incidence rate was 66.5/100,000 inhabitants and the case fatality ratio was 2.15%. The underreporting rates of leptospirosis in the Urabá region were 27.8% in morbidity and 66.6% in mortality. Conclusion: Under-registration of leptospirosis in the region highlights the necessity to use more than one diagnostic test to identify Leptospira in patients from endemic areas. Underregistration could be a common situation throughout the country.


Assuntos
Leptospirose/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Testes de Aglutinação , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Sangue/microbiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Colômbia/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Doenças Endêmicas , Feminino , Técnica Indireta de Fluorescência para Anticorpo , Humanos , Incidência , Leptospira/imunologia , Leptospirose/diagnóstico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Vigilância da População , Adulto Jovem
14.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 8: CD011871, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31425612

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Early diagnosis of leptospirosis may contribute to the effectiveness of antimicrobial therapy and early outbreak recognition. Nucleic acid and antigen detection tests have the potential for early diagnosis of leptospirosis. With this systematic review, we assessed the sensitivity and specificity of nucleic acid and antigen detection tests. OBJECTIVES: To determine the diagnostic test accuracy of nucleic acid and antigen detection tests for the diagnosis of human symptomatic leptospirosis. SEARCH METHODS: We searched electronic databases including MEDLINE, Embase, the Cochrane Library, and regional databases from inception to 6 July 2018. We did not apply restrictions to language or time of publication. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included diagnostic cross-sectional studies and case-control studies of tests that made use of nucleic acid and antigen detection methods in people suspected of systemic leptospirosis. As reference standards, we considered the microscopic agglutination test alone (which detects antibodies against leptospirosis) or in a composite reference standard with culturing or other serological tests. Studies were excluded when the controls were healthy individuals or when there were insufficient data to calculate sensitivity and specificity. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: At least two review authors independently extracted data from each study. We used the revised Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies tool (QUADAS-2) to assess risk of bias. We calculated study-specific values for sensitivity and specificity with 95% confidence intervals (CI) and pooled the results in a meta-analysis when appropriate. We used the bivariate model for index tests with one positivity threshold, and we used the hierarchical summary receiver operating characteristic model for index tests with multiple positivity thresholds. As possible sources of heterogeneity, we explored: timing of index test, disease prevalence, blood sample type, primers or target genes, and the real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) visualisation method. These were added as covariates to the meta-regression models. MAIN RESULTS: We included 41 studies evaluating nine index tests (conventional PCR (in short: PCR), real-time PCR, nested PCR, PCR performed twice, loop-mediated isothermal amplification, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), dot-ELISA, immunochromatography-based lateral flow assay, and dipstick assay) with 5981 participants (1834 with and 4147 without leptospirosis). Methodological quality criteria were often not reported, and the risk of bias of the reference standard was generally considered high. The applicability of findings was limited by the frequent use of frozen samples. We conducted meta-analyses for the PCR and the real-time PCR on blood products.The pooled sensitivity of the PCR was 70% (95% CI 37% to 90%) and the pooled specificity was 95% (95% CI 75% to 99%). When studies with a high risk of bias in the reference standard domain were excluded, the pooled sensitivity was 87% (95% CI 44% to 98%) and the pooled specificity was 97% (95% CI 60% to 100%). For the real-time PCR, we estimated a summary receiver operating characteristic curve. To illustrate, a point on the curve with 85% specificity had a sensitivity of 49% (95% CI 30% to 68%). Likewise, at 90% specificity, sensitivity was 40% (95% CI 24% to 59%) and at 95% specificity, sensitivity was 29% (95% CI 15% to 49%). The median specificity of real-time PCR on blood products was 92%. We did not formally compare the diagnostic test accuracy of PCR and real-time PCR, as direct comparison studies were lacking. Three of 15 studies analysing PCR on blood products reported the timing of sample collection in the studies included in the meta-analyses (range 1 to 7 days postonset of symptoms), and nine out of 16 studies analysing real-time PCR on blood products (range 1 to 19 days postonset of symptoms). In PCR studies, specificity was lower in settings with high leptospirosis prevalence. Other investigations of heterogeneity did not identify statistically significant associations. Two studies suggested that PCR and real-time PCR may be more sensitive on blood samples collected early in the disease stage. Results of other index tests were described narratively. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: The validity of review findings are limited and should be interpreted with caution. There is a substantial between-study variability in the accuracy of PCR and real-time PCR, as well as a substantial variability in the prevalence of leptospirosis. Consequently, the position of PCR and real-time PCR in the clinical pathway depends on regional considerations such as disease prevalence, factors that are likely to influence accuracy, and downstream consequences of test results. There is insufficient evidence to conclude which of the nucleic acid and antigen detection tests is the most accurate. There is preliminary evidence that PCR and real-time PCR are more sensitive on blood samples collected early in the disease stage, but this needs to be confirmed in future studies.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antibacterianos/imunologia , Leptospira/imunologia , Leptospirose/diagnóstico , Ácidos Nucleicos/sangue , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/métodos , Humanos , Leptospirose/sangue , Curva ROC , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
15.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 28(3): 383-394, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31390432

