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1.
Front Immunol ; 11: 559716, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33329518

RESUMO

SARS-CoV-2, the pathogen of COVID-19, is spreading around the world. Different individuals infected with COVID-19 have different manifestations. It is urgent to determine the risk factors of disease progress of COVID-19. 364 patients diagnosed with COVID-19, who were admitted to Wuhan Pulmonary Hospital from February 3, 2020 to March 16, 2020, were divided into mild, ordinary, severe, and critical groups, according to Chinese novel coronavirus pneumonia diagnosis and treatment plan. Peripheral blood IL-6 and leukocyte characteristics were analyzed, to evaluate the correlation with the severity of COVID-19. The levels of peripheral blood IL-6 were 2.35 ± 0.46 pg/ml (mild), 6.48 ± 1.13 pg/ml (ordinary), 20.30 ± 5.15 pg/ml (severe), and 123.48 ± 44.31 pg/ml (critical). The leukocytes were 5.70 ± 0.41×109/L (mild), 6.21 ± 0.14×109/L (ordinary), 6.37 ± 0.26×109/L (severe), and 10.03 ± 1.43×109/L (critical). The lymphocytes were 1.46 ± 0.19×109/L (mild), 1.89 ± 0.14×109/L (ordinary), 1.26 ± 0.07×109/L (severe), and 1.17 ± 0.23×109/L (critical). The neutrophils were 3.63 ± 0.36×109/L (mild), 3.78 ± 0.11×109/L (ordinary), 4.47 ± 0.25×109/L (severe), and 7.92 ± 1.19×109/L (critical). The monocytes were 0.42 ± 0.05×109/L (mild), 0.44 ± 0.01×109/L (ordinary), 0.46 ± 0.02×109/L (severe), and 0.78 ± 0.25×109/L (critical). Conclusively, increase of peripheral blood IL-6 and decrease of lymphocytes can be used as the indicators of severe COVID-19. The increase of neutrophils and monocytes was noticed in critical cases of COVID-19, suggesting that the increase of neutrophils and monocytes should be considered as risk factors of critical cases of COVID-19. Peripheral blood IL-6 and leukocyte characteristics were also analyzed in different age groups. The increase of serum IL-6, decrease of lymphocytes, and increase of neutrophils were noticed in patients over 60 years old.


Assuntos
Interleucina-6 , Leucócitos , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , /etnologia , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Interleucina-6/sangue , Interleucina-6/imunologia , Contagem de Leucócitos , Leucócitos/imunologia , Leucócitos/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , /metabolismo
2.
BMC Pulm Med ; 20(1): 301, 2020 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33198751

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) rapidly reached pandemic proportions. Given that the main target of SARS-CoV-2 are lungs leading to severe pneumonia with hyperactivation of the inflammatory cascade, we conducted a prospective study to assess alveolar inflammatory status in patients with moderate to severe COVID-19. METHODS: Diagnostic bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was performed in 33 adult patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection by real-time PCR on nasopharyngeal swab admitted to the Intensive care unit (ICU) (n = 28) and to the Intermediate Medicine Ward (IMW) (n = 5). We analyze the differential cell count, ultrastructure of cells and Interleukin (IL)6, 8 and 10 levels. RESULTS: ICU patients showed a marked increase in neutrophils (1.24 × 105 ml- 1, 0.85-2.07), lower lymphocyte (0.97 × 105 ml- 1, 0.024-0.34) and macrophages fractions (0.43 × 105 ml- 1, 0.34-1.62) compared to IMW patients (0.095 × 105 ml- 1, 0.05-0.73; 0.47 × 105 ml- 1, 0.28-1.01 and 2.14 × 105 ml- 1, 1.17-3.01, respectively) (p < 0.01). Study of ICU patients BAL by electron transmission microscopy showed viral particles inside mononuclear cells confirmed by immunostaining with anti-viral capsid and spike antibodies. IL6 and IL8 were significantly higher in ICU patients than in IMW (IL6 p < 0.01, IL8 p < 0.0001), and also in patients who did not survive (IL6 p < 0.05, IL8 p = 0.05 vs. survivors). IL10 did not show a significant variation between groups. Dividing patients by treatment received, lower BAL concentrations of IL6 were found in patients treated with steroids as compared to those treated with tocilizumab (p < 0.1) or antivirals (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Alveolitis, associated with COVID-19, is mainly sustained by innate effectors which showed features of extensive activation. The burden of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL6 and IL8 in the broncho-alveolar environment is associated with clinical outcome.


