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1.
Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke Za Zhi ; 56(1): 34-42, 2021 Jan 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33486926

RESUMO

Objective: To evaluate the value of high-resolution anoscopy (HRA) in the diagnosis of anal precancerous lesions. Methods: A retrospective cohort study was performed, which included 142 patients who underwent HRA in vulvar and anal clinic at Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital of Fudan University from January 2014 to December 2019. With the perianal and anal canal biopsy pathology as the "gold standard", the diagnostic value of HRA and specific findings for anal precancerous lesions were evaluated and the clinical characteristics of patients with anal precancerous lesions were analyzed. Results: (1) Agreement between HRA and anal pathology were 76.6% (95/124, perianal) and 70.0% (84/120, anal canal), in which there was no significant difference (χ2=1.365, P=0.243). The strength of agreement with weighted Kappa statistic were 0.604 (perianal) and 0.455 (anal canal) respectively. HRA diagnosis were more overestimated [16.9% (21/124) in perianal and 25.0% (30/120) in anal canal] than underestimated [6.5% (8/124) in perianal and 5.0% (6/120) in anal canal]. The sensitivity and specificity of HRA in the diagnosis of anal precancerous lesions were all more than 60.0% (perianal lesions: 97.8% and 74.7%; anal canal lesions: 90.9% and 66.7%), and Youden's index were >0.5 (perianal lesions: 0.725; anal canal lesions: 0.576). The positive predictive value of HRA in anal canal lesions (50.8%) was lower than that in perianal lesions (68.8%). (2) The thin acetowhite epithelium was the most common finding in anal precancerous lesions, and its performance in anal canal lesions (the sensitivity, the specificity and the Youden's index were 78.8%, 62.4% and 0.412, respectively) were better than those in perianal lesions (the sensitivity, the specificity and the Youden's index were 28.9%, 96.9% and 0.258, respectively). The dense acetowhite epithelium and vascular patterns were only seen in anal canal lesions. Lugol's iodine was little useful for perianal lesions (the incidence of iodine negative was 0),but quite useful to evaluate the canal lesions (the positive predictive value was 83.3% and the negative predictive value was 82.3%). (3) The average age of patients with low-grade anal precancerous lesion was (37±10) years old, and high-grade anal precancerous lesion was (42±11) years old, and there was significant difference between them (P=0.034). Age curve showed that the peak age was 30-40 years old. Vulvar intraepithelial lesion was the risk factor of anal precancerous lesions (χ2=4.284, P<0.05). Conclusions: HRA patterns are reliable in the diagnosis of anal precancerous lesions, which is important for guiding biopsy. However, it is easy to be overestimated, especially for anal canal lesions. The acetowhite epithelium is the most common finding in anal precancerous lesions, but vascular patterns are only seen in anal canal lesions.


Assuntos
Canal Anal/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias do Ânus/patologia , Lesões Pré-Cancerosas/patologia , Proctoscopia/métodos , Adulto , Neoplasias do Ânus/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Lesões Pré-Cancerosas/diagnóstico por imagem , Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos
2.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 1556-1559, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33018289

RESUMO

Because of the significance of bronchial lesions as indicators of early lung cancer and squamous cell carcinoma, a critical need exists for early detection of bronchial lesions. Autofluorescence bronchoscopy (AFB) is a primary modality used for bronchial lesion detection, as it shows high sensitivity to suspicious lesions. The physician, however, must interactively browse a long video stream to locate lesions, making the search exceedingly tedious and error prone. Unfortunately, limited research has explored the use of automated AFB video analysis for efficient lesion detection. We propose a robust automatic AFB analysis approach that distinguishes informative and uninformative AFB video frames in a video. In addition, for the informative frames, we determine the frames containing potential lesions and delineate candidate lesion regions. Our approach draws upon a combination of computer-based image analysis, machine learning, and deep learning. Thus, the analysis of an AFB video stream becomes more tractable. Using patient AFB video, 99.5%/90.2% of test frames were correctly labeled as informative/uninformative by our method versus 99.2%/47.6% by ResNet. In addition, ≥97% of lesion frames were correctly identified, with false positive and false negative rates ≤3%.Clinical relevance-The method makes AFB-based bronchial lesion analysis more efficient, thereby helping to advance the goal of better early lung cancer detection.


Assuntos
Broncoscopia , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Lesões Pré-Cancerosas , Brônquios , Fluorescência , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico por imagem , Lesões Pré-Cancerosas/diagnóstico por imagem
3.
J Cancer Res Ther ; 16(4): 780-787, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32930118

