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1.
BMJ Health Care Inform ; 28(1)2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33685943

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Identifying those individuals requiring medical care is a basic tenet of the pandemic response. Here, we examine the COVID-19 community triage pathways employed by four nations, specifically comparing the safety and efficacy of national online 'symptom checkers' used within the triage pathway. METHODS: A simulation study was conducted on current, nationwide, patient-led symptom checkers from four countries (Singapore, Japan, USA and UK). 52 cases were simulated to approximate typical COVID-19 presentations (mild, moderate, severe and critical) and COVID-19 mimickers (eg, sepsis and bacterial pneumonia). The same simulations were applied to each of the four country's symptom checkers, and the recommendations to refer on for medical care or to stay home were recorded and compared. RESULTS: The symptom checkers from Singapore and Japan advised onward healthcare contact for the majority of simulations (88% and 77%, respectively). The USA and UK symptom checkers triaged 38% and 44% of cases to healthcare contact, respectively. Both the US and UK symptom checkers consistently failed to identify severe COVID-19, bacterial pneumonia and sepsis, triaging such cases to stay home. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that whilst 'symptom checkers' may be of use to the healthcare COVID-19 response, there is the potential for such patient-led assessment tools to worsen outcomes by delaying appropriate clinical assessment. The key features of the well-performing symptom checkers are discussed.


Assuntos
/diagnóstico , Informática em Saúde Pública/organização & administração , Avaliação de Sintomas/métodos , Triagem/organização & administração , Autoavaliação Diagnóstica , Letramento em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Japão , Singapura
2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(10): e24848, 2021 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33725838

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: This study aimed to evaluate the low health literacy prevalence and its socio-demographic related factors in Xingtai.This study was a community-based, cross-sectional survey performed in Xingtai, with a sample size of 960. Participants' socio-demographic characteristics were collected, and their health literacy status was evaluated by the questionnaire designed by the 2012 Chinese Resident Health Literacy Survey.There were 904 (94.2%) participants who provided valid questionnaires and they were included in the analyses. The mean health literacy score was 63.0 ±â€Š16.6; for its subscales, the mean scores of health literacy of basic knowledge and concepts, lifestyle, and health-related skills were 31.6 ±â€Š8.7, 17.1 ±â€Š4.7, and 14.3 ±â€Š3.9, respectively. Low total health literacy prevalence was 83.1%; as for its subscales, the prevalence of low health literacy of basic knowledge and concepts, lifestyle, and health-related skills was 72.5%, 87.8%, and 87.4%, respectively. Meanwhile, age, male and rural location were positively correlated, but education level and annual household income were negatively correlated with low health literacy risk. Further multivariate analysis revealed that lower education level was the only independent related factor for low total health literacy, and the most important independent related factor for low total health literacy of basic knowledge and concepts, lifestyle and health-related skills.Low health literacy prevalence is 83.1%, and lower education level is the most critical related factor for low health literacy in Xingtai.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde/etnologia , Letramento em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Escolaridade , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Renda , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , População Rural , Fatores Sexuais , População Urbana , Adulto Jovem
3.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(4): e24057, 2021 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33530200

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Health literacy (HL) has become an important public health issue and received growing attention in recent years. However, knowledge about the HL of adolescents and young adults is limited.[1] This study aimed to investigate the awareness rate of HL and its related factors among college freshmen in Jiangsu, China. And the results were used to support the promotion intervention to improve the HL of at-risk groups among this population.A total of 25,272 freshmen were surveyed through multi-stage stratified random sampling from 20 colleges and universities in Jiangsu province between 2016 to 2018. Data were obtained using the "Chinese Citizen Health Literacy Questionnaire" (2013 edition). Multiple logistic regression analysis was conducted to determine the factors influencing HL levels.The awareness rate of HL of college freshmen in Jiangsu province was 26.6% among the 25,272 subjects. The awareness rate of HL tended to increase from 2016 to 2018, which was 17.9%, 21.5%, and 39.6%, respectively (P < 0.001). Specifically, except for chronic diseases, knowledge and attitudes, knowledge and attitudes toward health-related behavior and lifestyle, health-related skill and scientific views of health, infection diseases, safety and first aid, medical care, health information awareness rate all have improved to a certain degree (P < .001). The independent factors associated with HL awareness rate were sex (odds ratio [OR] = 1.099, (1.039 -1.164)), residence (urban: OR = 1.141, (1.056∼1.234)), educational system (OR = 2.133, (1.975-2.305)), only child or not (OR = 1.087, (1.018-1.161)), family structure (OR = 1.192, (1.078-1.319)) and maternal education level (high school: OR = 1.183 (1.067-1.313); university and more: OR = 1.481 (1.324-1.658)).Awareness rate of HL of college freshmen is associated with multi-complex factors, further works are recommended to improve the HL levels of college freshmen, especially for the aspect of chronic diseases.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Letramento em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , China , Feminino , Estilo de Vida Saudável , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Características de Residência , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
4.
PLoS One ; 16(2): e0246405, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33566813

