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1.
BMC Pulm Med ; 20(1): 301, 2020 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33198751

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) rapidly reached pandemic proportions. Given that the main target of SARS-CoV-2 are lungs leading to severe pneumonia with hyperactivation of the inflammatory cascade, we conducted a prospective study to assess alveolar inflammatory status in patients with moderate to severe COVID-19. METHODS: Diagnostic bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was performed in 33 adult patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection by real-time PCR on nasopharyngeal swab admitted to the Intensive care unit (ICU) (n = 28) and to the Intermediate Medicine Ward (IMW) (n = 5). We analyze the differential cell count, ultrastructure of cells and Interleukin (IL)6, 8 and 10 levels. RESULTS: ICU patients showed a marked increase in neutrophils (1.24 × 105 ml- 1, 0.85-2.07), lower lymphocyte (0.97 × 105 ml- 1, 0.024-0.34) and macrophages fractions (0.43 × 105 ml- 1, 0.34-1.62) compared to IMW patients (0.095 × 105 ml- 1, 0.05-0.73; 0.47 × 105 ml- 1, 0.28-1.01 and 2.14 × 105 ml- 1, 1.17-3.01, respectively) (p < 0.01). Study of ICU patients BAL by electron transmission microscopy showed viral particles inside mononuclear cells confirmed by immunostaining with anti-viral capsid and spike antibodies. IL6 and IL8 were significantly higher in ICU patients than in IMW (IL6 p < 0.01, IL8 p < 0.0001), and also in patients who did not survive (IL6 p < 0.05, IL8 p = 0.05 vs. survivors). IL10 did not show a significant variation between groups. Dividing patients by treatment received, lower BAL concentrations of IL6 were found in patients treated with steroids as compared to those treated with tocilizumab (p < 0.1) or antivirals (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Alveolitis, associated with COVID-19, is mainly sustained by innate effectors which showed features of extensive activation. The burden of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL6 and IL8 in the broncho-alveolar environment is associated with clinical outcome.


Assuntos
Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Inflamação/imunologia , Interleucina-6/imunologia , Interleucina-8/imunologia , Leucócitos/imunologia , Pulmão/imunologia , Macrófagos Alveolares/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Monofosfato de Adenosina/análogos & derivados , Monofosfato de Adenosina/uso terapêutico , Corticosteroides/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Alanina/análogos & derivados , Alanina/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus , Lavagem Broncoalveolar , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/citologia , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Combinação de Medicamentos , Feminino , Humanos , Hidroxicloroquina/uso terapêutico , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Interleucina-10/imunologia , Itália , Leucócitos Mononucleares/virologia , Lopinavir/uso terapêutico , Pulmão/citologia , Pulmão/virologia , Linfócitos/imunologia , Masculino , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neutrófilos/imunologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Respiração Artificial/métodos , Ritonavir/uso terapêutico , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/metabolismo , Taxa de Sobrevida , Vírion/metabolismo , Vírion/ultraestrutura
2.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 131: 110653, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32942152

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) reducing inflammation and protecting lung and brain function, could be of therapeutic efficacy in COVID-19 patients. METHODS: Using GSEA, we compared our previous transcriptome analysis of neurons injured by glutamate and treated with the ARB Candesartan (GSE67036) with transcriptional signatures from SARS-CoV-2 infected primary human bronchial epithelial cells (NHBE) and lung postmortem (GSE147507), PBMC and BALF samples (CRA002390) from COVID-19 patients. RESULTS: Hundreds of genes upregulated in SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19 transcriptomes were similarly upregulated by glutamate and normalized by Candesartan. Gene Ontology analysis revealed expression profiles with greatest significance and enrichment, including proinflammatory cytokine and chemokine activity, the NF-kappa B complex, alterations in innate and adaptive immunity, with many genes participating in the COVID-19 cytokine storm. CONCLUSIONS: There are similar injury mechanisms in SARS-CoV-2 infection and neuronal injury, equally reduced by ARB treatment. This supports the hypothesis of a therapeutic role for ARBs, ameliorating the COVID-19 cytokine storm.


Assuntos
Bloqueadores do Receptor Tipo 1 de Angiotensina II/farmacologia , Benzimidazóis/farmacologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Tetrazóis/farmacologia , Betacoronavirus/genética , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Brônquios/citologia , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/virologia , Células Epiteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Epiteliais/virologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Leucócitos Mononucleares/efeitos dos fármacos , Leucócitos Mononucleares/virologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Transcriptoma
3.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 5(1): 186, 2020 09 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32883951