RESUMO

Background: There are "blind spots" on chest computed tomography (CT) where pulmonary nodules can easily be overlooked. The number of missed pulmonary nodules can be minimized by instituting a training program with particular focus on the depiction of nodules at blind spots. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess the variation in lung nodule detection in chest CT based on location, attenuation characteristics, and reader experience. Materials and Methods: We selected 18 noncalcified lung nodules (6-8 mm) suspicious of primary and metastatic lung cancer with solid (n = 7), pure ground-glass (6), and part-solid ground-glass (5) attenuation from 12 chest CT scans. These nodules were randomly inserted in chest CT of 34 patients in lung hila, 1st costochondral junction, branching vessels, paramediastinal lungs, lung apices, juxta-diaphragm, and middle and outer thirds of the lungs. Two residents and two chest imaging clinical fellows evaluated the CT images twice, over a 4-month interval. Before the second reading session, the readers were trained and made aware of the potential blind spots. Chi-square test was used to assess statistical significance. Results: Pretraining session: Fellows detected significantly more part-solid ground-glass nodules compared to residents (P = 0.008). A substantial number of nodules adjacent to branching vessels and posterior mediastinum were missed. Posttraining session: There was a significant increase in detectability independent of attenuation and location of nodules for all readers (P < 0.0008). Conclusion: Dedicated chest CT training improves detection of lung nodules, especially the part-solid ground-glass nodules. Detection of nodules adjacent to branching vessels and the posterior mediastinal lungs is difficult even for fellowship-trained radiologists.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico , Nódulos Pulmonares Múltiplos/diagnóstico , Radiologia/educação , Treinamento por Simulação/métodos , Nódulo Pulmonar Solitário/diagnóstico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Algoritmos , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Mediastino/diagnóstico por imagem , Mediastino/patologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nódulos Pulmonares Múltiplos/diagnóstico por imagem , Nódulos Pulmonares Múltiplos/patologia , Lesões Pré-Cancerosas/diagnóstico por imagem , Lesões Pré-Cancerosas/patologia , Interpretação de Imagem Radiográfica Assistida por Computador/métodos , Radiologia/métodos , Software , Nódulo Pulmonar Solitário/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos
4.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 23(8): 1048-1053, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32788480

RESUMO

Aims: To describe the clinical characteristics, colonoscopic features, histological findings, dysplasia patterns, and clinical outcome of endoscopically detected colonic polyps in the Saudi population. Methods: This retrospective record review was conducted at King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, on patients who underwent colonoscopy between 2005 and 2015. Patients with colorectal cancer were excluded. Data were analyzed using SPSS software. Results: Among 211 patients recruited, 66.8% were males and 66.2% were Saudi. Single polyps were detected in 45.5% of cases, while 29.9%, 18%, and 6.6% had 2, 3, and 4 polyps, respectively. Regarding the size, 81%, 17%, and 2% of the polyps were <1 cm, 1-2 cm, and >2 cm, respectively. The endoscopic examination revealed that 16.4% of the polyps were pedunculated, 82.6% were sessile, and 1% were sessile and pedunculated. About 45%, 30%, 21%, and 6.6% of the polyps were located at the rectum/sigmoid, left colon, right colon, and transverse/ascending colon, respectively. Histologically, 68.6% of polyps were adenomatous and 21.3% were non-adenomatous. Mild dysplasia was detected in almost half of the studied sample (42.3%) while moderate and severe grades of dysplasia were demonstrated in 19.2% and 38.5% of the examined polyps. Surgical intervention was required in 8.1% of cases. Conclusion: Single small-sized sessile polyps of adenomatous type and mild dysplasia are the most common polyps in the Saudi population. Sigmoid/rectum is the most common site affected, and the outcome of polyps is generally favorable.


Assuntos
Adenoma/patologia , Colo Ascendente/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias do Colo/patologia , Pólipos do Colo/patologia , Colonoscopia/métodos , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Colo Ascendente/patologia , Neoplasias do Colo/epidemiologia , Pólipos do Colo/epidemiologia , Endoscopia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Lesões Pré-Cancerosas/diagnóstico por imagem , Lesões Pré-Cancerosas/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Arábia Saudita , Distribuição por Sexo
5.
Arch Gynecol Obstet ; 302(2): 455-462, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32504196

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Cervical cancer is still one of the main causes of death in females. Conventional diagnostic tools such as colposcopy are still unsatisfactory, so accurate diagnostic tools for cervical diseases are needed. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to perform a clinical study to evaluate the value of microendoscopic imaging systems in the diagnosis of cervical precancerous lesions and cervical microinvasive carcinoma (MIC). METHODS: Totally 106 patients ranging in age from 23 to 67 years were recruited. All patients had abnormal thin-layer cytology (TCT) results (≥ low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions) and high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) positivity. Each patient was first subjected to ordinary colposcopy, followed by microendoscopy and biopsy. All results of the colposcopy and microendoscopy images were compared to the histopathological diagnosis. RESULTS: Characteristics of pathological blood vessels were easily distinguished by microendoscopy compared with ordinary colposcopy. The diagnostic agreement rate of microendoscopy with the pathological diagnosis was higher (95.3%) than that of ordinary colposcopy (37.7%) (weighted kappa = 0.863, P < .01). When diagnosing HSIL and more advanced disease, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), and accuracy of the microendoscopic diagnosis were significantly higher than those of ordinary colposcopy (97.6 and 38.1%), (95.5 and 63.6%), (98.8 and 80.0%), (91.3 and 21.2%) and (97.7 and 43.4%), respectively. CONCLUSION: This study shows that microendoscopy has important value in the diagnosis of cervical lesions which can provide real-time diagnosis in vivo without staining, particularly for lesions that are not sensitive to acetic acid staining.


