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1.
Ann Agric Environ Med ; 27(3): 356-360, 2020 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32955214

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study is to evaluate the seroprevalence of antibodies of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (Bbsl) and Leptospira interrogans sensu lato (Lisl) and their possible concurrence in domestic cats living in variable conditions in South Moravia in the district of Brno and its environs. Additional objectives were to discover possible differences in seroprevalence between groups of cats living in different living conditions, and to determine the spectrum of Leptospira serogroups in cats in the same places. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 360 blood sera from domestic cats of 3 different sets were collected during the period 2013-2015. All samples were examined using ELISA for the detection of IgM and IgG antibodies against Bbsl, and the microscopic agglutination test (MAT) for the detection of antibodies against 8 serogroups of Lisl. RESULTS: The ELISA method determined 15.8%, 4.8% and 10.3% IgM anti-Borrelia antibodies in the patient group, shelter cats and street cats, respectively. IgG anti-Borrelia antibodies were found in 6.2%, 9.5%, 5.2%, respectively. Antibodies specific for 5 Leptospira serogroups were detected by the use of MAT in 8.8%, 9.5% and 10.3% of cats from the investigated groups. The total positivity of all examined cats for anti-Borrelia antibodies was 18.0% and for anti-Leptospira - 9.2%. CONCLUSIONS: Cats can be infected with both Bbsl and Lisl. The obtained results are exclusive to the city of Brno and its environs, and are comparable to the limited previous studies. There is a need for further studies of clinical signs of both infections and the possible transmission of Leptospira by ticks.


Assuntos
Grupo Borrelia Burgdorferi/isolamento & purificação , Doenças do Gato/epidemiologia , Leptospira interrogans/isolamento & purificação , Leptospirose/veterinária , Doença de Lyme/veterinária , Animais , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Doenças do Gato/microbiologia , Gatos , República Tcheca/epidemiologia , Leptospirose/epidemiologia , Leptospirose/microbiologia , Doença de Lyme/epidemiologia , Doença de Lyme/microbiologia , Prevalência , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
2.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 41(7): 1110-1114, 2020 Jul 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32741180

RESUMO

Objective: To understand the etiological characteristics of the patients with fever of unknown origin in Guizhou province through the isolation and identification of Leptospira interrogans and provide evidence for the control, prevention and treatment of human leptospirosis. Methods: Blood and urine samples were collected from patients with fever symptoms in Qiandongnan, an epidemic area, in Guizhou. The suspected Leptospira strains were primarily identified using pathogenic Leptospira specific G1/G2-PCR, and subsequently identified by using Leptospira serogroups specific PCR. The Leptospira strains were then genotyped with multiple locus sequence typing. MLST data based cluster analysis on the isolates and Leptospira reference strains of common serogroups were analyzed by using software NTsys 2.10e. Results: Three suspected strains of Leptospira were isolated from human blood samples, the isolation rate was 8.6%, which were designated as strain 17BX002, 17BX003 and 17AJX008. Strain 17BX002 was further identified as serogroup grippotyphosa by using Leptospira serogroup specific PCR, while the other two strains were negative (excluded as iterohaemorrhagiae, sejroe, canicola, autumnalis, grippotyphosa and hebdomadis). MLST genotyping showed that strain 17BX002 was typed as ST106, most closely clustered with Leptospira grippotyphosa, while strain 17BX003 and 17AJX008 were typed as ST96, the same as serogroup badaviae. Conclusion: There are leptospirosis cases in epidemic area of Guizhou in high incidence season, grippotyphosa and bataviae are the newly discovered serogroups of Leptospira in Guizhou.


Assuntos
Febre de Causa Desconhecida/microbiologia , Leptospira interrogans/genética , Leptospira interrogans/isolamento & purificação , Leptospirose/microbiologia , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , China/epidemiologia , Humanos , Leptospirose/epidemiologia , Leptospirose/prevenção & controle , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Sorogrupo
3.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237466, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32790762

RESUMO

In the past decade, two leptospirosis outbreaks occurred among strawberry harvesters in Germany, with 13, and 45 reported cases respectively. In both outbreaks, common voles (Microtus arvalis) infected with Leptospira kischneri serovar Grippotyphosa were identified as the most likely outbreak source. In an univariate analysis, eating unwashed strawberries was identified as one of the risk factors associated with Leptospira infection. The aim of this study was to evaluate the survival time of L. kirschneri serovar Grippotyphosa on strawberries under varying conditions. Strawberries were spiked with 5x109 of both a laboratory reference strain (strain Moskva V) and an outbreak field strain (94-6/2007) of L. kirschneri serovar Grippotyphosa sequence type 110. Survival times were investigated in a fully crossed design with three incubation times (2h, 4h, 6h and 8h) and three temperatures (15°C, 21°C and 25°C) with three replicated for each condition. A wash protocol was developed and recovered Leptospira were determined by qPCR, dark field microscopy and culturing. Viable L. kirschneri of both the reference strain and the field strain were identified in all samples at 25°C and an incubation time of 2h, but only 1/9 (11%) and 4/9 (44%) of the samples incubated at 15°C were positive, respectively. Both reference and field strain were viable only in 2/9 (22%) at 25° after 6h. After an 8h incubation, viable Leptospira could not be identified on the surface of the strawberries or within the fruit for any of the tested conditions. Based on these results, the exposure risk of consumers to viable Leptospira spp. through the consumption of strawberries bought at the retail level is most likely very low. However, there is a potential risk of Leptospira infection by consumption of strawberries on pick-your-own farms.


