Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 42.534
Filtrar
1.
Rinsho Ketsueki ; 62(8): 1029-1037, 2021.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34497189

RESUMO

The development of gene analysis in cancer is remarkable, and understanding of molecular pathology has been elucidated. Somatic mutations, that is, genetic analysis in cancer cells, have contributed to the accurate diagnosis of tumors, prognostic prediction, and detection of therapeutic targets. In contrast, germline mutations have been identified as the cause of hereditary diseases. In the past, symptom diagnosis was the main focus for hereditary diseases. However, genetic information has greatly contributed to its definitive diagnosis. For hematopoietic malignancies, the 2016 revision of the World Health Organization classification newly proposed a section on myeloid neoplasms with germline predisposition. Genetic predispositions characterized by the development of lymphoid neoplasms and solid tumors have also been reported. Since 2016, new findings such as SAMD9/9L mutation have been discovered. This chapter outlines the typical genetic predisposition to myelodysplastic syndrome/leukemia.


Assuntos
Leucemia Mieloide Aguda , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas , Transtornos Mieloproliferativos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Humanos , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas/diagnóstico , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas/genética
2.
Rinsho Ketsueki ; 62(8): 1275-1280, 2021.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34497216

RESUMO

Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) plays an important role as the most potent therapeutic option for refractory acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). However, advances of supporting therapy have enabled more intensive chemotherapy, and severe late complication of allo-HCT has been recognized, thus, indication of allo-HCT is now limited to carefully selected population with highest risk for relapse, based on assessment by minimal residual disease status. Furthermore, especially for B-cell precursor ALL, we should re-establish a role of allo-HCT in the entire of therapeutic strategy, including novel options, such as small molecular agents and immunotherapy. We are now required to maximize safety and efficacy of allo-HCT for selected high-risk ALL.


Assuntos
Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras , Humanos , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/terapia , Recidiva , Transplante Homólogo
3.
Rinsho Ketsueki ; 62(8): 1308-1318, 2021.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34497221

RESUMO

Leukemias diagnosed in <1-year-old infants generally have an aggressive clinical nature and unique biological characteristics. Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in infants is still intractable and difficult to treat as compared with other pediatric ALLs, for which considerable progress in treatment outcomes has been recently achieved. Infant leukemia cells frequently carry chromosome translocations involving the 11q23 locus, resulting in the rearrangement and fusion of the KMT2A (MLL) gene. Among several KMT2A fusion genes, KMT2A-AFF1 (MLL-AF4) fusion is characteristically observed in neonatal and infant ALL, representing a hallmark of poor prognosis. The cytogenetic/molecular abnormalities t (1;22)(p13.3;q13.1)/RBM15-MKL1 and t (8;16)(p11.2;p13.3)/KAT6A-CREBBP (MOZ-CBP) are also well-known in acute myeloblastic leukemia in this population. Although many neonatal leukemias occurring within the first 28 days of birth are refractory, spontaneous remissions are occasionally observed, especially in the case of t (8;16). Therefore, international collaborative studies are necessary to improve understanding and facilitate the development of better treatment for this rare disease. Thus, this study summarizes the recently reported clinical, cytogenetic, and molecular biology aspects of neonatal and infant leukemias.


Assuntos
Leucemia Mieloide Aguda , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras , Doença Aguda , Aberrações Cromossômicas , Humanos , Lactente , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/diagnóstico , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/genética , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/terapia , Proteínas de Fusão Oncogênica/genética , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/diagnóstico , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/genética , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/terapia , Translocação Genética
4.
Rinsho Ketsueki ; 62(8): 883-891, 2021.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34497227

RESUMO

Almost all genetic abnormalities involved in the occurrence and progression of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) and acute myeloid leukemia have been reported within the last decade. The molecular mechanisms of these genetic changes involved in causing dysfunctions in hematopoietic cells have also been clarified in recent years. For MDS, gene mutations of RNA splicing factors and cohesin complex have been shown to trigger not only aberrant RNA splicing or decreased chromatin insulation but also DNA damage response and transcriptional dysregulation through inefficient interaction between promoters and enhancers. Consequently, these newly identified disease-causing mechanisms may be considered potential therapeutic targets.