Assuntos
Endoscopia/métodos , Lesões Pré-Cancerosas/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Lesões Pré-Cancerosas/patologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/patologia , Adulto Jovem
6.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(5): e205143, 2020 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32421183

RESUMO

Importance: Gallbladder polyps (GP) are found in more than 4% of adult abdominal ultrasonographs. Their growth pattern and association with gallbladder cancer (GBC) are poorly defined. Objective: To determine the growth pattern of GPs and their association with GBC. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study included 622 227 adult members (ie, aged 18 years or older) of Kaiser Permanente Northern California, an integrated health care delivery system, enrolled between January 1, 1995, and December 31, 2014. The GBC cohort comprised a total of 365 adults with GBC and prior ultrasonography, and the GP cohort comprised 35 970 adults with GPs present on ultrasonography. Data analysis was performed from March 2016 to November 2019. Exposures: Gallbladder polyps (quantitative size, <6 mm, 6 to <10 mm, and ≥10 mm or qualitative size [ie, tiny, small, moderate, and large]). Main Outcomes and Measures: For the GBC cohort, proportion of patients with GBC with polyps identified on preceding ultrasonograph. For the GP cohort, rates of GBC among those with polyps according to size and rate of GP growth of at least 2 mm over time. Results: The GBC cohort comprised 365 individuals (267 [73.1%] women; 173 [47.4%] white patients; median [interquartile range] age, 71 [61-79] years). After excluding 14 patients who did not have evaluation of polyp size, the final GP cohort comprised 35 856 adults, with 18 645 (52.0%) women, a median (interquartile range) age 50 (40-60) years, and 15 573 (43.3%) white patients. Gallbladder polyps were found in 22 patients (6.0%) in the GBC cohort and in 35 870 of 622 227 adults (5.8%) who underwent abdominal ultrasonography. Of these, 19 (0.053%) were diagnosed with GBC, similar to those without GP (316 of 586 357 [0.054%]). The unadjusted GBC rate per 100 000 person-years was 11.3 (95% CI, 6.2-16.3) overall and increased with polyp size, from 1.3 (95% CI, 0-4.0) with initial size of less than 6 mm (n = 17 531) to 128.2 (95% CI, 39.4-217.0) with initial size of 10 mm or larger (n = 2055). In those observed for at least 1 year, the rate was 3.6 (95% CI, 0.7-6.5) per 100 000 person-years. In 6359 patients with evaluable follow-up, unadjusted cumulative probabilities of polyp growth of at least 2 mm at 10 years were 66.2% (95% CI, 62.3%-70.0%) in polyps initially less than 6 mm and 52.9% (95% CI, 47.1%-59.0%) in polyps initially 6 mm to less than 10 mm. Conclusions and Relevance: In this study, GBC rates were low and similar among patients with and without GPs. Growth of 2 mm or more appeared to be part of GP natural history. The results call into question the strategy of proactively following GP to detect GBC.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Vesícula Biliar/patologia , Pólipos/patologia , Lesões Pré-Cancerosas/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , California , Feminino , Neoplasias da Vesícula Biliar/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pólipos/diagnóstico por imagem , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Lesões Pré-Cancerosas/diagnóstico por imagem , Ultrassonografia
7.
Clin Imaging ; 66: 7-9, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32442858

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The aim of our study is to evaluate the diagnostic performance of CT-guided biopsy of lung nodules ≤10 mm based on their lobar and segmental location. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a retrospective study performed on 193 CT-guided percutaneous transthoracic needle biopsies of lung nodules ≤10 mm in greatest dimension, between January 1, 2013 and April 30, 2019. Biopsies were classified as either diagnostic or non-diagnostic based on final cytology and surgical pathology reports. Diagnostic results were those that met parameters for malignancy or a specific benign diagnosis, whereas atypical cells, non-specific benignity, or insufficient specimen were considered non-diagnostic. RESULTS: A total of 1577 CT-guided percutaneous transthoracic needle biopsies were reviewed. Of these, 193 nodules (12.24%) measured ≤10 mm and were selected for further analysis. Of the 193 biopsies, 138 yielded diagnostic results while 56 yielded nondiagnostic results (71% vs 29%, respectively). When analyzed by nodule location, the superior segments of the lower lobes boasted the highest diagnostic yield compared to nodules located in the basal segments of the lower lobes which had the lowest diagnostic yield (84.2% vs 64.7%, respectively). Nodules in the upper lobes and in the middle lobes had a diagnostic yield of 70% and 66.7%, respectively. CONCLUSION: The diagnostic performance of CT-guided biopsy of lung nodules ≤10 mm in diameter may be affected by lobar and segmental location. While the overall performance was good (diagnostic yield of 71%), the yield varied nearly 20% depending on location.