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to examine aspects of children's health literacy; the information sources they were accessing, their information preferences, their perceived understanding of and their reported information needs in relation to COVID-19. An online survey for children aged 7-12 years of age and parent/caregivers from the UK, Sweden, Brazil, Spain, Canada and Australia was conducted between 6th of April and the 1st of June 2020. The surveys included demographic questions and both closed and open questions focussing on access to and understanding of COVID-19 information. Descriptive statistics and qualitative content analysis procedures were conducted. The findings show that parents are the main source of information for children during the pandemic in most countries (89%, n = 347), except in Sweden where school was the main source of information. However, in many cases parents chose to shield, filter or adapt their child's access to information about COVID-19, especially in relation to the death rates within each country. Despite this, children in this study reported knowing that COVID-19 was deadly and spreads quickly. This paper argues for a community rather than individual approach to addressing children's health literacy needs during a pandemic.


Assuntos
/mortalidade , Letramento em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Austrália/epidemiologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , /transmissão , Canadá/epidemiologia , Criança , Saúde da Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Sistemas On-Line , Pandemias/estatística & dados numéricos , Espanha/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Suécia/epidemiologia , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
5.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 21(1): 79, 2021 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33485310

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Maternal mortality can be prevented in low-income settings through early health care seeking during maternity complications. While health system reforms in India prioritised institutional deliveries, inadequate antenatal and postnatal services limit the knowledge of danger signs of obstetric complications to women, which delays the recognition of complications and seeking appropriate health care. Recently, a novel rapidly scalable community-based program combining maternal health literacy delivery through microfinance-based women-only self-help groups (SHG) was implemented in rural India. This study evaluates the impact of the integrated microfinance and health literacy (IMFHL) program on the knowledge of maternal danger signs in marginalised women from one of India's most populated and poorer states - Uttar Pradesh. Additionally, the study evaluates the presence of a diffusion effect of the knowledge of maternal danger signs from SHG members receiving health literacy to non-members in program villages. METHODS: Secondary data from the IMFHL program comprising 17,232 women from SHG and non-member households in rural Uttar Pradesh was included. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to identify the program's effects on the knowledge of maternal danger signs adjusting for a comprehensive range of confounders at the individual, household, and community level. RESULTS: SHG member women receiving health literacy were 27% more likely to know all danger signs as compared with SHG members only. Moreover, the results showed that the SHG network facilitates diffusion of knowledge of maternal danger signs from SHG members receiving health literacy to non-members in program villages. The study found that the magnitude of the program impact on outcome remained stable even after controlling for other confounding effects suggesting that the health message delivered through the program reaches all women uniformly irrespective of their socioeconomic and health system characteristics. CONCLUSIONS: The findings can guide community health programs and policy that seek to impact maternal health outcomes in low resource settings by demonstrating the differential impact of SHG alone and SHG plus health literacy on maternal danger sign knowledge.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Letramento em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Promoção da Saúde/organização & administração , Complicações do Trabalho de Parto/prevenção & controle , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Feminino , Educação em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Índia , Saúde Materna , Complicações do Trabalho de Parto/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Cuidado Pré-Natal/organização & administração
6.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 101, 2021 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33482746