Assuntos
Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Inflamação/imunologia , Interleucina-6/imunologia , Interleucina-8/imunologia , Leucócitos/imunologia , Pulmão/imunologia , Macrófagos Alveolares/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Monofosfato de Adenosina/análogos & derivados , Monofosfato de Adenosina/uso terapêutico , Corticosteroides/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Alanina/análogos & derivados , Alanina/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus , Lavagem Broncoalveolar , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/citologia , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Combinação de Medicamentos , Feminino , Humanos , Hidroxicloroquina/uso terapêutico , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Interleucina-10/imunologia , Itália , Leucócitos Mononucleares/virologia , Lopinavir/uso terapêutico , Pulmão/citologia , Pulmão/virologia , Linfócitos/imunologia , Masculino , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neutrófilos/imunologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Respiração Artificial/métodos , Ritonavir/uso terapêutico , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/metabolismo , Taxa de Sobrevida , Vírion/metabolismo , Vírion/ultraestrutura
3.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0240164, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33048962

RESUMO

Acute inflammation begins with leukocyte P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1) binding to P-selectin on inflamed endothelium and platelets. In pathologic conditions, this process may contribute to secondary organ damage, like sepsis-induced liver injury. Therefore, developing novel therapies to attenuate inflammation may be beneficial. We previously reported that recombinant human vimentin (rhVim) binds P-selectin to block leukocyte adhesion to endothelium and platelets. In this study, we used SPOT-peptide arrays to identify the rod domain as the active region within rhVim that interacts with P-selectin. Indeed, recombinant human rod domain of vimentin (rhRod) binds to P-selectin with high affinity, with in silico modeling suggesting that rhRod binds P-selectin at or near the PSGL-1 binding site. Using bio-layer interferometry, rhRod decreases PSGL-1 binding to immobilized P-selectin, corroborating the in silico data. Under parallel-plate flow, rhRod blocks leukocyte adhesion to fibrin(ogen)-captured platelets, P-selectin/Fc-coated channels, and IL-1ß/IL-4-co-stimulated human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Finally, using intravital microscopy in endotoxemic C57Bl/6 mice, rhRod co-localizes with P-selectin in the hepatic sinusoids and decreases neutrophil adhesion to hepatic sinusoids. These data suggest a potential role for rhRod in attenuating inflammation through directly blocking P-selectin-PSGL-1 interactions.


Assuntos
Adesão Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Endotoxemia/tratamento farmacológico , Leucócitos/imunologia , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Selectina-P/metabolismo , Vimentina/farmacologia , Animais , Adesão Celular/imunologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Endotélio/efeitos dos fármacos , Endotélio/imunologia , Endotoxemia/imunologia , Endotoxemia/patologia , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana , Humanos , Interferometria , Leucócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Ligação Proteica/efeitos dos fármacos , Ligação Proteica/imunologia , Domínios Proteicos/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/farmacologia , Proteínas Recombinantes/uso terapêutico , Vimentina/genética , Vimentina/uso terapêutico
4.
J Vis Exp ; (163)2020 09 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33006587

RESUMO

Circadian rhythms refer to oscillations in various biological process that occur with a 24 h period. At the molecular level, such rhythms are comprised of a web of transcriptional-translational feedback loops (TTFL) of core clock genes. Individual tissues and organ systems, including the immune system, have their own clock. In the systemic circulation, various members of the CD45+ population oscillate across the day; however, many of these rhythms are not identical or even similar in the tissue resident CD45+ leukocyte population. When studying the role of circadian regulation of lung inflammation, CD45+ within the lung may need to be investigated. However, despite optimized perfusion methods, leukocytes trapped from the circulation persist in the lungs. The goal in designing this protocol was to distinguish between intravascular and intraparenchymal leukocytes. Towards this end, mice are injected with a fluorescent tagged CD45 antibody intrajugularly shortly before lung harvest. Thereafter, the lung is digested using a customized lung digestion technique to obtain a single cell suspension. The sample is stained for the regular panel of antibodies for intraparenchymal immune cells (including another CD45 antibody). Flowcytometric analyses shows a clear elucidation of the populations. Thus, the method of labeling and defining intrapulmonary CD45+ cells will be particularly important where the behavior of intrapulmonary and circulating immune cells are numerically and functionally distinct.


