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1.
Ital J Pediatr ; 48(1): 98, 2022 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35710389

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Breastfeeding might prevent childhood cancer by stimulating the immune system. METHODS: The following databases, including PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library, were searched from inception to January 10, 2021. RESULTS: In dose-dependent manner, there was a statistically significant inverse association between any breastfeeding and the incidence of childhood cancer. There was no evidence that breastfeeding was inversely related to childhood cancer of the skeletal, reproductive, or sensory systems. However, breastfeeding was inversely associated with the incidence of hematological malignancies and cancers of the nervous and urinary systems. Among hematological malignancies, the relationship was significant for acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML), but not for acute non-lymphocytic leukemia (ANLL), Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL), or non-HL. CONCLUSIONS: The evidences demonstrated that breastfeeding have a potential protective role in preventing selective childhood cancer growth, especially for ALL, AML, cancer of nervous and urinary systems. This study recommended that breastfeeding be extended for as long as possible or maintained for at least 6 months to prevent selective childhood cancer growth.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Hematológicas , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda , Linfoma não Hodgkin , Neoplasias , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras , Aleitamento Materno , Feminino , Humanos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/epidemiologia , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/etiologia , Linfoma não Hodgkin/complicações , Linfoma não Hodgkin/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/complicações , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/epidemiologia , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/etiologia , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/prevenção & controle
2.
Transpl Immunol ; 72: 101596, 2022 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35390479

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Is minimal residual disease (MRD) monitoring by multiparameter flow cytometry (MFC) prognostic for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients before allogeneic hemopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT)? And if so, what level of MRD eradication can be used to help guide the timing of HSCT? Can haplo-HSCT improve the prognosis of AML patients with MRD positive? To figure out these questions, we initiated this retrospective study. METHODS: 96 AML patients were included retrospectively and divided into 5 groups, according to pre-transplantation MRD levels (from 5 × 10-2 to <1 × 10-4), to analyze the overall survival (OS), disease-free survival (DFS) and cumulative incidence of relapse (CIR). Secondly, we compared the prognosis of MRD-negative (MRDneg) and MRD-positive (MRDpos) AML patients (cutoff value = 1 × 10-3) who underwent allo-HSCT, and further analyzed the prognosis of MRDpos patients after received different transplantation modalities. RESULTS: It is found that the 2-year OS and DFS of MRD negative group were better than the MRD positive group, and that the deeper the eradication of MRD before transplantation, the better the prognosis of patients. The CIR in patients received HLA-identical transplantation, was higher in the MRDpos than in the MRDneg. Haploid transplantation reduced the CIR disparity between MRDpos and MRDneg group. Subsequently, in AML patients who remain MRD positive before HSCT, we show that haplo-HSCT offered a better prognosis than HLA-identical transplantation (MSDT and MUDT). CONCLUSION: It is suggested that achieving MFC-MRD <10-3 (10-4 or even better) before allo-HSCT could reduce the relapse of AML and improve OS and DFS significantly, while haplo-HSCT may be preferred for patients not achieving MRD negativity.


Assuntos
Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda , Citometria de Fluxo , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/etiologia , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/terapia , Neoplasia Residual/etiologia , Prognóstico , Recidiva , Estudos Retrospectivos , Transplante Homólogo
3.
Blood Cancer J ; 12(4): 71, 2022 04 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35443742