RESUMO

Sterol regulatory element binding protein-2 (SREBP-2) is activated by cytokines or pathogen, such as virus or bacteria, but its association with diminished cholesterol levels in COVID-19 patients is unknown. Here, we evaluated SREBP-2 activation in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of COVID-19 patients and verified the function of SREBP-2 in COVID-19. Intriguingly, we report the first observation of SREBP-2 C-terminal fragment in COVID-19 patients' blood and propose SREBP-2 C-terminal fragment as an indicator for determining severity. We confirmed that SREBP-2-induced cholesterol biosynthesis was suppressed by Sestrin-1 and PCSK9 expression, while the SREBP-2-induced inflammatory responses was upregulated in COVID-19 ICU patients. Using an infectious disease mouse model, inhibitors of SREBP-2 and NF-κB suppressed cytokine storms caused by viral infection and prevented pulmonary damages. These results collectively suggest that SREBP-2 can serve as an indicator for severity diagnosis and therapeutic target for preventing cytokine storm and lung damage in severe COVID-19 patients.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Colesterol/biossíntese , Infecções por Coronavirus/genética , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/genética , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/genética , Leucócitos Mononucleares/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/genética , Proteína de Ligação a Elemento Regulador de Esterol 2/genética , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/imunologia , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/mortalidade , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/virologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Proteínas de Choque Térmico/genética , Proteínas de Choque Térmico/imunologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/imunologia , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Interleucina-1beta/genética , Interleucina-1beta/imunologia , L-Lactato Desidrogenase/genética , L-Lactato Desidrogenase/imunologia , Leucócitos Mononucleares/metabolismo , Leucócitos Mononucleares/virologia , Pulmão/imunologia , Pulmão/metabolismo , Pulmão/virologia , NF-kappa B/genética , NF-kappa B/imunologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Cultura Primária de Células , Pró-Proteína Convertase 9/genética , Pró-Proteína Convertase 9/imunologia , Transdução de Sinais , Proteína de Ligação a Elemento Regulador de Esterol 2/imunologia , Análise de Sobrevida , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/genética , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/imunologia
4.
Sci Adv ; 6(31)2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32937590

RESUMO

The outbreak of the highly contagious and deadly severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), also known as coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), has posed a serious threat to public health across the globe, calling for the development of effective diagnostic markers and therapeutics. Here, we report a highly reliable severity diagnostic biomarker, acetylated 676th lysine transforming growth factor-beta-induced protein (TGFBIp K676Ac). TGFBIp K676Ac was consistently elevated in the blood of patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia (n = 113), especially in patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) compared to non-ICU patients. Patients' blood samples showed increased cytokines and lymphopenia, which are exemplary indicators of SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia. Treatment with TGFBIp neutralizing antibodies suppressed the cytokine storm. The increased level of TGFBIp K676Ac in ICU patients suggests the promise of this protein as a reliable severity diagnostic biomarker for severe SARS-CoV-2 disease.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/diagnóstico , Proteínas da Matriz Extracelular/imunologia , Leucócitos Mononucleares/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Processamento de Proteína Pós-Traducional , Insuficiência Respiratória/diagnóstico , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/imunologia , Acetilação , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/farmacologia , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Infecções por Coronavirus/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/sangue , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/imunologia , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/patologia , Proteínas da Matriz Extracelular/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas da Matriz Extracelular/genética , Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Contagem de Leucócitos , Leucócitos Mononucleares/efeitos dos fármacos , Leucócitos Mononucleares/patologia , Leucócitos Mononucleares/virologia , Pulmão/irrigação sanguínea , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Pulmão/patologia , Pulmão/virologia , Lisina/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/genética , NF-kappa B/imunologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/sangue , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Cultura Primária de Células , Prognóstico , Insuficiência Respiratória/sangue , Insuficiência Respiratória/imunologia , Insuficiência Respiratória/patologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/antagonistas & inibidores , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/genética
5.
Cells ; 9(9)2020 08 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32847031

RESUMO

Following influenza infection, rs2248374-G ERAP2 expressing cells may transcribe an alternative spliced isoform: ERAP2/Iso3. This variant, unlike ERAP2-wt, is unable to trim peptides to be loaded on MHC class I molecules, but it can still dimerize with both ERAP2-wt and ERAP1-wt, thus contributing to profiling an alternative cellular immune-peptidome. In order to verify if the expression of ERAP2/Iso3 may be induced by other pathogens, PBMCs and MDMs isolated from 20 healthy subjects were stimulated with flu, LPS, CMV, HIV-AT-2, SARS-CoV-2 antigens to analyze its mRNA and protein expression. In parallel, Calu3 cell lines and PBMCs were in vitro infected with growing doses of SARS-CoV-2 (0.5, 5, 1000 MOI) and HIV-1BAL (0.1, 1, and 10 ng p24 HIV-1Bal/1 × 106 PBMCs) viruses, respectively. Results showed that: (1) ERAP2/Iso3 mRNA expression can be prompted by many pathogens and it is coupled with the modulation of several determinants (cytokines, interferon-stimulated genes, activation/inhibition markers, antigen-presentation elements) orchestrating the anti-microbial immune response (Quantigene); (2) ERAP2/Iso3 mRNA is translated into a protein (western blot); (3) ERAP2/Iso3 mRNA expression is sensitive to SARS-CoV-2 and HIV-1 concentration. Considering the key role played by ERAPs in antigen processing and presentation, it is conceivable that these enzymes may be potential targets and modulators of the pathogenicity of infectious diseases and further analyses are needed to define the role played by the different isoforms.