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Echinococcosis is considered a neglected zoonotic disease and has been a major worldwide public health problem. Although it is known that health literacy is closely related to health behaviours and health outcomes, few studies have paid attention to echinococcosis related health literacy. This study aims to examine the association between echinococcosis-specific health literacy (ES-HL) and behavioural intention to prevent echinococcosis (BIPE) among herdsmen on the Tibet Plateauin in China. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of 401 Tibetan herdsmen was conducted in Gande county of Qinghai Province, China. Participants were recruited from August to September 2018 and from February to March 2019. A self-developed questionnaire was used to measure demographic information, ES-HL and BIPE. Hierarchical regression analysis was done to identify the factors associated with BIPE. RESULTS: In the hierarchical regression analysis, we entered age, sex, education level, marital state and family monthly income per capita into model 1 which explained a significant amount of variance in BIPE (Adjusted R2 change = 0.029, P = 0.006). Sex (ß = - 0.125, P = 0.013) and family monthly income per capita (ß = - 0.133, P = 0.009) were found to be associated with BIPE. Subsequently, the three factors of ES-HL were added to Model 1 to create Model 2. In Model 2, the two factors of ES-HL, perceived echinococcosis information support (ß = 0.229, P < 0.001) and echinococcosis-specific self-management ability (ß = 0.252, P < 0.001), were significantly associated with BIPE, while the information acquisition and evaluation ability factor (ß =0.093, P = 0.089) was not found to be associated with BIPE. The model improved significantly when ES-HL was included (Model 2) explaining the 25.8% of variance of BIPE (Adjust R2 change =0.229, P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: ES-HL is an important predictor of whether individuals take preventive actions against echinococcosis. An ES-HL promotion action project should be developed targeting specific populations to enhance the prevention of echinococcosis.


Assuntos
Equinococose/prevenção & controle , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Letramento em Saúde , Adulto , Animais , Estudos Transversais , Equinococose/epidemiologia , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Letramento em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Autogestão , Inquéritos e Questionários , Tibet/epidemiologia
7.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 132, 2021 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33516174

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Correct knowledge about transmission of tuberculosis (TB) can influence better health-seeking behaviors, and in turn, it can aid TB prevention in society. Therefore, this study aimed to examine the prevalence and predictors of self-reported correct knowledge about TB transmission among adults in Malawi. METHODS: We conducted a secondary analysis of the data obtained from the Malawi Demographic and Health Survey, 2015/16 (MDHS 2015/16). Questions regarding self-reported TB transmission were computed to evaluate the correct knowledge about TB transmission. The factors associated with the correct knowledge about Tb were assessed using univariate and multivariable logistic regression. RESULTS: Overall, the prevalence of correct knowledge about TB transmission in the general population of Malawian adults was 61.5%. Specifically, the prevalence of correct knowledge about TB transmission was 63.6 and 60.8% in men and women, respectively. Those aged 35-44 years, having secondary or high education, belonging to the richest household, being exposed to mass media, being in professional/technical/managerial, having knowledge that "TB can be cured", and those living in urban areas were significantly associated with correct knowledge about TB transmission. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this study show that if appropriate strategies for TB communication and education to address the rural masses, young individuals, poor individuals, and individuals in the agriculture sector are put it place, can enhance TB prevention in Malawi.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Letramento em Saúde , Autorrelato , Tuberculose/transmissão , Adolescente , Adulto , Escolaridade , Características da Família , Feminino , Letramento em Saúde/normas , Letramento em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Malaui/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Autorrelato/normas , Autorrelato/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
8.
Public Health ; 190: 75-81, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33360294

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study was to examine the relationship between health literacy (HL) and health behaviors in the South Bohemia Region in the Czech Republic (CR) and compare them to HL and health behaviors in the Visegrád group countries (Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, and Slovakia). The paper reports the results from the research in the CR. STUDY DESIGN: A quantitative descriptive study. METHODS: The sample was stratified by sex and age and included a representative sample of 303 adults. The data were collected using the combination of a country-specific questionnaire with the HLS-EU-16 standardized questionnaire. RESULTS: Exercise was significantly associated with perceived health and HL; those with a lower level of HL did not exercise during the previous month. Based only on full answers (N = 251), inadequate HL was identified in 17.5% of the respondents (44), marginal HL in 31.5% (77), and adequate HL in 51% (128) of the respondents. Nearly 49% of the participants evaluated their health as 'good', 25.7% rated their health as 'very good' and 'satisfactory' by 25.7%. But 41.6% experienced one or more chronic diseases, 37.6% had some limitations to their health, and 20.5% smoked. For alcohol consumption, 26% drank weekly and 23% drank two to three times a month. Exercise varied from never (29.7%) to daily (7.9%). CONCLUSION: Based on our results, we conclude that health behavior risk factors are still present in the South Bohemia region of the CR regardless of levels of HL reported on the HLS-EU-16.


