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1.
Nephrol Dial Transplant ; 35(10): 1652-1662, 2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33022712

RESUMO

As of 15 August 2020, Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been reported in >21 million people world-wide and is responsible for more than 750,000 deaths. The occurrence of acute kidney injury (AKI) in patients hospitalized with COVID-19 has been reported to be as high as 43%. This is comparable to AKI in other forms of pneumonia requiring hospitalization, as well as in non-infectious conditions like cardiac surgery. The impact of AKI on COVID-19 outcomes is difficult to assess at present but, similar to other forms of sepsis, AKI is strongly associated with hospital mortality. Indeed, mortality is reported to be very low in COVID-19 patients without AKI. Given that AKI contributes to fluid and acid-base imbalances, compromises immune response and may impair resolution of inflammation, it seems likely that AKI contributes to mortality in these patients. The pathophysiologic mechanisms of AKI in COVID-19 are thought to be multifactorial including systemic immune and inflammatory responses induced by viral infection, systemic tissue hypoxia, reduced renal perfusion, endothelial damage and direct epithelial infection with Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2. Mitochondria play a central role in the metabolic deregulation in the adaptive response to the systemic inflammation and are also found to be vital in response to both direct viral damage and tissue reperfusion. These stress conditions are associated with increased glycolysis and reduced fatty acid oxidation. Thus, there is a strong rationale to target AKI for therapy in COVID-19. Furthermore, many approaches that have been developed for other etiologies of AKI such as sepsis, inflammation and ischemia-reperfusion, have relevance in the treatment of COVID-19 AKI and could be rapidly pivoted to this new disease.


Assuntos
Lesão Renal Aguda/etiologia , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular/fisiologia , Rim/fisiopatologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Lesão Renal Aguda/fisiopatologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia
2.
G Ital Nefrol ; 37(5)2020 Oct 05.
Artigo em Italiano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33026202

RESUMO

We report the case of a 68-year-old patient who arrived at the hospital with a fever and a cough for 7 days, a history of high blood pressure and chronic kidney failure stage 2 according to CKD-EPI (GFR: 62 ml/minute with creatinine: 1.2 mg/dl). Home therapy included lercanidipine and clonidine. A chest radiograph performed in the emergency department immediately showed images suggestive of pneumonia from COVID-19, confirmed in the following days by a positive swab for coronavirus. Kidney function parameters progressively deteriorated towards a severe acute kidney failure on the 15th day, with creatinine values of 6.6 mg/dl and urea of 210 mg/dl. The situation was managed first in the intensive care unit with CRRT cycles (continuous renal replacement therapy) and then in a "yellow area" devoted to COVID patients, where the patient was dialyzed by us nephrologists through short cycles of CRRT. In our short experience we have used continuous techniques (CRRT) in positive patients hemodynamically unstable and intermittent dialysis (IRRT) in our stable chronic patients with asymptomatic COVID -19. We found CRRT to be superior in hemodynamically unstable patients hospitalized in resuscitation and in the "yellow area". Dialysis continued with high cut-off filters until the normalization of kidney function; the supportive medical therapy has also improved the course of the pathology and contributed to the favorable outcome for our patient. During the COVID-19 pandemic, our Nephrology Group at Savona's San Paul Hospital has reorganized the department to better manage both chronic dialyzed patients and acute patients affected by the new coronavirus.


Assuntos
Lesão Renal Aguda/terapia , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Lesão Renal Aguda/diagnóstico por imagem , Lesão Renal Aguda/etiologia , Lesão Renal Aguda/fisiopatologia , Idoso , Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico por imagem , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Creatinina/sangue , Cuidados Críticos/métodos , Gerenciamento Clínico , Hemodinâmica , Humanos , Hipertensão/complicações , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Comunicação Interdisciplinar , Falência Renal Crônica/complicações , Masculino , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente , Isolamento de Pacientes , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico por imagem , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Diálise Renal/métodos , Respiração Artificial , Ureia/sangue
3.
Cir Cir ; 88(5): 569-575, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33064694