Assuntos
Veias Jugulares/imunologia , Leucócitos/citologia , Pulmão/irrigação sanguínea , Pulmão/imunologia , Animais , Ritmo Circadiano/genética , Dissecação , Citometria de Fluxo , Injeções Intravenosas , Antígenos Comuns de Leucócito/metabolismo , Leucócitos/imunologia , Pulmão/citologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
5.
Nat Rev Immunol ; 20(10): 633-643, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32782358

RESUMO

Antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) is a mechanism by which the pathogenesis of certain viral infections is enhanced in the presence of sub-neutralizing or cross-reactive non-neutralizing antiviral antibodies. In vitro modelling of ADE has attributed enhanced pathogenesis to Fcγ receptor (FcγR)-mediated viral entry, rather than canonical viral receptor-mediated entry. However, the putative FcγR-dependent mechanisms of ADE overlap with the role of these receptors in mediating antiviral protection in various viral infections, necessitating a detailed understanding of how this diverse family of receptors functions in protection and pathogenesis. Here, we discuss the diversity of immune responses mediated upon FcγR engagement and review the available experimental evidence supporting the role of FcγRs in antiviral protection and pathogenesis through ADE. We explore FcγR engagement in the context of a range of different viral infections, including dengue virus and SARS-CoV, and consider ADE in the context of the ongoing SARS-CoV-2 pandemic.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/administração & dosagem , Anticorpos Antivirais/administração & dosagem , Anticorpos Facilitadores/efeitos dos fármacos , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Leucócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Receptores de IgG/imunologia , Anticorpos Monoclonais/efeitos adversos , Anticorpos Monoclonais/biossíntese , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/administração & dosagem , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/efeitos adversos , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/biossíntese , Anticorpos Antivirais/efeitos adversos , Anticorpos Antivirais/biossíntese , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Dengue/tratamento farmacológico , Dengue/imunologia , Dengue/virologia , Vírus da Dengue/efeitos dos fármacos , Vírus da Dengue/imunologia , Vírus da Dengue/patogenicidade , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/efeitos dos fármacos , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/imunologia , Humanos , Leucócitos/imunologia , Leucócitos/virologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Receptores de IgG/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptores de IgG/genética , Vírus da SARS/efeitos dos fármacos , Vírus da SARS/imunologia , Vírus da SARS/patogenicidade , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/imunologia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/virologia , Transdução de Sinais , Internalização do Vírus/efeitos dos fármacos
6.
Nat Immunol ; 21(11): 1327-1335, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32839612

RESUMO

Although animal models have been evaluated for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, none have fully recapitulated the lung disease phenotypes seen in humans who have been hospitalized. Here, we evaluate transgenic mice expressing the human angiotensin I-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor driven by the cytokeratin-18 (K18) gene promoter (K18-hACE2) as a model of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Intranasal inoculation of SARS-CoV-2 in K18-hACE2 mice results in high levels of viral infection in lungs, with spread to other organs. A decline in pulmonary function occurs 4 days after peak viral titer and correlates with infiltration of monocytes, neutrophils and activated T cells. SARS-CoV-2-infected lung tissues show a massively upregulated innate immune response with signatures of nuclear factor-κB-dependent, type I and II interferon signaling, and leukocyte activation pathways. Thus, the K18-hACE2 model of SARS-CoV-2 infection shares many features of severe COVID-19 infection and can be used to define the basis of lung disease and test immune and antiviral-based countermeasures.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Imunidade Inata/imunologia , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/genética , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Pneumonia/patologia , Animais , Chlorocebus aethiops , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Interferon Tipo I/imunologia , Interferon gama/imunologia , Queratina-18/genética , Leucócitos/imunologia , Ativação Linfocitária/imunologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Monócitos/imunologia , NF-kappa B/imunologia , Infiltração de Neutrófilos/imunologia , Neutrófilos/imunologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia/genética , Pneumonia/virologia , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Células Vero , Replicação Viral/imunologia
7.
Life Sci ; 258: 118170, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32735883

RESUMO

AIMS: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which is caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is a major health concern worldwide. Due to the lack of specific medication and vaccination, drug-repurposing attempts has emerged as a promising approach and identified several human proteins interacting with the virus. This study aims to provide a comprehensive molecular profiling of the immune cell-enriched SARS-CoV-2 interacting protein USP13. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The list of immune cell-enriched proteins interacting with SARS-CoV-2 was retrieved from The Human Protein Atlas. Genomic alterations were identified using cBioPortal. Survival analysis was performed via Kaplan-Meier Plotter. Analyses of protein expression and tumor infiltration levels were carried out by TIMER. KEY FINDINGS: 14 human proteins that interact with SARS-CoV-2 were enriched in immune cells. Among these proteins, USP13 had the highest frequency of genomic alterations. Higher USP13 levels were correlated with improved survival in breast and lung cancers, while resulting in poor prognosis in ovarian and gastric cancers. Furthermore, copy number variations of USP13 significantly affected the infiltration levels of distinct subtypes of immune cells in head & neck, lung, ovarian and stomach cancers. Although our results suggested a tumor suppressor role for USP13 in lung cancer, in other cancers, its role seemed to be context-dependent. SIGNIFICANCE: It is critical to identify and characterize human proteins that interact with SARS-CoV-2 in order to have a better understanding of the disease and to develop better therapies/vaccines. Here, we provided a comprehensive molecular profiling the immune cell-enriched SARS-CoV-2 interacting protein USP13, which will be useful for future studies.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Endopeptidases/imunologia , Leucócitos/imunologia , Neoplasias/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/genética , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Bases de Dados de Proteínas , Endopeptidases/genética , Humanos , Leucócitos/virologia , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/imunologia , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/virologia , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias/virologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/genética , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Prognóstico
8.
Nat Med ; 26(11): 1701-1707, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32812012