Assuntos
Atitude Frente a Saúde/etnologia , Exercício Físico/psicologia , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde/etnologia , Letramento em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , República Tcheca , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hungria , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polônia , Eslováquia , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários
9.
J Nurs Scholarsh ; 53(1): 75-86, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33316121

RESUMO

PURPOSE: A deluge of fake news and misinformation about the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) on the Internet poses challenges for the public in their search for reliable and relevant health information for taking protective measures, especially among people with chronic diseases (PWCD). This study aimed to (a) understand the satisfaction level of the online information related to COVID-19 in people with and without chronic diseases; (b) explore information-searching behavior and digital health literacy in PWCD; and (3) identify the possible predictors of information satisfaction among PWCD. METHODS: This was a multicity, cross-sectional study using an online survey with a convenience sample of people who (a) were 15 years of age or older and (b) had access to the Internet in mainland China, Hong Kong, and Macau. FINDINGS: Four thousand four hundred and seventy-two subjects completed the survey, of whom less than 50% felt satisfied with the online information. About 20% of respondents (n = 882) were diagnosed with at least one chronic disease and reported a lower level of information satisfaction (p = .003) than the people without chronic diseases. The majority of the PWCD obtained their online health information from social media. Higher digital health literacy (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 5.07), higher frequency of searches regarding symptoms of COVID-19 (adjusted OR = 2.07), higher perceived importance of quickly learning from the information searched (adjusted OR = 1.63), and lower frequency of searches on the topic of dealing with psychological stress (adjusted OR = 0.54) were found to be predictors of information satisfaction among PWCD. CONCLUSIONS: The majority of PWCD sought online information related to COVID-19 from social media, and their level of information satisfaction was significantly lower than among people without chronic diseases. Digital health literacy is a strong and significant predictor of information satisfaction. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: To support PWCD, we not only have to provide them with clear and accurate information, but also promote their digital health literacy so that they may seek, understand, and appraise health information from the Internet to make appropriate health-related judgments and decisions.


Assuntos
Doença Crônica/epidemiologia , Informação de Saúde ao Consumidor , Internet , Satisfação Pessoal , Adulto , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Letramento em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários
10.
Psychiatry Res ; 295: 113628, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33340799

RESUMO

This research aims to analyze the effects of pseudoscientific information (PI) about COVID-19 on the mental well-being of the general population. A total of 782 participants were classified according to the type of municipality in which they lived (rural municipalities and urban municipalities). The participants answered psychometric questionnaires that assessed psychological well-being, pseudoscientific beliefs and the ability to discriminate between scientific and pseudoscientific information about COVID-19. The results indicated the following: the greater the ability to discriminate between false information and true information, the greater the levels of psychological well-being perceived by the participant. The ability to discriminate predicts up to 32% of psychological well-being only for subjects living in rural municipalities. Residents in urban municipalities showed lower levels of well-being than residents in rural municipalities. It is concluded that new social resources are needed to help the general population of urban municipalities discriminate between pseudoscientific and scientific information.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Letramento em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Satisfação Pessoal , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
11.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0244573, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33382781

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Mental health literacy (MHL) is key for mental health development, particularly in low-and-middle-income countries (LMIC) where mental health resources are limited. MHL development can be thought of as occurring at two levels: the individual person level (via direct contact, with specifically-targeted individuals), and the public health level (via indirect contact through public media, targeting the general public). Each approach has advantages and disadvantages. METHODS: The present mixed methods study assessed the status of and best approaches for development of mental health literacy in the Southeast Asian LMIC Vietnam. Because there has been relatively little discussion of MHL development at the public health level, this assessment focused on the public health level, although not exclusively. Because mental health professionals generally have the most in-depth understanding of their mental health system, study participants were 82 Vietnamese mental health professionals who completed a quantitative survey, with 48 participating in focus groups. RESULTS: Most of the professionals viewed MHL in Vietnam as low or very low, and that it was difficult or very difficult for the general public to find effective mental health services. Main barriers underlying these problems and more generally for developing MHL in Vietnam identified in the focus groups were: (a) misinformation in the media regarding mental health and mental illness; (b) lack of licensure for non-medical mental health professionals (e.g., psychologists; social workers); (c) lack of interest in mental health from upper-level leadership. CONCLUSIONS: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study assessing professionals' perceptions regarding mental health literacy at both the public health and individual-person levels. Although sampling was restricted to Vietnamese professionals, results may provide initial preliminary guidance for other LMIC considering mental health literacy development at multiple levels.