RESUMO

Objective: To describe the clinical characteristics and management of severe COVID-19 patients. Method: Observational, descriptive, longitudinal, and retrospective study. Results: 56 patients were admitted, of whom 80.3% (n = 45) were males with a mean age of 58 years [46-67]. The main comorbidities were obesity, high blood pressure, and diabetes. Symptoms onset time at admittance to the ICU was 9 [7-14] days, of which the most frequent were dyspnea, fever, and dry cough. Laboratory data were lymphopenia; elevation of LDH, fibrinogen, D-dimer, ferritin and CRP. 100% of the patients required mechanical ventilation, the median mechanical ventilation time was 12 [6-17] days, and 66% (n= 37) required a prone position. The pharmacological treatment was mainly based on azithromycin, hydroxychloroquine, tocilizumab and steroids. The most frequent complications were acute kidney injury, venous thromboembolism and acute myocardial infarction. Mortality rate was 17.8% (n = 10). Conclusion: The characteristics of the critically ill patients in our hospital were mostly elderly and obese, with the variables of higher SOFA score and acute kidney injury associated with higher mortality.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Cuidados Críticos/métodos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Lesão Renal Aguda/epidemiologia , Lesão Renal Aguda/etiologia , Corticosteroides/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Azitromicina/uso terapêutico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Terapia Combinada , Comorbidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Hospitais Universitários/organização & administração , Humanos , Hidroxicloroquina/uso terapêutico , Masculino , México/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Escores de Disfunção Orgânica , Pneumonia Viral/sangue , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Respiração Artificial , Avaliação de Sintomas
4.
J Investig Med High Impact Case Rep ; 8: 2324709620963635, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33019829

RESUMO

As COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019) spreads across the world multiple therapeutic interventions have been tried to reduce morbidity and mortality. We describe a case of collapsing focal sclerosing glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) and acute oxalate nephropathy in a patient treated with high-dose intravenous vitamin C for severe COVID-19 infection. Collapsing FSGS has been described in patients with COVID-19 infection associated with APOL-1; however, this case had collapsing FSGS developing in low-risk heterozygous APOL-1 variant, and we postulate that the intensity of the COVID-19 cytokine storm overwhelmed the protective state of APOL-1 heterozygosity. This case illustrates the importance of assessing the risk and benefit of planned therapeutic interventions on a case-by-case basis especially when there are still so many unknowns in the management of COVID-19 infection. Strong consideration should be given for performing a renal biopsy in patients who develop multifactorial acute kidney injury.


Assuntos
Ácido Ascórbico/efeitos adversos , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Glomerulosclerose Segmentar e Focal/induzido quimicamente , Hiperoxalúria/induzido quimicamente , Glomérulos Renais/patologia , Oxalatos/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Doença Aguda , Lesão Renal Aguda/diagnóstico , Lesão Renal Aguda/etiologia , Ácido Ascórbico/administração & dosagem , Biópsia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Progressão da Doença , Glomerulosclerose Segmentar e Focal/diagnóstico , Humanos , Hiperoxalúria/diagnóstico , Hiperoxalúria/metabolismo , Injeções Intravenosas , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Vitaminas/administração & dosagem , Vitaminas/efeitos adversos
5.
J Toxicol Sci ; 45(9): 589-598, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32879258

RESUMO

Acute mercury chloride (HgCl2) poisoning may lead to kidney injury, but the underlying mechanism remains largely unknown. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress plays a role in some heavy metal poisoning. Whether it mediates kidney injury in acute HgCl2 poisoning remains unknown. In this study, we examined the kidney injury and the corresponding ER stress in the mouse model of different doses of acute HgCl2 poisoning. To further confirm the role of ER stress, we tested the effects of its chemical chaperone [4-phenylbutyric acid (4-PBA)]. The results revealed that acute HgCl2 poisoning caused more severe kidney injury with dose on and activated ER stress, as indicated by increased expression of GRP78 and CHOP. Inhibition of ER stress restored the functional and morphological changes of kidneys, and partly attenuated renal tubular epithelial cell apoptosis. In summary, ER stress contributes to the acute kidney injury following HgCl2 poisoning, and inhibition of ER stress may alleviate the kidney injury via reducing apoptosis.