RESUMO

Phase 3 trials Viale-A and Viale-C evaluated health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in patients with AML unfit for intensive chemotherapy who received venetoclax (VEN) + (AZA) (Viale-A) or low-dose cytarabine (LDAC) (Viale-C) or placebo (PBO) + AZA or LDAC. Patient-reported outcomes included: EORTC QLQ-C30 global health status (GHS/QoL) and physical functioning (PF), PROMIS Cancer Fatigue Short Form 7a (Fatigue), and EQ-5D-5L health status visual analog scale (HS-VAS). Time to deterioration (TTD), defined as worsening from baseline in meaningful change thresholds (MCT) of ≥10, 5, or 7 points for GHS/QoL or PF, fatigue, and HS-VAS, respectively, was assessed; differences between groups were analyzed using Kaplan-Meier and unadjusted log-rank analyses. VEN + AZA vs PBO + AZA patients had longer TTD in GHS/QoL (P = 0.066) and fatigue (P = 0.189), and significantly longer TTD in PF (P = 0.028) and HS-VAS (P < 0.001). VEN + LDAC vs PBO + LDAC patients had significantly longer TTD in GHS/QoL (P = 0.011), PF (P = 0.020), and fatigue (P = 0.004), and a trend in HS-VAS (P = 0.057). Approximately 43%, 35%, 32%, and 18% of patients treated with VEN + AZA, AZA + PBO, VEN + LDAC, or LDAC + PBO, respectively, saw improvements >MCT in GHS/QoL. Overall, VEN may positively impact HRQoL in patients with AML ineligible for intensive chemotherapy, leading to longer preservation of functioning and overall health status.


Assuntos
Leucemia Mieloide Aguda , Qualidade de Vida , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Compostos Bicíclicos Heterocíclicos com Pontes , Citarabina/uso terapêutico , Fadiga/etiologia , Humanos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/etiologia , Sulfonamidas
4.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 12: 862526, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35392613

RESUMO

Objective: We aimed to establish a model that can predict refractory/recurrent cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection after haploidentical donor (HID) hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Methods: Consecutive acute leukemia patients receiving HID HSCT were enrolled (n = 289). We randomly selected 60% of the entire population (n = 170) as the training cohort, and the remaining 40% comprised the validation cohort (n = 119). Patients were treated according to the protocol registered at https://clinicaltrials.gov (NCT03756675). Results: The model was as follows: Y = 0.0322 × (age) - 0.0696 × (gender) + 0.5492 × (underlying disease) + 0.0963 × (the cumulative dose of prednisone during pre-engraftment phase) - 0.0771 × (CD34+ cell counts in graft) - 1.2926. The threshold of probability was 0.5243, which helped to separate patients into high- and low-risk groups. In the low- and high-risk groups, the 100-day cumulative incidence of refractory/recurrent CMV was 42.0% [95% confidence interval (CI), 34.7%-49.4%] vs. 63.7% (95% CI, 54.8%-72.6%) (P < 0.001) for total patients and was 50.5% (95% confidence interval (CI), 40.9%-60.1%) vs. 71.0% (95% CI, 59.5%-82.4%) (P = 0.024) for those with acute graft-versus-host disease. It could also predict posttransplant mortality and survival. Conclusion: We established a comprehensive model that could predict the refractory/recurrent CMV infection after HID HSCT. Clinical Trial Registration: https://clinicaltrials.gov, identifier NCT03756675.


Assuntos
Infecções por Citomegalovirus , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda , Doença Aguda , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/etiologia , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/etiologia , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/terapia , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/etiologia , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/terapia , Estudos Retrospectivos
5.
Blood Adv ; 6(8): 2520-2534, 2022 04 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35244681

RESUMO

Patients with hematologic malignancies relapsing after allogeneic blood or marrow transplantation (BMT) have limited response to conventional salvage therapies, with an expected 1-year overall survival (OS) of <20%. We evaluated the safety and clinical outcomes following administration of a novel T-cell therapeutic targeting 3 tumor-associated antigens (TAA-T) in patients with acute leukemia who relapsed or were at high risk of relapse after allogeneic BMT. Lymphocytes obtained from the BMT donor were manufactured to target TAAs WT1, PRAME, and survivin, which are over-expressed and immunogenic in most hematologic malignancies. Patients received TAA-T infusions at doses of 0.5 to 4 × 107/m2. Twenty-three BMT recipients with relapsed/refractory (n = 11) and/or high-risk (n = 12) acute myeloid leukemia (n = 20) and acute lymphoblastic leukemia (n = 3) were infused posttransplant. No patient developed cytokine-release syndrome or neurotoxicity, and only 1 patient developed grade 3 graft-versus-host disease. Of the patients who relapsed post-BMT and received bridging therapy, the majority (n = 9/11) achieved complete hematologic remission before receiving TAA-T. Relapsed patients exhibited a 1-year OS of 36% and 1-year leukemia-free survival of 27.3% post-TAA-T. The poorest prognosis patients (relapsed <6 months after transplant) exhibited a 1-year OS of 42.8% postrelapse (n = 7). Median survival was not reached for high-risk patients who received preemptive TAA-T posttransplant (n = 12). Although as a phase 1 study, concomitant antileukemic therapy was allowed, TAA-T were safe and well tolerated, and sustained remissions in high-risk and relapsed patients were observed. Moreover, adoptively transferred TAA-T detected by T-cell receptor V-ß sequencing persisted up to at least 1 year postinfusion. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT02203903.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Hematológicas , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras , Doença Aguda , Transplante de Medula Óssea/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Hematológicas/terapia , Humanos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/etiologia , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/terapia , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/etiologia , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/terapia , Recidiva
6.
Molecules ; 27(3)2022 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35163998

