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1.
Elife ; 102021 08 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34424199

RESUMO

The exact immunopathophysiology of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) caused by SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) remains clouded by a general lack of relevant disease controls. The scarcity of single-cell investigations in the broader population of patients with CAP renders it difficult to distinguish immune features unique to COVID-19 from the common characteristics of a dysregulated host response to pneumonia. We performed integrated single-cell transcriptomic and proteomic analyses in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from a matched cohort of eight patients with COVID-19, eight patients with CAP caused by Influenza A or other pathogens, and four non-infectious control subjects. Using this balanced, multi-omics approach, we describe shared and diverging transcriptional and phenotypic patterns-including increased levels of type I interferon-stimulated natural killer cells in COVID-19, cytotoxic CD8 T EMRA cells in both COVID-19 and influenza, and distinctive monocyte compositions between all groups-and thereby expand our understanding of the peripheral immune response in different etiologies of pneumonia.


Assuntos
COVID-19/imunologia , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/imunologia , Influenza Humana/imunologia , Análise de Célula Única , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Leucócitos Mononucleares/citologia , Leucócitos Mononucleares/imunologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
2.
Sci Immunol ; 6(62)2021 08 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34376481

RESUMO

To understand how a protective immune response against SARS-CoV-2 develops over time, we integrated phenotypic, transcriptional and repertoire analyses on PBMCs from mild and severe COVID-19 patients during and after infection, and compared them to healthy donors (HD). A type I IFN-response signature marked all the immune populations from severe patients during the infection. Humoral immunity was dominated by IgG production primarily against the RBD and N proteins, with neutralizing antibody titers increasing post infection and with disease severity. Memory B cells, including an atypical FCRL5+ T-BET+ memory subset, increased during the infection, especially in patients with mild disease. A significant reduction of effector memory, CD8+ T cells frequency characterized patients with severe disease. Despite such impairment, we observed robust clonal expansion of CD8+ T lymphocytes, while CD4+ T cells were less expanded and skewed toward TCM and TH2-like phenotypes. MAIT cells were also expanded, but only in patients with mild disease. Terminally differentiated CD8+ GZMB+ effector cells were clonally expanded both during the infection and post-infection, while CD8+ GZMK+ lymphocytes were more expanded post-infection and represented bona fide memory precursor effector cells. TCR repertoire analysis revealed that only highly proliferating T cell clonotypes, which included SARS-CoV-2-specific cells, were maintained post-infection and shared between the CD8+ GZMB+ and GZMK+ subsets. Overall, this study describes the development of immunity against SARS-CoV-2 and identifies an effector CD8+ T cell population with memory precursor-like features.


Assuntos
COVID-19/genética , COVID-19/imunologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/imunologia , Imunofenotipagem , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Transcriptoma , Adulto , Idoso , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Linfócitos B/metabolismo , Biomarcadores , COVID-19/virologia , Plasticidade Celular/genética , Plasticidade Celular/imunologia , Evolução Clonal/imunologia , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Isotipos de Imunoglobulinas/imunologia , Memória Imunológica , Leucócitos Mononucleares/imunologia , Leucócitos Mononucleares/metabolismo , Contagem de Linfócitos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/imunologia , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/metabolismo
3.
Viruses ; 13(8)2021 07 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34452355

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: New coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, a causative agent of the COVID-19 pandemic, has been circulating among humans since November 2019. Multiple studies have assessed the qualitative and quantitative characteristics of virus-specific immunity in COVID-19 convalescents, however, some aspects of the development of memory T-cell responses after natural SARS-CoV-2 infection remain uncovered. METHODS: In most of published studies T-cell immunity to the new coronavirus is assessed using peptides corresponding to SARS-CoV-1 or SARS-CoV-2 T-cell epitopes, or with peptide pools covering various parts of the viral proteins. Here, we determined the level of CD4+ and CD8+ memory T-cell responses in COVID-19 convalescents by stimulating PBMCs collected 1 to 6 months after recovery with sucrose gradient-purified live SARS-CoV-2. IFNγ production by the central and effector memory helper and cytotoxic T cells was assessed by intracellular cytokine staining assay and flow cytometry. RESULTS: Stimulation of PBMCs with live SARS-CoV-2 revealed IFNγ-producing T-helper effector memory cells with CD4+CD45RA-CCR7- phenotype, which persisted in circulation for up to 6 month after COVID-19. In contrast, SARS-CoV-2-specific IFNγ-secreting cytotoxic effector memory T cells were found at significant levels only shortly after the disease, but rapidly decreased over time. CONCLUSION: The stimulation of immune cells with live SARS-CoV-2 revealed a rapid decline in the pool of effector memory CD8+, but not CD4+, T cells after recovery from COVID-19. These data provide additional information on the development and persistence of cellular immune responses after natural infection, and can inform further development of T cell-based SARS-CoV-2 vaccines.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , COVID-19/imunologia , Memória Imunológica , Interferon gama/imunologia , Leucócitos Mononucleares/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , COVID-19/virologia , Epitopos de Linfócito T/imunologia , Humanos , Leucócitos Mononucleares/virologia , SARS-CoV-2/genética , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , Linfócitos T Citotóxicos/imunologia
4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360706