Assuntos
Lesão Renal Aguda/etiologia , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático/fisiologia , Cloreto de Mercúrio/envenenamento , Animais , Butilaminas , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático/genética , Expressão Gênica , Proteínas de Choque Térmico/genética , Proteínas de Choque Térmico/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Fator de Transcrição CHOP/genética , Fator de Transcrição CHOP/metabolismo
7.
BMJ Case Rep ; 13(9)2020 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32878841

RESUMO

We report the case of a 38-year-old man who presented to the emergency department with fever, myalgia, nausea, vomiting, dry cough, breathlessness and abdominal pain. He was admitted due to hypoxaemia and was diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2 and was subsequently referred to the intensive care unit for intubation and mechanical ventilation. Severe rhabdomyolysis and acute kidney injury developed 4 days later and were suspected after noticing discolouration of the urine and a marked increase in plasma myoglobin levels. Treatment included hydration, forced diuresis and continuous renal replacement therapy. In addition to the coronavirus disease acute respiratory distress syndrome, he was diagnosed with possible SARS-CoV-2-induced myositis with severe rhabdomyolysis and kidney failure. The patient survived and was discharged from intensive care after 12 days, returning home 23 days after hospitalisation, fully mobilised with a partially restored kidney function.


Assuntos
Lesão Renal Aguda/diagnóstico , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Rabdomiólise/diagnóstico , Doença Aguda , Lesão Renal Aguda/etiologia , Lesão Renal Aguda/terapia , Adulto , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Terapia de Substituição Renal/métodos , Rabdomiólise/etiologia , Rabdomiólise/terapia , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao ; 42(4): 436-443, 2020 Aug 30.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32895094

RESUMO

Objective To explore the risk factors of acute kidney injury(AKI)in adult primary nephrotic syndrome(PNS). Methods Totally 185 patients with PNS were divided into AKI group(n=51)and non-AKI group(n=134).The demographic data and clinical and histological features at admission were compared between the two groups.The independent risk factors for AKI were evaluated by Logistics regression analysis. Results In 51 PNS patients with AKI,the common pathological types of AKI included minor glomerular abnormalities(29.4%),IgA nephropathy(25.5%),and membranous nephropathy(17.6%).The incidences of renal tubular casts and epithelial vacuoles in the AKI group were significantly higher than those in the non-AKI group(P=0.004,P=0.030).Males were more likely to suffer from AKI than females(P=0.000).Patients in AKI group had significantly lower albumin level(P=0.015)and higher levels of random urine protein,serum creatinine,uric acid,urea nitrogen,and triglyceride than non-AKI group(P=0.030,P=0.000,P=0.000,P=0.000,and P=0.006),and polyserous and oliguria occurred more often in the AKI group(P=0.000,P=0.002).The AKI group had significantly higher incidences of high blood pressure and infections(P=0.035,P=0.000).Multivariate logistics regression analysis showed albumin(<25 g/L),serum creatinine(>96 µmol/L),urea nitrogen(≥6.8 mmol/L),uric acid(≥400 µmol/L),diabetes,infection,and renal tubular casts were the independent risk factors for AKI. Conclusions AKI complicating PNS is associated with a variety of factors.Its independent risk factors include the levles of albumin,serum creatinine,urea nitrogen,and uric acid,diabetes,infections,and renal tubular casts.


Assuntos
Lesão Renal Aguda , Síndrome Nefrótica , Lesão Renal Aguda/etiologia , Adulto , Creatinina , Feminino , Humanos , Rim , Masculino , Síndrome Nefrótica/complicações , Fatores de Risco
9.
Anticancer Res ; 40(10): 5707-5713, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32988896

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Genetic variations of the non-coding RNA gene, ANRIL, have been associated with human diseases including cancer, type-2 diabetes, and atherosclerosis. In the present study, we investigated the potential associations of select ANRIL single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with overall survival and other clinical outcomes in adult patients with hematologic malignancies after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Genomic DNA was extracted from whole blood samples from 103 adult patients with hematologic malignancies who had received allo-HSCT followed by oral tacrolimus therapy. The genotypes of four select ANRIL SNPs, rs564398, rs1063192, rs2151280, and rs2157719 were determined using qRT-PCR-based genotyping assays. RESULTS: rs2151280 (C->T) in ANRIL was associated with worse overall survival in these patients (CT/CC vs. TT). Contrarily, rs2151280 and the other select ANRIL SNPs were not associated with death at Day-100 after transplantation, the incidence of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), acute kidney injury (AKI), and neurotoxicity in the study cohort. CONCLUSION: rs2151280 represents a potential prognostic biomarker for overall survival in adult patients with hematologic malignancies after allo-HSCT.