RESUMO

This study evaluated the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum and Leptospira spp. in dogs from Foz do Iguaçu, Paraná, Brazil. Indirect immunofluorescent antibody test was used to detect antibodies anti-T.gondii and anti-N. caninum. Immunoenzymatic assay and microscopic serum agglutination were used for screening antibodies anti-T.gondii and anti-Leptospira spp., respectively. The results were: 67.02% of the samples reactive for T.gondii and 1.38% for N. caninum, both without statistically significant variables. For Leptospira spp. the results indicated seroprevalence of 23.11%. The analysis of the variables without distinction of serovar showed association for intrinsic characteristics as breed, age, nutritional status and dog category. The extrinsic variables as city region and access to the street presented association (p<0.05). The most prevalent serovars were: Canicola 59.47%; Bratislava 13.07% and Butembo 15.68%. Variables that make up the adjusted multiple analysis model using Leptospira spp. were: age, breed and nutritional status; serovar Canicola, sex, nutritional status and area (p<0.05); serovar Bratislava, lymphadenomegaly and presence of fleas (p<0.05). Given the results obtained, dogs can be used as sentinels for toxoplasmosis and leptospirosis in Foz do Iguaçu and other cities with similar outcomes. In addition, preventive measures should be taken by health authorities because they are zoonoses and humans are also at risk.


Assuntos
Coccidiose/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Leptospirose/veterinária , Toxoplasmose Animal/epidemiologia , Animais , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Brasil/epidemiologia , Coccidiose/diagnóstico , Coccidiose/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Cães , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Técnica Indireta de Fluorescência para Anticorpo , Leptospira/imunologia , Leptospirose/diagnóstico , Leptospirose/epidemiologia , Neospora/imunologia , Fatores de Risco , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Toxoplasma/imunologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/diagnóstico
16.
Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis ; 65: 176-180, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31300110