Assuntos
Biópsia Guiada por Imagem/métodos , Lesões Pré-Cancerosas/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto , Idoso , Biópsia por Agulha/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Pulmão/patologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nódulos Pulmonares Múltiplos , Lesões Pré-Cancerosas/patologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
8.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 7700, 2020 05 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32382062

RESUMO

Ultrasonography (US) has been considered image of choice for gallbladder (GB) polyp, however, it had limitations in differentiating between nonneoplastic polyps and neoplastic polyps. We developed and investigated the usefulness of a deep learning-based decision support system (DL-DSS) for the differential diagnosis of GB polyps on US. We retrospectively collected 535 patients, and they were divided into the development dataset (n = 437) and test dataset (n = 98). The binary classification convolutional neural network model was developed by transfer learning. Using the test dataset, three radiologists with different experience levels retrospectively graded the possibility of a neoplastic polyp using a 5-point confidence scale. The reviewers were requested to re-evaluate their grades using the DL-DSS assistant. The areas under the curve (AUCs) of three reviewers were 0.94, 0.78, and 0.87. The DL-DSS alone showed an AUC of 0.92. With the DL-DSS assistant, the AUCs of the reviewer's improved to 0.95, 0.91, and 0.91. Also, the specificity of the reviewers was improved (65.1-85.7 to 71.4-93.7). The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) improved from 0.87 to 0.93. In conclusion, DL-DSS could be used as an assistant tool to decrease the gap between reviewers and to reduce the false positive rate.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Vesícula Biliar/diagnóstico , Vesícula Biliar/diagnóstico por imagem , Pólipos/diagnóstico , Ultrassonografia , Aprendizado Profundo , Feminino , Vesícula Biliar/patologia , Neoplasias da Vesícula Biliar/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias da Vesícula Biliar/patologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pólipos/diagnóstico por imagem , Pólipos/patologia , Lesões Pré-Cancerosas/diagnóstico , Lesões Pré-Cancerosas/diagnóstico por imagem , Lesões Pré-Cancerosas/patologia , Estudos Retrospectivos
9.
Am J Surg Pathol ; 44(7): 955-961, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32235151

RESUMO

Surveillance colonoscopies focused to detect dysplasia are recommended to prevent colorectal cancer in patients with long-standing colonic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). To date, histologic diagnosis and gradation of IBD-related dysplasia has been challenged by a high variability among pathologists. We aimed to analyze the observer characteristics that are correlated with concordance deviations in this diagnosis. Eight pathologists evaluated a set of 125 endoscopic biopsy samples with a representative distribution of nondysplastic and dysplastic lesions from long-standing IBD patients. Two rounds of diagnosis were carried out during a period of 18 months. The κ test was applied to analyze concordance. Pathologists were grouped on the basis of their experience. A subanalysis was performed by eliminating the highly prevalent nondysplastic samples, as well as an analysis after observers' grouping. Overall interobserver agreement was good (κ=0.73), with an even higher pairwise value (κ=0.86) as well as the intraobserver agreement values (best κ=0.85). After eliminating the highly prevalent nondysplastic samples, the interobserver agreement was still moderate to good (best overall κ=0.50; best paired κ=0.72). Notable differences were seen between the pathologists with a high-volume and low-volume practice (best overall κ=0.61 and 0.41, respectively). The agreement in the diagnosis of dysplasia in IBD endoscopic biopsies may have been undervalued over time. This is the first study evaluating pathologists' diagnostic robustness in this field. The results suggest that examining a large volume of samples is the key factor to increase the consistency in the diagnosis and gradation of IBD-related dysplasia.


Assuntos
Colo/patologia , Colonoscopia , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/patologia , Mucosa Intestinal/patologia , Lesões Pré-Cancerosas/patologia , Biópsia , Colo/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico por imagem , Consenso , Humanos , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/diagnóstico por imagem , Mucosa Intestinal/diagnóstico por imagem , Variações Dependentes do Observador , Patologistas , Lesões Pré-Cancerosas/diagnóstico por imagem , Estudos Prospectivos
10.
Radiology ; 295(2): 448-455, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32181731

RESUMO

Background It remains unclear whether 5 years of stability is sufficient to establish the benign behavior of subsolid nodules (SSNs) of the lung. There are no guidelines for the length of follow-up needed for these SSNs. Purpose To investigate the incidence of interval growth of pulmonary SSNs 6 mm or greater in diameter after 5 years of stability and their clinical outcome. Materials and Methods This retrospective study assessed SSNs 6 mm or greater that were stable for 5 years after detection (January 2002 to December 2018). The incidence of interval growth after 5 years of stability and the clinical and radiologic features of these SSNs were investigated. Clinical stage shifts of growing SSNs, presence of metastasis, and overall survival were assessed during the follow-up period. Subgroup analysis was performed in patients with nonenhanced thin-section (section thickness ≤1.5 mm) CT for interval growth after 5 years of stability. Results A total of 235 SSNs in 235 patients (mean age, 64 years ± 10 [standard deviation]; 132 women) were evaluated. There were 212 pure ground-glass nodules and 24 part-solid nodules. During follow-up (median, 112 months; range, 84-208 months), five of the 235 SSNs (2%; three primary ground-glass nodules and two part-solid nodules) showed interval growth. Three of these five growing SSNs were 10 mm or greater. Three of the five SSNs with interval growth had clinical stage shifts after growth (from Tis [in situ] to T1mi [minimally invasive] in one lesion; from T1mi to T1a in two lesions). There were no deaths or metastases from lung cancer during follow-up. Of 160 SSNs imaged with section thickness of 1.5 mm or less, two (1%) grew; both lesions were 10 mm or greater. Conclusion Only 2% of subsolid pulmonary nodules greater than or equal to 6 mm that had been stable for 5 years showed subsequent growth. At median follow-up of 9 years (after the initial 5-year period of stability), growth of those lung nodules had no clinical effect. © RSNA, 2020 See also the editorial by Naidich and Azour in this issue.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Nódulos Pulmonares Múltiplos/diagnóstico por imagem , Nódulos Pulmonares Múltiplos/patologia , Radiografia Torácica/métodos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Lesões Pré-Cancerosas/diagnóstico por imagem , Lesões Pré-Cancerosas/patologia , Estudos Retrospectivos
11.
AJR Am J Roentgenol ; 214(5): 987-994, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32160052