RESUMO

For the treatment of severe COVID-19, supplementation with human plasma-purified α-1 antitrypsin (AAT) to patients is currently considered. AAT inhibits host proteases that facilitate viral entry and possesses broad anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory activities. Researchers have demonstrated that an interaction between SARS-CoV-2 spike protein (S) and lipopolysaccharides (LPS) enhances pro-inflammatory responses in vitro and in vivo. Hence, we wanted to understand the potential anti-inflammatory activities of plasma-derived and recombinant AAT (recAAT) in a model of human total peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) exposed to a combination of CHO expressed trimeric spike protein and LPS, ex vivo. We confirmed that cytokine production was enhanced in PBMCs within six hours when low levels of LPS were combined with purified spike proteins ("spike"). In the presence of 0.5 mg/mL recAAT, however, LPS/spike-induced TNF-α and IL-1ß mRNA expression and protein release were significantly inhibited (by about 46-50%) relative to LPS/spike alone. Although without statistical significance, recAAT also reduced production of IL-6 and IL-8. Notably, under the same experimental conditions, the plasma-derived AAT preparation Respreeza (used in native and oxidized forms) did not show significant effects. Our findings imply that an early pro-inflammatory activation of human PBMCs is better controlled by the recombinant version of AAT than the human plasma-derived AAT used here. Considering the increasing clinical interest in AAT therapy as useful to ameliorate the hyper-inflammation seen during COVID-19 infection, different AAT preparations require careful evaluation.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Leucócitos Mononucleares/metabolismo , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/metabolismo , alfa 1-Antitripsina/farmacologia , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/imunologia , Células CHO , COVID-19/terapia , Células Cultivadas , Cricetulus , Citocinas/metabolismo , Humanos , Inflamação/metabolismo , Leucócitos Mononucleares/efeitos dos fármacos , Leucócitos Mononucleares/imunologia , Lipopolissacarídeos/imunologia , Lipopolissacarídeos/toxicidade , SARS-CoV-2/efeitos dos fármacos , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia , alfa 1-Antitripsina/química , alfa 1-Antitripsina/imunologia
5.
Front Immunol ; 12: 716075, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34394120

RESUMO

The existence of asymptomatic and re-detectable positive coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients presents the disease control challenges of COVID-19. Most studies on immune responses in COVID-19 have focused on moderately or severely symptomatic patients; however, little is known about the immune response in asymptomatic and re-detectable positive (RP) patients. Here we performed a comprehensive analysis of the transcriptomic profiles of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from 48 COVID-19 patients which included 8 asymptomatic, 13 symptomatic, 15 recovered and 12 RP patients. The weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) identified six co-expression modules, of which the turquoise module was positively correlated with the asymptomatic, symptomatic, and recovered COVID-19 patients. The red module positively correlated with symptomatic patients only and the blue and brown modules positively correlated with the RP patients. The analysis by single sample gene set enrichment analysis (ssGSEA) revealed a lower level of IFN response and complement activation in the asymptomatic patients compared with the symptomatic, indicating a weaker immune response of the PBMCs in the asymptomatic patients. In addition, gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) analysis showed the enrichment of TNFα/NF-κB and influenza infection in the RP patients compared with the recovered patients, indicating a hyper-inflammatory immune response in the PBMC of RP patients. Thus our findings could extend our understanding of host immune response during the progression of COVID-19 disease and assist clinical management and the immunotherapy development for COVID-19.