Assuntos
Aminopeptidases/genética , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/genética , Imunização/métodos , Leucócitos Mononucleares/virologia , Macrófagos/virologia , Pneumonia Viral/genética , Isoformas de Proteínas/genética , Apresentação do Antígeno/genética , Doadores de Sangue , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Genótipo , Infecções por HIV/genética , Infecções por HIV/virologia , HIV-1/imunologia , Humanos , Leucócitos Mononucleares/metabolismo , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Menor/genética , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Transcrição Genética/imunologia
6.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(31): 18754-18763, 2020 08 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32690707

RESUMO

Treatment of HIV infection with either antiretroviral (ARV) therapy or neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (NAbs) leads to a reduction in HIV plasma virus. Both ARVs and NAbs prevent new rounds of viral infection, but NAbs may have the additional capacity to accelerate the loss of virus-infected cells through Fc gamma receptor (FcγR)-mediated effector functions, which should affect the kinetics of plasma-virus decline. Here, we formally test the role of effector function in vivo by comparing the rate and timing of plasma-virus clearance in response to a single-dose treatment with either unmodified NAb or those with either reduced or augmented Fc function. When infused into viremic simian HIV (SHIV)-infected rhesus macaques, there was a 21% difference in slope of plasma-virus decline between NAb and NAb with reduced Fc function. NAb engineered to increase FcγRIII binding and improve antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) in vitro resulted in arming of effector cells in vivo, yet led to viral-decay kinetics similar to NAbs with reduced Fc function. These studies show that the predominant mechanism of antiviral activity of HIV NAbs is through inhibition of viral entry, but that Fc function can contribute to the overall antiviral activity, making them distinct from standard ARVs.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Anticorpos Anti-HIV/imunologia , Infecções por HIV , HIV-1/imunologia , Receptores de IgG/imunologia , Animais , Citotoxicidade Celular Dependente de Anticorpos/imunologia , Células Cultivadas , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Infecções por HIV/imunologia , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Humanos , Leucócitos Mononucleares/imunologia , Leucócitos Mononucleares/virologia , Macaca mulatta , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida dos Símios , Vírus da Imunodeficiência Símia
7.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(7): e0008361, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32667912

RESUMO

Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) causes incurable adult T-cell leukemia and HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). Patients with HAM/TSP have increased levels of HTLV-1-infected cells compared with asymptomatic HTLV-1 carriers. However, the roles of cellular genes in HTLV-1-infected CD4+ T cells await discovery. We performed microarray analysis of CD4+ T cells from HAM/TSP patients and found that the ABL1 is an important gene in HAM/TSP. ABL1 is a known survival factor for T- and B-lymphocytes and is part of the fused gene (BCR-ABL) known to be responsible for chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML). ABL1 tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), including imatinib, nilotinib, and dasatinib, are used clinically for treating CML. To evaluate whether ABL1 is indeed important for HAM/TSP, we investigated the effect of TKIs on HTLV-1-infected cells. We developed a propidium monoazide-HTLV-1 viability quantitative PCR assay, which distinguishes DNA from live cells and dead cells. Using this method, we were able to measure the HTLV-1 proviral load (PVL) in live cells alone when peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from HAM/TSP cases were treated with TKIs. Treating the PBMCs with nilotinib or dasatinib induced significant reductions in PVL (21.0% and 17.5%, respectively) in live cells. Furthermore, ABL1 siRNA transfection reduced cell viability in HTLV-1-infected cell lines, but not in uninfected cell lines. A retrospective survey based on our clinical records found a rare case of HAM/TSP who also suffered from CML. The patient showed an 84.2% PVL reduction after CML treatment with imatinib. We conclude that inhibiting the ABL1 tyrosine kinase specifically reduced the PVL in PBMCs from patients with HAM/TSP, suggesting that ABL1 is an important gene for the survival of HTLV-1-infected cells and that TKIs may be potential therapeutic agents for HAM/TSP.


Assuntos
Infecções por HTLV-I/complicações , Vírus Linfotrópico T Tipo 1 Humano/fisiologia , Leucócitos Mononucleares/virologia , Paraparesia Espástica Tropical/enzimologia , Doenças da Medula Espinal/enzimologia , Adulto , Idoso , DNA Viral/genética , Feminino , Infecções por HTLV-I/virologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Paraparesia Espástica Tropical/tratamento farmacológico , Paraparesia Espástica Tropical/etiologia , Paraparesia Espástica Tropical/genética , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/administração & dosagem , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-abl/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-abl/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-abl/metabolismo , Provírus/genética , Provírus/fisiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Doenças da Medula Espinal/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças da Medula Espinal/etiologia , Doenças da Medula Espinal/genética , Carga Viral
8.
Molecules ; 25(11)2020 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-593255

RESUMO

Flavonoids are widely used as phytomedicines. Here, we report on flavonoid phytomedicines with potential for development into prophylactics or therapeutics against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). These flavonoid-based phytomedicines include: caflanone, Equivir, hesperetin, myricetin, and Linebacker. Our in silico studies show that these flavonoid-based molecules can bind with high affinity to the spike protein, helicase, and protease sites on the ACE2 receptor used by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 to infect cells and cause COVID-19. Meanwhile, in vitro studies show potential of caflanone to inhibit virus entry factors including, ABL-2, cathepsin L, cytokines (IL-1ß, IL-6, IL-8, Mip-1α, TNF-α), and PI4Kiiiß as well as AXL-2, which facilitates mother-to-fetus transmission of coronavirus. The potential for the use of smart drug delivery technologies like nanoparticle drones loaded with these phytomedicines to overcome bioavailability limitations and improve therapeutic efficacy are discussed.