Assuntos
Leucemia Mieloide Aguda , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas , Humanos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/genética , Mutação , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas/genética , Splicing de RNA , Fatores de Processamento de RNA/genética
5.
Rinsho Ketsueki ; 62(8): 954-966, 2021.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34497236

RESUMO

Mutations in the FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3) gene represent the most common genetic alteration in acute myeloid leukemia (AML), identified in approximately one third of patients newly diagnosed with AML. FLT3 internal tandem duplication mutations (FLT3-ITD) are associated with increased relapse and inferior overall survival. Multiple inhibitors of FLT3 signaling have been developed in the last few years with variable kinase-inhibitory properties, pharmacokinetics, and toxicity profiles. At present, two FLT3 inhibitors (gilteritinib and quizartinib) have been approved as monotherapies for relapsed/refractory FLT3-mutated AML in Japan, and many more drugs are currently being researched in clinical trials as monotherapies or in combination with conventional chemotherapy or hypomethylating agents and in various settings, including front line, relapsed/refractory disease, and maintenance therapy after consolidation chemotherapy or allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Despite significant advances, some issues need to be overcome, including the resistance to FLT3 inhibitors and controversies regarding the role of FLT3 inhibitors in maintenance therapies and the role of allogeneic stem cell transplantation in FLT3-mutated AML.


Assuntos
Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda , Humanos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/genética , Mutação , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Recidiva , Tirosina Quinase 3 Semelhante a fms/genética
6.
Rinsho Ketsueki ; 62(8): 967-977, 2021.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34497237

RESUMO

The etiology and pathogenesis of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) have been elucidated at chromosomal and genetic levels. The classification and prognosis for its treatment has clearly involved specific chromosomal aberrations and genetic mutations. The recent comprehensive genomic analysis represented by next-generation sequencers has led to discovering new genetic mutations in AML. These findings have not only been applied clinically as prognostic factors and MRD markers but also contributed to the development of new molecular-targeting drugs. Many new drugs have already been approved in the USA and Europe, and new stratified treatments have tried to incorporate them. With the advent of venetoclax, treatment strategies, especially for patients with poor prognosis and who are unfit, have been substantially revised, and the maintenance therapy for AML is also being reevaluated in accordance to the National Comprehensive Cancer Network guidelines. This article will review the current status of AML treatment in Japan and according to Western guidelines.


Assuntos
Leucemia Mieloide Aguda , Aberrações Cromossômicas , Genômica , Humanos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/diagnóstico , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/genética , Mutação , Prognóstico
7.
Rinsho Ketsueki ; 62(8): 978-987, 2021.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34497238

RESUMO

Recurrence in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a major barrier in patients who achieve complete remission after induction of remission and consolidation therapy and desire long-term survival. Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation lowers recurrence risk in patients; however, recurrence is common even after transplantation. Many maintenance therapies for AML aim to lower recurrence risk; therefore, research has focused on identifying drugs with a tolerable adverse-effect profile. Thus far, many trials of cytotoxic anticancer drugs used in maintenance therapy have showed no improvement in survival rates. In contrast, recent studies on immunomodulation, epigenetics, molecular-targeted drugs, etc. have demonstrated promising results. Therefore, we plan to review various maintenance therapies, such as immunotherapy, demethylating agents, and targeted therapies (including fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 inhibitors in particular) based on the current evidence. Moreover, we describe a new strategy that incorporates the assessment of measurable minimal residual disease.


Assuntos
Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Humanos , Japão , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Uso Off-Label , Indução de Remissão
10.
Blood Adv ; 5(17): 3373-3376, 2021 09 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34477817

RESUMO

The molecular causes of myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) have not yet been fully elucidated. Approximately 7% to 8% of the patients carry predisposing genetic germline variants that lead to driver mutations, which enhance JAK-STAT signaling. To identify additional predisposing genetic germline variants, we performed whole-exome sequencing in 5 families, each with parent-child or sibling pairs affected by MPNs and carrying the somatic JAK2 V617F mutation. In 4 families, we detected rare germline variants in known tumor predisposition genes of the DNA repair pathway, including the highly penetrant BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes. The identification of an underlying hereditary tumor predisposition is of major relevance for the individual patients as well as for their families in the context of therapeutic options and preventive care. Two patients with essential thrombocythemia or polycythemia vera experienced progression to acute myeloid leukemia, which may suggest a high risk of leukemic transformation in these familial MPNs. Our study demonstrates the relevance of genetic germline diagnostics in elucidating the causes of MPNs and suggests novel therapeutic options (eg, PARP inhibitors) in MPNs. Furthermore, we uncover a broader tumor spectrum upon the detection of a germline mutation in genes of the DNA repair pathway.