RESUMO

Veterinary leptospirosis vaccines are composed of bacterins and present limitations, for example, the need for bacteriological culture and serovar-dependent immunity. Recombinant antigens represent a promising alternative. LigAni, LigBrep, and LipL32 proteins have been shown to promote a protective immune response against the homologous challenge in hamsters. Therefore, the next step is to evaluate the immunological properties of these immunogens in the actual hosts, as ruminants, which has never been performed before. The objective of this study was to evaluate the immunogenicity and potential adverse effects of the recombinant proteins LigAni, LigBrep, and LipL32 in the ovine model. For this, 16 Santa Inês sheep were allocated into three groups: two experimental (Groups A and B) and one control group (Group C). Group A was inoculated with a formulation containing the recombinant proteins in combination with the aluminum hydroxide adjuvant; Group B was inoculated with a formulation containing the recombinant proteins in combination with the Montanide adjuvant; and Group C was inoculated with adjuvants only. The results revealed that formulations containing the recombinant proteins induced total IgG seroconversion and led to a significant increase in antibody titers in the sheep model. Besides, there were no clinical changes or adverse effects. Thus, LigAni, LigBrep, and LipL32 proteins elicited a significant humoral immune response with elevated serum IgG levels, demonstrating that they possess the immunogenic and safety characteristics necessary to sustain their potential use as leptospirosis vaccines in the ruminant model.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Bactérias/imunologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/imunologia , Imunogenicidade da Vacina , Leptospira/imunologia , Leptospirose/veterinária , Adjuvantes Imunológicos , Animais , Antígenos de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas da Membrana Bacteriana Externa/imunologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Vacinas Bacterianas/genética , Vacinas Bacterianas/imunologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Imunidade Humoral , Leptospira/genética , Leptospirose/imunologia , Leptospirose/prevenção & controle , Proteínas Recombinantes/imunologia , Ovinos , Vacinas Sintéticas/imunologia
17.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 28(3): 383-394, July-Sept. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1042517

RESUMO

Abstract This study evaluated the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum and Leptospira spp. in dogs from Foz do Iguaçu, Paraná, Brazil. Indirect immunofluorescent antibody test was used to detect antibodies anti-T.gondii and anti-N. caninum. Immunoenzymatic assay and microscopic serum agglutination were used for screening antibodies anti-T.gondii and anti-Leptospira spp., respectively. The results were: 67.02% of the samples reactive for T.gondii and 1.38% for N. caninum, both without statistically significant variables. For Leptospira spp. the results indicated seroprevalence of 23.11%. The analysis of the variables without distinction of serovar showed association for intrinsic characteristics as breed, age, nutritional status and dog category. The extrinsic variables as city region and access to the street presented association (p<0.05). The most prevalent serovars were: Canicola 59.47%; Bratislava 13.07% and Butembo 15.68%. Variables that make up the adjusted multiple analysis model using Leptospira spp. were: age, breed and nutritional status; serovar Canicola, sex, nutritional status and area (p<0.05); serovar Bratislava, lymphadenomegaly and presence of fleas (p<0.05). Given the results obtained, dogs can be used as sentinels for toxoplasmosis and leptospirosis in Foz do Iguaçu and other cities with similar outcomes. In addition, preventive measures should be taken by health authorities because they are zoonoses and humans are also at risk.


Resumo Este estudo avaliou a soroprevalência de Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum e Leptospira spp. em cães de Foz do Iguaçu, Paraná, Brasil. O teste de imunofluorescência indireta foi utilizado para detectar anticorpos anti-T. gondii e anti-N. caninum. Ensaio imunoenzimático e soroaglutinação microscópica foram utilizados para pesquisa de anticorpos anti-T. gondii e anti-Leptospira spp., respectivamente. Os resultados obtidos foram: 67,02% (435/649) das amostras reativas para T. gondii e, 1,38% (9/649) para N. caninum, ambas com ausência de variáveis significativas estatisticamente. Para Leptospira spp. os resultados indicaram soroprevalência de 23,11% (153/649). A análise das variáveis sem distinção de sorovar mostraram associação para caraterísticas intrísecas como raça, idade, estado nutricional e categoria de cães. Para as variáveis extrínsecas, a região da cidade e ter acesso à rua mostraram associação estatística (p<0,05). Os sorovares mais prevalentes foram: Canicola com 59,47% (91/153); Bratislava 13,07% (20/153) e Butembo 15,68% (24/153). As variáveis que compõem o modelo de análise multivariada ajustada usando como desfecho Leptospira spp. foram: idade, raça, estado nutricional e área. Para o sorovar Canicola, as variáveis significantes (p<0,05) foram sexo, estado nutricional e área; para o sorovar Bratislava, as variáveis significantes (p<0,05) foram linfadenomegalia e presença de pulgas. Dos resultados obtidos, cães podem ser usados como sentinelas para infecção por T. gondii e Leptospira spp. na cidade de Foz do Iguaçu e em outras cidades com desfechos similares. Além disso, medidas preventivas devem ser tomadas pelas autoridades de saúde, pois são zoonoses e os seres humanos também estão em risco.