Assuntos
Doenças Assintomáticas , COVID-19/imunologia , Portador Sadio/imunologia , Leucócitos Mononucleares/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Transcriptoma/genética , Adulto , Portador Sadio/virologia , Ativação do Complemento/imunologia , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Inflamação/imunologia , Influenza Humana/complicações , Interferons/sangue , Interferons/imunologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Transcriptoma/imunologia , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
6.
Molecules ; 26(16)2021 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34443554

RESUMO

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune inflammatory joint disease with complex pathogenesis associated with cytokine dysregulation. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) plays a role in systemic inflammation and joint destruction in RA and could be associated with the secretion of other immune-modulatory cytokines such as IL-25, IL-31, and IL-33. For the above, our main aim was to evaluate the IL-25, IL-31, and IL-33 secretion from recombinant human MIF (rhMIF)-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of RA patients. The rhMIF and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) plus rhMIF stimuli promote the secretion of IL-25, IL-31, and IL-33 (p < 0.05) from PBMC of RA patients. The study groups, the different stimuli, and the interaction between both showed a statistically significant effect on the secretion of IL-25 (p < 0.05) and IL-31 (p < 0.01). The study of the effect of the RA patient treatments and their interaction with the effect of stimuli did not show an interaction between them. In conclusion, our study generates new evidence for the role of MIF in the secretion of IL-25, IL-31, and IL-33 and its immunomodulatory effect on RA.


Assuntos
Artrite Reumatoide/imunologia , Artrite Reumatoide/metabolismo , Interleucina-17/metabolismo , Interleucina-33/metabolismo , Interleucinas/metabolismo , Oxirredutases Intramoleculares/metabolismo , Leucócitos Mononucleares/metabolismo , Fatores Inibidores da Migração de Macrófagos/metabolismo , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Imunomodulação/efeitos dos fármacos , Oxirredutases Intramoleculares/farmacologia , Leucócitos Mononucleares/efeitos dos fármacos , Leucócitos Mononucleares/imunologia , Fatores Inibidores da Migração de Macrófagos/farmacologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteínas Recombinantes/farmacologia
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361047

RESUMO

Chemoresistance of germ cell tumors (GCTs) represents an intensively studied property of GCTs that is the result of a complicated multifactorial process. One of the driving factors in this process is the tumor microenvironment (TME). Intensive crosstalk between the DNA damage/DNA repair pathways and the TME has already been reported. This study aimed at evaluating the interplay between the immune TME and endogenous DNA damage levels in GCT patients. A cocultivation system consisting of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from healthy donors and GCT cell lines was used in an in vitro study. The patient cohort included 74 chemotherapy-naïve GCT patients. Endogenous DNA damage levels were measured by comet assay. Immunophenotyping of leukocyte subpopulations was performed using flow cytometry. Statistical analysis included data assessing immunophenotypes, DNA damage levels and clinicopathological characteristics of enrolled patients. The DNA damage level in PBMCs cocultivated with cisplatin (CDDP)-resistant GCT cell lines was significantly higher than in PBMCs cocultivated with their sensitive counterparts. In GCT patients, endogenous DNA damage levels above the cutoff value were independently associated with increased percentages of natural killer cells, CD16-positive dendritic cells and regulatory T cells. The crosstalk between the endogenous DNA damage level and specific changes in the immune TME reflected in the blood of GCT patients was revealed. The obtained data contribute to a deeper understanding of ongoing interactions in the TME of GCTs.


Assuntos
Dano ao DNA , Leucócitos Mononucleares/imunologia , Neoplasias Testiculares/imunologia , Microambiente Tumoral/imunologia , Adulto , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Biomarcadores Tumorais/imunologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Cisplatino/uso terapêutico , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Humanos , Leucócitos Mononucleares/classificação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Testiculares/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Testiculares/genética , Neoplasias Testiculares/patologia
8.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 6(1): 292, 2021 07 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34330889