Assuntos
Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Neoplasias Hematológicas/genética , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , Lesão Renal Aguda/etiologia , Lesão Renal Aguda/genética , Lesão Renal Aguda/patologia , Idoso , Feminino , Genótipo , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/etiologia , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/genética , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/patologia , Neoplasias Hematológicas/complicações , Neoplasias Hematológicas/patologia , Neoplasias Hematológicas/terapia , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Tacrolimo/farmacocinética , Transplante Homólogo/efeitos adversos
10.
11.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 32(4): 361-366, 2020 Aug 24.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32935509

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the protective effect of recombinant adult serine protease inhibitor from Trichinella spiralis (TsadSPI) on sepsis-associated acute kidney injury in mice. METHODS: A total of 18 male BALB/c mice were randomly divided into the sham-operation group, the model group, and the TsadSPI treatment group, of 6 mice in each group. Sepsis-associated acute kidney injury was modeled in the model group and TsadSPI treatment group by cecal ligation puncture (CLP), while mice in the sham-operation group were only given exploratory laparotomy without ligation or perforation of the cecum. After 30 min of CLP, mice in the sham-operation group and the model group were intraperitoneally injected with PBS (100 µL), and mice in the TsadSPI treatment group were intraperitoneally injected with PBS (100 µL) containing TsadSPI (2 µg). At 12 h following modeling, the serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), creatinine (Cr) and urea nitrogen (BUN) were measured to assess the liver and kidney functions, and the changes of the mouse kidney structure were observed using HE staining. In addition, the serum levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10 and transforming growth factor (TGF)-ß were measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and the myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) and nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) p65 expression was determined in kidney tissues using immunohistochemical staining. RESULTS: At 12 h following CLP, there were significant differences in the serum levels of ALT (F = 41.031, P < 0.001), AST (F = 54.757, P < 0.001), Cr (F = 24.142, P < 0.001) and BUN (F = 214.849, P < 0.001) among the three groups, and higher levels of ALT, AST, Cr and BUN were measured in model group than in the sham-operation group (P < 0.001), while lower ALT, AST, Cr and BUN levels were found in the TsadSPI treatment group than in the model group (P < 0.001). HE staining showed severe mouse kidney injuries following CLP, and TsadSPI treatment resulted in remarkable alleviation of the injury. ELISA measured significant differences in the TNF-α (F = 47.502, P < 0.001) and IL-6 levels (F = 222.061, P < 0.001) among the three groups, and showed a remarkable reduction in the TNF-α and IL-6 levels in the TsadSPI treatment group as compared to those in the model group (P < 0.001). In addition, there were significant differences in serum IL-10 (F = 16.227, P < 0.001) and TGF-ß levels (F = 52.092, P < 0.001) among the three groups, and higher IL-10 and TGF-ß levels were seen in the TsadSPI treatment group than in the model group (P < 0.001). Immunohistochemical staining showed greater MyD88 expression and a higher nuclear positive rate of NF-κB p65 in kidney tissues in the model group than in the TsadSPI treatment group. CONCLUSIONS: TsadSPI may reduce the MyD88 expression and nuclear positive rate of NF-κB p65 in mouse kidney tissues to up-regulate the expression of immunomodulatory factors and down-regulate the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, thereby protecting sepsis-associated acute kidney injury.


