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1.
Cent Eur J Public Health ; 29(3): 187-190, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34623117

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Potential effect of three environmental variables (population density of rodents, global weather in the form of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index, and acorn crop) on human morbidity rate of three zoonoses: tick-borne encephalitis (TBE), leptospirosis and tularaemia were analysed in the Czech Republic for the period 1970-1990. METHODS: The Pearson's correlation analysis was used. RESULTS: The correlation analysis revealed that the significant factor for explaining annual morbidity rates of these zoonoses was the abundance of common voles (Microtus arvalis) in the current year (for leptospirosis) or in the previous calendar year (for TBE and tularaemia). CONCLUSIONS: The two other environmental variables tested (NAO index and acorn production) do not seem to play a significant role in these zoonoses in Central Europe.


Assuntos
Encefalite Transmitida por Carrapatos , Leptospirose , Tularemia , Animais , Encefalite Transmitida por Carrapatos/epidemiologia , Incidência , Leptospirose/epidemiologia , Tempo (Meteorologia)
2.
Theriogenology ; 174: 121-123, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34428677

RESUMO

This study aims to evaluate the association between reproductive disorders and the main serogroups of Leptospira spp. in dairy herds. Blood samples from 216 cows from nine herds were collected for a Microscopic Agglutination Test (MAT), and a reproductive follow-up with ultrasonography was carried out monthly for at least 12 months. A total of 75 (16.5%) cows were reactive, while seroreactivity to a herd level ranged from 16.0% to 52.8%. Out of the nine herds, in five (55.0%) Sejroe was found to be the predominant serogroup and in four (45.0%) it was Icterohaemorrhagiae. The major reproductive problems identified were embryonic death (ED) and abortions. All herds presented ED and abortion was observed in three (33.3%). Herds with high seroreactivity (>20%) had more reproductive problems. Those with a predominance of Sejroe were associated with ED (P < 0.05), while those with Icterohaemorrhagiae were associated with abortion. The results show that different leptospiral strains lead to different reproductive problems, as well as showing that the main problem - ED - is caused by leptospirosis, particularly for those determined by strains of the serogroup Sejroe.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos , Leptospira , Leptospirose , Aborto Animal/epidemiologia , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Feminino , Leptospirose/epidemiologia , Leptospirose/veterinária , Gravidez , Sorogrupo
3.
Sci Total Environ ; 799: 149102, 2021 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34388889

RESUMO

Infectious disease epidemics are plaguing the world and a lot of research is focused on the development of models to reproduce disease dynamics for eco-environmental and biological investigation, and disease management. Leptospirosis is an example of a neglected zoonosis strongly mediated by ecohydrological dynamics with emerging endemic and epidemic patterns worldwide in both animal and human populations. By accounting for large heterogeneities of affected areas we show how exponential endemics and scale-free epidemics are largely predictable and linked to common socio-environmental features via scaling laws with different exponents that inform about vulnerability factors. This led to the development of a novel pattern-oriented integrated model that can be used as an early-warning signal (EWS) tool for endemic-epidemic regime classification, risk determinant attribution, and near real-time forecast of outbreaks. Forecasts are grounded on expected outbreak recurrence time dependent on exceedance probabilities and statistical EWS that sense outbreak onset. A stochastic spatially-explicit model is shown to comprehensively predict outbreak dynamics (early sensing, timing, magnitude, decay, and eco-environmental determinants) and derive a spreading factor characterizing endemics and epidemics, where average over maximum rainfall is the critical factor characterizing disease transitions. Dynamically, case cross-correlation considering neighboring communities senses 2-weeks in advance outbreaks. Eco-environmental scaling relationships highlight how predicted host suitability and topographic index can be used as epidemiological footprints to effectively distinguish and control Leptospirosis regimes and areas dependent on hydro-climatological dynamics as the main trigger. The spatio-temporal scale-invariance of epidemics - underpinning persistent criticality and neutrality or independence among areas - is emphasized by the high accuracy in reproducing sequence and magnitude of cases via reliable surveillance. Further investigations of robustness and universality of eco-environmental determinants are required; nonetheless a comprehensive and computationally simple EWS method for the full characterization of Leptospirosis is provided. The tool is extendable to other climate-sensitive zoonoses to define vulnerability factors and predict outbreaks useful for optimal disease risk prevention and control.