RESUMO

Sex differences in the susceptibility of SARS-CoV-2 infection and severity have been controversial, and the underlying mechanisms of COVID-19 in a sex-specific manner remain understudied. Here we inspected sex differences in SARS-CoV-2 infection, hospitalization, admission to the intensive care unit (ICU), sera inflammatory biomarker profiling, and single-cell RNA-sequencing (scRNA-seq) profiles across nasal, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from COVID-19 patients with varying degrees of disease severities. Our propensity score-matching observations revealed that male individuals have a 29% elevated likelihood of SARS-CoV-2 positivity, with a hazard ratio (HR) 1.32 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.18-1.48) for hospitalization and HR 1.51 (95% CI 1.24-1.84) for admission to ICU. Sera from male patients at hospital admission had elevated neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio and elevated expression of inflammatory markers (C-reactive protein and procalcitonin). We found that SARS-CoV-2 entry factors, including ACE2, TMPRSS2, FURIN, and NRP1, have elevated expression in nasal squamous cells from male individuals with moderate and severe COVID-19. We observed male-biased transcriptional activation in SARS-CoV-2-infected macrophages from BALF and sputum samples, which offers potential molecular mechanism for sex-biased susceptibility to viral infection. Cell-cell interaction network analysis reveals potential epithelium-immune cell interactions and immune vulnerability underlying male-elevated disease severity and mortality in COVID-19. Mechanistically, monocyte-elevated expression of Toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7) and Bruton tyrosine kinase (BTK) is associated with severe outcomes in males with COVID-19. In summary, these findings provide basis to decipher immune responses underlying sex differences and designing sex-specific targeted interventions and patient care for COVID-19.


Assuntos
COVID-19/imunologia , Comunicação Celular/imunologia , Leucócitos Mononucleares/imunologia , Mucosa Nasal/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Caracteres Sexuais , Adulto , Idoso , COVID-19/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Leucócitos Mononucleares/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mucosa Nasal/patologia , Análise de Célula Única
9.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4175, 2021 07 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34234126

RESUMO

Although we can now measure single-cell signaling responses with multivariate, high-throughput techniques our ability to interpret such measurements is still limited. Even interpretation of dose-response based on single-cell data is not straightforward: signaling responses can differ significantly between cells, encompass multiple signaling effectors, and have dynamic character. Here, we use probabilistic modeling and information-theory to introduce fractional response analysis (FRA), which quantifies changes in fractions of cells with given response levels. FRA can be universally performed for heterogeneous, multivariate, and dynamic measurements and, as we demonstrate, quantifies otherwise hidden patterns in single-cell data. In particular, we show that fractional responses to type I interferon in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells are very similar across different cell types, despite significant differences in mean or median responses and degrees of cell-to-cell heterogeneity. Further, we demonstrate that fractional responses to cytokines scale linearly with the log of the cytokine dose, which uncovers that heterogeneous cellular populations are sensitive to fold-changes in the dose, as opposed to additive changes.


Assuntos
Ensaios de Triagem em Larga Escala/métodos , Interferon Tipo I/metabolismo , Leucócitos Mononucleares/metabolismo , Modelos Imunológicos , Células 3T3 , Animais , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Interferon Tipo I/imunologia , Leucócitos Mononucleares/imunologia , Camundongos , Modelos Estatísticos , Cultura Primária de Células , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia , Análise de Célula Única , Software
10.
Anticancer Res ; 41(7): 3281-3285, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34230122

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Recent studies have indicated that natural killer (NK) cells present in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) might be responsible for the somewhat poor outcome of clinical trials conducted with the NK cell line NK-92, as well as chimeric antigen receptor-modified NK-92 cells against leukemias and lymphomas. These NK cells and how their cytotoxic profiles can be altered by some common gamma chain receptor-dependent cytokines or by removal of CD4+ cells have been addressed herein. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A time-resolved fluorometric assay using 2.2':6'.2"-terpyridine-6.6"-dicarboxylic acid-labeled NK-92 or K562 as target cells was used for measuring the cytotoxic activity of cytokine-treated PBMCs and purified NK cells. RESULTS: Pre-incubation with 25 ng/ml interleukin 12 (IL-12), IL-15 or IL-21 for 72 h increased NK cell activity against K562 cells by more than 90% (1:25 target:effector ratio), whereas the corresponding NK cell activity against NK-92 cells was reduced by 15.9±0.1% by IL-12 and 50.6±2.9% by IL-15 compared to cells treated with medium alone. IL-7, on the other hand, increased NK activity against K562 to a much smaller extent (10.4±0.4%) and inhibited NK-92 cell lysis by 15.2±0.3%. Interestingly, similar amounts of IL-2 potentiated NK cell activity against both K562 and NK-92 cells by 50.9±0.5% and 14.3±0.9%, respectively. Purification of NK cells with magnetic beads demonstrated that NK cells indeed were responsible for the observed cytotoxic activity against both NK-92 cells (58.5±9.10%, 1:100 target:effector ratio) and K562 cells (81.6±9.57%, 1:100 target:effector ratio). Elimination of CD4+ cells from PBMCs did not alter the NK activity profile. CONCLUSION: This study highlights a problem that might arise with immune-based NK-92 and chimeric antigen receptor-transduced NK-92 cell therapies and pinpoints the need for evaluating new NK-like cell lines.