Assuntos
Lesão Renal Aguda , Sepse , Trichinella spiralis , Lesão Renal Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Lesão Renal Aguda/etiologia , Animais , Citocinas/sangue , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Distribuição Aleatória , Sepse/complicações , Inibidores de Serino Proteinase/genética , Inibidores de Serino Proteinase/farmacologia , Inibidores de Serino Proteinase/uso terapêutico , Trichinella spiralis/química , Trichinella spiralis/genética
12.
R I Med J (2013) ; 103(8): 24-28, 2020 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32900008

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acute kidney injury (AKI) has been reported as a complication of COVID-19. However, the epidemiology, management, and associated outcomes have varied greatly between studies. The pathophysiology remains unclear.  Summary: The etiology of AKI in the setting of COVID-19 appears multifactorial. Systemic effects of sepsis, inflammation, and vascular injury likely play some role. Furthermore, SARS-CoV-2 binds to the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 receptor, highly expressed in the kidney, providing a route for direct infection. Older age, baseline comorbidities, and respiratory failure are strong risk factors for the development of AKI. Regardless of etiology, AKI carries a significantly increased risk for in-hospital mortality, especially in those with critical illness. Currently, management of AKI in patients with COVID-19 remains supportive. Key Messages: AKI is common in patients with COVID-19. Future studies are needed to examine the response to anti-viral treatment as well as long-term renal outcomes in patients with AKI.


Assuntos
Lesão Renal Aguda , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus , Estado Terminal , Rim , Pandemias , Administração dos Cuidados ao Paciente/métodos , Pneumonia Viral , Lesão Renal Aguda/etiologia , Lesão Renal Aguda/mortalidade , Lesão Renal Aguda/terapia , Lesão Renal Aguda/virologia , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Estado Terminal/mortalidade , Estado Terminal/terapia , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Rim/metabolismo , Rim/virologia , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Prognóstico , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Internalização do Vírus
13.
J Bras Nefrol ; 42(2 suppl 1): 22-31, 2020 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32877495

RESUMO

We produced this document to bring pertinent information to the practice of nephrology, as regards to the renal involvement with COVID-19, the management of acute kidney injury cases, and practical guidance on the provision of dialysis support.As information on COVID-19 evolves at a pace never before seen in medical science, these recommendations, although based on recent scientific evidence, refer to the present moment. The guidelines may be updated when published data and other relevant information become available.


Assuntos
Lesão Renal Aguda/terapia , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Terapia de Substituição Renal/normas , Dispositivos de Acesso Vascular/normas , Lesão Renal Aguda/epidemiologia , Lesão Renal Aguda/etiologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Cuidados Críticos , Humanos , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Nefrologia/normas , Doenças Profissionais/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Equipamento de Proteção Individual , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Terapia de Substituição Renal/métodos , Respiração Artificial/efeitos adversos , Sociedades Médicas
14.
Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992) ; 66Suppl 2(Suppl 2): 112-117, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32965368

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to present a review of renal changes in patients with COVID-19. METHODS: We performed a systematic review of the literature to identify original articles regarding clinical, laboratory, and anatomopathological kidney changes in patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 published until May 7, 2020. The search was carried out across PubMed, Scopus, and Embase using the keywords "COVID-19", "coronavirus", "SARS-CoV-2", "kidney injury" and "kidney disease". Fifteen studies presented clinical and laboratory renal changes in patients with COVID-19, and three addressed anatomopathological changes. DISCUSSION: Acute kidney injury (AKI) was a relevant finding in patients with COVID-19. There were also significant changes in laboratory tests that indicated kidney injury, such as increased serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen (BUN), proteinuria, and hematuria. The presence of laboratory abnormalities and AKI were significant in severely ill patients. There was a considerable prevalence of AKI among groups of patients who died of COVID-19. Histopathological analysis of the kidney tissue of patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 suggested that the virus may directly affect the kidneys. CONCLUSION: Although COVID-19 affects mainly the lungs, it can also impact the kidneys. Increased serum creatinine and BUN, hematuria, proteinuria, and AKI were frequent findings in patients with severe COVID-19 and were related to an increased mortality rate. Further studies focusing on renal changes and their implications for the clinical condition of patients infected with the novel coronavirus are needed.