Assuntos
Fragaria/microbiologia , Leptospira/fisiologia , DNA Bacteriano/metabolismo , Frutas/microbiologia , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Leptospira/genética , Leptospirose/epidemiologia , Leptospirose/patologia , Microscopia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Sorogrupo , Temperatura , Fatores de Tempo
4.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(8): e0008573, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32841248

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Leptospirosis has gained much attention in Sri Lanka since its large outbreak in 2008. However, most of the cases were clinically diagnosed and information on Leptospira genotypes and serotypes currently prevailing in the country is lacking. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We retrospectively analyzed 24 Leptospira strains from human patients as well as isolated and characterized three Leptospira strains from black rats using the microscopic agglutination test with antisera for 19 serovars and multilocus sequence typing. The isolates were identified as Leptospira borgpetersenii sequence types (STs) 143 and 144; L. interrogans STs 30, 34, 43, 44, 74, 75, 80, 308, 313, 314, 316, and 317; and L. kirschneri ST318. Six of the 15 STs were identified for the first time in this study. Five serogroups such as Autumnalis, Grippotyphosa, Hebdomadis, Javanica, and Pyrogenes were detected among the isolates. Contrary to previous studies, various genotypes including novel STs were isolated during an outbreak in Southern Province. L. borgpetersenii serogroup Javanica ST143 was isolated both from a human and black rat. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study revealed that genetically diverse Leptospira strains currently circulate in Sri Lanka: some genotypes have been circulating and others have emerged recently, which may explain the recent surge of leptospirosis patients with varying clinical manifestations and frequent outbreaks of leptospirosis. Black rats were identified as the source of infection for humans, but reservoir animals for other genotypes remain unknown.


Assuntos
Genótipo , Leptospira/classificação , Leptospira/genética , Leptospira/isolamento & purificação , Leptospirose/microbiologia , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Testes de Aglutinação , Animais , Criança , DNA Bacteriano/análise , Reservatórios de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Leptospirose/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Sorogrupo , Sorotipagem , Sri Lanka/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
5.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(7): e0008437, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32701971

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Leptospirosis is one of the most significant zoonoses across the world not only because of its impact on human and animal health but also because of the economic and social impact on agrarian communities. Leptospirosis is endemic in Sri Lanka where paddy farming activities, the use of draught animals in agriculture, and peridomestic animals in urban and rural areas play important roles in maintaining the infection cycle of pathogenic Leptospira, especially concerning animals as a potential reservoir. In this study, an environmental DNA (eDNA) metabarcoding methodology was applied in two different agro-ecological regions of Sri Lanka to understand the eco-epidemiology of leptospirosis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Irrigation water samples were collected in Kandy District (wet zone mid-country region 2) and Girandurukotte, Badulla District (intermediate zone low-country region 2); and analysed for the presence of pathogenic Leptospira, associated microbiome and the potential reservoir animals. Briefly, we generated PCR products for high-throughput sequencing of multiple amplicons through next-generation sequencing. The analysis of eDNA showed different environmental microbiomes in both regions and a higher diversity of Leptospira species circulating in Kandy than in Girandurukotte. Moreover, the number of sequence reads of pathogenic Leptospira species associated with clinical cases such as L. interrogans was higher in Kandy than in Girandurukotte. Kandy also showed more animal species associated with pathogenic bacterial species than Girandurukotte. Finally, several pathogenic bacterial species including Arcobacter cryaerophilus, responsible for abortion in animals, was shown to be associated with pathogenic Leptospira. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Leptospirosis has been considered to be endemic in wet regions, consistently, leptospiral sequences were detected strongly in Kandy. The great Leptospira species diversity in Kandy observed in this study shows that the etiological agents of leptospirosis in Sri Lanka might be underestimated. Furthermore, our eDNA metabarcoding can be used to discriminate bacterial and animal species diversity in different regions and to explore environmental microbiomes to identify other associated bacterial pathogens in the environment.


Assuntos
Água Doce/microbiologia , Leptospira/isolamento & purificação , Leptospirose/epidemiologia , Leptospirose/microbiologia , Irrigação Agrícola , Animais , DNA Bacteriano/genética , DNA Ambiental/genética , Humanos , Leptospira/classificação , Leptospira/genética , Filogenia , Sri Lanka/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/microbiologia , Zoonoses/transmissão
6.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 23: e200041, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32491052

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Brazil has registered more than 62,000 confirmed cases of leptospirosis between 2001 and 2017, with more than 2,000 cases confirmed in the State of Pará. Despite a large number of cases, no study has been conducted to trace the spatio-temporal profile of the disease. METHODOLOGY: Confirmed cases of leptospirosis from 2001 to 2017 from the state of Pará were the basis for this space-time study. The database of the Department of Informatics of the Ministry of Health was used to access data on leptospirosis. The spatio-temporal analysis was performed in the SaTScan software for the detection of clusters, and maps were generated in the QGIS software. RESULTS: The municipalities of Belém and Santarém were among the ones with the highest incidence rates of leptospirosis for the whole study period. Increased number of cases in Soure, Inhangapi, São João da Ponta and Magalhães Barata, Ponta de Pedras, Breves, Bragança, Castanhal, and São Domingos do Capim were identified in different time periods. Santarém and Belém are the main foci of leptospirosis because they are the most urbanized and densely populated municipalities in the State. The cases found in smaller municipalities may be associated with periods of more frequent rainfall and circulation of Leptospira sp. in marsupials and cattle, in the northeastern part of the State. CONCLUSION: Further studies are needed to help identify the risk factors that contribute to the occurrence of leptospirosis in the State of Pará, particularly in areas with lower population density.