Assuntos
Interleucina-15/imunologia , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Leucemia/imunologia , Linfoma/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Linhagem Celular , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Citotoxicidade Imunológica/imunologia , Humanos , Imunoterapia Adotiva/métodos , Interleucina-2/imunologia , Interleucinas/imunologia , Células K562 , Leucócitos Mononucleares/imunologia , Receptores de Antígenos Quiméricos/imunologia
11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(14)2021 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34298983

RESUMO

The use of autologous tolerogenic dendritic cells (tolDC) has become a promising strategy to re-establish immune tolerance in autoimmune diseases. Among the different strategies available, the use of vitamin D3 for the generation of tolDC (VitD3-tolDC) has been widely tested because of their immune regulatory properties. To identify molecules and pathways involved in the generation of VitD3-tolDC, we established an easy and fast gene silencing method based on the use of Viromer blue to introduce siRNA into monocytes on day 1 of culture differentiation. The analysis of the effect of CD209 (DC-SIGN) and CD115 (CSF1R) down-modulation on the phenotype and functionality of transfected VitD3-tolDC revealed a partial role of CD115 in their tolerogenicity. Further investigations showed that CSF1R-CSF1 signaling is involved in the induction of cell metabolic reprogramming, triggering glycolysis to produce high amounts of lactate, a novel suppressive mechanism of T cell proliferation, recently found in autologous tolerogenic dendritic cells (ATDCs).


Assuntos
Colecalciferol/farmacologia , Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Glicólise/fisiologia , Tolerância Imunológica/genética , Leucócitos Mononucleares/imunologia , Fator Estimulador de Colônias de Macrófagos/fisiologia , Monócitos/imunologia , Receptores de Fator Estimulador das Colônias de Granulócitos e Macrófagos/fisiologia , Células Cultivadas , Técnicas de Cocultura , Meios de Cultivo Condicionados , Células Dendríticas/efeitos dos fármacos , Glucose/metabolismo , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Interleucinas/farmacologia , Lactatos/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Transfecção
13.
Anticancer Res ; 41(8): 3825-3831, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34281842

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: The enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) assay is a well-established method used to evaluate the strength of T cell-mediated immune activity, and accepted as a standard functional immunological assay. Cytokine activity is a novel parameter reflecting spot size and intensity, which has not been used in ELISPOT assay before. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In the present study, from 113 ELISPOT assay data derived from previous clinical trials with dendritic cell vaccines, both spot number count and cytokine activity data for IFN-γ secretion were obtained using an ELISPOT reader. Comparing the new parameter cytokine activity with the existing parameter spot number, the feasibility of cytokine activity was investigated. RESULTS: There were no significant differences in sensitivity and specificity between spot number and cytokine activity among ELISPOT assay data from CMVpp65 and other antigen peptide-stimulated cytotoxic T lymphocytes. CONCLUSION: Although cytokine activity is a novel parameter unreported so far, it did not show any advantages in the evaluation T cell immune responses compared to the existing spot number parameter.


Assuntos
Citocinas/metabolismo , ELISPOT/métodos , Neoplasias/imunologia , Glioblastoma/imunologia , Humanos , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Leucócitos Mononucleares/imunologia , Melanoma/imunologia , Linfócitos T Citotóxicos/imunologia
14.
EBioMedicine ; 69: 103472, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34229275