Assuntos
Lesão Renal Aguda/etiologia , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Lesão Renal Aguda/fisiopatologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/metabolismo , Infecções por Coronavirus/urina , Creatinina/sangue , Hematúria/etiologia , Humanos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/urina , Proteinúria/etiologia , Urina/química
15.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237503, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32810154

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intraoperative restrictive fluid management strategies might improve postoperative outcomes in liver transplantation. Effects of vasopressors within any hemodynamic management strategy are unclear. METHODS: We conducted an observational cohort study on adult liver transplant recipients between July 2008 and December 2017. We measured the effect of vasopressors infused at admission in the intensive care unit (ICU) and total intraoperative fluid balance. Our primary outcome was 48-hour acute kidney injury (AKI) and our secondary outcomes were 7-day AKI, need for postoperative renal replacement therapy (RRT), time to extubation in the ICU, time to ICU discharge and survival up to 1 year. We fitted models adjusted for confounders using generalized estimating equations or survival models using robust standard errors. We reported results with 95% confidence intervals. RESULTS: We included 532 patients. Vasopressors use was not associated with 48-hour or 7-day AKI but modified the effects of fluid balance on RRT and mortality. A higher fluid balance was associated with a higher need for RRT (OR = 1.52 [1.15, 2.01], p<0.001 for interaction) and lower survival (HR = 1.71 [1.26, 2.34], p<0.01 for interaction) only among patients without vasopressors. In patients with vasopressors, higher doses of vasopressors were associated with a higher mortality (HR = 1.29 [1.13, 1.49] per 10 µg/min of norepinephrine). CONCLUSION: The presence of any vasopressor at the end of surgery was not associated with AKI or RRT. The use of vasopressors might modify the harmful association between fluid balance and other postoperative outcomes. The liberal use of vasopressors to implement a restrictive fluid management strategy deserves further investigation.


Assuntos
Lesão Renal Aguda , Hemodinâmica/fisiologia , Cuidados Intraoperatórios/métodos , Transplante de Fígado/efeitos adversos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Lesão Renal Aguda/epidemiologia , Lesão Renal Aguda/etiologia , Lesão Renal Aguda/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Hidratação/métodos , Humanos , Transplante de Fígado/métodos , Transplante de Fígado/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Quebeque/epidemiologia , Terapia de Substituição Renal/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento , Equilíbrio Hidroeletrolítico/fisiologia
16.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 31(9): 2205-2221, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32826326

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The incidence, severity, and outcomes of AKI in COVID-19 varied in different reports. In patients critically ill with COVID-19, the clinicopathologic characteristics of AKI have not been described in detail. METHODS: This is a retrospective cohort study of 81 patients critically ill with COVID-19 in an intensive care unit. The incidence, etiologies, and outcomes of AKI were analyzed. Pathologic studies were performed in kidney tissues from ten deceased patients with AKI. RESULTS: A total of 41 (50.6%) patients experienced AKI in this study. The median time from illness to AKI was 21.0 (IQR, 9.5-26.0) days. The proportion of Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) stage 1, stage 2, and stage 3 AKI were 26.8%, 31.7%, and 41.5%, respectively. The leading causes of AKI included septic shock (25 of 41, 61.0%), volume insufficiency (eight of 41, 19.5%), and adverse drug effects (five of 41, 12.2%). The risk factors for AKI included age (per 10 years) (HR, 1.83; 95% CI, 1.24 to 2.69; P=0.002) and serum IL-6 level (HR, 1.83; 95% CI, 1.23 to 2.73; P=0.003). KDIGO stage 3 AKI predicted death. Other potential risk factors for death included male sex, elevated D-dimer, serum IL-6 level, and higher Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score. The predominant pathologic finding was acute tubular injury. Nucleic acid tests and immunohistochemistry failed to detect the virus in kidney tissues. CONCLUSIONS: AKI was a common and multifactorial complication in patients critically ill with COVID-19 at the late stage of the disease course. The predominant pathologic finding was acute tubular injury. Older age and higher serum IL-6 level were risk factors of AKI, and KDIGO stage 3 AKI independently predicted death.