RESUMO

Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is a pattern-recognizing receptor that can bind exogenous and endogenous ligands. It is expressed by acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells, several bone marrow stromal cells, and nonleukemic cells involved in inflammation. TLR4 can bind a wide range of endogenous ligands that are present in the bone marrow microenvironment. Furthermore, the TLR4-expressing nonleukemic bone marrow cells include various mesenchymal cells, endothelial cells, differentiated myeloid cells, and inflammatory/immunocompetent cells. Osteoblasts are important stem cell supporting cells localized to the stem cell niches, and they support the proliferation and survival of primary AML cells. These supporting effects are mediated by the bidirectional crosstalk between AML cells and supportive osteoblasts through the local cytokine network. Finally, TLR4 is also important for the defense against complicating infections in neutropenic patients, and it seems to be involved in the regulation of inflammatory and immunological reactions in patients treated with allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Thus, TLR4 has direct effects on primary AML cells, and it has indirect effects on the leukemic cells through modulation of their supporting neighboring bone marrow stromal cells (i.e., modulation of stem cell niches, regulation of angiogenesis). Furthermore, in allotransplant recipients TLR4 can modulate inflammatory and potentially antileukemic immune reactivity. The use of TLR4 targeting as an antileukemic treatment will therefore depend both on the biology of the AML cells, the biological context of the AML cells, aging effects reflected both in the AML and the stromal cells and the additional antileukemic treatment combined with HSP90 inhibition.


Assuntos
Carcinogênese , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/patologia , Osteoblastos/patologia , Nicho de Células-Tronco , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/metabolismo , Microambiente Tumoral , Animais , Humanos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/etiologia , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/metabolismo , Osteoblastos/metabolismo
7.
Crit Rev Oncol Hematol ; 171: 103607, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35101585

RESUMO

Therapy-related acute myeloid leukemia (t-AML), defined as AML arising from prior cytotoxic, radiation, or immunosuppressive therapy for an unrelated disease, accounts for 7 %-8 % of AML cases and primarily occurs in elderly patients. t-AML is associated with an increased probability of adverse cytogenetics and shortened survival compared with de novo AML. Factors predicting poorer prognosis in t-AML include older age, unfavorable karyotype, presence of certain mutations, poor performance status, and poor bone marrow reserve. Few clinical studies have focused specifically on patients with t-AML, and the choice of induction therapy for t-AML is thus typically based on subset analyses of larger studies or on extrapolation. In patients deemed fit, t-AML treatment can involve CPX-351 (liposomal daunorubicin and cytarabine) or conventional chemotherapy, ideally followed by hematopoietic cell transplantation. Patients who are not candidates for intensive therapy may benefit from lower-intensity therapies. Additional agents and combination regimens are being evaluated in clinical studies.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda , Idoso , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Citarabina/farmacologia , Citarabina/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/etiologia , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/genética , Mutação , Prognóstico
9.
Leuk Lymphoma ; 63(4): 928-938, 2022 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35147482