Assuntos
Leptospirose/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Brasil/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cidades , Feminino , Geografia , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Método de Monte Carlo , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , População Rural , Distribuição por Sexo , Análise Espaço-Temporal , Fatores de Tempo , População Urbana , Adulto Jovem
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32520210

RESUMO

Leptospirosis is a reemerging zoonosis caused by bacteria of the genus Leptospira sp. with global importance in the medical and veterinary fields, being responsible for about 59 thousand deaths each year in the world. The use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) in the health sector is propitious and has been adopted by human and animal health professionals as an important tool in spatial analyses of health. The objective of this study was to conduct a systematic review on the geoprocessing and spatial analysis techniques adopted for mapping risk areas of human and animal leptospirosis. The articles were collected on scientific platforms by entering the following terms: SIG/GIS, leptospirose/leptospirosis, area de risco/risk area and distribuicao espacial/spatial distribution, and included in the study if they met the following criteria: a) publication in the period from 1998 to 2017; b) identification of risk areas and/or spatial distribution of leptospirosis as one of the research topics; and c) application of GIS in the methodology. As a result, we found 40 articles, published by 15 different countries, which adopted GIS for the spatial analysis and identification of risk areas of leptospirosis. Among these, only 45% (18) conducted an spatial statistical analysis. Brazil and USA had the highest numbers of publications, 16 and 7 articles, respectively. From 2007, the use of GIS and spatial analysis techniques, applied to the theme of this study, have been intensified and diversified, and 93% of the articles elected for this review were published from 2007 to 2017. The results point to a progressive interest of health professionals in applying these techniques for monitoring and conducting epidemiological analyses of leptospirosis, besides indicating a greater need for intersectoral integration between health professionals and others, in the use of spatial analysis and GIS techniques.


Assuntos
Leptospirose/epidemiologia , Sistemas de Informação Geográfica , Humanos , Medição de Risco , Análise Espacial
8.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 41(5): 695-699, 2020 May 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32447909

RESUMO

Objective: To explore the epidemiological characteristics of leptospirosis in Sichuan province from 2004 to 2018, and provide evidence for the prevention and control of leptospirosis. Methods: The descriptive epidemiology analysis was conducted based on the epidemic data of leptospirosis collected from the national notifiable infectious disease reporting information system (NNIDRIS) and sentinel surveillance system in 11 areas in Sichuan from 2004 to 2018. The ArcGIS 10.2 software was used for mapping. The SaTScan 9.1.1 software was used to analyze spatiotemporal scanning and characteristics of temporal-spatial clusters of leptospirosis. Results: A total of 2 834 cases of leptospirosis, including 41 deaths, were reported in Sichuan from 2004 to 2018, and the reported morbidity rate was 0.23/100 000 and the mortality rate was 0.003/100 000. It revealed that leptospirosis had an overall downward fluctuated trend. The incidence of leptospirosis had obvious seasonality, mainly from the last ten-day of August to the end of September, 1-2 weeks later after rice harvesting time. The reported cases were mainly males, the male to female ratio of the cases was 2.05∶1. The incidence was higher in age group 50-65 years. The majority of reported cases were farmers, accounting for 82.75% (2 345/2 834), followed by students, accounting for 12.74% (361/2 834). However, rare cases in students had been reported since 2011. In recent years, the high-incidence areas were alternating between Mabian, Muchuan counties along the Yangtze River and Yilong county located in the Jialing River basin. According to the spatial-temporal descriptive analyses by SaTScan, there were two clustering areas in the province where most cases occurred (P<0.001). The average density of field rats in 11 sentinel surveillance areas was 5.44%(14 351/263 767), and the predominant field rats included Anourosorexsquamipes (69.07%), Apodemusagrarius (12.73%). Whatmore, the density of the Apodemusagrarius ranged from 4.60% to 0.19%, showing downward trend with the lowest level in 2018. The annual culture rate of Leptospira from rat kidney samples declined. During 2007-2018, the average positive rate of Leptospira antibodies in healthy people was 24.52%(3 271/13 339), and the predominant serogroup was Icterohaemorrhagiae. There was no replacement of Leptospira serogroup in recent years. Conclusions: The incidence of leptospirosis in Sichuan was extremely low during 2004-2018, and the incidence peak of leptospirosis occurred in rice harvesting period. The cases were mainly old farmers, and the high-risk areas were constantly alternating between the Yangtzi River and the Jialing River basin. Both the density and the carriage rate of Leptospira of Apodemusagrarius were low, and the predominant serogroup was Icterohaemorrhagiae. The average positive rate of leptospira antibodies in healthy people was very low.