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE. Distinguishing nephrogenic rests from small Wilms tumors can be challenging. This retrospective study was performed to determine if imaging characteristics can be used to distinguish nephrogenic rests from Wilms tumors. MATERIALS AND METHODS. All cases of pathologically confirmed nephrogenic rests and Wilms tumors smaller than 5 cm in maximum dimension on imaging in patients younger than 5 years old were identified from the Children's Oncology Group AREN03B2 study (July 2006-August 2016). Exclusion criteria were chemotherapy before pathologic evaluation or more than 30 days between imaging and surgery; in addition, patients with nephrogenic rests occurring within or juxtaposed to a Wilms tumor and patients with diffuse hyperplastic perilobar nephroblastomatosis were excluded. Two radiologists who were blinded to pathology results assessed all lesions. The two-sample t test was used for continuous variables, and the Fisher exact test was used for categoric variables. ROC analysis was performed to determine the optimal size cutoff for distinguishing between nephrogenic rests and Wilms tumors. RESULTS. Thirty-one pathologically confirmed rests (20 perilobar, 11 intralobar) and 26 Wilms tumors smaller than 5 cm met the eligibility criteria for study inclusion. The median diameter of the nephrogenic rests was 1.3 cm (range, 0.7-3.4 cm) and the median diameter of the Wilms tumor was 3.2 cm (range, 1.8-4.9 cm) (p < 0.001). Imaging findings supportive of Wilms tumors were spherical (p < 0.001) and exophytic (p < 0.001) lesions. Perilobar rests (17/20) were more likely to be homogeneous than intralobar rests (3/11) or Wilms tumor (3/26) (p < 0.001). ROC analysis showed that the optimal size cutoff for distinguishing between nephrogenic rests and Wilms tumors was 1.75 cm. CONCLUSION. In children younger than 5 years old, the diagnosis of a Wilms tumor should be favored over a nephrogenic rest when a renal mass is spherical, exophytic, or larger than 1.75 cm. Homogeneity favors the diagnosis of perilobar nephrogenic rests, whereas intralobar rests and Wilms tumors are more likely to be inhomogeneous.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Renais/diagnóstico por imagem , Rim/patologia , Lesões Pré-Cancerosas/diagnóstico por imagem , Tumor de Wilms/diagnóstico por imagem , Pré-Escolar , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Neoplasias Renais/patologia , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos
12.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32074747

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the role of narrow band imaging (NBI) endoscopy in diagnosing oral premalignant and malignant lesions. Methods: NBI and white light (WLI) endoscopy were performed on 85 patients (47 females, 38 males, aged from 12 to 83 years old, the medium age was 58 years) with 144 oral lesions from July 2016 to October 2017 in the First Affiliated Hospital of Xiamen University. NBI findings were classified into 5 types according to the Ni's classification and compared with histopathological results. Sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of NBI and WLI were calculated. Accuracy of NBI on premalignant and malignant lesions were compared with that of WLI. The connection between NBI findings and pathological results were investigated. SPSS 22.0 software was used to analyze the data. Results: Sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV of NBI vs WLI were 96.5% vs 81.2%, 98.3% vs 98.3%, 98.8% vs 98.6%, and 95.1% vs 78.4%, respectively. NBI findings showed high accordance with the phathological results (kappa=0.943,P<0.01). However, consistency between WLI findings and the phathological results was relatively low (kappa=0.765, P<0.01). NBI was more accurate in diagnosing both premalignant (P<0.01) and malignant lesions (especially for high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia, P<0.01) than WLI. There was remarkable correlation between NBI findings and the phathological results (r=0.836, P<0.01). Conclusions: NBI shows high accuracy in detecting premalignant and malignant lesions of oral cavity. Ni's NBI classification is helpful to diagnose the premalignant and early malignant lesions as well as to evaluate tumor invasion. Thus, NBI can contribute more to early diagnosis and therapy of premalignant and malignant lesions of oral cavity.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Bucais/diagnóstico por imagem , Boca/patologia , Imagem de Banda Estreita , Lesões Pré-Cancerosas/diagnóstico por imagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Endoscopia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Boca/diagnóstico por imagem , Estudos Prospectivos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Adulto Jovem
13.
Dis Esophagus ; 33(2)2020 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31364700