RESUMO

Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) predominantly affects the elderly, and prognosis declines with age. Induction chemotherapy plus consolidation therapy is standard of care for fit patients; options for unfit patients include hypomethylating agents (HMA), low-dose cytarabine (LDAC), targeted therapies, and best supportive care (BSC). This retrospective chart review evaluated clinical outcomes in unfit patients with AML who initiated first-line treatment or BSC 01/01/2015-12/31/2018. Overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), time-to-treatment failure (TTF), and response rates were assessed. Of 1762 patients, 1310 received systemic therapies: 809 HMA, 199 LDAC, and 302 other therapies; 452 received BSC. Median OS was 9.9, 7.9, 5.4, and 2.5 months for HMA, LDAC, other, and BSC, respectively. Median PFS was 7.5, 5.3, 4.1, and 2.1 months for HMA, LDAC, other, and BSC, respectively; median TTF was 4.9, 2.1, 2.2, and 2.1 months, respectively. Our findings highlight the unmet need for novel therapies for unfit patients.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda , Idoso , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Citarabina , Humanos , Quimioterapia de Indução , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/diagnóstico , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/etiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(4)2022 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35216457

RESUMO

Weight loss and metabolic activity influence outcome after allogeneic stem cell transplantation (alloSCT). This study evaluates pre-conditioning Leptin, a peptide hormone involved in metabolism and immune homeostasis, as a prognostic factor for survival, relapse and non-relapse mortality (NRM) following alloSCT. Leptin serum levels prior to conditioning were determined in a cohort of patients transplanted for various hematologic malignancies (n = 524) and correlated retrospectively with clinical outcome. Findings related to patients with acute leukemia (AL) from this sample were validated in an independent cohort. Low pre-conditioning serum Leptin was an independent prognostic marker for increased risk of relapse (but not of NRM and overall mortality) following alloSCT for AL of intermediate and advanced stage (beyond first complete remission). Multivariate analysis revealed a hazard ratio (HR) for relapse of 0.75 per log2 increase (0.59-0.96, p = 0.020). This effect was similar in an independent validation cohort. Pre-conditioning serum Leptin was validated as a prognostic marker for early relapse by fitting the multivariate Cox model to the validation data. Pre-conditioning serum Leptin levels may serve as an independent prognostic marker for relapse following alloSCT in intermediate and advanced stage AL patients. Prospective studies are required to prove whether serum Leptin could be used for guiding nutritional intervention in patients with AL undergoing alloSCT.


Assuntos
Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Leptina , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/etiologia , Recidiva , Estudos Retrospectivos , Transplante Homólogo
11.
Blood Adv ; 6(8): 2688-2694, 2022 04 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35008101

RESUMO

Effective reinduction regimens are needed for children with relapsed and refractory acute myeloid leukemia (AML), as outcomes remain poor. Therapeutic options are limited in this heavily pretreated patient population, many of whom have reached lifetime recommended doses of anthracycline chemotherapy. The development of effective non-anthracycline-based salvage regimens is crucial to these patients who are at significant risk of life-threatening cardiotoxicity. We previously reported results of a phase 2 trial of a clofarabine-based regimen with topotecan, vinorelbine, and thiotepa (TVTC) in patients with relapsed acute leukemias. Here we report on an expanded bicenter cohort of 33 patients, <25 years of age, with relapsed/refractory AML treated with up to 2 cycles of the TVTC reinduction regimen from 2007 to 2018. The overall response rate, defined as complete remission or complete remission with partial recovery of platelet count, was 71.4% (95% confidence interval [CI], 41.9-91.6) for those patients in first relapse (n = 14) and 47.4% (95% CI, 24.4-71.1) for patients in second or greater relapse or with refractory disease. Responses were seen across multiple high-risk cytogenetic and molecular subtypes, with 84% of responders successfully bridged to allogeneic stem cell transplantation. The 5-year overall survival for patients in first relapse was 46.2% (95% CI, 19.1-73.3) and 50.0% (95% CI, 26.9-73.1) for patients who responded to TVTC. For pediatric and young adult patients with relapsed/refractory AML, TVTC reinduction compares favorably with currently used salvage regimens and warrants further exploration.