Assuntos
Leucemia Mieloide Aguda , Transtornos Mieloproliferativos , Proteína BRCA1/genética , Reparo do DNA/genética , Células Germinativas , Humanos , Janus Quinase 2/genética , Transtornos Mieloproliferativos/genética
11.
Blood Adv ; 5(17): 3407-3417, 2021 09 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34495313

RESUMO

Recent compelling evidence showed that innate immune effector cells could recognize allogeneic grafts and prime an adaptive immune response. Signal regulatory protein α (SIRPα) is an immunoglobulin superfamily receptor that is expressed on myeloid cells; the interaction between SIRPα and its ubiquitously expressed ligand CD47 elicits an inhibitory signal that suppresses macrophage phagocytic function. Additional studies showed that donor-recipient mismatch in SIRPα variants might activate monocytic allorecognition, possibly as the result of non-self SIRPα-CD47 interaction. However, the frequency of SIRPα variation and its role in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) remains unexplored. We studied 350 patients with acute myeloid leukemia/myelodysplastic syndrome who underwent HLA-matched related HSCT and found that SIRPα allelic mismatches were present in 39% of transplantation pairs. SIRPα variant mismatch was associated with a significantly higher rate of chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD; hazard ratio [HR], 1.5; P = .03), especially de novo chronic GVHD (HR, 2.0; P = .01), after adjusting for other predictors. Those with mismatched SIRPα had a lower relapse rate (HR, 0.6; P = .05) and significantly longer relapse-free survival (RFS; HR, 0.6; P = .04). Notably, the effect of SIRPα variant mismatch on relapse protection was most pronounced early after HSCT and in patients who were not in remission at HSCT (cumulative incidence, 73% vs 54%; HR, 0.5; P = .01). These findings show that SIRPα variant mismatch is associated with HSCT outcomes, possibly owing to innate allorecognition. SIRPα variant matching could provide valuable information for donor selection and risk stratification in HSCT.


Assuntos
Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/etiologia , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Imunidade Inata
12.
Zhonghua Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi ; 42(6): 459-465, 2021 Jun 14.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34384151

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the expression of SET-NUP214 fusion gene in hematological malignancies and to analyze its related clinical biological characteristics. Methods: The clinical data of 24 patients with SET-NUP214 fusion gene-positive hematological malignancies were retrospectively analyzed, and the Kaplan-Meier method was used for survival analysis. Results: Among the 24 patients with SET-NUP214 fusion gene, 15 cases of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) (13 cases of T-ALL and 2 cases of B-ALL) , 7 cases of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) , and 2 cases of T/myeloid mixed acute leukemia have been identified. The immunophenotype of 13 cases of T-ALL was mainly characterized by CD3(+)CD2(-), 73.3% of ALL was characterized by myeloid marker expression, and 85.7% of AML was characterized by CD7 expression. Complete remission (CR) was achieved in 22 patients (91.7%) after induction chemotherapy. All 24 patients received allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) . With a median follow-up of 24 months, the 3-year relapse free survival (RFS) of AML and ALL was 85.7% and 33.3%, respectively (P=0.128) . Comparing 13 cases of SET-NUP214-positive and 62 cases of SET-NUP214-negative T-ALL, the CR rates of induction chemotherapy were 92.3% and 93.5% (P=0.445) , and the 4-week CR rates of induction chemotherapy were 69.2% and 72.6%, respectively (P=0.187) ; the differences were not statistically significant. After HSCT, the 3-year RFS of SET-NUP214(+)T-ALL and SET-NUP214(-)T-ALL was 38.5% and 66.4%, respectively (P=0.028) , and the difference was statistically significant. Conclusion: The SET-NUP214 fusion gene is mainly detected in T cell-derived hematological malignancies, and the prognosis of SET-NUP214 positive T-ALL is relatively poor.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Hematológicas , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células T Precursoras , Neoplasias Hematológicas/genética , Humanos , Complexo de Proteínas Formadoras de Poros Nucleares , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/genética , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos
13.
Zhonghua Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi ; 42(6): 480-486, 2021 Jun 14.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34384154