Assuntos
Leptospirose , Animais , Clima , Surtos de Doenças , Previsões , Humanos , Leptospirose/epidemiologia , Zoonoses
4.
Rev Soc Bras Med Trop ; 54: e00762021, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34231771

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Leptospirosis and brucellosis cause immunosuppression that worsens the clinical condition of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). We investigated the serological profile and risk factors of PLWHA. METHODS: Serum samples (n=238) were researched for Brucella spp. antibodies using Rose Bengal and tube agglutination tests and Leptospira spp. antibodies using the microscopic agglutination test. RESULTS: All samples were negative for Brucella spp. For leptospirosis, four samples (1.69%) were positive, and Andamana was the prevalent serovar. CONCLUSIONS: Low or no detection of these zoonoses does not reduce their importance in PLWHA. Vigilant, educational, and preventive measures should be adopted.


Assuntos
Brucelose , Infecções por HIV , Leptospira , Leptospirose , Testes de Aglutinação , Animais , Anticorpos Antibacterianos , Brasil/epidemiologia , Brucelose/complicações , Brucelose/epidemiologia , HIV , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Hospitais , Humanos , Leptospirose/complicações , Leptospirose/epidemiologia , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Fatores de Risco
5.
Math Biosci Eng ; 18(4): 3046-3072, 2021 04 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34198375

RESUMO

Japanese encephalitis (JE) is a mosquito-borne neglected tropical disease. JE is mostly found in rural areas where people usually keep cattle at home for their needs. Cattle in households reduce JE virus infections since they distract vectors and act as a dead-end host for the virus. However, the presence of cattle introduces risk of leptospirosis infections in humans. Leptospirosis is a bacterial disease that spreads through direct or indirect contact of urine of the infected cattle. Thus, cattle have both positive and negative impacts on human disease burden. This study uses a mathematical model to study the joint dynamics of these two diseases in the presence of cattle and to identify the net impact of cattle on the annual disease burden in JE-prevalent areas. Analysis indicates that the presence of cattle helps to reduce the overall disease burden in JE-prevalent areas. However, this reduction is dominated by the vector's feeding pattern. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to examine the joint dynamics of JE and leptospirosis.


Assuntos
Vírus da Encefalite Japonesa (Espécie) , Encefalite Japonesa , Leptospirose , Animais , Bovinos , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Encefalite Japonesa/epidemiologia , Encefalite Japonesa/veterinária , Leptospirose/epidemiologia , Leptospirose/veterinária
6.
J Helminthol ; 95: e34, 2021 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34250883

RESUMO

Strongyloidiasis and leptospirosis are neglected tropical diseases that have affected many countries across the world. In this study, we evaluated the seroprevalence of Strongyloides stercoralis among patients with leptospirosis in northern Iran. We evaluated 156 laboratory- or clinically confirmed leptospirosis cases. The overall seroprevalence of S. stercoralis was 32.0% (95% confidence interval (CI): 27.4-36.5%, 50/156). Seropositivity was significantly associated with agricultural activities (odds ratio (OR): 2.84, 95% CI: 1.0-8.77) and gastrointestinal disorders (OR: 2.4, 95% CI: 1.1-4.9). Laboratory findings indicated that seropositivity of S. stercoralis was significantly associated with decreased levels of platelet and elevated levels of creatinine, alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase (P < 0.05). Our findings suggested a higher exposure to S. stercoralis larvae among patients with leptospirosis. The public health and medical communities may benefit from this research through preventive measures to improve farmers' knowledge and awareness regarding strongyloidiasis and leptospirosis and the associated risk factors.


Assuntos
Leptospirose , Strongyloides stercoralis , Animais , Estudos Transversais , Fezes , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Leptospirose/epidemiologia , População Rural , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Estrongiloidíase/epidemiologia
7.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 24: e210034, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34105597

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to describe the incidence and proportional lethality of human leptospirosis in the municipality of São Paulo, between 2007 and 2016, according to sociodemographic factors and characteristics of the disease, and to assess the temporal trends of incidence, according to age group and region of residence. METHODS: Proportional distributions of leptospirosis cases of residents in the municipality were built and regression models with a Binomial Negative response were adjusted. RESULTS: 2,201 cases of leptospirosis were registered, most of them being males (82%), aged between 20 to 59 years (64.6%), white (39%) or brown (32.8%), residing in the South (27.8%), East (23.8%) and North (18.5%) regions. The overall lethality was 15.1%. The risk was higher in the 20 to 59 age group. There was a downward trend in incidence in all age groups and regions, estimated at 5.6% per year. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the downward trend in incidence, leptospirosis is a serious disease with high lethality, affecting mainly male individuals in the age groups considered economically active and living in the peripheral regions of the municipality.