RESUMO

Volumetric laser endomicroscopy (VLE) is a balloon-based technique, which provides a circumferential near-microscopic scan of the esophageal wall layers, and has potential to improve Barrett's neoplasia detection. Interpretation of VLE imagery in Barrett's esophagus (BE) however is time-consuming and complex, due to a large amount of visual information and numerous subtle gray-shaded VLE images. Computer-aided detection (CAD), analyzing multiple neighboring VLE frames, might improve BE neoplasia detection compared to automated single-frame analyses. This study is to evaluate feasibility of automatic data extraction followed by CAD using a multiframe approach for detection of BE neoplasia. Prospectively collected ex-vivo VLE images from 29 BE-patients with and without early neoplasia were retrospectively analyzed. Sixty histopathology-correlated regions of interest (30 nondysplastic vs. 30 neoplastic) were assessed using different CAD systems. Multiple neighboring VLE frames, corresponding to 1.25 millimeter proximal and distal to each region of interest, were evaluated. In total, 3060 VLE frames were analyzed via the CAD multiframe analysis. Multiframe analysis resulted in a significantly higher median AUC (median level = 0.91) compared to single-frame (median level = 0.83) with a median difference of 0.08 (95% CI, 0.06-0.10), P < 0.001. A maximum AUC of 0.94 was reached when including 22 frames on each side using a multiframe approach. In total, 3060 VLE frames were automatically extracted and analyzed by CAD in 3.9 seconds. Multiframe VLE image analysis shows improved BE neoplasia detection compared to single-frame analysis. CAD with multiframe analysis allows for fast and accurate VLE interpretation, thereby showing feasibility of automatic full scan assessment in a real-time setting during endoscopy.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/diagnóstico por imagem , Esôfago de Barrett/diagnóstico por imagem , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Neoplasias Esofágicas/diagnóstico por imagem , Esofagoscopia/métodos , Interpretação de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Microscopia/métodos , Lesões Pré-Cancerosas/diagnóstico por imagem , Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Algoritmos , Área Sob a Curva , Esôfago de Barrett/patologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Neoplasias Esofágicas/patologia , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Lesões Pré-Cancerosas/patologia , Análise de Componente Principal , Estudos Retrospectivos
14.
Gastrointest Endosc ; 91(1): 41-51, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31445040

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: We developed a system for computer-assisted diagnosis (CAD) for real-time automated diagnosis of precancerous lesions and early esophageal squamous cell carcinomas (ESCCs) to assist the diagnosis of esophageal cancer. METHODS: A total of 6473 narrow-band imaging (NBI) images, including precancerous lesions, early ESCCs, and noncancerous lesions, were used to train the CAD system. We validated the CAD system using both endoscopic images and video datasets. The receiver operating characteristic curve of the CAD system was generated based on image datasets. An artificial intelligence probability heat map was generated for each input of endoscopic images. The yellow color indicated high possibility of cancerous lesion, and the blue color indicated noncancerous lesions on the probability heat map. When the CAD system detected any precancerous lesion or early ESCCs, the lesion of interest was masked with color. RESULTS: The image datasets contained 1480 malignant NBI images from 59 consecutive cancerous cases (sensitivity, 98.04%) and 5191 noncancerous NBI images from 2004 cases (specificity, 95.03%). The area under curve was 0.989. The video datasets of precancerous lesions or early ESCCs included 27 nonmagnifying videos (per-frame sensitivity 60.8%, per-lesion sensitivity, 100%) and 20 magnifying videos (per-frame sensitivity 96.1%, per-lesion sensitivity, 100%). Unaltered full-range normal esophagus videos included 33 videos (per-frame specificity 99.9%, per-case specificity, 90.9%). CONCLUSIONS: A deep learning model demonstrated high sensitivity and specificity for both endoscopic images and video datasets. The real-time CAD system has a promising potential in the near future to assist endoscopists in diagnosing precancerous lesions and ESCCs.


Assuntos
Aprendizado Profundo , Diagnóstico por Computador , Neoplasias Esofágicas/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Esofágicas/patologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas do Esôfago/diagnóstico por imagem , Lesões Pré-Cancerosas/diagnóstico por imagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas do Esôfago/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Imagem de Banda Estreita , Lesões Pré-Cancerosas/patologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Adulto Jovem
15.
Tumori ; 106(2): 115-125, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31451072

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Most cases of breast lesions of uncertain malignant potential (B3) undergo surgical intervention. We aimed to analyze the outcome of B3 lesion subtypes in a large series of screen-detected cases. METHODS: We screened 2,986 core needle biopsies to classify B3 lesions. Positive predictive values (PPVs) for malignancy were calculated for a comprehensive risk characterization according to clinicopathologic and morphologic variables. RESULTS: B3 lesions comprised 35% atypical ductal hyperplasia (PPV = 20%), 16.7% flat epithelial atypia (PPV = 12%), 22.7% lobular neoplasia (PPV = 16.2%), 9% papillary lesion (PPV = 18.5%), 8.6% phyllodes tumor (PPV = 3.8%), and 8% radial scars (PPV = 4.1%) based on histopathologic diagnosis. Upgrade rates were 15.9% for calcifications, 13.7% for mass lesions, and 16.7% for architectural deformities, with 8.3% of malignant lesions classified as ductal carcinoma in situ and 6.7% as invasive cancers (PPV = 15%). CONCLUSION: B3 lesions entail a heterogeneous risk of malignancy, and careful radiologic-pathologic correlation is required for optimal treatment.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Carcinoma in Situ/epidemiologia , Carcinoma Intraductal não Infiltrante/epidemiologia , Lesões Pré-Cancerosas/epidemiologia , Idoso , Biópsia com Agulha de Grande Calibre , Mama/diagnóstico por imagem , Mama/patologia , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Carcinoma in Situ/diagnóstico , Carcinoma in Situ/diagnóstico por imagem , Carcinoma in Situ/patologia , Carcinoma Intraductal não Infiltrante/diagnóstico , Carcinoma Intraductal não Infiltrante/diagnóstico por imagem , Carcinoma Intraductal não Infiltrante/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Mamografia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Lesões Pré-Cancerosas/diagnóstico , Lesões Pré-Cancerosas/diagnóstico por imagem , Lesões Pré-Cancerosas/patologia , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
16.
Am J Obstet Gynecol ; 222(1): 60.e1-60.e7, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31401259