RESUMO

Recent reports highlight a new clinical syndrome in children related to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)1-multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C)-which comprises multiorgan dysfunction and systemic inflammation2-13. We performed peripheral leukocyte phenotyping in 25 children with MIS-C, in the acute (n = 23; worst illness within 72 h of admission), resolution (n = 14; clinical improvement) and convalescent (n = 10; first outpatient visit) phases of the illness and used samples from seven age-matched healthy controls for comparisons. Among the MIS-C cohort, 17 (68%) children were SARS-CoV-2 seropositive, suggesting previous SARS-CoV-2 infections14,15, and these children had more severe disease. In the acute phase of MIS-C, we observed high levels of interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß), IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-17, interferon-γ and differential T and B cell subset lymphopenia. High CD64 expression on neutrophils and monocytes, and high HLA-DR expression on γδ and CD4+CCR7+ T cells in the acute phase, suggested that these immune cell populations were activated. Antigen-presenting cells had low HLA-DR and CD86 expression, potentially indicative of impaired antigen presentation. These features normalized over the resolution and convalescence phases. Overall, MIS-C presents as an immunopathogenic illness1 and appears distinct from Kawasaki disease.


Assuntos
/sangue , Leucócitos/classificação , Leucócitos/patologia , Síndrome de Resposta Inflamatória Sistêmica/sangue , Síndrome de Resposta Inflamatória Sistêmica/imunologia , Adolescente , Idade de Início , Coagulação Sanguínea/fisiologia , /epidemiologia , Cardiomiopatias/sangue , Cardiomiopatias/etiologia , Cardiomiopatias/imunologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Imunofenotipagem , Inflamação/sangue , Inflamação/etiologia , Inflamação/imunologia , Leucócitos/imunologia , Masculino , Síndrome de Resposta Inflamatória Sistêmica/complicações , Síndrome de Resposta Inflamatória Sistêmica/epidemiologia
9.
Exp Parasitol ; 218: 107970, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32828829

RESUMO

Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is an anthropozoonosis endemic in Brazil. We included 20 patients with confirmed diagnosis of VL and 20 healthy individuals to evaluate the expression levels of complement receptor 1 (CR1)/CD35 and CR3/CD11b on leukocytes in the peripheral blood and determine their correlation with the clinical state of patients. CR1/CD35 expression increased on CD11b+CD35+granulocytes of patients, while CR1/CD35 and CR3/CD11b expression levels increased on CD14+CD11b+CD35+ monocytes. Among patients, those with severe clinical state had higher expression of CR3/CD11b on CD14+monocytes. The count of CD19+CD35+B lymphocytes reduced in the blood samples from patients. These observed changes may indicate the modulation in CR1/CD35 and CR3/CD11b complement receptor expressionlevels on granulocyte and monocyte populations in response to Leishmania sp.


Assuntos
Antígeno CD11b/metabolismo , Leishmaniose Visceral/imunologia , Leucócitos/metabolismo , Antígeno de Macrófago 1/metabolismo , Receptores de Complemento 3b/metabolismo , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Brasil/epidemiologia , Doenças Endêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Citometria de Fluxo , Granulócitos/imunologia , Granulócitos/patologia , Humanos , Hipertrofia , Leishmaniose Visceral/sangue , Leishmaniose Visceral/epidemiologia , Leucócitos/imunologia , Fígado/patologia , Contagem de Linfócitos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Monócitos/imunologia , Monócitos/patologia , Pancitopenia , População Rural , Baço/patologia , População Urbana , Adulto Jovem
10.
Am J Reprod Immunol ; 84(5): e13310, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32698238

RESUMO

The emergence of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) as a pandemic threatens the entire world resulting in severe consequences for people's health. Pregnant patients with COVID-19 had immune dysregulation that could result in abnormal pregnancy outcomes such as hydatidiform mole (HM), recurrent pregnancy loss, and early-onset preeclampsia. In this article, we tried to summarize the possible association between COVID-19 and the HM's development by reviewing the role of NOD-Like Receptor (NLR) Family Pyrin Domain Containing 7 (NLRP7), cytokines, zinc, and leukocytes in the pathogenesis of HM.