Assuntos
Leptospirose , Adulto , Brasil/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Leptospirose/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
8.
PLoS One ; 16(5): e0248032, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33989292

RESUMO

In tropical countries such as Sri Lanka, where leptospirosis-a deadly disease with a high mortality rate-is endemic, prediction is required for public health planning and resource allocation. Routinely collected meteorological data may offer an effective means of making such predictions. This study included monthly leptospirosis and meteorological data from January 2007 to April 2019 from Sri Lanka. Factor analysis was first used with rainfall data to classify districts into meteorological zones. We used a seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average (SARIMA) model for univariate predictions and an autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) model for multivariable analysis of leptospirosis with monthly average rainfall, temperature, relative humidity (RH), solar radiation (SR), and the number of rainy days/month (RD). Districts were classified into wet (WZ) and dry (DZ) zones, and highlands (HL) based on the factor analysis of rainfall data. The WZ had the highest leptospirosis incidence; there was no difference in the incidence between the DZ and HL. Leptospirosis was fluctuated positively with rainfall, RH and RD, whereas temperature and SR were fluctuated negatively. The best-fitted SARIMA models in the three zones were different from each other. Despite its known association, rainfall was positively significant in the WZ only at lag 5 (P = 0.03) but was negatively associated at lag 2 and 3 (P = 0.04). RD was positively associated for all three zones. Temperature was positively associated at lag 0 for the WZ and HL (P < 0.009) and was negatively associated at lag 1 for the WZ (P = 0.01). There was no association with RH in contrast to previous studies. Based on altitude and rainfall data, meteorological variables could effectively predict the incidence of leptospirosis with different models for different climatic zones. These predictive models could be effectively used in public health planning purposes.


Assuntos
Clima , Leptospirose/epidemiologia , Modelos Teóricos , Humanos , Sri Lanka , Temperatura
9.
Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis ; 77: 101673, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34029859

RESUMO

The isolation of leptospires from buffaloes worldwide is still limited to a few strains. Thus, the aim of this study was to describe the first Leptospira isolate from buffalo urine, assigned to the Sejroe serogroup, which does not belong to the Wolffi subgroup, traditionally isolated in Brazil. A total of 244 urine samples of water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) raised in the Brazilian Amazon were subjected to bacteriological culturing and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the detection of leptospires. The obtained isolate was characterized by serogrouping using polyclonal antibodies, partial DNA sequencing, Hardjo-Bovis-specific PCR, multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA/VNTR) and experimental infection in hamsters. PCR was performed on the urine samples; 11/244 were positive (4.5 %) for Leptospira, and only one isolate was recovered (0.4 %). Regarding characterization, the isolate was assigned to the Sejroe serogroup with high titers (12,800) for the Saxkoebing and Sejroe serovar antisera. The isolate was negative for Hardjo-Bovis-specific PCR, and the species Leptospira borgpetersenii was identified by DNA sequencing. The MLVA results showed that the VNTR profile of the isolate was 1-2-5, compatible with that of serovars Sejroe/Istrica. In the experimental infection in hamsters, the animals did not develop clinical signs, and no macroscopic lesions were observed on the organs at necropsy; however, the strain was detected in the kidneys, uterus, and testicles of the animals. The isolate described herein highlights infection by Sejroe strains that may be overlooked in buffaloes and that may be different from those normally isolated and used in serological studies.


Assuntos
Leptospira , Leptospirose , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Búfalos , Feminino , Leptospira/genética , Leptospirose/diagnóstico , Leptospirose/epidemiologia , Leptospirose/veterinária , Sorogrupo
10.
Cad Saude Publica ; 37(5): e00100119, 2021.
Artigo em Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34008697

RESUMO

Leptospirosis is related to problems with environmental sanitation, and the incidence tends to increase during flood periods. Considering issues related to climate change, floods can be expected to increase. Floods do not affect populations homogeneously, and communities with worse socioeconomic conditions tend to be impacted more heavily. In order to determine whether the number of floods increases the incidence of leptospirosis and its relationship to contextual variables, the study used socioeconomic, environmental, and disease occurrence data at the municipal (county) level. Municipalities suffering problems with sewage disposal showed a higher risk of leptospirosis incidence. Total flooding since the municipality's declaration of flood emergency was an important risk marker for leptospirosis incidence. Regression tree modeling proved useful for estimating leptospirosis incidence in Brazil.