RESUMO

Objective: To analyze the genetic landscape of multiple fusion genes in patients with de novo acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and investigate the characteristics of immunophenotypes and mutations. Methods: The results of multiple fusion genes from 4192 patients with de novo AML were retrospectively analyzed from 2016 to 2020. In addition, the immunophenotypical data and the mutational results from high-through put method were statistically investigated and correlated as well. Results: ①Among the 52 targets, 29 different types of fusion genes were detected in 1948 patients (46.47%) with AML, which demonstrated an "exponential distribution" . ② As the age increased, the number of patients with fusion gene increased first and then decreased gradually. The total incidence rate of fusion genes and MLL rearrangment in children were significantly higher than those in adults (69.18% vs 44.76%, 15.35% vs 8.36%) . ③The mutations involving FLT3 and RAS signaling pathway contributed most in patients with MLL rearrangment. ④No specific immunophenotypic characteristics were found in AML patients with MLL or NUP98 rearrangements. Conclusion: Nearly half of AML patients were accompanied by specific fusion gene expression, the proportions of different fusion genes in pediatric and adults patients were different by multiple PCR. The gene mutations and immunophenotype of these AML patients have certain rules.


Assuntos
Leucemia Mieloide Aguda , Adulto , Criança , Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Imunofenotipagem , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/genética , Mutação , Proteína de Leucina Linfoide-Mieloide/genética , Estudos Retrospectivos
14.
In Vivo ; 35(5): 2951-2955, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34410993

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: We present the case of a 19-year-old male patient diagnosed concomitantly with extensive thromboses (including two intra-cardiac masses and Budd-Chiari syndrome), as well as acute myeloid leukemia. This necessitated prompt deployment of a monitoring and treatment strategy which included twice-daily blood count assessment, multiple platelet transfusions and anti-coagulation therapy with dose-adjustment per blood count during both induction and consolidation chemotherapy. Multiple factors are believed to contribute to the development of thrombosis in acute leukemia such as diffuse intravascular coagulation, cytokine release and chemotherapy. CASE REPORT: Our patient presented early on in the COVID-19 pandemic, delaying his seeking out medical treatment and we suspect this to have contributed to his 'catastrophic' thrombotic presentation. Well-structured guidelines to help clinicians manage these patients are lacking, and most data are from retrospective analyses or case reports. Our patient continued full-dose anticoagulant therapy until successfully undergoing allogeneic stem cell transplant. The thrombi eventually diminished in size, and the patient was not diagnosed with any further thrombotic events. CONCLUSION: Our case highlights the feasibility of intensive monitoring and provision of platelet transfusion as necessary in order to safely administer low molecular weight heparin from the outset of chemotherapy.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda , Trombose , Adulto , Humanos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/complicações , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/diagnóstico , Masculino , Pandemias , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2 , Trombose/diagnóstico , Trombose/etiologia , Adulto Jovem
15.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 55(8): 983-989, 2021 Aug 06.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445837

RESUMO

Objective: To figure out the association between the expression of m6A RNA methylation regulators and the prognosis of children AML, and provide genetic markers for monitoring the progression and recurrence of AML. Methods: Twenty two m6A RNA methylation regulators were firstly analyzed using the data from Therapeutically Applicable Research To Generate Effective Treatments(TARGET) database and The Genotype-Tissue Expression(GTEx) database, Wilcoxon rank test was performed to analyze the differentially expression of m6A RNA methylation regulators between the AML and normal tissue, 296 AML children were divided into training cohort and validation cohort by simple random sampling method, Lasso regression was used to screen out the risk factors and the multivariate Cox regression was applied for establishing prognosis predicting model in training cohort. Kaplan-Meier survival curve, time-dependent ROC curve and multivariate Cox regression were used to estimate the efficiency of risk score calculated by predictive model in validation cohort. Results: Twenty one m6A genes were up regulated in AML compared to Normal patients. Five m6A RNA methylation regulators(ZC3H13, YTHDC2, HNRNPA2B1, METTL3, METTL5) were included in final predicting model. Risk score could independently predict the survival of AML patients in training cohort(HR:2.72, 95%CI: 1.54-4.81, P=0.000 6) and validation cohort(HR:2.01, 95%CI:1.14-3.50, P=0.016). Low-risk patients had better prognoses than high-risk patients both in training cohort(P=0.001 9) and validation cohort(P=0.023). Conclusion: This prognosis predicting model constructed by m6A RNA methylation regulators could independently predict the survival prognosis in AML children, and should be helpful for clinical therapy.