Assuntos
Leucemia Mieloide Aguda , Tiotepa , Antraciclinas , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Criança , Clofarabina/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/etiologia , Recidiva , Tiotepa/efeitos adversos , Topotecan/efeitos adversos , Vinorelbina/uso terapêutico , Adulto Jovem
12.
Blood Adv ; 6(8): 2657-2666, 2022 04 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35042239

RESUMO

Considering treatment changes and an improved prognosis of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) over time, knowledge regarding long-term health outcomes, including late effects of treatment, has become increasingly important. We report on time trends of second primary malignancies (SPMs) in Swedish NHL patients, encompassing the years before as well as after the introduction of anti-CD20 antibody therapy. We identified NHL patients in the Swedish Cancer Register 1993 to 2014 and matched comparators from the Swedish Total Population Register. The matched cohort was followed through 2017. By linking to the Swedish Lymphoma Register, subcohort analyses by NHL subtype were performed. Flexible parametric survival models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of SPM among patients and comparators. Among 32 100 NHL patients, 3619 solid tumors and 217 myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS)/acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cases were observed, corresponding to a 40% higher rate of solid tumors (HRsolid tumors = 1.4; 95% CI, 1.4-1.5) and a 5-fold higher rate of MDS/AML (HRMDS/AML = 5.2; 95% CI, 4.4-6.2) than for comparators. Overall, the observed excess risks for solid tumors or MDS/AML remained stable over the study period, except for follicular lymphoma, where the excess rate of MDS/AML attenuated with time (P for trend = .012). We conclude that NHL survivors have an increased risk of both solid tumors and hematologic malignancies, in particular MDS/AML. Stable excess risks over time indicate that contemporary treatment standards are not associated with modified SPM risk. Encouragingly, decreasing rates of MDS/AML were noted among patients with follicular lymphoma, possibly due to the increasing use of nonchemotherapy-based treatments.


Assuntos
Leucemia Mieloide Aguda , Linfoma Folicular , Linfoma não Hodgkin , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas , Segunda Neoplasia Primária , Humanos , Incidência , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/etiologia , Linfoma Folicular/epidemiologia , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas/epidemiologia , Segunda Neoplasia Primária/epidemiologia , Segunda Neoplasia Primária/etiologia , Suécia/epidemiologia
13.
Blood Adv ; 6(9): 2847-2853, 2022 05 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35073573

RESUMO

A subset of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML) show complex karyotype (CK), and these cases include a relatively high proportion of cases of therapy-related myeloid neoplasms and TP53 mutations. We aimed to evaluate the clinicopathologic features of outcome of 299 AML and MDS patients with CK collected from multiple academic institutions. Mutations were present in 287 patients (96%), and the most common mutation detected was in TP53 gene (247, 83%). A higher frequency of TP53 mutations was present in therapy-related cases (P = .008), with a trend for worse overall survival (OS) in therapy-related patients as compared with de novo disease (P = .08) and within the therapy-related group; the presence of TP53 mutation strongly predicted for worse outcome (P = .0017). However, there was no difference in survival between CK patients based on categorization of AML vs MDS (P = .96) or presence of absence of circulating blasts ≥1% (P = .52). TP53-mutated patients presented with older age (P = .06) and lower hemoglobin levels (P = .004) and marrow blast counts (P = .02) compared with those with CK lacking TP53 mutation. Multivariable analysis identified presence of multihit TP53 mutation as strongest predictor of worse outcome, whereas neither a diagnosis of AML vs MDS nor therapy-relatedness independently influenced OS. Our findings suggest that among patients with MDS and AML, the presence of TP53 mutation (in particular multihit TP53 mutation) in the context of CK identifies a homogeneously aggressive disease, irrespective of the blast count at presentation or therapy-relatedness. The current classification of these cases into different disease categories artificially separates a single biologic disease entity.