Assuntos
/imunologia , Mola Hidatiforme/imunologia , Leucócitos/imunologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/imunologia , /fisiologia , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/metabolismo , Citocinas/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Pandemias , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez
11.
Mol Immunol ; 125: 83-94, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32652363

RESUMO

Leukocyte immune-type receptors (LITRs) are a multigene family of teleost immunoregulatory proteins that share structural, phylogenetic, and likely functional relationships with several innate immune receptor proteins in other vertebrates, including mammals. Originally discovered in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus), representative IpLITR-types have been shown to regulate diverse innate immune cell effector responses including phagocytosis, degranulation, and cytokine secretion. To date, IpLITRs have been primarily characterized using mammalian cell line expression systems, therefore many unanswered questions remain regarding their actual regulatory roles in fish immunity. In the present study, we report on the preliminary molecular characterization of five goldfish (Carassius auratus) CaLITR-types and the identification of several putative splice variants of these receptors cloned from various goldfish tissues and primary myeloid cell cultures. In general, CaLITR mRNA transcripts were detected in all goldfish tissues tested, and also in primary kidney macrophage and neutrophil cultures. Specifically, CaLITR1 is a functionally ambiguous receptor with no charged amino acids in its transmembrane (TM) segment and is devoid of tyrosine-based signaling motifs in its short cytoplasmic tail (CYT) region. CaLITR2 is a putative activating receptor-type that contains immunotyrosine-based activation motifs (ITAMs) within its long CYT region, and CaLITR3 has a positively charged TM segment, suggesting that it may recruit intracellular stimulatory adaptor signaling molecules. CaLITR4 and CaLITR5 appear to have diverse signaling capabilities since they contain various immunoregulatory signaling motifs within their CYT regions including putative Nck and STAT recruitment motifs as well as ITAM-like and ITIM sequences. We also identified putative CaLITR splice variants with altered extracellular Ig-like domain compositions and variable CYT regions. Interestingly, this suggests that alternative splicing-mediated diversification of CaLITRs can generate receptor forms with possible variable binding and/or intracellular signaling abilities. Overall, these findings reveal new information about the teleost LITRs and sets the stage for exploring how alternative splicing leads to the functional diversification of this complex multigene immunoregulatory receptor family.


Assuntos
Carpa Dourada/imunologia , Imunidade Inata/imunologia , Leucócitos/imunologia , Receptores Imunológicos/genética , Receptores Imunológicos/imunologia , Processamento Alternativo , Animais , Proteínas de Peixes/genética , Proteínas de Peixes/imunologia , Carpa Dourada/genética , Imunidade Inata/genética
12.
J Leukoc Biol ; 108(1): 17-41, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32534467

RESUMO

Clinical evidence indicates that the fatal outcome observed with severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 infection often results from alveolar injury that impedes airway capacity and multi-organ failure-both of which are associated with the hyperproduction of cytokines, also known as a cytokine storm or cytokine release syndrome. Clinical reports show that both mild and severe forms of disease result in changes in circulating leukocyte subsets and cytokine secretion, particularly IL-6, IL-1ß, IL-10, TNF, GM-CSF, IP-10 (IFN-induced protein 10), IL-17, MCP-3, and IL-1ra. Not surprising, therapies that target the immune response and curtail the cytokine storm in coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) patients have become a focus of recent clinical trials. Here we review reports on leukocyte and cytokine data associated with COVID-19 disease in 3939 patients in China and describe emerging data on immunopathology. With an emphasis on immune modulation, we also look at ongoing clinical studies aimed at blocking proinflammatory cytokines; transfer of immunosuppressive mesenchymal stem cells; use of convalescent plasma transfusion; as well as immunoregulatory therapy and traditional Chinese medicine regimes. In examining leukocyte and cytokine activity in COVID-19, we focus in particular on how these levels are altered as the disease progresses (neutrophil NETosis, macrophage, T cell response, etc.) and proposed consequences to organ pathology (coagulopathy, etc.). Viral and host interactions are described to gain further insight into leukocyte biology and how dysregulated cytokine responses lead to disease and/or organ damage. By better understanding the mechanisms that drive the intensity of a cytokine storm, we can tailor treatment strategies at specific disease stages and improve our response to this worldwide public health threat.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/imunologia , Citocinas/imunologia , Leucócitos/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , China , Humanos , Pandemias
13.
Vet Res ; 51(1): 67, 2020 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32404145