Assuntos
Leptospirose , Animais , China/epidemiologia , Análise por Conglomerados , Notificação de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Leptospirose/epidemiologia , Masculino , Ratos , Análise Espaço-Temporal
9.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(5): e0008309, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32428003

RESUMO

Leptospirosis is endemic in Sri Lanka. There is a need for updated seroprevalence studies in endemic areas, to improve the understanding of disease dynamics, risk factors, control methods, and for clinical diagnosis. The cut-off titres for the microscopic agglutination test (MAT) for diagnosis of acute leptospirosis depend on community seroprevalence, and can vary based on locality and serovar. This study aimed to identify the seroprevalence, geographical determinants, and associations of seropositivity of leptospirosis in the district of Colombo in Sri Lanka, and to determine diagnostic cut-off titres for MAT in the community studied. This study utilized a stratified cluster sampling model in the Colombo district of Sri Lanka, to sample individuals living in urban and semi-urban areas. Serovar specific MAT titres were measured on recruited individuals using a panel of saprophytic (Leptospira biflexa) and 11 pathogenic Leptospira spp. serovars. Associations between environmental risk factors and MAT positivity were examined, with location mapping using GIS software. A total of 810 individuals were included. The mean age was 51.71 years (SD 14.02) with male predominance (60%). A total of 429 (53%) tested positive at a titer of 1/40 or more for the saprophytic Leptospira biflexa serovar Patoc. Pathogenic serovar MAT was positive at a titer of 1/40 or more for at least one serovar in 269 (33.2%) individuals. From the perspective of screening for clinical disease, serovar-specific cut-off titres of 1/80 for Leptospira spp. serovars Hebdomadis, Icterohaemorrhagiae, Pomona, Ratnapura and Patoc, 1/160 for serovars Pyrogenes and Cynopteri, and 1/40 for other serovars were determined, based on the 75th quartile MAT titre for each serovar. Serovar Pyrogenes (15.9%) had the highest seroprevalence, with serovars Ratnapura, Bankinang and Australis accounting for 9.9%, 9.6% and 9.3% respectively. When the proposed new cut-offs were applied, Bankinang(9.6%) Australis(9.3%), Pyrogenes(6.9%) and Ratnapura(6.9%) were the most prevalent serovars. No significant differences in seroprevalence or serovar patterns were noted between urban and semi-urban settings. Individuals seropositive for Australis, Ratnapura and Icterohaemorrhagiae were clustered around main water bodies as well as around smaller tributaries and paddy fields. Those positive for the serovar Pyrogenes were clustered around inland tributaries, smaller water sources and paddy fields. Associations of MAT positivity included high risk occupational exposure, environmental exposure including exposure to floods, bathing in rivers and lakes, using well-water for bathing, contact with stagnant water, propensity to skin injuries, presence of rats in the vicinity, and proximity to water sources. For pathogenic serovars, high-risk occupational exposure remained statistically significant following adjustment for other factors (adjusted OR = 2.408, CI 1.711 to 3.388; p<0.0001; Nagelkerke R2 = 0.546). High risk occupational exposure was determined to be independently associated with seropositivity. Baseline community MAT titres vary according to serovar, and presumably the locality. Testing against saprophytic serovars is unreliable. Thus, diagnostic MAT titre cut-offs should be determined based on region and serovar, and the use of a single diagnostic MAT cut-off for all populations is likely to result in false negatives.


Assuntos
Aglutininas/sangue , Doenças Endêmicas , Leptospira/imunologia , Leptospirose/epidemiologia , População Suburbana , População Urbana , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Testes de Aglutinação , Cidades/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Leptospira/classificação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Sri Lanka/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
10.
South Med J ; 113(5): 240-249, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32358619

RESUMO

Leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease with symptoms in humans and animals, ranging from subclinical to serious and fatal. The disease occurs worldwide, but there is limited recognition of the public and animal health risks it poses in the southern United States. A systematic review of the frequency of animal leptospirosis in 17 states and jurisdictions covering the southern continental United States was performed to advance our understanding of the pathogen's distribution and identify transmission patterns that could be targeted for prevention efforts. Fifty-two articles, spanning >100 years, met the analysis criteria. A wide range of techniques were used to measure seroprevalence and isolate the bacteria. The assessment identified exposure to Leptospira spp and Leptospira spp infection among a diverse range of species, spanning 22 animal families within 14 states, suggesting that the pathogen is distributed throughout the southern region. Disease frequency trends were assessed among animals in various habitats (all habitats, nonwild habitats, and wild habitats). The frequency of Leptospira spp detection in animals in wild habitats increased slightly over time (<0.2%/year). We identified reports of 11 human leptospirosis illness clusters and outbreaks in the southern United States. Exposure to potentially contaminated surface waters were documented for at least seven of the events, and interactions with infected or likely infected animals were documented for at least six of the events. This analysis highlights the need for stronger partnerships across the public and animal health fields to enhance diagnostics, surveillance, and reporting. The early identification of leptospirosis in animals may serve as an indicator of environmental contamination and trigger prevention measures, such as vaccinating companion animals and livestock, use of potable water, and the wearing of waterproof protective clothing near water that may be contaminated.