Assuntos
Leucemia Mieloide Aguda , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas , Segunda Neoplasia Primária , Humanos , Cariótipo , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/etiologia , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/genética , Mutação , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas/diagnóstico , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas/genética , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas/patologia , Prognóstico , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética
14.
Blood ; 139(11): 1694-1706, 2022 03 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34995355

RESUMO

In acute myeloid leukemia (AML), measurable residual disease (MRD) before or after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) is an established independent indicator of poor outcome. To address how peri-HCT MRD dynamics could refine risk assessment across different conditioning intensities, we analyzed 810 adults transplanted in first or second remission after myeloablative conditioning (MAC; n = 515) or non-MAC (n = 295) who underwent multiparameter flow cytometry-based MRD testing before as well as 20 to 40 days after allografting. Patients without pre- and post-HCT MRD (MRDneg/MRDneg) had the lowest risks of relapse and highest relapse-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS). Relative to those patients, outcomes for MRDpos/MRDpos and MRDneg/MRDpos patients were poor regardless of conditioning intensity. Outcomes for MRDpos/MRDneg patients were intermediate. Among 161 patients with MRD before HCT, MRD was cleared more commonly with a MAC (85 of 104; 81.7%) than non-MAC (33 of 57; 57.9%) regimen (P = .002). Although non-MAC regimens were less likely to clear MRD, if they did, the impact on outcome was greater. Thus, there was a significant interaction between conditioning intensity and "MRD conversion" for relapse (P = .020), RFS (P = .002), and OS (P = .001). Similar findings were obtained in the subset of 590 patients receiving HLA-matched allografts. C-statistic values were higher (indicating higher predictive accuracy) for peri-HCT MRD dynamics compared with the isolated use of pre-HCT MRD status or post-HCT MRD status for prediction of relapse, RFS, and OS. Across conditioning intensities, peri-HCT MRD dynamics improve risk assessment over isolated pre- or post-HCT MRD assessments in patients with AML.


Assuntos
Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda , Adulto , Citometria de Fluxo , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/diagnóstico , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/etiologia , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/terapia , Neoplasia Residual/etiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Condicionamento Pré-Transplante
15.
Hematol Oncol ; 40(2): 269-279, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35043428

RESUMO

This study evaluated venetoclax population pharmacokinetics (popPK) in patients with treatment-naïve acute myeloid leukemia and assessed the relationship between venetoclax exposure and clinical response for venetoclax in combination with either a hypomethylating agent (HMA) or low-dose cytarabine (LDAC). A total of 771 patients who received venetoclax from 5 Phase 1-3 studies were included in the popPK model. Exposure-response analyses included data from 575 patients for venetoclax/placebo plus HMA and 279 patients for venetoclax/placebo plus LDAC. The popPK model successfully characterized venetoclax plasma concentrations over time and confirmed venetoclax exposure did not vary significantly with age, weight, sex, mild to moderate hepatic impairment, or mild to severe renal impairment. Asian patients had 67% higher mean relative bioavailability than non-Asian patients, however the range of exposures in Asian patients was similar to non-Asian patients. For all efficacy endpoints with both treatment combinations, efficacy was higher in the venetoclax treatment groups compared with the respective control arm of placebo plus azacitidine or LDAC. Within patients who received venetoclax, no significant exposure-efficacy relationships were identified for either treatment combination, indicating that the beneficial effects of venetoclax were already maximized in the dose ranges studied. There was no apparent effect of venetoclax exposure on treatment-emergent Grade ≥3 thrombocytopenia or infections for either combination. Rates of treatment-emergent Grade ≥3 neutropenia were higher in the venetoclax treatment arms compared with the respective control arms; however, within patients who received venetoclax, there was only a shallow relationship or no apparent relationship with venetoclax exposure for venetoclax plus HMA or LDAC, respectively. Along with the efficacy and safety data previously published, the exposure-response analyses support the venetoclax dose regimens of 400 mg once daily (QD) plus HMA and 600 mg QD plus LDAC in treatment-naïve AML patients who are ineligible for intensive chemotherapy.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica , Compostos Bicíclicos Heterocíclicos com Pontes , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda , Sulfonamidas , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Compostos Bicíclicos Heterocíclicos com Pontes/efeitos adversos , Compostos Bicíclicos Heterocíclicos com Pontes/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/etiologia , Sulfonamidas/efeitos adversos , Sulfonamidas/uso terapêutico
16.
Int J Hematol ; 115(3): 428-434, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34704233