Assuntos
Lesão Renal Aguda/patologia , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Rim/patologia , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Lesão Renal Aguda/etiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Creatinina/sangue , Estado Terminal , Feminino , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Interleucina-6/sangue , Rim/ultraestrutura , Rim/virologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
17.
Zhonghua Shao Shang Za Zhi ; 36(7): 603-605, 2020 Jul 20.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32842410

RESUMO

On January 31, 2018, a 21-year-old male patient with extremely severe burn-blast combined injury complicated with acute kidney injury caused by dust explosion of crospovidone was admitted to the Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University School of Medicine. The following nursing measures were carried out, aiming at the condition of the patient. We strengthened the management of fluid intake and output volume, prevented hypothermia and unplanned disembarkation during the period of continuous renal replacement therapy with burn shock and acute kidney injury. For traumatic pneumothorax, we took a good care of the closed chest drainage tube and implemented a ventilation strategy of low tide and low positive end expiratory pressure. During the infection with carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae, the environmental disinfection of the care unit was optimized and polymyxin B drug care was done. After 71 days of comprehensive treatment and nursing care, the patient recovered and was discharged from hospital. This case suggests that, in view of the renal function and lung function of patients with extremely severe burn-blast combined injury, individualized treatment and nursing measures are helpful to improve the cure rate and prognosis.


Assuntos
Lesão Renal Aguda , Traumatismos por Explosões , Queimaduras , Lesão Renal Aguda/etiologia , Poeira , Explosões , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
18.
Ann Hematol ; 99(10): 2303-2313, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32856141

RESUMO

Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) is a rare hematologic disease characterized by a deregulated complement system, chronic Coombs-negative, intravascular hemolysis, and a variable clinical course with substantial risk to develop thromboembolic events. We analyzed diagnostic and prognostic parameters as well as clinical endpoints in 59 adult patients suffering from PNH in 5 hematology centers in Austria (observation period: 1978-2015). Median follow-up time was 5.6 years. The median clone size at diagnosis amounted to 55% and was higher in patients with classical PNH (81%) compared to patients with PNH associated with aplastic anemia (AA) or myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) (50%). The clone size also correlated with lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels. In one patient, anemia improved spontaneously and disappeared with complete normalization of LDH after 16 years. Seventeen patients received therapy with eculizumab. The rate of thromboembolic events was higher in the pre-eculizumab era compared with eculizumab-treated patients but did not correlate with the presence of age-related clonal hematopoiesis or any other clinical or laboratory parameters. Peripheral blood colony-forming progenitor cell counts were lower in PNH patients compared with healthy controls. Only two patients with classical PNH developed MDS. Overall, 7/59 patients died after 0.5-32 years. Causes of death were acute pulmonary hypertension, Budd-Chiari syndrome, and septicemia. Overall survival (OS) was mainly influenced by age and was similar to OS measured in an age-matched healthy Austrian control cohort. Together, compared with previous times, the clinical course and OS in PNH are favorable, which may be due to better diagnosis, early recognition, and eculizumab therapy.


Assuntos
Hemoglobinúria Paroxística/epidemiologia , Lesão Renal Aguda/sangue , Lesão Renal Aguda/etiologia , Adulto , Anemia Aplástica/epidemiologia , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Áustria/epidemiologia , Medula Óssea/patologia , Causas de Morte , Células Clonais/patologia , Ensaio de Unidades Formadoras de Colônias , Terapia Combinada , Inativadores do Complemento/uso terapêutico , Creatinina/sangue , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Seguimentos , Hematopoese , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Hemoglobinúria Paroxística/complicações , Hemoglobinúria Paroxística/tratamento farmacológico , Hemoglobinúria Paroxística/terapia , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Complicações Hematológicas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Prognóstico , Tromboembolia/etiologia
19.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 583, 2020 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32762676