Assuntos
Antivirais/farmacologia , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Coronavirus Humano OC43/efeitos dos fármacos , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/química , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/química , Animais , Antivirais/química , Betacoronavirus/química , Betacoronavirus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sítios de Ligação , Cloroquina/química , Cloroquina/farmacologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/genética , Coronavirus Humano OC43/química , Coronavirus Humano OC43/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Portadores de Fármacos/administração & dosagem , Portadores de Fármacos/química , Flavonoides/química , Humanos , Interleucinas/antagonistas & inibidores , Interleucinas/química , Interleucinas/genética , Interleucinas/metabolismo , Leucócitos Mononucleares/efeitos dos fármacos , Leucócitos Mononucleares/virologia , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Pulmão/patologia , Pulmão/virologia , Camundongos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Nanopartículas/administração & dosagem , Nanopartículas/química , Pandemias , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/genética , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/metabolismo , Fitoterapia/métodos , Pneumonia Viral/genética , Cultura Primária de Células , Ligação Proteica , Domínios e Motivos de Interação entre Proteínas , Proteínas Tirosina Quinases/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Tirosina Quinases/química , Proteínas Tirosina Quinases/genética , Proteínas Tirosina Quinases/metabolismo , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/antagonistas & inibidores , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/metabolismo , Termodinâmica , Internalização do Vírus/efeitos dos fármacos
9.
Gene ; 754: 144887, 2020 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32534059

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Liver transplantation (LTX)is a lifesaving- effective protocol for patients suffering end stage liver disease (ESLD) and its complications post HCV infection. Recurrence of disease is a frequent clinical complication that is observed in patients undergoing LTX. Cytokines play a central role in the immunological events occurring after the surgery. METHODS: Using Allelic Discrimination PCR, the allelic variation G174C of IL-6 gene was investigated. The abundance of IL6- mRNA and plasma IL6 cytokine levels were evaluated by using qRT-PCR in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) respectively in 76 liver transplant recipients recruited from Al Sahel teaching hospital, Ministry of Health and Population Cairo Egypt within the period between June 2015 and October 2017. RESULTS: The frequencies of IL-6 GG genotype and the G allele were significantly detected more in LTX recipients who experienced HCV recurrence versus those who did not suffer recurrence when compared to healthy controls (P = 0.001) and (P = 0.006), respectively. On the contrary, levels of IL-6 related transcripts in PBMC's of recurrent patients were indifferent from non-recurrent patients and healthy controls (P ≥ 0.124). Interestingly, the circulating IL-6 protein in plasma was significantly elevated in recurrent as compared to the non-recurrent recipients (P = 0.002). CONCLUSION: HCV recurrence post liver transplantation occur more frequently in patients with -174 G/G IL-6 genotype and elevated plasma IL-6 levels.


Assuntos
Hepacivirus/fisiologia , Hepatite C/sangue , Interleucina-6/sangue , Interleucina-6/genética , Leucócitos Mononucleares/metabolismo , Transplante de Fígado/efeitos adversos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Feminino , Hepatite C/cirurgia , Hepatite C/virologia , Humanos , Leucócitos Mononucleares/virologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva , Transplantados
10.
Molecules ; 25(11)2020 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32545268

RESUMO

Flavonoids are widely used as phytomedicines. Here, we report on flavonoid phytomedicines with potential for development into prophylactics or therapeutics against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). These flavonoid-based phytomedicines include: caflanone, Equivir, hesperetin, myricetin, and Linebacker. Our in silico studies show that these flavonoid-based molecules can bind with high affinity to the spike protein, helicase, and protease sites on the ACE2 receptor used by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 to infect cells and cause COVID-19. Meanwhile, in vitro studies show potential of caflanone to inhibit virus entry factors including, ABL-2, cathepsin L, cytokines (IL-1ß, IL-6, IL-8, Mip-1α, TNF-α), and PI4Kiiiß as well as AXL-2, which facilitates mother-to-fetus transmission of coronavirus. The potential for the use of smart drug delivery technologies like nanoparticle drones loaded with these phytomedicines to overcome bioavailability limitations and improve therapeutic efficacy are discussed.