RESUMO

Shwachman-Diamond syndrome (SDS) is an autosomal recessive inherited disorder characterized by bone marrow failure, exocrine pancreatic dysfunction, and skeletal abnormalities. SDS is typically caused by a pathogenic mutation in the Shwachman-Bodian-Diamond Syndrome (SBDS) gene. Patients with SDS have an increased risk of developing acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and myelodysplastic syndromes. We identified germline biallelic SBDS mutations (p.K62X and p.I167M) in a 50-year-old AML patient who had never experienced the typical symptoms of SDS. The K62X mutation is one of the most common pathogenic mutations, whereas the significance of the I167M mutation was unclear. Based on cellular experiments, we concluded that the I167M mutation contributed to the development of AML, and chemotherapy including topoisomerase inhibitors, which induce DNA double-strand breaks, may have been toxic to this patient. Our experience indicates that some asymptomatic Shwachman-Bodian-Diamond syndrome mutations contribute to the development of leukemia, and that careful treatment selection may be warranted for patients harboring these mutations.


Assuntos
Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa/genética , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/etiologia , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/genética , Proteínas/genética , Síndrome de Shwachman-Diamond/genética , DNA/metabolismo , Reparo do DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Genes Recessivos/genética , Humanos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas/etiologia , Síndrome de Shwachman-Diamond/complicações , Inibidores da Topoisomerase/efeitos adversos
17.
Clin Lymphoma Myeloma Leuk ; 22(4): e233-e240, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34756570

RESUMO

Therapy related acute myeloid leukemia (tAML) and secondary AML after an antecedent hematologic disorder (sAML-AHD) are often addressed together, blurring any clinical and prognostic differences. Among 516 AML patients, we compared characteristics and outcomes of 149 patients with "sAML" (sAML-AHD: 104, tAML: 45), uniformly and intensively treated during the last 2 decades at 1 center. Clinical outcomes of the whole "sAML" cohort were significantly inferior compared to de novo AML and in both intermediate and poor cytogenetic risk groups. Adverse karyotype had no effect on survival in tAML, while it was a negative predictor in sAML-AHD. Both groups showed similarly dismal outcome, with low complete remission rates (CR 44% vs. 41%) and median overall survival (OS 7 vs. 10.5 months). Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (alloHCT) recipients in CR1 had superior median OS (24 vs. 8 months). By multivariate analysis, alloHCT was an independent predictor of outcome, while karyotype was for sAML-AHD only. In conclusion, both "sAML" groups have inferior outcomes after chemotherapy, with adverse karyotype affecting primarily sAML-AHD. Until new treatment approaches are available, only alloHCT offers a survival advantage.


Assuntos
Doenças Hematológicas , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda , Segunda Neoplasia Primária , Doenças Hematológicas/complicações , Humanos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/diagnóstico , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/etiologia , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/terapia , Segunda Neoplasia Primária/terapia , Prognóstico , Indução de Remissão
18.
Am J Hematol ; 97(2): 185-193, 2022 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34738245

RESUMO

We compared characteristics of myeloid neoplasms (MNs) following allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) versus autologous HCT using a Japanese HCT registry database. Among 43 788 patients who underwent allogeneic (n = 18 874) or autologous HCT (n = 24 914) for non-myeloid malignancies or non-malignant diseases, 352 developed MNs. The cumulative incidence of MNs was lower after allogeneic HCT than after autologous HCT (0.3% vs. 1.8% at 10 years, respectively, p < .001). Compared with autologous HCT, MNs following allogeneic HCT developed in younger patients (median, 42 vs. 57 years old, respectively) and sooner after HCT (median, 16 vs. 33 months, respectively). Approximately half of MNs following allogeneic HCT were donor-derived and occurred later than recipient-derived MNs (median, 26 vs. 6 months, respectively, p = .003). In multivariate analysis, reduced-intensity conditioning and cord blood transplantation were associated with MN development after allogeneic HCT. Overall survival was similar in patients who developed MNs following allogeneic versus autologous HCT (18% vs. 22% at 5 years, respectively, p = .48). Patient age ≥ 55 years, the presence of previous HCT, AML subtype, and chromosome 5 or 7 abnormalities were adverse factors for overall survival after MN diagnosis. Further research is warranted to elucidate the mechanisms of MN development following allogeneic HCT.