Assuntos
Animais , Cães , Toxoplasmose Animal/epidemiologia , Coccidiose/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Leptospirose/veterinária , Toxoplasma/imunologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Toxoplasmose Animal/diagnóstico , Fatores de Risco , Coccidiose/diagnóstico , Coccidiose/epidemiologia , Neospora/imunologia , Técnica Indireta de Fluorescência para Anticorpo , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Leptospira/imunologia , Leptospirose/diagnóstico , Leptospirose/epidemiologia , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue
18.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 28(2): 245-257, 2019 Jun 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31215610

RESUMO

This is a cross-sectional study to assess the presence of antibodies in ruminants against selected pathogens associated with reproductive disorders in cattle in four Brazilian states, including the zoonotic agent Coxiella burnetii. The used tests were Virus Neutralization Assay for IBR and BVD, Microscopic Agglutination Test for Leptospira spp., Indirect Fluorescent Antibody Test (IFAT) for C. burnetii and Toxoplasma gondii, and Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay for Neospora caninum and Trypanosoma vivax. Seropositivity for C. burnetii was 13.7% with titers from 128 to 131,072; 57.8% for BoHV-1, with titers between 2 and 1,024; 47.1% for BVDV-1a, with titers from 10 to 5,120; 89.2% for N. caninum; 50% for T. vivax; and 52.0% for Leptospira spp., with titers between 100 to 800 (the following serovars were found: Tarassovi, Grippotyphosa, Canicola, Copenhageni, Wolffi, Hardjo, Pomona and Icterohaemorrhagiae); 19.6% for T. gondii with titer of 40. This is the first study that has identified C. burnetii in cattle associated with BoHV and BVDV, N. caninum, Leptospira spp., T. gondii and T. vivax. Thus, future studies should be conducted to investigate how widespread this pathogen is in Brazilian cattle herds.


Assuntos
Doença das Mucosas por Vírus da Diarreia Viral Bovina/complicações , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Coccidiose/veterinária , Leptospirose/veterinária , Febre Q/veterinária , Toxoplasmose Animal/complicações , Tripanossomíase Africana/veterinária , Aborto Animal , Testes de Aglutinação , Animais , Doença das Mucosas por Vírus da Diarreia Viral Bovina/diagnóstico , Doença das Mucosas por Vírus da Diarreia Viral Bovina/epidemiologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/microbiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/virologia , Coccidiose/complicações , Coccidiose/diagnóstico , Coccidiose/epidemiologia , Coxiella burnetii/imunologia , Estudos Transversais , Vírus da Diarreia Viral Bovina/imunologia , Endometrite/etiologia , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/veterinária , Feminino , Técnica Indireta de Fluorescência para Anticorpo/veterinária , Infertilidade Feminina/etiologia , Leptospira/imunologia , Leptospirose/complicações , Leptospirose/diagnóstico , Leptospirose/epidemiologia , Neospora/imunologia , Febre Q/complicações , Febre Q/diagnóstico , Febre Q/epidemiologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Toxoplasma/imunologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/diagnóstico , Trypanosoma vivax/imunologia , Tripanossomíase Africana/complicações , Tripanossomíase Africana/diagnóstico , Tripanossomíase Africana/epidemiologia
19.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 13(5): e0007225, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31150391

