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1.
Dis Markers ; 2022: 3199589, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35280440

RESUMO

Background: The tumor microenvironment (TME) plays a significant role in the progression and prognosis of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). This study is aimed at exploring TME-associated biomarkers and identify their potential mechanism in the microenvironment of AML. Method: In this study, the stromal, immune, and ESTIMATE scores of AML patients were evaluated with the ESTIMATE and CIBERSORT algorithms; then, the AML samples were divided into high- and low-score groups. We evaluated the association between clinicopathological characteristics, survival rate, and the stromal/immune/ESTIMATE scores. Furthermore, we identified TME-associated differentially expressed genes (DEGs) then carried out pathway enrichment analysis, protein-protein interaction (PPI) network, Cox regression analysis, and Kaplan-Meier survival analysis to select the most crucial genes. In addition, we further explored the potential mechanism of HCK in the AML microenvironment. Results: We identified 624 TME-associated DEGs and found that HCK was the most promising biomarker associated with AML. The results of the gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) indicated that HCK was mainly involved in immune and inflammation-related signaling pathways. In addition, CIBERSORT analysis showed that HCK was closely related to tumor immune infiltration, with HCK expression associated with various infiltrating immune cells, including B cells, T cells, tumor-associated macrophages (TAM), NK cells, plasma cells, eosinophils, and neutrophils. Furthermore, HCK expression was closely related with ELN risk stratification in patients with AML. Conclusion: HCK could regulate immune cell infiltration in the microenvironment of AML and may act as a potential biomarker for the treatment and prognosis of AML patients.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/genética , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/imunologia , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/patologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-hck/genética , Idoso , Algoritmos , Correlação de Dados , Feminino , Humanos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/mortalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Taxa de Sobrevida
2.
Front Immunol ; 13: 757002, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35154096

RESUMO

For allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) recipients, preemptive interferon-α (IFN-α) therapy is considered as a useful method to eliminate the minimal residual disease (MRD). Our purpose is to assess the long-term efficacy of preemptive IFN-α therapy in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients following allo-HSCT based on two registry studies (#NCT02185261 and #NCT02027064). We would present the final data and unpublished results of long-term clinical outcomes with extended follow-up. We adopted polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and multiparameter flow cytometry (MFC) to monitor MRD, and a positive result of bone marrow specimen examined by either of them would be identified as the MRD-positive status. Subcutaneous injections of recombinant human IFN-α-2b were performed for 6 cycles, and prolonged IFN-α therapy could be permitted at the request of patients. The median cycles were 3.5 (range, 0.5-30.5) cycles. A total of 9 patients suffered from grade ≥3 toxicities (i.e., infectious: n = 6; hematologic: n = 3). The 6-year cumulative incidences of relapse and non-relapse mortality following IFN-α therapy were 13.0% (95% confidence interval [CI], 5.4-20.6%) and 3.9% (95%CI, 0.0-17.6%), respectively. The probability of disease-free survival at 6 years following IFN-α therapy was 83.1% (95%CI, 75.2-91.9%). The probability of overall survival at 6 years following IFN-α therapy was 88.3% (95%CI, 81.4-95.8%). The cumulative incidences of total chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) and severe cGVHD at 6 years following IFN-α therapy were 66.2% (95%CI, 55.5-77.0%) and 10.4% (95%CI, 3.6-17.2%), respectively. Multivariable analysis showed that an alternative donor was associated with a lower risk of relapse and the better disease-free survival. Thus, preemptive IFN-α therapy could clear MRD persistently, prevent relapse truly, and improve long-term survival in AML patients following allo-HSCT.


Assuntos
Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/etiologia , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/prevenção & controle , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/efeitos adversos , Fatores Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Interferon alfa-2/administração & dosagem , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/terapia , Sistema de Registros , Prevenção Secundária/métodos , Condicionamento Pré-Transplante/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Injeções Subcutâneas , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/mortalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasia Residual , Estudos Prospectivos , Recidiva , Transplante Homólogo/efeitos adversos , Adulto Jovem
5.
Hematology ; 27(1): 141-149, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35068391

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: One of the treatment modalities that can be used for hyperleukocytosis is leukapheresis. However, the result of studies showing the benefit of early mortality through the use of leukapheresis versus no leukapheresis is still inconclusive. Hence, we aimed to conduct a systematic review with meta-analysis to determine the effect of leukapheresis on early mortality in AML patients with hyperleukocytosis. METHODS: We conducted a literature search on five databases (PubMed, EBSCOhost, Scopus, Clinicalkey, and JSTOR) up to October 2021 for studies comparing early mortality outcomes between hyperleukocytosis AML patients treated with leukapheresis versus no leukapheresis. Summary odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using random-effects models. Heterogeneity tests were presented in I2 value and publication bias was analyzed using a funnel plot. RESULTS: Eleven retrospective cohort studies were eligible based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Pooled analysis showed that there was no significant difference in early mortality between patients receiving leukapheresis and not receiving leukapheresis in studies using hyperleukocytosis cutoff of 95,000/mm3 or 100,000/mm3 (OR: 1.17; 95% CI: 0.74-1.86; p: 0.50; I2: 0%). Similarly, studies using hyperleukocytosis cutoff of 50,000/mm3 also showed no benefits of early mortality (OR: 0.67; 95% CI: 0.43-1.05; p: 0.08; I2: 0%). Most of the studies used had a moderate risk of bias due to being observational studies. Funnel plot showed an indication of publication bias on studies using hyperleukocytosis cutoff of ≥50,000/mm3. CONCLUSION: The use of leukapheresis does not provide early mortality benefit in adult AML patients with hyperleukocytosis.