Assuntos
Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/etiologia , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas/etiologia , Transtornos Mieloproliferativos/etiologia , Feminino , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Transplante Homólogo/efeitos adversos
19.
Blood Adv ; 6(4): 1278-1295, 2022 02 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34794172

RESUMO

Secondary acute myeloid leukemia (sAML) comprises a heterogeneous group of patients and is associated with poor overall survival (OS). We analyze the characteristics, treatment patterns, and outcomes of adult patients with sAML in the Programa Español de Tratamientos en Hematología (PETHEMA) registry. Overall, 6211 (72.9%) were de novo and 2310 (27.1%) had sAML, divided into myelodysplastic syndrome AML (MDS-AML, 44%), MDS/myeloproliferative AML (MDS/MPN-AML, 10%), MPN-AML (11%), therapy-related AML (t-AML, 25%), and antecedent neoplasia without prior chemotherapy/radiotherapy (neo-AML, 9%). Compared with de novo, patients with sAML were older (median age, 69 years), had more Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group ≥2 (35%) or high-risk cytogenetics (40%), less FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 internal tandem duplication (11%), and nucleophosmin 1 (NPM1) mutations (21%) and received less intensive chemotherapy regimens (38%) (all P < .001). Median OS was higher for de novo than sAML (10.9 vs 5.6 months; P < .001) and shorter in sAML after hematologic disorder (MDS, MDS/MPN, or MPN) compared with t-AML and neo-AML (5.3 vs 6.1 vs 5.7 months, respectively; P = .04). After intensive chemotherapy, median OS was better among patients with de novo and neo-AML (17.2 and 14.6 months, respectively). No OS differences were observed after hypomethylating agents according to type of AML. sAML was an independent adverse prognostic factor for OS. We confirmed high prevalence and adverse features of sAML and established its independent adverse prognostic value. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT02607059.


Assuntos
Leucemia Mieloide Aguda , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas , Segunda Neoplasia Primária , Adulto , Idoso , Humanos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/diagnóstico , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/etiologia , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas/terapia , Segunda Neoplasia Primária/epidemiologia , Segunda Neoplasia Primária/etiologia , Sistema de Registros , Indução de Remissão
20.
Int J Lab Hematol ; 44(1): 118-126, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34585519

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Monitoring patients with acute myeloid leukemia can be implemented through various techniques such as multiparameter flow cytometry, real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and next-generation sequencing. However, there is scarce studies when comparing the data of next-generation sequencing and flow cytometry for monitoring disease progression, particularly how they might supplement one another when used in tandem. METHODS: We investigated 107 patients via retrospective analysis using follow-up MFC and NGS data with a total of 717 MFC and 247 NGS studies to compare these methods in monitoring minimal/measurable residual disease. RESULTS: 197 instances were MFC+ /NGS+ , 3 were MFC- /NGS- , 44 were MFC- /NGS+ , and 3 are MFC+ /NGS- . The majority of the MFC- /NGS+ cases occurred within 6 months during the post-treatment phase (64%). Among 44 MFC- /NGS+ instances, 13 had similar NGS profiles to their original day 0 diagnosis. The remaining cases showed preleukemic clonal hematopoiesis mutations, "likely pathogenic mutations," or "variants of uncertain significance." CONCLUSION: Our findings show that flow cytometry has its advantages with comparable sensitivity in detecting minimal/measurable residual disease. Next-generation sequencing could be used in an increased and more regular capacity in conjunction with flow cytometry to achieve a more comprehensive surveillance of these patients, resulting in improved outcomes.


Assuntos
Citometria de Fluxo/métodos , Citometria de Fluxo/normas , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/normas , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/diagnóstico , Neoplasia Residual/diagnóstico , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Gerenciamento Clínico , Humanos , Imunofenotipagem , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/etiologia , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/metabolismo , Mutação , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
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