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Leptospirosis is a bacterial zoonotic disease of worldwide importance, though relatively neglected in many African countries including sub Saharan Africa that is among areas with high burden of this disease. The disease is often mistaken for other febrile illnesses such as dengue, malaria, rickettsioses and enteric fever. Leptospirosis is an occupational disease likely to affect people working in environments prone to infestation with rodents which are the primary reservoir hosts of this disease. Some of the populations at risk include: sugarcane plantation workers, wetland farmers, fishermen and abattoir workers. In this study we investigated the prevalence of antibodies against Leptospira among sugarcane plantation and factory workers, fishing communities as well as among rodents and shrews in domestic and peridomestic environments within the study areas. METHODS: The study was conducted in Kagera region, northwestern Tanzania and it involved sugarcane plantation workers (cutters and weeders), sugar factory workers and the fishing community at Kagera Sugar Company in Missenyi district and Musira island in Lake Victoria, Kagera, respectively. Blood was collected from consenting human adults, and from rodents and shrews (insectivores) captured live using Sherman traps. Serological detection of leptospiral antibodies in blood serum was carried out by the microscopic agglutination test (MAT). RESULTS: A total of 455 participants were recruited from the sugarcane plantation (n = 401) and fishing community (n = 54) while 31 rodents and shrews were captured. The overall prevalence of antibodies against Leptospira in human was 15.8%. Sugarcane cutters had higher seroprevalence than other sugar factory workers. Prevalent antibodies against Leptospira serovars in humans were against serovars Lora (6.8%), Sokoine (5.3%), Pomona (2.4%), Hebdomadis (1.1%) and Kenya (0.2%). Detected leptospiral serovars in reservoir hosts were Sokoine (12.5%) and Grippotyphosa (4.2%). Serovar Sokoine was detected both in humans and small mammals. CONCLUSION: Leptospirosis is a public health threat affecting populations at risk, such as sugarcane plantation workers and fishing communities. Public awareness targeting risk occupational groups is much needed for mitigation of leptospirosis in the study areas and other vulnerable populations in Tanzania and elsewhere.


Assuntos
Leptospirose/microbiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Reservatórios de Doenças/microbiologia , Fazendeiros/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Pesqueiros , Humanos , Leptospira/classificação , Leptospira/genética , Leptospira/imunologia , Leptospira/isolamento & purificação , Leptospirose/sangue , Leptospirose/epidemiologia , Leptospirose/transmissão , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Roedores/imunologia , Roedores/microbiologia , Saccharum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Musaranhos/imunologia , Musaranhos/microbiologia , Tanzânia/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem , Zoonoses/sangue , Zoonoses/microbiologia
20.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 101(1): 45-50, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31162016

RESUMO

Waterborne pathogens, associated with poverty and poor sanitary conditions, are a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. There are limited data on the epidemiology of waterborne pathogens in indigenous populations living in the Amazon region. We did a cross-sectional survey in two indigenous Shuar communities in the Amazon region of Ecuador in which we documented the presence of pathogens representing different sources of environmental contamination of water. We detected protozoa and soil-transmitted helminths by microscopy of fecal samples and the presence of IgG antibodies to hepatitis A and Leptospira spp. in blood samples from individuals older than 2 years and collected data by questionnaire on sociodemographic factors and knowledge of infectious diseases. Seroprevalence for hepatitis A and Leptospira spp. were 98.1% (95% CI: 97.0-99.8) and 50.0% (95% CI: 43.3-56.6), respectively, whereas 62.6% (95% CI: 55.8-69.4) had enteric parasites in stool samples. In participants older than 6 years, eight of 10 had evidence of infection with or exposure to at least one of the pathogens studied. Although prevalence of pathogens varied by age, it did not vary significantly by gender, temporal migration, illiteracy, perceived morbidity, receipt of conditional cash transfers, water boiling practices, poor housing conditions, and anthropometric status. These findings indicate a high level of contamination of drinking water by human pathogens in these indigenous communities and the need for interventions to improve access to and use of clean drinking water in these marginalized communities.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Hepatite A/epidemiologia , Leptospirose/epidemiologia , Microbiologia da Água , Água/parasitologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Equador/epidemiologia , Hepatite A/sangue , Vírus da Hepatite A/imunologia , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Povos Indígenas , Leptospira/imunologia , Leptospirose/sangue , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pobreza , Saneamento , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Abastecimento de Água , Adulto Jovem
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