Assuntos
Letramento em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviços de Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde Mental/educação , Adulto , Países em Desenvolvimento , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Pessoal de Saúde , Política de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Vietnã
12.
Front Public Health ; 8: 581746, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33313037

RESUMO

Purpose: We examined factors associated with health literacy among elders with and without suspected COVID-19 symptoms (S-COVID-19-S). Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted at outpatient departments of nine hospitals and health centers 14 February-2 March 2020. Self-administered questionnaires were used to assess patient characteristics, health literacy, clinical information, health-related behaviors, and depression. A sample of 928 participants aged 60-85 years were analyzed. Results: The proportion of people with S-COVID-19-S and depression were 48.3 and 13.4%, respectively. The determinants of health literacy in groups with and without S-COVID-19-S were age, gender, education, ability to pay for medication, and social status. In people with S-COVID-19-S, one-score increment of health literacy was associated with 8% higher healthy eating likelihood (odds ratio, OR, 1.08; 95% confidence interval, 95%CI, 1.04, 1.13; p < 0.001), 4% higher physical activity likelihood (OR, 1.04; 95%CI, 1.01, 1.08, p = 0.023), and 9% lower depression likelihood (OR, 0.90; 95%CI, 0.87, 0.94; p < 0.001). These associations were not found in people without S-COVID-19-S. Conclusions: The older people with higher health literacy were less likely to have depression and had healthier behaviors in the group with S-COVD-19-S. Potential health literacy interventions are suggested to promote healthy behaviors and improve mental health outcomes to lessen the pandemic's damage in this age group.


Assuntos
/diagnóstico , Depressão/diagnóstico , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Letramento em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Pacientes Ambulatoriais/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Dieta Saudável , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Vietnã
13.
J Med Internet Res ; 22(10): e19684, 2020 10 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33006940

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Since its outbreak in January 2020, COVID-19 has quickly spread worldwide and has become a global pandemic. Social media platforms have been recognized as important tools for health-promoting practices in public health, and the use of social media is widespread among the public. However, little is known about the effects of social media use on health promotion during a pandemic such as COVID-19. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we aimed to explore the predictive role of social media use on public preventive behaviors in China during the COVID-19 pandemic and how disease knowledge and eHealth literacy moderated the relationship between social media use and preventive behaviors. METHODS: A national web-based cross-sectional survey was conducted by a proportionate probability sampling among 802 Chinese internet users ("netizens") in February 2020. Descriptive statistics, Pearson correlations, and hierarchical multiple regressions were employed to examine and explore the relationships among all the variables. RESULTS: Almost half the 802 study participants were male (416, 51.9%), and the average age of the participants was 32.65 years. Most of the 802 participants had high education levels (624, 77.7%), had high income >¥5000 (US $736.29) (525, 65.3%), were married (496, 61.8%), and were in good health (486, 60.6%). The average time of social media use was approximately 2 to 3 hours per day (mean 2.34 hours, SD 1.11), and the most frequently used media types were public social media (mean score 4.49/5, SD 0.78) and aggregated social media (mean score 4.07/5, SD 1.07). Social media use frequency (ß=.20, P<.001) rather than time significantly predicted preventive behaviors for COVID-19. Respondents were also equipped with high levels of disease knowledge (mean score 8.15/10, SD 1.43) and eHealth literacy (mean score 3.79/5, SD 0.59). Disease knowledge (ß=.11, P=.001) and eHealth literacy (ß=.27, P<.001) were also significant predictors of preventive behaviors. Furthermore, eHealth literacy (P=.038) and disease knowledge (P=.03) positively moderated the relationship between social media use frequency and preventive behaviors, while eHealth literacy (ß=.07) affected this relationship positively and disease knowledge (ß=-.07) affected it negatively. Different social media types differed in predicting an individual's preventive behaviors for COVID-19. Aggregated social media (ß=.22, P<.001) was the best predictor, followed by public social media (ß=.14, P<.001) and professional social media (ß=.11, P=.002). However, official social media (ß=.02, P=.597) was an insignificant predictor. CONCLUSIONS: Social media is an effective tool to promote behaviors to prevent COVID-19 among the public. Health literacy is essential for promotion of individual health and influences the extent to which the public engages in preventive behaviors during a pandemic. Our results not only enrich the theoretical paradigm of public health management and health communication but also have practical implications in pandemic control for China and other countries.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Letramento em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Mídias Sociais , Telemedicina/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/psicologia , Betacoronavirus , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Comunicação em Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Amostragem , Adulto Jovem
14.
Med Care ; 58(9): 842-849, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32826749