Assuntos
Leptospirose/epidemiologia , Leptospirose/veterinária , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Animais , Animais Selvagens/microbiologia , Gatos/microbiologia , Bovinos/microbiologia , Cervos/microbiologia , Cães/microbiologia , Humanos , Gado/microbiologia , Mephitidae/microbiologia , Animais de Estimação/microbiologia , Roedores/microbiologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Sudeste dos Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Suínos/microbiologia
11.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(4): e0008222, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32330132

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease that can be transmitted by contact with the urine of infected mammals. Rodents play a mayor role in the transmission of leptospires to humans. The province of Santa Fe reports the greatest number of cases in Argentina. Yet, in this region, there are still knowledge gaps regarding the diversity of rodent species that may be hosts of pathogenic leptospires. The aims of this study were to evaluate the presence of leptospiral antibodies in rodents from three riverside communities of Santa Fe, and to identify factors associated with leptospiral infection. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Each community was divided into three environmental settings based on the level of human disturbance, and sampled during two springs (Sep-Oct 2014 and 2015) and one autumn (Mar-Apr 2015). Serum samples of captured sigmodontine and murine rodents were tested for leptospiral antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and microagglutination test (MAT) was used to assess the infecting serovar in seropositive individuals. Factors influencing seropositivity were analyzed using logistic regression models. We caught 119 rodents, of which 101 serums were suitable for analysis. Most frequently trapped species were Scapteromys aquaticus, Akodon azarae and Oligoryzomys spp., with seroprevalences of 41.3%, 42.9% and 55% respectively. Seropositivity was higher in individuals with an average body condition score and in those that were sexually mature, but in the latter the differences were marginally significant. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results suggest that native rodents may be playing a role in the environmental circulation of pathogenic leptospires and provide relevant information for public health policies in the area.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Leptospirose/veterinária , Doenças dos Roedores/epidemiologia , Roedores/microbiologia , Animais , Argentina/epidemiologia , Monitoramento Ambiental , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/veterinária , Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Feminino , Rim/microbiologia , Leptospira/isolamento & purificação , Leptospirose/epidemiologia , Masculino , Ratos , Doenças dos Roedores/sangue , Doenças dos Roedores/microbiologia , Roedores/classificação , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
12.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 51(1): 222-227, 2020 Mar 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32212567

RESUMO

Leptospirosis is the most common zoonotic disease worldwide and is considered endemic in countries with tropical climates. It is caused by 10 species of the Leptospira genus and by more than 275 serovars which can affect a wide range of vertebrates. In the Americas, 122 species of four classes of vertebrates have been reported to be infected or exposed to many Leptospira species. Many of these reports are from zoos and rehabilitation centers. Mexico has one single study that reported antibody titers against Leptospira in zoo animals. The purpose of this research was to identify the degree of exposure of some captive mammals and reptiles in Veracruz, a Mexican state with endemic leptospirosis, through microagglutination using 14 live strains of five Leptospira species. Sera samples were collected from 55 animals of 11 species from two classes (Mammalia and Reptilia), four orders (Primates, Artiodactyla, Carnivora, Crocodilia), and nine genera. The more prevalent serovars were Icterohaemorrhagiae and Tarassovi and the highest titers were reactive to the serovar Icterohaemorrhagiae with a value of 1: 51,200.


Assuntos
Jacarés e Crocodilos , Artiodáctilos , Carnívoros , Leptospira/isolamento & purificação , Leptospirose/veterinária , Primatas , Animais , Animais de Zoológico , Leptospirose/epidemiologia , Leptospirose/microbiologia , México/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/microbiologia
13.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(3): e0008197, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32203511

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Leptospirosis, commonly known as rat-urine disease, is a global but endemic zoonotic disease in the tropics. Despite the historical report of leptospirosis in Malaysia, the information on human-infecting species is limited. Determining the circulating species is important to understand its epidemiology, thereby to strategize appropriate control measures through public health interventions, diagnostics, therapeutics and vaccine development. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPLE FINDINGS: We investigated the human-infecting Leptospira species in blood and serum samples collected from clinically suspected leptospirosis patients admitted to three tertiary care hospitals in Malaysia. From a total of 165 patients, 92 (56%) were confirmed cases of leptospirosis through Microscopic Agglutination Test (MAT) (n = 43; 47%), Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) (n = 63; 68%) or both MAT and PCR (n = 14; 15%). The infecting Leptospira spp., determined by partial 16S rDNA (rrs) gene sequencing revealed two pathogenic species namely Leptospira interrogans (n = 44, 70%) and Leptospira kirschneri (n = 17, 27%) and one intermediate species Leptospira wolffii (n = 2, 3%). Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) identified an isolate of L. interrogans as a novel sequence type (ST 265), suggesting that this human-infecting strain has a unique genetic profile different from similar species isolated from rodents so far. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Leptospira interrogans and Leptospira kirschneri were identified as the dominant Leptospira species causing human leptospirosis in Central Malaysia. The existence of novel clinically important ST 265 (infecting human), that is different from rodent L. interrogans strains cautions reservoir(s) of these Leptospira lineages are yet to be identified.