Assuntos
Inundações , Leptospirose , Brasil/epidemiologia , Cidades/epidemiologia , Mineração de Dados , Humanos , Leptospirose/epidemiologia
11.
Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg ; 115(9): 944-946, 2021 09 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33823550

RESUMO

A significant decrease in dengue fever cases and a contrasting increase in leptospirosis cases were reported for the second quarter of 2020 compared with 2019 in Sri Lanka. In the absence of significant environmental and weather-related differences to account for these changes in incidence, we investigated the possibility that the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on public health, social behaviour and the restrictions imposed during the lockdown influenced the fluctuations in dengue and leptospirosis infections.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Dengue , Leptospirose , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Dengue/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Humanos , Leptospirose/epidemiologia , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Sri Lanka/epidemiologia
12.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0250505, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33914782

RESUMO

In the summer of 2017, an estimated 745,000 Rohingya fled to Bangladesh in what has been described as one of the largest and fastest growing refugee crises in the world. Among numerous health concerns, an outbreak of acute jaundice syndrome (AJS) was detected by the disease surveillance system in early 2018 among the refugee population. This paper describes the investigation into the increase in AJS cases, the process and results of the investigation, which were strongly suggestive of a large outbreak due to hepatitis A virus (HAV). An enhanced serological investigation was conducted between 28 February to 26 March 2018 to determine the etiologies and risk factors associated with the outbreak. A total of 275 samples were collected from 18 health facilities reporting AJS cases. Blood samples were collected from all patients fulfilling the study specific case definition and inclusion criteria, and tested for antibody responses using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Out of the 275 samples, 206 were positive for one of the agents tested. The laboratory results confirmed multiple etiologies including 154 (56%) samples tested positive for hepatitis A, 1 (0.4%) positive for hepatitis E, 36 (13%) positive for hepatitis B, 25 (9%) positive for hepatitis C, and 14 (5%) positive for leptospirosis. Among all specimens tested 24 (9%) showed evidence of co-infections with multiple etiologies. Hepatitis A and E are commonly found in refugee camps and have similar clinical presentations. In the absence of robust testing capacity when the epidemic was identified through syndromic reporting, a particular concern was that of a hepatitis E outbreak, for which immunity tends to be limited, and which may be particularly severe among pregnant women. This report highlights the challenges of identifying causative agents in such settings and the resources required to do so. Results from the month-long enhanced investigation did not point out widespread hepatitis E virus (HEV) transmission, but instead strongly suggested a large-scale hepatitis A outbreak of milder consequences, and highlighted a number of other concomitant causes of AJS (acute hepatitis B, hepatitis C, Leptospirosis), albeit most likely at sporadic level. Results strengthen the need for further water and sanitation interventions and are a stark reminder of the risk of other epidemics transmitted through similar routes in such settings, particularly dysentery and cholera. It also highlights the need to ensure clinical management capacity for potentially chronic conditions in this vulnerable population.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças , Vírus da Hepatite A/isolamento & purificação , Hepatite A/epidemiologia , Icterícia/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Hepacivirus/genética , Hepacivirus/patogenicidade , Hepatite A/sangue , Hepatite A/virologia , Vírus da Hepatite A/patogenicidade , Hepatite B/sangue , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Hepatite B/virologia , Vírus da Hepatite B/genética , Vírus da Hepatite B/patogenicidade , Hepatite C/sangue , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Hepatite C/virologia , Hepatite E/sangue , Hepatite E/epidemiologia , Hepatite E/virologia , Vírus da Hepatite E/genética , Vírus da Hepatite E/patogenicidade , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Icterícia/sangue , Icterícia/patologia , Icterícia/virologia , Leptospirose/sangue , Leptospirose/epidemiologia , Leptospirose/parasitologia , Leptospirose/patologia , Masculino , Gravidez , Campos de Refugiados , Refugiados , Fatores de Risco , Populações Vulneráveis
13.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0249987, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33886632