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The CAregiver Perceptions About CommunIcaTion with Clinical Team members (CAPACITY) instrument measures how care partners perceive themselves to be supported by the patient's health care team and their experiences communicating with the team. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to assess the measurement properties (ie, structural validity of the construct and internal consistency) of the CAPACITY instrument in care partners of patients with cognitive impairment, and to examine whether care partner health literacy and patient cognitive impairment are associated with a higher or lower CAPACITY score. RESEARCH DESIGN: This was a retrospective cohort study. SUBJECTS: A total of 1746 dyads of community-dwelling care partners and older adults in the United States with cognitive impairment who obtained an amyloid positron emission tomography scan. MEASURES: The CAPACITY instrument comprises 12 items that can be combined as a total score or examined as subdomain scores about communication with the team and care partner capacity-assessment by the team. The 2 covariates of primary interest in the regression model are health literacy and level of cognitive impairment of the patient (Modified Telephone Interview Cognitive Status). RESULTS: Confirmatory factor analysis showed the CAPACITY items fit the expected 2-factor structure (communication and capacity). Higher cognitive functioning of patients and higher health literacy among care partners was associated with lower communication domain scores, lower capacity domain scores, and lower overall CAPACITY scores. CONCLUSIONS: The strong psychometric validity of the CAPACITY measure indicates it could have utility in other family caregivers or care partner studies assessing the quality of interactions with clinical teams. Knowing that CAPACITY differs by care partner health literacy and patient impairment level may help health care teams employ tailored strategies to achieve high-quality care partner interactions.


Assuntos
Cuidadores/psicologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/epidemiologia , Comunicação , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde/normas , Letramento em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente/organização & administração , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores Socioeconômicos
15.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237081, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32764783

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Approximately 18,000 Syrian refugees have resettled to the United States. Half of these refugees are children, whose age and refugee status jeopardize their abilities to attain quality healthcare. Information on Syrian refugees' health in the U.S. is limited. This qualitative study sought to explore Syrian refugee parents' beliefs, perspectives, and practices regarding their children's health through in-depth interviews. METHODS: Eighteen Syrian refugee parents residing in Cincinnati, Ohio were interviewed in Arabic by bilingual researchers using semi-structured in-depth interviews. The interviews were recorded, transcribed, and translated. Three members of the research team independently coded each interview using an inductive thematic analysis approach. RESULTS: Analysis identified four salient themes: stressors preclude health seeking behaviors, parents perceive health barriers, parents are dissatisfied with the healthcare system, and parents use resilience behaviors to overcome barriers. Stressors included poor housing and neighborhoods, reliving traumatic experiences, depression and anxiety, and social isolation. Dissatisfaction included emergency room wait times, lack of testing and prescriptions. Health barriers included missed appointments and inadequate transportation, translation services, health literacy and care coordination. Parents reported resilience through faith, by seeking knowledge, use of natural remedies, and utilizing community resources. CONCLUSION: This qualitative study provides information on the beliefs, practices, and behaviors of Syrian refugee parents related to health care utilization of pediatric refugees in the United States. Psychosocial and environmental stressors as well as perceived systemic health barriers, hinder health seeking behaviors in Syrian refugee parents. Culturally relevant care targeting perceived barriers and incorporating resilience behaviors may improve parental satisfaction and parental health seeking behaviors. Further study is needed to implement and evaluate interventions that target identified barriers.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde/etnologia , Letramento em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Pais/psicologia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/psicologia , Refugiados/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Características da Família/etnologia , Feminino , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ohio , Poder Familiar/etnologia , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/etnologia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Refugiados/estatística & dados numéricos , Síria , Adulto Jovem
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32751484