RESUMO

In attempt to identify genes that are induced in chickens by Salmonella Enteritidis we identified a new highly inducible gene, interleukin 4 induced 1 gene (IL4I1). IL4I1 reached its peak expression (458× induction) in the cecum of newly hatched chickens 4 days post-infection and remained upregulated for an additional 10 days. IL4I1 was expressed and induced in macrophages and granulocytes, both at the mRNA and protein level. IL4I1 was expressed and induced also in CD4 and γδ T-lymphocytes though at a 50-fold lower level than in phagocytes. Expression of IL4I1 was not detected in CD8 T lymphocytes or B lymphocytes. Mutation of IL4I1 in chicken HD11 macrophages did not affect their bactericidal capacity against S. Enteritidis but negatively affected their oxidative burst after PMA stimulation. We therefore propose that IL4I1 is not directly involved in bactericidal activity of phagocytes and, instead, it is likely involved in the control of inflammatory response and signaling to T and B lymphocytes.


Assuntos
Proteínas Aviárias/metabolismo , Galinhas , L-Aminoácido Oxidase/metabolismo , Leucócitos/imunologia , Fagócitos/imunologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/imunologia , Salmonelose Animal/imunologia , Animais , Ceco/imunologia , Masculino , Salmonella enteritidis/fisiologia , Baço/imunologia
14.
Circ Res ; 126(8): 1061-1085, 2020 04 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32271679

RESUMO

A central feature of atherosclerosis, the most prevalent chronic vascular disease and root cause of myocardial infarction and stroke, is leukocyte accumulation in the arterial wall. These crucial immune cells are produced in specialized niches in the bone marrow, where a complex cell network orchestrates their production and release. A growing body of clinical studies has documented a correlation between leukocyte numbers and cardiovascular disease risk. Understanding how leukocytes are produced and how they contribute to atherosclerosis and its complications is, therefore, critical to understanding and treating the disease. In this review, we focus on the key cells and products that regulate hematopoiesis under homeostatic conditions, during atherosclerosis and after myocardial infarction.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/metabolismo , Doenças Cardiovasculares/patologia , Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Endotélio Vascular/patologia , Hematopoese/fisiologia , Animais , Aterosclerose/imunologia , Aterosclerose/metabolismo , Aterosclerose/patologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/imunologia , Endotélio Vascular/imunologia , Humanos , Leucócitos/imunologia , Leucócitos/metabolismo , Leucócitos/patologia
15.
Parasite Immunol ; 42(5): e12706, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32119124

RESUMO

To provide useful information based on the macropathology, histopathology and immunohistochemical investigation in the spleens of dogs with Babesia rossi infection. Control spleens were collected from four healthy dogs euthanized for welfare reasons. Nine dogs that died naturally because of a mono-infection with Babesia rossi were selected for the diseased group. One haematoxylin-and-eosin-stained section of splenic tissue from each of the infected and control dogs was examined under the light microscope. Immunohistochemical markers were applied to characterize different immunocyte populations. The application of analytic software enabled semi-quantitative comparison of leucocyte subpopulations. Routine splenic histopathology revealed diffuse intermingling of white and red pulp from infected dogs with a clear loss of distinction between these zones. Immunohistochemistry revealed an increase in the proportion of tissue resident and bone marrow origin macrophages in the infected spleens. Apart from a few remnant lymphocytes within the peri-arteriolar lymphatic sheaths and follicles, the majority of the immunocytes redistributed to the red pulp, supporting the observation of white and red pulp intermingling. The majority of our findings are in agreement with histomorphological descriptions of the spleen in a variety of noncanid mammalian hosts with lethal malaria or babesiosis.


Assuntos
Babesia/fisiologia , Babesiose/patologia , Doenças do Cão/patologia , Baço/patologia , Animais , Babesiose/imunologia , Babesiose/parasitologia , Doenças do Cão/imunologia , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Cães , Leucócitos/imunologia , Leucócitos/parasitologia , Linfócitos/imunologia , Linfócitos/parasitologia , Baço/imunologia , Baço/parasitologia
16.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 67 Suppl 1: 35-39, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32174041