RESUMO

Leptospirosis is a worldwide zoonosis caused by the pathogenic Leptospira spp. Canine and human leptospirosis sometimes occur on Amami Oshima Island, located in the Nansei Archipelago, southwestern Japan; however, information on the causative Leptospira spp. on this island is quite limited. This study aimed to investigate the molecular and serological characteristics of Leptospira spp. isolated from wild animals and a dog in Amami Oshima Island. We obtained seven Leptospira strains by culturing kidney tissues of wild animals, such as black rats (2), wild boars (3), and rabbit (1) as well as blood from a symptomatic dog. Using flaB sequencing and microscopic agglutination test with antisera for 18 serovars, the isolates were identified as Leptospira borgpetersenii serogroups Javanica (black rat), L. interrogans serogroup Australis (black rat and dog), and L. interrogans serogroup Hebdomadis (wild boar and rabbit). The sequence type (ST) of L. borgpetersenii serogroup Javanica was determined to be ST143 via multilocus sequence typing (MLST) using seven housekeeping genes. For L. interrogans, MLST and multiple-locus variable-tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) revealed identical ST and MLVA types in rat and canine isolates, whereas two STs and MLVA types were identified in wild boar isolates. The STs and MLVA types of rabbit and one of the wild boars were identical. Bacterial culture and flaB-nested polymerase chain reaction demonstrated a high rate of Leptospira infection in wild boars (58.3%, 7/12), whereas Leptospira spp. were detected in 4.8% of black rats (2/42). This study revealed diverse Leptospira genotype and serotype maintenance in wild mammals on Amami Oshima Island. MLST and MLVA indicated that black rats were a source of canine infection. Wild boars carry L. interrogans and are considered an important maintenance host because antibodies against serogroup Hebdomadis were detected in human and canine leptospirosis patients on this island.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens/microbiologia , Flagelina/genética , Leptospira/classificação , Leptospirose/epidemiologia , Animais , Cães , Feminino , Japão/epidemiologia , Rim/microbiologia , Leptospira/genética , Leptospira/isolamento & purificação , Leptospirose/veterinária , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus/veterinária , Coelhos , Ratos , Sus scrofa
14.
Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg ; 115(9): 1088-1090, 2021 09 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33891701

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acute encephalitis syndrome (AES) is a major public health concern in India, causing febrile illness principally associated with viral infection. Bacteria-like scrub typhus and leptospirosis also cause acute febrile illness. Therefore, this study was conceived to address the possible etiological agents contributing to sporadic AES in a tertiary care center in Odisha, India. METHOD: This was a prospective hospital-based study that enrolled 92 consecutive patients with clinically diagnosed AES whose blood/cerebrospinal fluid samples were tested for IgM antibodies to dengue, Japanese encephalitis (JE), herpes simplex virus (HSV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), leptospirosis and scrub typhus. RESULTS: Viral antibodies to dengue were detected in three (3.26%) cases, HSV1 in four (4.34%) and HSV2 in three (3.26%) cases. Significantly, antibodies to EBV in 22 (23.591%) and to JE in 27 (29.34%) cases were detected. Notably, 30 (32.60%) and 11(12.0%) of patients had IgM antibodies to leptospirosis and scrub typhus, respectively. CONCLUSION: This observation indicates an association of leptospirosis and scrub typhus infection in sporadic cases of AES, besides other viruses.


Assuntos
Encefalopatia Aguda Febril , Infecções por Vírus Epstein-Barr , Leptospirose , Orientia tsutsugamushi , Tifo por Ácaros , Encefalopatia Aguda Febril/epidemiologia , Encefalopatia Aguda Febril/etiologia , Herpesvirus Humano 4 , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Leptospirose/complicações , Leptospirose/diagnóstico , Leptospirose/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Tifo por Ácaros/complicações , Tifo por Ácaros/diagnóstico , Tifo por Ácaros/epidemiologia , Centros de Atenção Terciária
15.
Trop Doct ; 51(3): 415-421, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33832378

RESUMO

Leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease of public health importance in India. A country-level evidence gap map was developed to identify gaps on epidemiology of leptospirosis. It is the first such on leptospirosis globally and on any single disease condition in India. The steps for development of evidence gap map were development of a framework to map evidence, retrieval of evidence, data extraction parameters and mapping of available evidence in evidence gap map framework. The prevalence evidence gap map consisted of 157 studies (102 in humans, 55 in animals, and 12 in both). The evidence gap map on risk factors had 120 studies (102 in humans, 11 in animals and 7 in both). There were inter-state differences in availability of research and disparity between animal and human research. Research on high-risk groups was limited and studies did not use the One Health approach to identify epidemiology, which can help understand the issue more comprehensively. The study demonstrates the potential of evidence gap maps to inform research priorities.