Assuntos
Leucemia Mieloide Aguda , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/genética , Metilação , RNA , RNA Helicases
16.
J Med Case Rep ; 15(1): 437, 2021 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34446105

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Xeroderma pigmentosum is a rare inherited disease characterized by extreme hypersensitivity to ultraviolet rays and predisposing to cutaneous malignancies that can appear in childhood. These manifestations are often associated with ocular lesions and sometimes with neurological disorders. The association of xeroderma pigmentosum with internal neoplasms such as acute myeloblastic leukemia is not reported with great frequency, which confirms the rarity of this occurrence. CASE REPORT: A 26-year-old Moroccan women, xeroderma pigmentosum patient, was diagnosed with acute myeloblastic leukemia with a complex karyotype. Due to the adverse risk of the xeroderma pigmentosum association with acute myeloblastic leukemia and the profile of acute myeloblastic leukemia with complex karyotype and monosomy 7, which constitute factors of poor prognosis, as well as the absence of studies conceding the tolerance of the chemotherapy by patients suffering from xeroderma pigmentosum, our patient was put under low-dose cytarabine protocol with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor. Unfortunately, she died on the tenth day of chemotherapy by acute pulmonary edema of cardiogenic pace complicated by tamponade. CONCLUSION: According to reports, it is the second case showing association of xeroderma pigmentosum with acute myeloblastic leukemia. The management of these patients remains a challenge. Studies focusing on xeroderma pigmentosum patients developing hematological malignancies are necessary to better understand the most appropriate strategies and precautions for this specific case.


Assuntos
Leucemia Mieloide Aguda , Neoplasias Cutâneas , Xeroderma Pigmentoso , Adulto , Citarabina/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/complicações , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Xeroderma Pigmentoso/complicações
17.
Zhonghua Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi ; 42(7): 549-554, 2021 Jul 14.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34455741

RESUMO

Objective: To retrospectively analyze the clinical outcomes of single unrelated cord blood transplantation (UCBT) in children with high risk and refractory acute myeloid leukemia (AML) . Methods: Between June 2008 and December 2018, a total of 160 consecutive pediatric patients with AML received single UCBT (excluding acute promyelocytic leukemia) . Myeloablative conditioning (MAC) regimen were applied. All patients received a combination of cyclosporine A (CsA) and mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) for the prophylaxis of graft -versus- host disease (GVHD) . Results: The cumulative incidence of neutrophil cells engraftment at day +42 and platelet recovery at day +120 was 95.0% (95% CI 90.0%-97.5%) at a median of 16 days after transplantation (range, 11-38 days) and 85.5% (95%CI 83.3%-93.4%) with a median time to recovery of 35 days (range, 13-158) , respectively. Incidence of grades Ⅱ-Ⅳ and Ⅲ-Ⅳ acute GVHD and chronic GVHD were 37.3% (95%CI 29.3%-45.2%) , 27.3% (95%CI 20.0%-35.0%) and 22.4% (95%CI 15.5%-28.7%) , respectively. The transplant-related mortality (TRM) at 360 day was 13.1% (95%CI 8.4%-18.9%) . The 5-year cumulative incidence of relapse was 13.8% (95%CI 8.5%-20.3%) . The 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) were 71.7% (95%CI 62.7%-77.8%) and 72.2% (95%CI 64.1%-78.7%) , respectively. The 5-year GVHD and relapse free survival (GRFS) was 56.1% (95%CI 46.1%-64.9%) . The 5-year cumulative recurrence rates of CR1, CR2, and NR groups were 5.3%, 19.9%, and 30.9% (P=0.001) , and the 5-year OS rates were 79.9% (95%CI 70.3%-86.7%) , 71.1% (95%CI 50.4%-84.4%) and 52.9% (95%CI 33.0%-69.3%) (χ(2)=7.552, P=0.020) , respectively. Conclusions: For pediatric patients with high risk and refractory AML, UCBT is a safe and effective treatment option, and it is favorable to improve the survival rate in CR1 stage.