Assuntos
Leptospira interrogans/isolamento & purificação , Leptospira/classificação , Leptospira/isolamento & purificação , Leptospirose/epidemiologia , Leptospirose/microbiologia , Adulto , Testes de Aglutinação , Animais , Feminino , Genes Bacterianos/genética , Humanos , Leptospira/genética , Leptospira/patogenicidade , Leptospira interrogans/genética , Leptospira interrogans/patogenicidade , Leptospirose/sangue , Leptospirose/urina , Malásia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Doenças dos Roedores , Roedores , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Testes Sorológicos , Adulto Jovem , Zoonoses
14.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0230048, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32155209

RESUMO

Leptospirosis is one of the most widespread zoonotic diseases and can infect both humans and animals worldwide. Healthy cat, as a potential source of exposure to humans, are likely underestimated owing to the lack of overt clinical signs associated with Leptospira spp. infection in this species. The aim of the study was to determine the exposure, shedding, and carrier status of leptospires in shelter cats in Malaysia by using serological, molecular, and bacteriological methods. For this study, 82 healthy cats from two shelters were sampled. The blood, urine, and kidneys were tested using the microscopic agglutination test (MAT), polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and bacterial culture. On the basis of serological, molecular, and/or culture techniques, the total detection of leptospiral infection was 29.3% (n = 24/82). Through culture techniques, 16.7% (n = 4/24) of the cats that tested positive were carriers with positive kidney cultures, and one cat was culture positive for both urine and kidney. The Leptospira spp. isolates were identified as pathogenic L. interrogans serovar Bataviae through serological and molecular methods. Through serological techniques, 87.5% (n = 21/24) had positive antibody titers (100-1600) and most of the Bataviae serogroup (n = 19/21). Using PCR, 16.7% (n = 4/24) of cats were shown to have pathogenic Leptospira spp. DNA in their urine. Furthermore, three out of four culture positive cats were serology negative. The present study reports the first retrieval of pathogenic leptospires from urine and kidneys obtained from naturally infected cats. The results provide evidence of the potential role of naturally infected cats in the transmission of leptospires. Additionally, leptospiral infection occurs sub-clinically in cats. The culture isolation provides evidence that healthy cats could be reservoirs of leptospiral infection, and this information may promote the development of disease prevention strategies for the cat population.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato/microbiologia , Doenças do Gato/urina , Rim/microbiologia , Leptospira/isolamento & purificação , Leptospira/fisiologia , Leptospirose/epidemiologia , Animais , Gatos , Leptospirose/microbiologia , Leptospirose/urina
15.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 179, 2020 Feb 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32103771

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The burden of leptospirosis in Indonesia is poorly understood. Data from an observational study conducted from 2013 to 2016 in seven cities across Indonesia was used to estimate the incidence of leptospirosis and document its clinical manifestations in patients requiring hospitalization. METHODS: Specimens from patients hospitalized with acute fever were collected at enrollment, 14-28 days, and 3 months. Demographic and clinical information were collected during study visits and/or retrieved from medical records and double-entered into clinical report forms. After initially screening for dengue virus and other pathogens, specimens were tested at a central Reference Laboratory for anti-Leptospira IgM using commercial ELISA kits and for Leptospira DNA using an in-house quantitative real-time PCR assay. RESULTS: Of 1464 patients enrolled, 45 (3.1%) confirmed cases (by PCR and/or sero-coversion or four-fold increase of IgM) and 6 (0.4%) probable cases (by high titer IgM) of leptospirosis were identified by the Reference Laboratory. Disease incidence at sites ranged from 0 (0%) cases in Denpasar to 17 (8.9%) cases in Semarang. The median age of patients was 41.2 years (range of 5.3 to 85.0 years), and 67% of patients were male. Twenty-two patients (43.1%) were accurately diagnosed at sites, and 29 patients (56.9%) were clinically misdiagnosed as having another infection, most commonly dengue fever (11, 37.9%). Clinically, 20 patients (39.2%) did not present with hyperbilirubinemia or increased creatinine levels. Two patients (3.9%) died, both from respiratory failure. Fifteen patients (29.4%) clinically diagnosed with leptospirosis at sites were negative based on IgM ELISA and/or PCR at the Reference Laboratory. CONCLUSIONS: Leptospirosis remains an important cause of hospitalization in Indonesia. It can have diverse clinical presentations, making it difficult to differentiate from other common tropical infections. PCR combined with ELISA is a powerful alternative to the cumbersome gold-standard microscopic agglutination test, particularly in resource-limited settings.


Assuntos
Leptospirose/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina M/sangue , Indonésia/epidemiologia , Laboratórios , Leptospira/imunologia , Leptospirose/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
16.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0229673, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32106244

RESUMO

Leptospirosis is a neglected disease causing severe infections in humans and animals. Due in part to misdiagnosis, this infectious disease results in nearly 60,000 deaths per year around the globe. This study represents the first effort to describe the diversity of pathogenic Leptospira in Cuba based on whole-genome sequencing. We have collected nineteen whole-blood samples from patients that were diagnosed as having leptospirosis between 2008 and 2012 in Cuba. In addition, we have enhanced our sample set by three historical strains that were used for the development of a human vaccine in 1990s. The Leptospira strains were grown and serotyped by the microscopic agglutination test, and the draft genomes were generated by NGS (Illumina). Subsequently, the core genomes were analyzed and compared to the genetic data available from other Caribbean islands and countries in Central America. Core genome Multi-locus Sequence Typing (cgMLST) revealed four different core genome clonal groups (cgCGs), with the highest number of samples belonging to L. interrogans, followed by L. borgpetersenii and L. kirschneri. All cgCGs that were found in Cuba have been also identified from multiple origins across the globe, except in neighbor countries and Central America. Serotyping divided the samples into the serogroups Canicola, Ballum and Pomona. The most frequent cgCGs, cgCG28, associated with serogroup Canicola, and cgCG15, associated with serogroup Ballum, have also been identified from samples isolated from dogs, rodents, and pigs; suggesting that these hosts represent the major source of human infection in Cuba. The vaccine strains did not significantly differ from the recent patient isolates. However, the increasing prevalence of samples belonging to the serogroup Ballum combined with the fact that the available vaccine in Cuba represents inactivated Leptospira belonging to serogroups other than Ballum, should be a valuable information for the National and Regional Leptospirosis Control Programs.