Assuntos
Leptospirose/epidemiologia , Animais , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Leptospirose/diagnóstico , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Zoonoses/epidemiologia
16.
J Wildl Dis ; 57(2): 393-398, 2021 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33822151

RESUMO

Serum samples of 11 Bengal tigers (Panthera tigris tigris) from Chitwan National Park in Nepal, collected between 2011-17, were evaluated for the presence of antibodies to eight diseases commonly investigated in large felids. This initial serologic survey was done to establish baseline information to understand the exposure of Nepal's free-ranging tiger population to these diseases. Tiger serum samples collected opportunistically during encounters such as translocation, human conflict, and injury were placed in cold storage for later use. Frozen serum samples were assessed for feline coronavirus (FCoV), feline immunodeficiency virus, feline leukemia virus, feline herpesvirus (FHV), canine distemper virus, canine parvovirus-2 (CPV-2), leptospirosis (LEP; seven serovars), and toxoplasmosis (TOX). Six tigers were found to be positive for LEP, eight for CPV-2, five for FHV, one for FCoV, and 10 for TOX. Tigers, like other wild felids, have been exposed to these common pathogens, but further research is needed to determine the significance of these pathogens to the Nepali population.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis/veterinária , Tigres , Animais , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Doenças Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis/imunologia , Feminino , Leptospirose/epidemiologia , Leptospirose/imunologia , Leptospirose/veterinária , Masculino , Nepal/epidemiologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/epidemiologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/imunologia , Viroses/epidemiologia , Viroses/imunologia , Viroses/veterinária
17.
J Int Med Res ; 49(4): 3000605211004020, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33823643

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the seroprevalence of Leptospira immunoglobulin (Ig)G and IgM antibodies and its association with the characteristics of the study population from the northern Mexican city of Durango, Mexico. METHODS: Through a cross-sectional study design, inhabitants of Durango City, Mexico were surveyed between June 2018 and November 2018. Serum samples from the subjects were analysed for anti-Leptospira IgG and IgM antibodies using commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Sociodemographic, clinical, behavioural and housing characteristics were recorded. Data were analysed by bivariate and multivariate analyses. RESULTS: The study enrolled 413 people, of which 124 (30.0%) and 137 (33.2%) were positive for anti-Leptospira IgG antibodies and anti-Leptospira IgM antibodies, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed that Leptospira seropositivity was associated with professional occupation, alcohol consumption, ill clinical status, memory impairment and a history of surgery. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to report the seroepidemiology of Leptospira infection in an urban general population in the north of Mexico. The seroprevalence of Leptospira infection found was higher than those previously reported in Mexican studies.


Assuntos
Leptospirose , Cidades , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Leptospirose/diagnóstico , Leptospirose/epidemiologia , México/epidemiologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33802554

RESUMO

Leptospirosis is a worldwide-spread zoonosis causing disease and death in dogs and in humans. A Leptospiral infection has been recorded in several wild carnivore species in Europe, but tissue pathological changes were not commonly described. The Grey wolf (Canis lupus) has been expanding its distribution range in north-eastern Italy during the last decade. A young wolf, representing the first individual handled in the region, was found road-killed and then submitted to necropsy. Pathological changes included erosive lesions of gingival mucosa, mild liver enlargement, and multifocal degenerative-necrotic areas along with hyperemic reactive lesions; multifocal interstitial nephritis and multifocal lung hemorrhages were observed. A Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) able to detect pathogenic species of Leptospira performed on a kidney sample was positive. Serological reactions for serogroup Gryppotyphosa (1:6400), Pomona (1:800), and Icterohaemorrhagiae (1:200) were evidenced by MAT. Genotyping by Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST) performed on detected Leptospira characterized it as belonging to Sequence Type (ST) 117, which refers to L. kirschneri, serogroup Pomona, serovar Mozdok. Regardless of the role of Leptospira infection as an eventual predisposing factor to the road killing of this wolf, to the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of Leptospira-induced pathology in a wolf in Europe. Surveys on Leptospira infection in free-ranging wildlife species should be pursued in order to achieve further epidemiological knowledge on the circulation of the Leptospira strain.