Assuntos
Transplante de Células-Tronco de Sangue do Cordão Umbilical , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda , Criança , Humanos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/terapia , Estudos Retrospectivos
18.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(32): e26740, 2021 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34397877

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acute leukemia (AL) is a kind of malignant tumor of hematopoietic system. A number of studies have suggested that Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms are significantly associated with risk of AL. Present study performs meta-analysis to evaluate the association between CYP2B6 c.516G>T variant and AL risk. METHODS: Databases including PubMed, EMBASE, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), and Wanfang were searched for literatures to September 30, 2019, both in English and Chinese. Relative risk and its 95% confidence intervals were used to assess the associations. Statistical analyses of this meta-analysis were conducted by using STATA 13.0. software. RESULTS: A total of 7 studies, including 1038 cases and 1648 controls, were analyzed. Our results indicated that CYP2B6 c.516G>T variant was significantly related to an increased the risk of AL under dominant model, recessive model, homozygote model, and allelic model. In addition, subgroup analyses were also performed by disease classification, country, and study design. No significant associations were obtained between CYP2B6 c.516G>T variant and the risk of AL under the recessive model in the design of hospital-based (relative risk = 0.98; 95% confidence interval: 0.95-1.01; P  = 0.118). CONCLUSION: Our meta-analysis indicated that the CYP2B6 variant is significantly associated with AL risk, in which CYP2B6 c.516G>T is related to an increased risk of AL.


Assuntos
Citocromo P-450 CYP2B6/genética , DNA de Neoplasias/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Alelos , Citocromo P-450 CYP2B6/metabolismo , Humanos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/metabolismo
19.
Elife ; 102021 08 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34350827

RESUMO

For an emerging disease like COVID-19, systems immunology tools may quickly identify and quantitatively characterize cells associated with disease progression or clinical response. With repeated sampling, immune monitoring creates a real-time portrait of the cells reacting to a novel virus before disease-specific knowledge and tools are established. However, single cell analysis tools can struggle to reveal rare cells that are under 0.1% of the population. Here, the machine learning workflow Tracking Responders EXpanding (T-REX) was created to identify changes in both rare and common cells across human immune monitoring settings. T-REX identified cells with highly similar phenotypes that localized to hotspots of significant change during rhinovirus and SARS-CoV-2 infections. Specialized MHCII tetramer reagents that mark rhinovirus-specific CD4+ cells were left out during analysis and then used to test whether T-REX identified biologically significant cells. T-REX identified rhinovirus-specific CD4+ T cells based on phenotypically homogeneous cells expanding by ≥95% following infection. T-REX successfully identified hotspots of virus-specific T cells by comparing infection (day 7) to either pre-infection (day 0) or post-infection (day 28) samples. Plotting the direction and degree of change for each individual donor provided a useful summary view and revealed patterns of immune system behavior across immune monitoring settings. For example, the magnitude and direction of change in some COVID-19 patients was comparable to blast crisis acute myeloid leukemia patients undergoing a complete response to chemotherapy. Other COVID-19 patients instead displayed an immune trajectory like that seen in rhinovirus infection or checkpoint inhibitor therapy for melanoma. The T-REX algorithm thus rapidly identifies and characterizes mechanistically significant cells and places emerging diseases into a systems immunology context for comparison to well-studied immune changes.


Assuntos
COVID-19/imunologia , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/imunologia , Melanoma/imunologia , Infecções por Picornaviridae/imunologia , Aprendizado de Máquina não Supervisionado , Adolescente , Adulto , Algoritmos , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Humanos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias , Rhinovirus/isolamento & purificação , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Adulto Jovem
20.
Blood Adv ; 5(16): 3102-3112, 2021 08 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34402883

RESUMO

Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a heterogeneous disease with poor prognosis and limited treatment strategies. Determining the role of cell-extrinsic regulators of leukemic cells is vital to gain clinical insights into the biology of AML. Iron is a key extrinsic regulator of cancer, but its systemic regulation remains poorly explored in AML. To address this question, we studied iron metabolism in patients with AML at diagnosis and explored the mechanisms involved using the syngeneic MLL-AF9-induced AML mouse model. We found that AML is a disorder with a unique iron profile, not associated with inflammation or transfusion, characterized by high ferritin, low transferrin, high transferrin saturation (TSAT), and high hepcidin. The increased TSAT in particular, contrasts with observations in other cancer types and in anemia of inflammation. Using the MLL-AF9 mouse model of AML, we demonstrated that the AML-induced loss of erythroblasts is responsible for iron redistribution and increased TSAT. We also show that AML progression is delayed in mouse models of systemic iron overload and that elevated TSAT at diagnosis is independently associated with increased overall survival in AML. We suggest that TSAT may be a relevant prognostic marker in AML.


Assuntos
Anemia , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda , Animais , Eritroblastos , Humanos , Ferro , Camundongos , Transferrina
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...