RESUMO

Theileriosis is a tick-borne disease caused by intracellular protozoa of the genus Theileria. The most important species in cattle are Theileria annulata and Theileria parva. Both species transform leucocyte host cells, resulting in their uncontrolled proliferation and immortalization. Vaccination with attenuated T. annulata-infected cell lines is currently the only practical means of inducing immunity in cattle. Culture media for Theileria spp. typically contain 10%-20% foetal bovine serum (FBS). The use of FBS is associated with several disadvantages, such as batch-to-batch variation, safety and ethical concerns. In this study, the suitability of serum-free media for the cultivation of Theileria-transformed cell lines was examined. Three commercial serum-free media (HL-1, ISF-1 and Hybridomed DIF 1000) were evaluated for their ability to support growth of the T. annulata A288 cell line. The generation doubling times were recorded for each medium and compared with those obtained with conventional FBS-containing RPMI-1640 medium. ISF-1 gave the shortest generation doubling time, averaging 35.4 ± 2.8 hr, significantly shorter than the 52.2 ± 14.9 hr recorded for the conventional medium (p = .0011). ISF-1 was subsequently tested with additional T. annulata strains. The doubling time of a Moroccan strain was significantly increased (65.4 ± 15.9 hr) compared with the control (47.7 ± 7.5 hr, p = .0004), whereas an Egyptian strain grew significantly faster in ISF-1 medium (43.4 ± 6.5 hr vs. 89.3 ± 24.8 hr, p = .0001). The latter strain also showed an improved generation doubling time of 73.7 ± 21.9 hr in an animal origin-free, serum-free, protein-free medium (PFHM II) compared with the control. Out of four South African T. parva strains and a Theileria strain isolated from roan antelope (Hippotragus equinus), only one T. parva strain could be propagated in ISF-1 medium. The use of serum-free medium may thus be suitable for some Theileria cell cultures and needs to be evaluated on a case-by-case basis. The relevance of Theileria cultivation in serum-free media for applications such as vaccine development requires further examination.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Theileria annulata/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Theileria parva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Theileriose/parasitologia , Animais , Bovinos , Linhagem Celular , Meios de Cultura Livres de Soro , Leucócitos/imunologia , Leucócitos/parasitologia , Linfócitos/imunologia , Linfócitos/parasitologia , Esquizontes , Theileria annulata/imunologia , Theileria parva/imunologia
17.
BMC Vet Res ; 16(1): 83, 2020 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32143631

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Flow cytometry is a powerful tool for the multiparameter analysis of leukocyte subsets on the single cell level. Recent advances have greatly increased the number of fluorochrome-labeled antibodies in flow cytometry. In particular, an increase in available fluorochromes with distinct excitation and emission spectra combined with novel multicolor flow cytometers with several lasers have enhanced the generation of multidimensional expression data for leukocytes and other cell types. However, these advances have mainly benefited the analysis of human or mouse cell samples given the lack of reagents for most animal species. The flow cytometric analysis of important veterinary, agricultural, wildlife, and other animal species is still hampered by several technical limitations, even though animal species other than the mouse can serve as more accurate models of specific human physiology and diseases. RESULTS: Here we present time-tested approaches that our laboratory regularly uses in the multiparameter flow cytometric analysis of ovine leukocytes. The discussed approaches will be applicable to the analysis of cells from most animal species and include direct modification of antibodies by covalent conjugation or Fc-directed labeling (Zenon™ technology), labeled secondary antibodies and other second step reagents, labeled receptor ligands, and antibodies with species cross-reactivity. CONCLUSIONS: Using refined technical approaches, the number of parameters analyzed by flow cytometry per cell sample can be greatly increased, enabling multidimensional analysis of rare samples and giving critical insight into veterinary and other less commonly analyzed species. By maximizing information from each cell sample, multicolor flow cytometry can reduce the required number of animals used in a study.


Assuntos
Antígenos/análise , Citometria de Fluxo/veterinária , Imunofluorescência/veterinária , Leucócitos/imunologia , Animais , Anticorpos Monoclonais , Citometria de Fluxo/métodos , Corantes Fluorescentes/análise , Ovinos/sangue
18.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1204: 197-214, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32152948

RESUMO

Siglecs are sialic acid (Sia) recognizing immunoglobulin-like receptors expressed on the surface of all the major leukocyte lineages in mammals. Siglecs recognize ubiquitous Sia epitopes on various glycoconjugates in the cell glycocalyx and transduce signals to regulate immunological and inflammatory activities of these cells. The subset known as CD33-related Siglecs is principally inhibitory receptors that suppress leukocyte activation, and recent research has shown that a number of bacterial pathogens use Sia mimicry to engage these Siglecs as an immune evasion strategy. Conversely, Siglec-1 is a macrophage phagocytic receptor that engages GBS and other sialylated bacteria to promote effective phagocytosis and antigen presentation for the adaptive immune response, whereas certain viruses and parasites use Siglec-1 to gain entry to immune cells as a proximal step in the infectious process. Siglecs are positioned in crosstalk with other host innate immune sensing pathways to modulate the immune response to infection in complex ways. This chapter summarizes the current understanding of Siglecs at the host-pathogen interface, a field of study expanding in breadth and medical importance, and which provides potential targets for immune-based anti-infective strategies.