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Endometrial intraepithelial neoplasia, also known as complex atypical hyperplasia, is a precancerous lesion of the endometrium associated with a 40% risk of concurrent endometrial cancer at the time of hysterectomy. Although a majority of endometrial cancers diagnosed at the time of hysterectomy for endometrial intraepithelial neoplasia are low risk and low stage, approximately 10% of patients ultimately diagnosed with endometrial cancers will have high-risk disease that would warrant lymph node assessment to guide adjuvant therapy decisions. Given these risks, some physicians choose to refer patients to a gynecologic oncologist for definitive management. Currently, few data exist regarding preoperative factors that can predict the presence of concurrent endometrial cancer in patients with endometrial intraepithelial neoplasia. Identification of these factors may assist in the preoperative triaging of patients to general gynecology or gynecologic oncology. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether preoperative factors can predict the presence of concurrent endometrial cancer at the time of hysterectomy in patients with endometrial intraepithelial neoplasia; and to describe the ability of preoperative characteristics to predict which patients may be at a higher risk for lymph node involvement requiring lymph node assessment at the time of hysterectomy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of women undergoing hysterectomy for pathologically confirmed endometrial intraepithelial neoplasia from January 2004 to December 2015. Patient demographics, imaging, pathology, and outcomes were recorded. The "Mayo criteria" were used to determine patients requiring lymphadenectomy. Unadjusted associations between covariates and progression to endometrial cancer were estimated by 2-sample t-tests for continuous covariates and by logistic regression for categorical covariates. A multivariable model for endometrial cancer at the time of hysterectomy was developed using logistic regression with 5-fold cross-validation. RESULTS: Of the 1055 charts reviewed, 169 patients were eligible and included. Of these patients, 87 (51.5%) had a final diagnosis of endometrial intraepithelial neoplasia/other benign disease, whereas 82 (48.5%) were ultimately diagnosed with endometrial cancer. No medical comorbidities were found to be strongly associated with concurrent endometrial cancer. Patients with endometrial cancer had a thicker average endometrial stripe compared to the patients with no endometrial cancer at the time of hysterectomy (15.7 mm; standard deviation, 9.5) versus 12.5 mm; standard deviation, 6.4; P = .01). An endometrial stripe of ≥2 cm was associated with 4.0 times the odds of concurrent endometrial cancer (95% confidence interval, 1.5-10.0), controlling for age. In all, 87% of endometrial cancer cases were stage T1a (Nx or N0). Approximately 44% of patients diagnosed with endometrial cancer and an endometrial stripe of ≥2 cm met the "Mayo criteria" for indicated lymphadenectomy compared to 22% of endometrial cancer patients with an endometrial stripe of <2 cm. CONCLUSION: Endometrial stripe thickness and age were the strongest predictors of concurrent endometrial cancer at time of hysterectomy for endometrial intraepithelial neoplasia. Referral to a gynecologic oncologist may be especially warranted in endometrial intraepithelial neoplasia patients with an endometrial stripe of ≥2 cm given the increased rate of concurrent cancer and potential need for lymph node assessment.


Assuntos
Carcinoma in Situ/cirurgia , Carcinoma Endometrioide/epidemiologia , Hiperplasia Endometrial/cirurgia , Neoplasias do Endométrio/cirurgia , Lesões Pré-Cancerosas/cirurgia , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Carcinoma in Situ/diagnóstico por imagem , Carcinoma in Situ/patologia , Carcinoma Endometrioide/patologia , Estudos de Coortes , Hiperplasia Endometrial/diagnóstico por imagem , Hiperplasia Endometrial/patologia , Neoplasias do Endométrio/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias do Endométrio/epidemiologia , Neoplasias do Endométrio/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Excisão de Linfonodo , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gradação de Tumores , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Lesões Pré-Cancerosas/diagnóstico por imagem , Lesões Pré-Cancerosas/patologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Ultrassonografia
17.
Am J Surg Pathol ; 44(2): 182-190, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31609784