Assuntos
Leptospira , Leptospirose , Lobos , Animais , Cães , Exposição Ambiental , Europa (Continente) , Itália/epidemiologia , Leptospira/genética , Leptospirose/epidemiologia , Leptospirose/veterinária , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus , Sorogrupo
19.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 53(2): 194, 2021 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33666800

RESUMO

At present, little is known regarding the prevalence of buffalo leptospirosis worldwide, especially with respect to which Leptospira strains may infect this animal species. Furthermore, most investigations into this disease in buffaloes have only been performed with serological studies. In Brazil, particularly in the Amazon, buffalo production is growing and is just as important as cattle production, although few studies have been performed on buffalo compared to cattle. Thus, the aim of this study was to isolate and characterise Leptospira strains from river buffaloes raised in the Brazilian Amazon region. We collected 109 kidney samples from slaughtered buffaloes raised in the Amazon Delta region of Brazil. The samples were analysed by bacteriological culture for the isolation of leptospires, and the obtained isolates were serologically and molecularly characterised by microscopic agglutination test (MAT), DNA sequencing and multiple locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA). Five isolates were obtained, and in serogrouping analyses, these isolates were only reactive for the Pomona serogroup, with an observed titre of 25,600. The DNA sequencing results revealed that all the isolates belonged to the species Leptospira interrogans, and the MLVA results showed that the VNTR loci 4, 7 and 10 profile of all the isolates was 4-1-10. In this study, we observed that Pomona serogroup strains circulate in buffaloes in the Amazon, showing that in Brazil, buffaloes can be affected by Leptospira strains other than the Sejroe group, which are adapted to cattle.


Assuntos
Búfalos/microbiologia , Leptospira interrogans/classificação , Leptospira interrogans/isolamento & purificação , Leptospirose/veterinária , Rios , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Feminino , Leptospira interrogans/genética , Leptospirose/epidemiologia , Masculino
20.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 15(3): e0009272, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33735202

RESUMO

Leptospirosis is a ubiquitous zoonotic disease and a major clinical challenge owing to the multitude of clinical presentations and manifestations that are possibly attributable to the diversity of Leptospira, the understanding of which is key to study the epidemiology of this emerging global disease threat. Sri Lanka is a hotspot for leptospirosis with high levels of endemicity as well as annual epidemics. We carried out a prospective study of Leptospira diversity in Sri Lanka, covering the full range of climatic zones, geography, and clinical severity. Samples were collected for leptospiral culture from 1,192 patients from 15 of 25 districts in Sri Lanka over two and half years. Twenty-five isolates belonging to four pathogenic Leptospira species were identified: L. interrogans, L. borgpetersenii, L. weilii, and L. kirschneri. At least six serogroups were identified among the isolates: Autumnalis (6), Pyrogenes (4), Icterohaemorrhagiae (2), Celledoni (1), Grippotyphosa (2) and Bataviae (1). Seven isolates did not agglutinate using available antisera panels, suggesting new serogroups. Isolates were sequenced using an Illumina platform. These data add 25 new core genome sequence types and were clustered in 15 clonal groups, including 12 new clonal groups. L. borgpetersenii was found only in the dry zone and L. weilii only in the wet zone. Acute kidney injury and cardiovascular involvement were seen only with L. interrogans infections. Thrombocytopenia and liver impairment were seen in both L. interrogans and L. borgpetersenii infections. The inadequate sensitivity of culture isolation to identify infecting Leptospira species underscores the need for culture-independent typing methods for Leptospira.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana/métodos , Leptospira/classificação , Leptospira/isolamento & purificação , Leptospirose/epidemiologia , Injúria Renal Aguda/microbiologia , Adulto , Testes de Aglutinação , Animais , Doenças Cardiovasculares/microbiologia , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Epidemias , Feminino , Geografia , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Leptospira/genética , Leptospirose/microbiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Estudos Prospectivos , Sri Lanka/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/diagnóstico , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/microbiologia
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