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The menstrual cycle influences HIV infection-risk in women, although the timing and underlying mechanism are unclear. Here we investigated the contribution of the menstrual cycle to HIV susceptibility through evaluating immune behavior with infection-risk over time. METHODS: Blood and vaginal lavage samples were collected from 18 pig-tailed macaques to evaluate immune changes over reproductive cycles, and from 5 additional animals undergoing repeated vaginal exposures to simian HIV (SHIV). Peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) samples from healthy women (n = 10) were prospectively collected over the course of a menstrual cycle to profile T cell populations. Immune properties from PBMC and vaginal lavage samples were measured by flow cytometry. Plasma progesterone was measured by enzyme immunoassay. The oscillation frequency of progesterone concentration and CCR5 expression on CD4 T cells was calculated using the Lomb-Scargle periodogram. SHIV infection was monitored in plasma by RT-PCR. Immune measures were compared using generalized estimating equations (GEE). FINDINGS: Macaques cycle-phases were associated with fluctuations in systemic immune properties and a type-1 inflammatory T cell response with corresponding CCR5+ memory CD4 T cell (HIV target cell) infiltration into the vaginal lumen at the late luteal phase. Power spectral analysis identified CCR5 oscillation frequencies synchronized with reproductive cycles. In a repetitive low-dose vaginal challenge model, productive SHIV163P3 infection only occurred during intervals of mounting type-1 T cell responses (n = 5/5). Finally, we identify similar type-1 inflammatory T cell responses over the menstrual cycle are occurring in healthy women. INTERPRETATION: These data demonstrate that periodic shifts in the immune landscape under menstrual cycle regulation drives bystander CCR5+ CD4 T cell recruitment and HIV susceptibility in the female reproductive tract. FUNDING: This study was supported by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30329 and NIH grants to Emory University (K23AI114407 to A.N.S., the Emory University Center for AIDS research [P30AI050409], and Atlanta Clinical and Translational Sciences Institute [KLR2TR000455, UL1TR000454]). DISCLAIMER: The findings and conclusions in this report are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the views of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention or the Department of Health and Human Services.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Ciclo Menstrual/imunologia , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida dos Símios/imunologia , Animais , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Leucócitos Mononucleares/imunologia , Macaca , Progesterona/sangue , Receptores CCR5/genética , Receptores CCR5/metabolismo
15.
J Intern Med ; 290(3): 677-692, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34080738

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prognostic markers for disease severity and identification of therapeutic targets in COVID-19 are urgently needed. We have studied innate and adaptive immunity on protein and transcriptomic level in COVID-19 patients with different disease severity at admission and longitudinally during hospitalization. METHODS: Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were collected at three time points from 31 patients included in the Norwegian SARS-CoV-2 cohort study and analysed by flow cytometry and RNA sequencing. Patients were grouped as either mild/moderate (n = 14), severe (n = 11) or critical (n = 6) disease in accordance with WHO guidelines and compared with patients with SARS-CoV-2-negative bacterial sepsis (n = 5) and healthy controls (n = 10). RESULTS: COVID-19 severity was characterized by decreased interleukin 7 receptor alpha chain (CD127) expression in naïve CD4 and CD8 T cells. Activation (CD25 and HLA-DR) and exhaustion (PD-1) markers on T cells were increased compared with controls, but comparable between COVID-19 severity groups. Non-classical monocytes and monocytic HLA-DR expression decreased whereas monocytic PD-L1 and CD142 expression increased with COVID-19 severity. RNA sequencing exhibited increased plasma B-cell activity in critical COVID-19 and yet predominantly reduced transcripts related to immune response pathways compared with milder disease. CONCLUSION: Critical COVID-19 seems to be characterized by an immune profile of activated and exhausted T cells and monocytes. This immune phenotype may influence the capacity to mount an efficient T-cell immune response. Plasma B-cell activity and calprotectin were higher in critical COVID-19 while most transcripts related to immune functions were reduced, in particular affecting B cells. The potential of these cells as therapeutic targets in COVID-19 should be further explored.