RESUMO

Flat epithelial atypia (FEA) is an alteration of terminal duct lobular units by a proliferation of ductal epithelium with low-grade atypia. No consensus exists on whether the diagnosis of FEA in core needle biopsy (CNB) requires excision (EXC). We retrospectively identified all in-house CNBs obtained between January 2012 and July 2018 with FEA. We reviewed all CNB slides and assessed radiologic-pathologic concordance. An upgrade was defined as invasive carcinoma (IC) and/or ductal carcinoma in situ in the EXC. The EXC slides of all upgraded cases were rereviewed. Out of ∼15,700 consecutive CNBs in the study period, 106 CNBs from 106 patients yielded FEA alone or with classic lobular neoplasia (LN). We excluded 52 CNBs (40 patients with prior/concurrent carcinoma and 12 without EXC). After rereview, we reclassified 14 cases (2 marked nuclear atypia, 10 focal atypical ductal hyperplasia, 2 benign). The final FEA study cohort consisted of 40 CNBs from 40 women. The CNB targeted mammographic calcifications in 36 (90%) cases, magnetic resonance imaging nonmass enhancement in 3 (8%), and 1 (2%) sonographic mass. All CNBs were deemed radiologic-pathologic concordant. FEA was present alone in 34 CNBs and with LN in 6. EXC yielded 2 low-grade IC, each spanning <2 mm, identified in tissue sections without biopsy site changes. The remaining 38 cases had no upgrade. Classic LN did not affect the upgrade. The upgrade rate of FEA was 5%; both minute, low-grade "incidental" IC. We conclude that nonsurgical management may be considered in patients without prior/concurrent carcinoma and radiologic-pathologic concordant CNB diagnosis of FEA.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Mama/patologia , Carcinoma Ductal de Mama/patologia , Carcinoma Intraductal não Infiltrante/patologia , Carcinoma Lobular/patologia , Lesões Pré-Cancerosas/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Biópsia com Agulha de Grande Calibre , Mama/diagnóstico por imagem , Mama/cirurgia , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias da Mama/terapia , Carcinoma Ductal de Mama/diagnóstico por imagem , Carcinoma Ductal de Mama/terapia , Carcinoma Intraductal não Infiltrante/diagnóstico por imagem , Carcinoma Intraductal não Infiltrante/terapia , Carcinoma Lobular/diagnóstico por imagem , Carcinoma Lobular/terapia , Tratamento Conservador , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Mamografia , Mastectomia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Lesões Pré-Cancerosas/diagnóstico por imagem , Lesões Pré-Cancerosas/terapia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Ultrassonografia Mamária
18.
Radiol Med ; 125(1): 15-23, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31587182

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the performance of the LI-RADS v.2018 scale by comparing it with the Likert scale, in the characterization of liver lesions. METHODS: A total of 39 patients with chronic liver disease underwent MR examination for characterization of 44 liver lesions. Images were independently analyzed by two radiologists using the LI-RADS scale and by another two radiologists using the Likert scale. The reference standard used was either histopathological evaluation or a 4-year MRI follow-up. Receiver operating characteristic analysis was performed. RESULTS: The LI-RADS scale obtained an accuracy of 80%, a sensitivity of 72%, a specificity of 93%, a positive predictive value (PPV) of 93% and a negative predictive value (NPV) of 70%, while the Likert scale achieved an accuracy of 79%, a sensitivity of 73%, a specificity of 87%, a PPV of 89% and a NPV of 70%. The area under the curve (AUC) was 85% for the LI-RADS scale and 83% for the Likert scale. The inter-observer agreement was strong (k = 0.89) between the LI-RADS evaluators and moderate (k = 0.69) between the Likert evaluators. CONCLUSIONS: There was no statistically significant difference between the performances of the two scales; nevertheless, we suggest that the LI-RADS scale be used, as it appeared more objective and consistent.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/diagnóstico por imagem , Cirrose Hepática/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Hepáticas/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Lesões Pré-Cancerosas/diagnóstico por imagem , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Humanos , Fígado/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/normas , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Variações Dependentes do Observador , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Curva ROC , Padrões de Referência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Ultrassonografia
19.
Clin Imaging ; 60(1): 5-9, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31864200

RESUMO

A 14-year-old boy undergoing brain MRI had an incidental avidly enhancing lobulated lesion in the left superolateral orbital rim with associated cortical erosion. Apart from Contrast-enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), and Computed Tomography (CT), Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound (CEUS) was obtained prior to a biopsy. It provided additional information about the microvasculature and an orbital biopsy was subsequently performed through an upper eyelid crease incision with minimal blood loss and no postoperative complications. Histopathological examination revealed features which were compatible with the diagnosis of LCH. The authors propose that CEUS may be considered as an adjunct and possibly alternative imaging modality for the evaluation of craniofacial osseous lesions, especially in the orbital region (due to the known radio-sensitivity of the eyes) and in pediatric patients, to minimize the risk of ionizing-radiation exposure.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Ósseas/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/diagnóstico por imagem , Lesões Pré-Cancerosas/diagnóstico por imagem , Adolescente , Biópsia , Meios de Contraste , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Ultrassonografia/métodos
20.
Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 43(1): 46-56, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31813615

RESUMO

Colorectal cancer is a major health problem. An improvement to its survival has been demonstrated by performing colonoscopy screenings and removing its precursor lesions: polyps. However, colonoscopy is not infallible and multiple strategies have been proposed aimed at improving the quality thereof. This report describes the endoscopic systems available to improve the detection and characterization of polyps, the different classifications for histological prediction and the current indications of advanced endoscopic diagnostic techniques.


Assuntos
Pólipos do Colo/diagnóstico por imagem , Colonoscópios/normas , Colonoscopia/métodos , Pólipos Intestinais/diagnóstico por imagem , Lesões Pré-Cancerosas/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças Retais/diagnóstico por imagem , Colonoscopia/instrumentação , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico por imagem , Desenho de Equipamento , Humanos , Pólipos Intestinais/classificação
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