Assuntos
Antivirais/farmacologia , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Coronavirus Humano OC43/efeitos dos fármacos , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/química , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/química , Animais , Antivirais/química , Betacoronavirus/química , Betacoronavirus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sítios de Ligação , Cloroquina/química , Cloroquina/farmacologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/genética , Coronavirus Humano OC43/química , Coronavirus Humano OC43/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Portadores de Fármacos/administração & dosagem , Portadores de Fármacos/química , Flavonoides/química , Humanos , Interleucinas/antagonistas & inibidores , Interleucinas/química , Interleucinas/genética , Interleucinas/metabolismo , Leucócitos Mononucleares/efeitos dos fármacos , Leucócitos Mononucleares/virologia , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Pulmão/patologia , Pulmão/virologia , Camundongos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Nanopartículas/administração & dosagem , Nanopartículas/química , Pandemias , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/genética , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/metabolismo , Fitoterapia/métodos , Pneumonia Viral/genética , Cultura Primária de Células , Ligação Proteica , Domínios e Motivos de Interação entre Proteínas , Proteínas Tirosina Quinases/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Tirosina Quinases/química , Proteínas Tirosina Quinases/genética , Proteínas Tirosina Quinases/metabolismo , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/antagonistas & inibidores , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/metabolismo , Termodinâmica , Internalização do Vírus/efeitos dos fármacos
11.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 26(9): 2054-2063, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32558639

RESUMO

Since its emergence in Wuhan, China, in December 2019, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has infected ≈6 million persons worldwide. As SARS-CoV-2 spreads across the planet, we explored the range of human cells that can be infected by this virus. We isolated SARS-CoV-2 from 2 infected patients in Toronto, Canada; determined the genomic sequences; and identified single-nucleotide changes in representative populations of our virus stocks. We also tested a wide range of human immune cells for productive infection with SARS-CoV-2. We confirm that human primary peripheral blood mononuclear cells are not permissive for SARS-CoV-2. As SARS-CoV-2 continues to spread globally, it is essential to monitor single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the virus and to continue to isolate circulating viruses to determine viral genotype and phenotype by using in vitro and in vivo infection models.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Leucócitos Mononucleares/virologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Replicação Viral/genética , Betacoronavirus/genética , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , DNA Viral/genética , DNA Viral/isolamento & purificação , Genótipo , Humanos , Cinética , Pandemias , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
12.
Nat Med ; 26(7): 1070-1076, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32514174

RESUMO

There is an urgent need to better understand the pathophysiology of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the global pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2, which has infected more than three million people worldwide1. Approximately 20% of patients with COVID-19 develop severe disease and 5% of patients require intensive care2. Severe disease has been associated with changes in peripheral immune activity, including increased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines3,4 that may be produced by a subset of inflammatory monocytes5,6, lymphopenia7,8 and T cell exhaustion9,10. To elucidate pathways in peripheral immune cells that might lead to immunopathology or protective immunity in severe COVID-19, we applied single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) to profile peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from seven patients hospitalized for COVID-19, four of whom had acute respiratory distress syndrome, and six healthy controls. We identify reconfiguration of peripheral immune cell phenotype in COVID-19, including a heterogeneous interferon-stimulated gene signature, HLA class II downregulation and a developing neutrophil population that appears closely related to plasmablasts appearing in patients with acute respiratory failure requiring mechanical ventilation. Importantly, we found that peripheral monocytes and lymphocytes do not express substantial amounts of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Collectively, we provide a cell atlas of the peripheral immune response to severe COVID-19.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus , Imunidade Celular , Leucócitos Mononucleares , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Análise de Sequência de RNA/métodos , Análise de Célula Única/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Infecções por Coronavirus/genética , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Citocinas/genética , Citocinas/metabolismo , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Humanos , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Células Matadoras Naturais/metabolismo , Leucócitos Mononucleares/imunologia , Leucócitos Mononucleares/metabolismo , Leucócitos Mononucleares/virologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonia Viral/genética , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , RNA-Seq/métodos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
13.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3045, 2020 06 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32546717

RESUMO

Chronic NF-κB activation in inflammation and cancer has long been linked to persistent activation of NF-κB-responsive gene promoters. However, NF-κB factors also massively bind to gene bodies. Here, we demonstrate that recruitment of the NF-κB factor RELA to intragenic regions regulates alternative splicing upon NF-κB activation by the viral oncogene Tax of HTLV-1. Integrative analyses of RNA splicing and chromatin occupancy, combined with chromatin tethering assays, demonstrate that DNA-bound RELA interacts with and recruits the splicing regulator DDX17, in an NF-κB activation-dependent manner. This leads to alternative splicing of target exons due to the RNA helicase activity of DDX17. Similar results were obtained upon Tax-independent NF-κB activation, indicating that Tax likely exacerbates a physiological process where RELA provides splice target specificity. Collectively, our results demonstrate a physical and direct involvement of NF-κB in alternative splicing regulation, which significantly revisits our knowledge of HTLV-1 pathogenesis and other NF-κB-related diseases.