Assuntos
COVID-19/genética , COVID-19/imunologia , Leucócitos Mononucleares/imunologia , Transcriptoma , Imunidade Adaptativa , Adulto , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Feminino , Antígenos HLA-DR/imunologia , Humanos , Imunidade Inata , Subunidade alfa de Receptor de Interleucina-2/imunologia , Interleucina-7/imunologia , Complexo Antígeno L1 Leucocitário/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Monócitos/imunologia , Fenótipo , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Tromboplastina/imunologia , Tromboplastina/metabolismo
16.
Front Immunol ; 12: 665329, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34122423

RESUMO

Infection by novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 causes different presentations of COVID-19 and some patients may progress to a critical, fatal form of the disease that requires their admission to ICU and invasive mechanical ventilation. In order to predict in advance which patients could be more susceptible to develop a critical form of COVID-19, it is essential to define the most adequate biomarkers. In this study, we analyzed several parameters related to the cellular immune response in blood samples from 109 patients with different presentations of COVID-19 who were recruited in Hospitals and Primary Healthcare Centers in Madrid, Spain, during the first pandemic peak between April and June 2020. Hospitalized patients with the most severe forms of COVID-19 showed a potent inflammatory response that was not translated into an efficient immune response. Despite the high levels of effector cytotoxic cell populations such as NK, NKT and CD8+ T cells, they displayed immune exhaustion markers and poor cytotoxic functionality against target cells infected with pseudotyped SARS-CoV-2 or cells lacking MHC class I molecules. Moreover, patients with critical COVID-19 showed low levels of the highly cytotoxic TCRγδ+ CD8+ T cell subpopulation. Conversely, CD4 count was greatly reduced in association to high levels of Tregs, low plasma IL-2 and impaired Th1 differentiation. The relative importance of these immunological parameters to predict COVID-19 severity was analyzed by Random Forest algorithm and we concluded that the most important features were related to an efficient cytotoxic response. Therefore, efforts to fight against SARS-CoV-2 infection should be focused not only to decrease the disproportionate inflammatory response, but also to elicit an efficient cytotoxic response against the infected cells and to reduce viral replication.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/imunologia , Citotoxicidade Imunológica , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Leucócitos Mononucleares/imunologia , Admissão do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Biomarcadores , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/virologia , Comorbidade , Citocinas/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Imunofenotipagem , Leucócitos Mononucleares/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/imunologia , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/metabolismo
17.
Life Sci ; 281: 119719, 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34144055

RESUMO

AIMS: In an effort to gain further insight into the underlying mechanisms tied to disease onset and progression of Gulf War Illness (GWI), our team evaluated GWI patient response to stress utilizing RNA-Seq. MAIN METHODS: The protocol included blood collection before exercise challenge (baseline), at maximal exertion, and after exercise challenge (recovery - four hours post-exercise challenge). Peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) transcriptomics data were analyzed to understand why GWI patients process stressors differently from their healthy counterparts. KEY FINDINGS: Our findings validate previously identified dysregulation of immune and inflammatory pathways among GWI patients as well as highlight novel immune and inflammatory markers of disease activity. These results provide a foundation for future research efforts in understanding GWI pathophysiology and creating targeted treatments. SIGNIFICANCE: Gulf War Illness is a complex, chronic, and debilitating multi-system illness impacting 25%-30% of the U.S. troops deployed to the 1990-1991 Gulf War. The condition is characterized by medically unexplained fatigue and affects multiple organ systems. Because the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown, patients receive symptom-based treatment, rather than targeting fundamental biological processes. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study that applies RNA-Seq to analyze the effect of GWI, and the response to stressors in GWI, on the transcriptomic changes in circulating immune cells.


Assuntos
Leucócitos Mononucleares/imunologia , Síndrome do Golfo Pérsico/imunologia , Transcriptoma , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Síndrome do Golfo Pérsico/sangue , Síndrome do Golfo Pérsico/genética , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
18.
Cell ; 184(13): 3573-3587.e29, 2021 06 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34062119

RESUMO

The simultaneous measurement of multiple modalities represents an exciting frontier for single-cell genomics and necessitates computational methods that can define cellular states based on multimodal data. Here, we introduce "weighted-nearest neighbor" analysis, an unsupervised framework to learn the relative utility of each data type in each cell, enabling an integrative analysis of multiple modalities. We apply our procedure to a CITE-seq dataset of 211,000 human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) with panels extending to 228 antibodies to construct a multimodal reference atlas of the circulating immune system. Multimodal analysis substantially improves our ability to resolve cell states, allowing us to identify and validate previously unreported lymphoid subpopulations. Moreover, we demonstrate how to leverage this reference to rapidly map new datasets and to interpret immune responses to vaccination and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Our approach represents a broadly applicable strategy to analyze single-cell multimodal datasets and to look beyond the transcriptome toward a unified and multimodal definition of cellular identity.