Assuntos
Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/imunologia , Lectinas Semelhantes a Imunoglobulina de Ligação ao Ácido Siálico/imunologia , Animais , Glicocálix/imunologia , Humanos , Leucócitos/citologia , Leucócitos/imunologia , Macrófagos/imunologia , Fagocitose , Lectina 3 Semelhante a Ig de Ligação ao Ácido Siálico/imunologia
19.
J Clin Invest ; 130(4): 1977-1990, 2020 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32149735

RESUMO

Angiopoietin-2 (Ang2), a ligand of the endothelial Tie2 tyrosine kinase, is involved in vascular inflammation and leakage in critically ill patients. However, the role of Ang2 in demyelinating central nervous system (CNS) autoimmune diseases is unknown. Here, we report that Ang2 is critically involved in the pathogenesis of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a rodent model of multiple sclerosis. Ang2 expression was induced in CNS autoimmunity, and transgenic mice overexpressing Ang2 specifically in endothelial cells (ECs) developed a significantly more severe EAE. In contrast, treatment with Ang2-blocking Abs ameliorated neuroinflammation and decreased spinal cord demyelination and leukocyte infiltration into the CNS. Similarly, Ang2-binding and Tie2-activating Ab attenuated the development of CNS autoimmune disease. Ang2 blockade inhibited expression of EC adhesion molecules, improved blood-brain barrier integrity, and decreased expression of genes involved in antigen presentation and proinflammatory responses of microglia and macrophages, which was accompanied by inhibition of α5ß1 integrin activation in microglia. Taken together, our data suggest that Ang2 provides a target for increasing Tie2 activation in ECs and inhibiting proinflammatory polarization of CNS myeloid cells via α5ß1 integrin in neuroinflammation. Thus, Ang2 targeting may serve as a therapeutic option for the treatment of CNS autoimmune disease.


Assuntos
Angiopoietina-2/imunologia , Barreira Hematoencefálica/imunologia , Movimento Celular/imunologia , Encefalomielite Autoimune Experimental/imunologia , Células Endoteliais/imunologia , Leucócitos/imunologia , Esclerose Múltipla/imunologia , Angiopoietina-2/genética , Animais , Barreira Hematoencefálica/patologia , Movimento Celular/genética , Encefalomielite Autoimune Experimental/genética , Encefalomielite Autoimune Experimental/patologia , Células Endoteliais/patologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Inflamação/genética , Inflamação/imunologia , Inflamação/patologia , Integrina alfa5beta1/genética , Integrina alfa5beta1/imunologia , Leucócitos/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Microglia/imunologia , Microglia/patologia , Esclerose Múltipla/genética , Esclerose Múltipla/patologia
20.
BMC Res Notes ; 13(1): 159, 2020 Mar 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32178719

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Probiotics are fed to improve enteric health, and they may also affect respiratory immunity through their exposure to the upper respiratory tract upon ingestion. However, their effect on the respiratory system is not known. Our aim was to determine how probiotics affect functions and markers of bronchoalveolar lung lavage cells (BAL) isolated from lungs of calves at slaughter. RESULTS: Treatments consisted of ten probiotic species and one control treatment. Probiotics and BAL were incubated 1:1 for 2 h at 37 °C and 5% CO2. The cell surface markers measured included CD14, CD205, and CD18, and E. coli bioparticles were used to measure phagocytosis and oxidative burst. Differences were considered significant at P ≤ 0.05 and were noted for percent cells fluorescing and mean fluorescence intensity for CD14 and CD205. Additionally, oxidative burst was different as measured by both percentage of cells fluorescing and mean fluorescence intensity, and phagocytosis differed among species as measured by mean fluorescence intensity. Overall, probiotic species differed in their ability to suppress or increase leukocyte function showing that probiotic bacteria differentially modulate BAL.


Assuntos
Células Epiteliais Alveolares/microbiologia , Pulmão/microbiologia , Probióticos/administração & dosagem , Células Epiteliais Alveolares/imunologia , Animais , Antígenos CD/imunologia , Antígenos CD18/imunologia , Bovinos , Enterococcus faecium/imunologia , Fluorescência , Lectinas Tipo C/imunologia , Leucócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Leucócitos/imunologia , Receptores de Lipopolissacarídeos/imunologia , Pulmão/metabolismo , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Menor/imunologia , Fagocitose/efeitos dos fármacos , Propionibacterium freudenreichii/imunologia , Receptores de Superfície Celular/imunologia
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