Assuntos
Leptospira/genética , Leptospirose/microbiologia , Animais , América Central , Cuba/epidemiologia , Cães , Variação Genética , Genoma Bacteriano , Humanos , Leptospira/classificação , Leptospira/isolamento & purificação , Leptospirose/epidemiologia , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus , Filogenia , Sorogrupo , Sorotipagem , Suínos , Índias Ocidentais , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/microbiologia
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31936370

RESUMO

This study was carried out to determine the risk factors of leptospirosis infection among local urban service workers in Sabah. This is a cross-sectional study involving 394 workers in Kota Kinabalu City, Sabah, conducted from February to March 2017. Information on demography, occupational exposures and environmental factors was obtained by a modified validated questionnaire. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) was used to determine the prevalence of positive leptospirae. The overall figure for positive leptospirae was 9.4% (95% CI: 6.8-12.8). Urban sweepers and lorry drivers made up the highest proportion of positive leptospirae respondents, contributing 15.5% and 9.4%, respectively. The significant risk factors for positive leptospirae were older age (p-value = 0.001), higher monthly salary (p-value = 0.039), longer duration of employment (p-value = 0.011) and working as an urban sweeper (p-value = 0.021). Leptospirae was prevalent among healthy urban service workers and relates to their working activities.


Assuntos
Leptospirose/epidemiologia , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Adulto , Monitoramento Biológico , Cidades , Estudos Transversais , DNA Bacteriano/sangue , Emprego , Feminino , Humanos , Leptospira/genética , Leptospirose/sangue , Leptospirose/microbiologia , Malásia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças Profissionais/sangue , Doenças Profissionais/microbiologia , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Saúde da População Urbana
18.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(1): e0007977, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31917796

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Leptospirosis is an important zoonotic disease within the tropics. Diagnosing leptospirosis is a clinical obstacle, as clinical presentations are similar to other tropical infectious diseases. Available serological tests are often insensitive and not cost-effective. Many clinical diagnostic scorings had been developed but most were based on hospitalized patients, and wound not be suitable for use in suspected patients in setting of ambulatory care. OBJECTIVES: To develop and internal validate multivariable diagnostic prediction score of leptospirosis in patients suspicious of leptospirosis at out-patient clinics of community hospitals. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a prospective, multisite diagnostic prediction research with development of a diagnostic score. The development cohort was based on patients suspicious of leptospirosis who visited five community hospitals in Si Sa Ket province, Thailand during December 2017 to November 2018. Leptospirosis confirmed cases were defined when one of the three standard confirmatory tests was positive. Multivariable logistic regression was used for score derivation. Test of AuROC equality was done to compare diagnostic performance of the newly derived score and conventional WHO score. RESULTS: A total of 262 leptospirosis suspicious patients were enrolled. Eighty-two patients (31.5%) were leptospirosis confirmed cases. Five final predictors remained within the reduced logistic model which were history of exposure to wet ground at workplace, history of contact water reservoir used by animal, urine protein and urine blood positive from dipstick test, and neutrophil count from CBC ≥80%. The OPD score diagnostic performance was AuROC 0.72 (95%CI 0.65-0.79). Test of equality revealed significant differences of AuROC between the OPD and WHO score (0.72 vs 0.62, p-value 0.014). Patients were categorized into low and high probability of having leptospirosis at score point of 3.5 with sensitivity 72.4% and specificity 61.7%. CONCLUSIONS: This study developed and internal validated the OPD score. This clinical risk score could be one of the important tools for diagnosis of leptospirosis at the outpatient clinic.


Assuntos
Assistência Ambulatorial , Leptospirose/diagnóstico , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Feminino , Humanos , Leptospirose/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Tailândia/epidemiologia , Zoonoses
19.
BMC Vet Res ; 16(1): 15, 2020 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31937298