Assuntos
Processamento Alternativo/fisiologia , Produtos do Gene tax/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , RNA Helicases DEAD-box/genética , RNA Helicases DEAD-box/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Produtos do Gene tax/genética , Vírus Linfotrópico T Tipo 1 Humano/patogenicidade , Humanos , Leucócitos Mononucleares/virologia , NF-kappa B/genética , Oncogenes , Fator de Transcrição RelA/metabolismo
14.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2421, 2020 05 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32415086

RESUMO

Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne pathogen with increasing public health significance. To characterize immune responses to ZIKV, here we examine transcriptional signatures of CD4 T, CD8 T, B, and NK cells, monocytes, myeloid dendritic cells (mDCs), and plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) from three individuals with ZIKV infection. While gene expression patterns from most cell subsets display signs of impaired antiviral immune activity, pDCs from infected host have distinct transcriptional response associated with activation of innate immune recognition and type I interferon signaling pathways, but downregulation of key host factors known to support ZIKV replication steps; meanwhile, pDCs exhibit a unique expression pattern of gene modules that are correlated with alternative cell populations, suggesting collaborative interactions between pDCs and other immune cells, particularly B cells. Together, these results point towards a discrete but integrative function of pDCs in the human immune responses to ZIKV infection.


Assuntos
Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Infecção por Zika virus/imunologia , Adulto , Animais , Linfócitos B/virologia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/virologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/virologia , Células Cultivadas , Culicidae , Células Dendríticas/virologia , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Imunidade Inata , Células Matadoras Naturais/virologia , Leucócitos Mononucleares/virologia , Monócitos/metabolismo , Monócitos/virologia , Células Mieloides/virologia , Transcrição Genética , Replicação Viral , Zika virus/imunologia , Infecção por Zika virus/virologia
15.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 273, 2020 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32264923

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Syphilis has been associated with an increase in HIV RNA and a temporary decline in CD4 T cell counts in people living with HIV who are not receiving antiretroviral treatment (ART), and may be associated with a transient HIV RNA rebound in those who are receiving ART. Our case is the first to highlight the risk of a multidrug-resistant HIV viral rebound during the course of early syphilis even if antiretroviral drug concentrations are within the therapeutic range. CASE PRESENTATION: This 50-year-old HIV-1-positive male patient with concomitant early syphilis presented with an HIV RNA rebound (8908 copies/mL) during a scheduled visit to our clinic. He was receiving a stable ART regimen consisting of darunavir/cobicistat plus dolutegravir, and had a 15-year history of viral suppression. Good short-term drug adherence could be inferred as liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry showed that his trough antiretroviral drug concentrations were within the therapeutic range: darunavir 2353 ng/mL (minimum effective concentration > 500 ng/mL) and dolutegravir 986 ng/mL (minimum effective concentration > 100 ng/mL). A plasma RNA genotype resistance test revealed wild-type virus in the integrase region and protease region (PR), but extensive resistance in the reverse transcriptase (RT) region (M41L, E44D, D67N, K70R, M184V, L210W and T215Y). Phylogenetic analysis of next-generation sequences (used to investigate the presence of minor viral variants), the PR and RT sequences from plasma HIV RNA and pro-viral DNA extracted from peripheral blood mononuclear cells during the viral rebound, and a Sanger sequence obtained during a previous virological failure suggested clonal viral expression because the previous PR resistance mutations had been lost or had not been archived in pro-viral DNA. CONCLUSIONS: This case shows that early syphilis may cause an HIV RNA rebound in patients under stable virological control with the potential of transmitting an extensively drug-resistant virus.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Darunavir/uso terapêutico , Farmacorresistência Viral Múltipla/genética , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , HIV-1/genética , Compostos Heterocíclicos com 3 Anéis/uso terapêutico , Sífilis/complicações , Coinfecção , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Humanos , Leucócitos Mononucleares/virologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Filogenia , RNA Viral/sangue , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Sífilis/microbiologia , Treponema pallidum , Carga Viral/efeitos dos fármacos
16.
Arch Virol ; 165(6): 1333-1342, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32266552

RESUMO

Equine infectious anemia (EIA), a disease caused by equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV), is considered an obstacle to the development of the horse industry. There is no treatment or vaccine available for EIA, and its pathogenesis, as well as the immune response against the virus, is not fully understood. Therefore, an immunohistochemistry assay was developed for the detection of viral antigens in tissues of equids naturally infected with EIAV. Sections of organs of six equids from Apodi-RN, Brazil, that tested positive for EIA by serological tests (ELISA and AGID) were fixed in 10% formalin solution and embedded in paraffin. Immunohistochemistry was performed using a polyclonal anti-EIAV antibody. EIAV antigens were observed in red spleen pulp cells and hepatic sinusoids, as well as bronchiolar and alveolar epithelial cells of the lungs and proximal and distal tubules of the kidneys. The presence of EIAV in the spleen and liver was expected due to viral tropism by macrophages, which are abundantly present in these organs. However, EIAV was also found in lung and kidney epithelial cells, indicating that the virus infects cell types other than macrophages. In conclusion, the immunohistochemical assay standardized in this study was able to detect EIAV antigens in spleen, liver, kidney and lung cells from naturally infected EIAV equids. Immunostaining observed in the spleen confirms viral tropism by mononuclear phagocytes; however, the presence of EIAV in lung and kidney epithelial cells indicates that virus may be eliminated in urine and/or oronasal secretions, suggesting new routes for viral excretion.