RESUMO

There is an "infodemic" associated with the COVID-19 pandemic-an overabundance of valid and invalid information. Health literacy is the ability to access, understand, appraise, and apply health information, making it crucial for navigating coronavirus and COVID-19 information environments. A cross-sectional representative study of participants ≥ 16 years in Germany was conducted using an online survey. A coronavirus-related health literacy measure was developed (HLS-COVID-Q22). Internal consistency was very high (α = 0.940; ρ = 0.891) and construct validity suggests a sufficient model fit, making HLS-COVID-Q22 a feasible tool for assessing coronavirus-related health literacy in population surveys. While 49.9% of our sample had sufficient levels of coronavirus-related health literacy, 50.1% had "problematic" (15.2%) or "inadequate" (34.9%) levels. Although the overall level of health literacy is high, a vast number of participants report difficulties dealing with coronavirus and COVID-19 information. The participants felt well informed about coronavirus, but 47.8% reported having difficulties judging whether they could trust media information on COVID-19. Confusion about coronavirus information was significantly higher among those who had lower health literacy. This calls for targeted public information campaigns and promotion of population-based health literacy for better navigation of information environments during the infodemic, identification of disinformation, and decision-making based on reliable and trustworthy information.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Letramento em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Adulto , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Adulto Jovem
17.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236963, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32760150

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Health Literacy (HL) is an important determinant of individual health. Limited HL is an increasing problem affecting the general population. This study aims to assess the level of HL in patients attending outpatient medical facilities in general medicine located in Naples and Caserta and investigate the association of HL with health behaviours and health status. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study involved patients attending outpatient medical facilities in general medicine. The questionnaire had four sections-the sociodemographic information, the 16-items version of the European Health Literacy Survey questionnaire, the general self-efficacy scale (GSE) and the health status scale (EQ-VAS). Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to investigate the sociodemographic determinants of HL. The Pearson correlation coefficients were determined to compare HL with health behaviours (GSE) and health status (EQ-VAS). RESULTS: The study showed that 61.6% of 503 patients had a low level of HL. After the multivariate analysis, HL was found to be higher among patients with higher education level and general self-efficacy score ≥30. There were no differences in HL between the age groups and people with or without chronic diseases. HL was stronger correlated with GSE than with EQ-VAS (0.53 vs 0.27). CONCLUSION: This is the first study on HL for Southern Italy. It showed a low level of HL. As the sample was not representative of the reference population, we cannot derive a corresponding conclusion for the general population of Southern Italy. Therefore, more data in Italy are needed to plan actions for improving HL.


Assuntos
Letramento em Saúde , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Letramento em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Nível de Saúde , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
18.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1289, 2020 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32843002

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Limited health literacy is linked with poor health behaviors, limited health care access, and poor health outcomes. Improving individual and population health outcomes requires understanding and addressing barriers to promoting health literacy. METHODS: Using the socio-ecological model as a guiding framework, this qualitative study (Phase 1 of a larger ongoing project) explored the interpersonal and organizational levels that may impact the health literacy levels of patients seeking care at federally qualified community health centers (FQCHCs) in Rhode Island. Focus groups were conducted with FQCHC employees (n = 37) to explore their perceptions of the health literacy skills of their patients, health literacy barriers patients encounter, and possible strategies to increase health literacy. The focus groups were audio-recorded and transcribed, and transcripts were coded using a process of open, axial, and selective coding. Codes were grouped into categories, and the constant comparative approach was used to identify themes. RESULTS: Eight unique themes centered on health literacy, sources of health information, organizational culture's impact, challenges from limited health literacy, and suggestions to ameliorate the impact of limited health literacy. All focus group participants were versed in health literacy and viewed health literacy as impacting patients' health status. Participants perceived that some patients at their FQCHC have limited health literacy. Participants spoke of themselves and of their FQCHC addressing health literacy through organizational- and provider-level strategies. They also identified additional strategies (e.g., training staff and providers on health literacy, providing patients with information that includes graphics) that could be adopted or expanded upon to address and promote health literacy. CONCLUSIONS: Study findings suggest that strategies may need to be implemented at the organizational-, provider-, and patient- level to advance health literacy. The intervention phase of this project will explore intervention strategies informed by study results, and could include offering health literacy training to providers and staff to increase their understanding of health literacy to include motivation to make and act on healthy decisions and strategies to address health literacy, including the use of visual aids.