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dengue fever is endemic and a leading health problem in Sri Lanka. Increased incidence of concurrent bacteremia in patients with dengue infection is a recognized complication. However, Staphylococcal endocarditis following dengue fever is uncommon. Quadricuspid aortic valve (QAV) is a rare congenital anomaly and few cases of infective endocarditis have been reported in QAV. CASE PRESENTATION: A 32-year-old Sri Lankan male presented to the National Hospital of Sri Lanka with recurrence of fever and acute left hemiplegia following an uncomplicated recovery of dengue fever. He was diagnosed to have Staphylococcal infective endocarditis of quadricuspid aortic valve, with septic emboli to brain and spleen. He was managed with intravenous vancomycin initially, however, due to inadequate response, intravenous linezolid was added. He developed rhabdomyolysis with very high creatine phosphokinase leading to acute kidney injury, which settled with the cessation of linezolid. The patient succumbed to his illness despite aggressive antimicrobial therapy and maximum supportive care while being assessed for aortic valve replacement. CONCLUSIONS: This case illustrates three clinical issues that a clinician should be aware of. Firstly, the possibility of a serious secondary bacterial infection as a cause for recurrence of fever following dengue infection. Secondly, this case highlights the importance of identifying QAV as a cause for complicated infective endocarditis of increased severity. The report also denotes the value of being vigilant of linezolid induced rhabdomyolysis which had a causal relationship with the commencement of the drug and its cessation.


Assuntos
Valva Aórtica/anormalidades , Dengue/complicações , Endocardite Bacteriana/diagnóstico , Endocardite Bacteriana/etiologia , Doenças das Valvas Cardíacas/diagnóstico , Infecções Estafilocócicas/diagnóstico , Infecções Estafilocócicas/etiologia , Staphylococcus aureus/isolamento & purificação , Lesão Renal Aguda/etiologia , Lesão Renal Aguda/mortalidade , Adulto , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Bacteriemia/tratamento farmacológico , Hemocultura , Dengue/tratamento farmacológico , Dengue/virologia , Vírus da Dengue , Endocardite Bacteriana/tratamento farmacológico , Evolução Fatal , Febre/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Linezolida/farmacologia , Linezolida/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Rabdomiólise/induzido quimicamente , Rabdomiólise/complicações , Infecções Estafilocócicas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/mortalidade
20.
Int J Med Sci ; 17(12): 1744-1750, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32714077

RESUMO

Many studies have reported the risk factors for exacerbations in patients with 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV). This study aims to perform the meta-analysis of risk factors for the exacerbation of the novel coronavirus-infected pneumonia (NCIP). PubMed, Embase and Google scholar have been searched. We included the cohort studies involving risk factors for the exacerbation of NCIP. This meta-analysis compared the risk factors of patients between intensive care (ICU) group and non-ICU group. Two cohort studies were included in this study. After comparing the patients between intensive care (ICU) group and non-ICU group, several important factors were found to significantly increase the risk of exacerbations in patients with NCIP, and they included hypertension (RR=2.34; 95% CI=1.21 to 4.51; P=0.01), cardiovascular diseases (RR=2.28; 95% CI=1.13 to 4.58; P=0.02), COPD (RR=7.65; 95% CI=1.24 to 47.13; P=0.03), dyspnea (RR=2.89; 95% CI=2.05 to 4.08; P<0.00001), myalgia or fatigue (RR=1.24; 95% CI=1.01 to 1.52; P=0.04), but several factors such as gender, Huanan Seafood Wholesale Market exposure, diabetes, chronic liver disease, malignancy, fever, cough, expectoration, headache and diarrhoea appeared to have no obvious effect on the exacerbation of pneumonia. In addition, as the exacerbation of pneumonia, some complications had the high probability to occur according to the meta-analysis of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) (RR=13.95; 95% CI=6.20 to 31.41; P<0.00001), shock (RR=24.29; 95% CI=4.66 to 126.69; P=0.0002), acute cardiac injury (RR=10.32; 95% CI=3.05 to 34.96; P=0.0002) and acute kidney injury (RR=5.90; 95% CI=1.32 to 26.35; P=0.02) between two groups. Several risk factors were confirmed to significantly improve the risk of exacerbation in patients with NCIP, which was very important for the exacerbation prediction and treatment of these patients.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Lesão Renal Aguda/epidemiologia , Lesão Renal Aguda/etiologia , Adulto , Idoso , China/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Comorbidade , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Progressão da Doença , Dispneia/epidemiologia , Dispneia/etiologia , Exposição Ambiental , Fadiga/epidemiologia , Fadiga/etiologia , Feminino , Cardiopatias/epidemiologia , Cardiopatias/etiologia , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Hepatopatias/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/epidemiologia , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/etiologia , Fatores de Risco , Choque/epidemiologia , Choque/etiologia , Avaliação de Sintomas
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