Assuntos
SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Análise de Célula Única/métodos , Células 3T3 , Animais , COVID-19/imunologia , Linhagem Celular , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Humanos , Imunidade/imunologia , Leucócitos Mononucleares/imunologia , Linfócitos/imunologia , Camundongos , Análise de Sequência de RNA/métodos , Transcriptoma/imunologia , Vacinação
19.
Vet Res ; 52(1): 69, 2021 May 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33980310

RESUMO

Paratuberculosis is a disease of ruminants caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map). Vaccination is the most cost-effective control method. However, despite the fact that macrophages are the main target cells for this pathogen, the precise mechanisms behind the response of the macrophage to Map infection and how it is modified by vaccination are yet poorly understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Silirum® vaccination in the early immune response of caprine monocyte-derived macrophages (CaMØs). Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were obtained from vaccinated and non-vaccinated goats, cultured in vitro until differentiation to macrophages and infected with Map. After a 24 h incubation, Map viability and DNA were assessed in culture by viable colony count and real time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). In addition, Map phagocytosis and expression of IL-10, IL-12, IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-17A, IL-1ß, iNOS, IL-6 and MIP-1ß were also evaluated through immunofluorescence labelling and reverse transcriptase qPCR (RT-qPCR), respectively. A significant reduction of Map viability was observed in both supernatants (P < 0.05) and CaMØs (P < 0.001) from the vaccinated group. Similarly, the percentage of infected CaMØs and the number of internalized Map by CaMØs (P < 0.0001) was higher in the vaccinated group. Finally, iNOS (P < 0.01) and IL-10 were significantly up-regulated in CaMØs from vaccinated goats, whereas only MIP-1ß was up-regulated in non-vaccinated animals (P < 0.05). These results show that vaccination modifies the immune response of CaMØs, suggesting that the phagocytosis and microbiocidal activity of macrophages against Map is enhanced after vaccination.


Assuntos
Vacinas Bacterianas/administração & dosagem , Doenças das Cabras/imunologia , Leucócitos Mononucleares/imunologia , Macrófagos/imunologia , Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis/imunologia , Paratuberculose/imunologia , Vacinação/veterinária , Animais , Doenças das Cabras/microbiologia , Cabras , Paratuberculose/microbiologia
20.
Nat Immunol ; 22(6): 711-722, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34017121

RESUMO

Chromatin undergoes extensive reprogramming during immune cell differentiation. Here we report the repression of controlled histone H3 amino terminus proteolytic cleavage (H3ΔN) during monocyte-to-macrophage development. This abundant histone mark in human peripheral blood monocytes is catalyzed by neutrophil serine proteases (NSPs) cathepsin G, neutrophil elastase and proteinase 3. NSPs are repressed as monocytes mature into macrophages. Integrative epigenomic analysis reveals widespread H3ΔN distribution across the genome in a monocytic cell line and primary monocytes, which becomes largely undetectable in fully differentiated macrophages. H3ΔN is enriched at permissive chromatin and actively transcribed genes. Simultaneous NSP depletion in monocytic cells results in H3ΔN loss and further increase in chromatin accessibility, which likely primes the chromatin for gene expression reprogramming. Importantly, H3ΔN is reduced in monocytes from patients with systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis, an autoinflammatory disease with prominent macrophage involvement. Overall, we uncover an epigenetic mechanism that primes the chromatin to facilitate macrophage development.


Assuntos
Artrite Juvenil/imunologia , Diferenciação Celular/imunologia , Epigênese Genética/imunologia , Histonas/metabolismo , Leucócitos Mononucleares/metabolismo , Macrófagos/imunologia , Adolescente , Artrite Juvenil/sangue , Artrite Juvenil/genética , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas/genética , Catepsina G/genética , Catepsina G/metabolismo , Diferenciação Celular/genética , Núcleo Celular/metabolismo , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cromatina/metabolismo , Ensaios Enzimáticos , Epigenômica , Feminino , Técnicas de Inativação de Genes , Humanos , Células Jurkat , Elastase de Leucócito/genética , Elastase de Leucócito/metabolismo , Leucócitos Mononucleares/imunologia , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Masculino , Mieloblastina/genética , Mieloblastina/metabolismo , Cultura Primária de Células , Proteólise , RNA-Seq , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo , Células THP-1 , Adulto Jovem
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