Assuntos
Centros Comunitários de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Letramento em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Pessoal de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto/métodos , Saúde Pública/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Rhode Island
19.
Environ Health ; 19(1): 89, 2020 08 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32843052

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Household air pollution (HAP) is a significant source of the global burden of disease. Our objective was to evaluate the association between environmental health literacy (EHL), a domain of health literacy (HL) that describes the ability to use environmental health information to reduce health risks, and symptoms associated with HAP. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional population-based study of 353 households in Kasarani, Kenya. One individual from each household was surveyed using our novel EHL survey tool. Baseline characteristics were compared between individuals who were symptomatic (i.e., experiencing cough, shortness of breath, phlegm production, wheeze, chest tightness, headache, eye irritation, or burns from cooking at least 5 times per month) versus individuals who were asymptomatic (i.e., experiencing none or symptoms no more than once per month). Multivariate logistic regression was used to determine the odds ratios (OR) of self-reported symptoms associated with HL, stratified by median EHL, adjusting for education, self-perceived health and solid fuel use. RESULTS: A total of 100 individuals (28%) reported experiencing one or more symptoms at least 5 times per month, including 31.2% of solid fuel users and 30.3% of non-solid fuel users. Among individuals with high EHL, higher HL was associated with lower risk of experiencing symptoms (OR = 0.26; 95% CI 0.10-0.67), however, there was no association among individuals with low EHL (OR = 0.85; 95% CI 0.34-2.13). Among solid fuel users, the association between HL and risk of experiencing symptoms was driven by individuals with high EHL (OR = 0.30; 95% CI 0.05-1.84), rather than those with low EHL (OR = 1.22; 95% CI 0.36-4.16). CONCLUSIONS: To the best of our knowledge, this was the first study to assess the association between EHL, HL, and HAP-associated symptoms. Our findings highlight the potential importance of EHL in promoting sustainable interventions to reduce symptoms associated with HAP from solid fuel use among communities in Kenya.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Saúde Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Letramento em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Quênia , População Urbana
20.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(34): e20547, 2020 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32846749

RESUMO

This survey aimed to evaluate the prevalence of low health literacy and correlations of demographic characteristics with low health literacy risk in residents of Anhui province.A total of 5120 residents of Anhui province were interviewed in this cross-sectional survey, and 4816 (94.1%) gave valid responses. Sociodemographic characteristics were collected. Health literacy and its 3 subscales, including basic knowledge and concepts, lifestyle, and health-related skill, were assessed. Low health literacy was defined as <80.0% of the total score or score of each subscale.Mean total health literacy score was 62.7±17.2 (maximum 100 points), and was 31.5 ±â€Š9.0 (maximum 47 points), 17.0 ±â€Š4.8 (maximum 28 points), and 14.2 ±â€Š4.1 (maximum 25 points) in terms of basic knowledge and concepts score, lifestyle score, and health-related skill score, respectively. The prevalence of low health literacy was 81.4%, and was 71.3% in terms of basic knowledge and concepts subscale, 87.9% with regard to lifestyle subscale, and 86.3% in view of health-related skill subscale. In addition, older age (P = .001), male (P < .001), decreased education level (P < .001), lower annual household income (P < .001), and location at rural area (P < .001) associated with increased risk of low health literacy. Moreover, multivariate logistic regression revealed that male, lower education level, and location at rural area were independent risk factors of low health literacy (all P < .05).The prevalence of low health literacy is high in residents of Anhui province, and male, lower education level, as well as location at rural area are independent risk factors of low health literacy.


Assuntos
Letramento em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , China , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco
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