Assuntos
Anemia Infecciosa Equina/virologia , Vírus da Anemia Infecciosa Equina/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Antígenos Virais/análise , Brasil , DNA Viral/genética , Células Epiteliais/patologia , Células Epiteliais/virologia , Anemia Infecciosa Equina/imunologia , Anemia Infecciosa Equina/patologia , Cavalos/virologia , Vírus da Anemia Infecciosa Equina/classificação , Rim/patologia , Rim/virologia , Leucócitos Mononucleares/virologia , Fígado/patologia , Fígado/virologia , Pulmão/patologia , Pulmão/virologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Testes Sorológicos , Baço/patologia , Baço/virologia
17.
mBio ; 11(2)2020 04 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32317323

RESUMO

Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected nonhuman primates can serve as a relevant model for AIDS neuropathogenesis. Current SIV-induced encephalitis (SIVE)/neurological complications of AIDS (neuroAIDS) models are generally associated with rapid progression to neuroAIDS, which does not reflect the tempo of neuroAIDS progression in humans. Recently, we isolated a neuropathogenic clone, SIVsm804E-CL757 (CL757), obtained from an SIV-infected rhesus macaque (RM). CL757 causes a more protracted progression to disease, inducing SIVE in 50% of inoculated animals, with high cerebral spinal fluid viral loads, multinucleated giant cells (MNGCs), and perivascular lymphocytic cuffing in the central nervous system (CNS). This latter finding is reminiscent of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) encephalitis in humans but not generally observed in rapid progressor animals with neuroAIDS. Here, we studied which subsets of cells within the CNS were targeted by CL757 in animals with neurological symptoms of SIVE. Immunohistochemistry of brain sections demonstrated infiltration of CD4+ T cells (CD4) and macrophages (MΦs) to the site of MNGCs. Moreover, an increase in mononuclear cells isolated from the brain tissues of RMs with SIVE correlated with increased cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) viral load. Subset analysis showed a specific increase in brain CD4+ memory T cells (Br-mCD4), brain-MΦs (Br-MΦs), and brain B cells (Br-B cells). Both Br-mCD4s and Br-MΦs harbored replication-competent viral DNA, as demonstrated by virus isolation by coculture. However, only in animals exhibiting SIVE/neuroAIDS was virus isolated from Br-MΦs. These findings support the use of CL757 to study the pathogenesis of AIDS viruses in the central nervous system and indicate a previously unanticipated role of CD4s cells as a potential reservoir in the brain.IMPORTANCE While the use of combination antiretroviral therapy effectively suppresses systemic viral replication in the body, neurocognitive disorders as a result of HIV infection of the central nervous system (CNS) remain a clinical problem. Therefore, the use of nonhuman primate models is necessary to study mechanisms of neuropathogenesis. The neurotropic, molecular clone SIVsm804E-CL757 (CL757) results in neuroAIDS in 50% of infected rhesus macaques approximately 1 year postinfection. Using CL757-infected macaques, we investigate disease progression by examining subsets of cells within the CNS that were targeted by CL757 and could potentially serve as viral reservoirs. By isolating mononuclear cells from the brains of SIV-infected rhesus macaques with and without encephalitis, we show that immune cells invade the neuroparenchyma and increase in number in the CNS in animals with SIV-induced encephalitis (SIVE). Of these cells, both brain macrophages and brain memory CD4+ T cells harbor replication-competent SIV DNA; however, only brain CD4+ T cells harbored SIV DNA in animals without SIVE. These findings support use of CL757 as an important model to investigate disease progression in the CNS and as a model to study virus reservoirs in the CNS.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/imunologia , Macrófagos/imunologia , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/etiologia , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida dos Símios/complicações , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida dos Símios/imunologia , Vírus da Imunodeficiência Símia/imunologia , Animais , Biomarcadores , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/metabolismo , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/virologia , Sistema Nervoso Central/imunologia , Sistema Nervoso Central/patologia , Sistema Nervoso Central/virologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Imunofluorescência , Imuno-Histoquímica , Imunofenotipagem , Leucócitos Mononucleares/imunologia , Leucócitos Mononucleares/metabolismo , Leucócitos Mononucleares/virologia , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Macrófagos/virologia , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/patologia , Neuroimunomodulação , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida dos Símios/virologia , Carga Viral , Virulência
18.
APMIS ; 128(5): 367-377, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32202683

RESUMO

Human endogenous retroviruses (HERV)-E consist of a family of more than 1300 elements, stably integrated in the human genome. Some of them are full-length proviruses able to synthesize the viral proteins gag, pol and env. The reactivation of HERV-E elements has been associated to placentation, cancer and autoimmunity. In this narrative review, we aimed to report the status of the art concerning the involvement of HERV-E in rheumatic autoimmune diseases. Following a research on PubMed database, a total of 87 articles were selected. The highest amount of evidence derives from studies on systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), whereas a few to no data are available on other immune-mediated diseases. In SLE, the hyper-expression of HERV-E clone 4-1 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells or differentiated lymphocytes has been associated with disease activity and autoantibody production. It is likely that HERV-E take part to the pathogenesis of rheumatic autoimmune diseases but additional research is needed.