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In Vietnam, lack of animal health information is considered a major challenge for pig production. The main objective of this study was to assess the seroprevalences of five pathogens [porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (M. hyo), Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) and leptospirosis] and to better characterize the farm movements through a survey. RESULTS: A total of 600 samples were collected from 120 farms from Bac Giang and Nghe An. Among unvaccinated herds, the highest seroprevalence was found for JE with 73.81% (95% CI: 68.39-78.74) in Bac Giang and 53.51% (95% CI 47.68-59.27) in Nghe An. Seroprevalences for PCV2 and M.hyo were 49.43% (95% CI: 45.06-53.80) and 46.06% (95% CI: 41.48-50.69) among unvaccinated animals. Accumulative co-infections for JE (86.25%) showed the highest level followed by M. hyo (66.25%) and PCV2 (62.50%). Three co-infections with JE had the highest positive rate (28.75%) followed by four co-infections (25.0%). Medium farms had relatively higher herd prevalences for all pathogens, except from leptospirosis. Overall, farmers exported/imported their pigs at the most 1-2 times every 6 months. Some respondents (5% for exportation and 20% for importation) had moved pigs more than 6 times over the last 6 months. CONCLUSIONS: Our study provided another pool of evidence that showed that PCV2, PRRS and H. hyo are endemic in pigs in Vietnam. Given the economic impacts of these pathogens elsewhere, the findings confirm the need for studies to evaluate the association between antibody response and clinical relevance as well as to assess the economic impact of co-infections at farm level. We also found that high seroprevalences of JE and leptospirosis were detected in pigs. From a pubic health point of view, it is crucial to raise public awareness especially for high risk occupations (mainly pig farm workers).


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Suínos/imunologia , Animais , Infecções por Circoviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Circoviridae/imunologia , Infecções por Circoviridae/veterinária , Vírus da Encefalite Japonesa (Espécie) , Encefalite Japonesa/epidemiologia , Encefalite Japonesa/imunologia , Encefalite Japonesa/veterinária , Leptospirose/epidemiologia , Leptospirose/imunologia , Leptospirose/veterinária , Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae , Pneumonia Suína Micoplasmática/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Suína Micoplasmática/imunologia , Síndrome Respiratória e Reprodutiva Suína/epidemiologia , Síndrome Respiratória e Reprodutiva Suína/imunologia , Vírus da Síndrome Respiratória e Reprodutiva Suína , Prevalência , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/microbiologia , Doenças dos Suínos/virologia , Transportes , Vietnã/epidemiologia
20.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0227409, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31914143

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Febrile illness caused by viral and bacterial diseases (e.g., dengue and leptospirosis) often have similar symptoms and are difficult to differentiate without diagnostic tests. If not treated appropriately, patients may experience serious complications. The question of what diagnostic tests to make available to providers in order to inform antibiotic therapy remains an open problem for health services facing limited resources. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We formulated the problem of minimizing the weighted average of antibiotic underuse and overuse to inform the optimal diagnostic test and antibiotic treatment options for given occurrence probabilities of several bacterial and viral infections. We modeled the weight of antibiotic overuse as a monetary penalty per unnecessarily administered course, which we varied in both the base case and sensitivity analysis. Detailed Markov cohort models of febrile illness progression were used to estimate the weight of antibiotic underuse. The model accounted for multiple infections simultaneously and incorporated test, treatment, and other direct and indirect costs, as well as the effect of delays in seeking care and test turnaround times. We used the Markov models to numerically estimate disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), pre-penalty costs, and likelihood of antibiotics overuse per patient for fifteen different strategies in two example settings in Thailand, one with a higher probability of bacterial infections (Northern Thailand, Scenario A) and one with a higher probability of viral infections (Bangkok, Scenario B). We found that empirical antibiotic treatment to all patients always incurs the lowest pre-penalty cost (Scenario A: $47.5/patient, $100.6/patient, $149.5/patient for patients seeking care on day one, day four, and day ten respectively; Scenario B: $94.1/patient, $108.7/patient, $122.1/patient on day one, day four, and day ten respectively), and the lowest DALYs, (Scenario A: 0.2 DALYs/patient, 0.9 DALYs/patient, 1.7 DALYs/patient on day one, day four, and day ten, respectively; Scenario B: 0.5 DALYs/patient, 0.7 DALYs/patient, 0.9 DALYs/patient on day one, day four, and day ten, respectively). However, such strategy resulted in the highest proportion of antibiotic overuse per patient (Scenario A: 38.1%, 19.3%, 7.5% on day one, day four, and day ten, respectively; Scenario B: 82.9%, 42.1%, 16.3% on day one, day four, and day ten, respectively). Consequently, empirical antibiotic treatment became suboptimal with antibiotic overuse penalties above $12,800/course, $18,400/course, $23,900/course for patients presenting on day one, day four, and day ten in Scenario A and above $1,100/course, $1,500/course, $1,600/course for patients presenting on day one, day four, and day ten in Scenario B. CONCLUSIONS: Empirical antibiotic treatment to all patients provided the best outcomes if antibiotic overuse was not the primary concern or if presenting with viral disease (such as dengue) was unlikely. Empirical antibiotic treatment to severe patients only was in most cases not beneficial. Otherwise, strategies involving diagnostic tests became optimal. In particular, our results indicated that single test strategies (bacterial RDT or viral PCR) were optimal in regions with a greater probability of presenting with viral infection. PCR-led strategies (e.g., parallel bacterial PCR, or multiplex PCR) are robust under parameter uncertainty (e.g., with uncertain disease occurrence probabilities).


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Dengue , Leptospirose , Modelos Biológicos , Modelos Econômicos , Antibacterianos/economia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Custos e Análise de Custo , Dengue/diagnóstico , Dengue/tratamento farmacológico , Dengue/economia , Dengue/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Leptospirose/diagnóstico , Leptospirose/tratamento farmacológico , Leptospirose/economia , Leptospirose/epidemiologia , Masculino , Tailândia/epidemiologia
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