Assuntos
Retrovirus Endógenos/genética , Leucócitos Mononucleares/virologia , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/genética , Doenças Reumáticas/genética , Metilação de DNA , Humanos , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/imunologia , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/virologia , Doenças Reumáticas/imunologia , Doenças Reumáticas/virologia
19.
J Virol ; 94(11)2020 05 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32188730

RESUMO

Koala retrovirus (KoRV) is of an interest to virologists due to its currently active endogenization into the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) genome. Although KoRV has frequently been isolated in wild and captive koala populations, its pathogenesis and transmission remain to be fully characterized, and most previous research has concentrated on adult koalas rather than on joeys. Here, we characterized KoRV isolates obtained from a deceased male joey and its parents (animals reared in a Japanese zoo) to investigate KoRV transmission mode and pathogenesis. We sequenced the KoRV long terminal repeat (LTR) and envelope genes isolated from the joey and its parents and found KoRV-A and KoRV-C in genomic DNA from both the parents and the joey. Notably, both parents were also positive for KoRV-B, whereas the joey was KoRV-B negative, further confirming that KoRV-B is an exogenous strain. The KoRV LTR sequence of the joey was considerably closer to that of its sire than its dam. For further characterization, total KoRV, KoRV-A, KoRV-B, and KoRV-C proviral loads were quantified in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from the parents and in blood samples from the joey. Total KoRV, KoRV-A, and KoRV-C proviral loads were also quantified for different tissues (bone, liver, kidney, lung, spleen, heart, and muscle) from the joey, revealing differences suggestive of a distinct tissue tropism (highest total KoRV proviral load in the spleen and lowest in bone). The amount of KoRV-C in the parents was less than that in the joey. Our findings contribute to an improved understanding of KoRV pathogenesis and transmission mode and highlight useful areas for future research.IMPORTANCE KoRV is unique among retroviruses in that one strain (KoRV-A) is undergoing endogenization, whereas the other main subtype (KoRV-B) and another subtype (KoRV-C) are reportedly exogenous strains. Its transmission and pathogenesis are of interest in the study of retroviruses and are crucial for any conservation strategy geared toward koala health. This study provides new evidence on the modes of KoRV transmission from parent koalas to their joey. We found vertical transmission of KoRV-A, confirming its endogenization, but with closer conservation between the joey and its sire than its dam (previous reports on joeys are rare but have postulated dam-to-joey vertical transmission). This is also the first report of a KoRV-B-negative joey from KoRV-B-positive parents, contrasting with the few previous reports of 100% transmission of KoRV-B from dams to joeys. Thus, the results in this study give some novel insights for the transmission mode of KoRV.


Assuntos
Evolução Molecular , Phascolarctidae/virologia , Infecções por Retroviridae , Retroviridae , Sequências Repetidas Terminais , Animais , Feminino , Japão , Leucócitos Mononucleares/metabolismo , Leucócitos Mononucleares/virologia , Masculino , Retroviridae/genética , Retroviridae/metabolismo , Infecções por Retroviridae/genética , Infecções por Retroviridae/metabolismo , Infecções por Retroviridae/transmissão , Infecções por Retroviridae/veterinária
20.
J Appl Microbiol ; 129(3): 768-774, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32202037

RESUMO

AIMS: To evaluate the potential use of synthetic oligonucleotides as a standard curve for proviral load (PVL) of human T-cell leukaemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) quantification in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of HTLV-1-infected individuals by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) analysis. METHODS AND RESULTS: Synthetic oligonucleotides based on HTLV-1 genome were customized to use as a standard curve. Twelve anti-HTLV-1-positive samples with known HTLV-1 PVL, previously quantified by qPCR assay using TARL-2 cells as a conventional standard curve, were submitted to the new protocol. The proviral quantification levels had a high concordance with qPCR results using a conventional standard curve. The results demonstrate that the conventional standard curve can be replaced by a synthetic standard curve due to its ability to quantification based on the linearity and qPCR efficiency and similar results with a validated qPCR assay using a conventional standard curve. CONCLUSIONS: Synthetic oligonucleotides standard curves could be a very useful tool on HTLV-1 diagnosis and absolute HTLV-1 PVL quantification. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: HTLV-1 PVL determination using synthetic oligonucleotides standard curve by qPCR could be a helpful alternative for the laboratories that monitor infected patients as an important prognostic factor in HTLV-1-associated diseases progression. Also, it can decrease costs and overcome the biological limitations of the plasmid curve.


Assuntos
Infecções por HTLV-I/diagnóstico , Vírus Linfotrópico T Tipo 1 Humano/isolamento & purificação , Provírus/isolamento & purificação , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/métodos , Carga Viral/métodos , Adulto , DNA Viral/genética , Progressão da Doença , Genoma Viral/genética , Infecções por HTLV-I/sangue , Infecções por HTLV-I/virologia , Vírus Linfotrópico T Tipo 1 Humano/genética , Humanos , Leucócitos Mononucleares/virologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oligonucleotídeos/síntese química , Oligonucleotídeos/genética , Prognóstico , Provírus/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/normas , Carga Viral/normas
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