Assuntos
Leucaférese , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/terapia , Leucocitose/terapia , Adulto , Humanos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/complicações , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/mortalidade , Contagem de Leucócitos , Leucocitose/complicações , Leucocitose/mortalidade , Razão de Chances
6.
Clin Cancer Res ; 28(13): 2753-2761, 2022 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35046058

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate efficacy and safety of venetoclax + azacitidine among treatment-naïve patients with IDH1/2-mutant (mut) acute myeloid leukemia (AML). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Data were pooled from patients enrolled in a phase III study (NCT02993523) that compared patients treated with venetoclax + azacitidine or placebo + azacitidine and a prior phase Ib study (NCT02203773) where patients were treated with venetoclax + azacitidine. Enrolled patients were ineligible for intensive therapy due to age ≥75 years and/or comorbidities. Patients on venetoclax + azacitidine received venetoclax 400 mg orally (days 1-28) and azacitidine (75 mg/m2; days 1-7/28-day cycle). RESULTS: In the biomarker-evaluable population, IDH1/2mut was detected in 81 (26%) and 28 (22%) patients in the venetoclax + azacitidine and azacitidine groups. Composite complete remission [CRc, complete remission (CR)+CR with incomplete hematologic recovery (CRi)] rates (venetoclax + azacitidine/azacitidine) among patients with IDH1/2mut were 79%/11%, median duration of remission (mDoR) was 29.5/9.5 months, and median overall survival (mOS) was 24.5/6.2 months. CRc rates among patients with IDH1/2 wild-type (WT) were 63%/31%, mDoR 17.5/10.3 months, and mOS 12.3/10.1 months. In patients with IDH1mut, CRc rates (venetoclax + azacitidine/azacitidine) were 66.7%/9.1% and mOS 15.2/2.2 months. In patients with IDH2mut, CRc rates were 86.0%/11.1% and mOS not reached (NR)/13.0 months. Patients with IDH1/2 WT AML treated with venetoclax + azacitidine with poor-risk cytogenetics had inferior outcomes compared with patients with IDH1/2mut, who had superior outcomes regardless of cytogenetic risk (mOS, IDH1/2mut: intermediate-risk, 24.5 months; poor-risk, NR; IDH1/2 WT: intermediate, 19.2 and poor, 7.4 months). There were no unexpected toxicities in the venetoclax + azacitidine group. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with IDH1/2mut who received venetoclax + azacitidine had high response rates, durable remissions, and significant OS; cytogenetic risk did not mitigate the favorable outcomes seen from this regimen for IDH1/2mut. See related commentary by Perl and Vyas, p. 2719.


Assuntos
Dança , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda , Idoso , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Azacitidina/administração & dosagem , Compostos Bicíclicos Heterocíclicos com Pontes/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Isocitrato Desidrogenase/genética , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/genética , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/mortalidade , Mutação , Sulfonamidas
7.
Int J Hematol ; 115(3): 406-413, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35028882

RESUMO

The prognosis of relapsed/refractory (R/R) pediatric acute leukemia is extremely poor. We retrospectively reviewed 20 consecutive pediatric patients with R/R acute leukemia who underwent a first HLA-haploidentical peripheral blood stem cell transplantation following reduced-intensity conditioning (haplo-RIC-PBSCT) with very low-dose antithymocyte globulin (ATG) between 2012 and 2019. Of these 20 patients, 7 patients had acute lymphoblastic leukemia, and 13 had acute myeloid leukemia. At the time of haplo-RIC-PBSCT, 15 patients had active disease. The median follow-up duration for survivors was 56 months (range 22-108 months). Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis consisted of tacrolimus, short-term methotrexate, methylprednisolone, and ATG 1.25 mg/kg on day-2. The 2-year cumulative incidence of transplant-related mortality and relapse were 5.0% [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.7-30.5%)] and 57.8% (95% CI 37.4-79.6%), respectively. Among the 20 patients, 16 (80.0%) developed grade III-IV acute GVHD, and 2 developed severe chronic GVHD. The 2-year event-free survival and overall survival rates were 40.0% (95% CI 19.3-60.0%) and 50.0% (95% CI 27.1-69.2%), respectively. Although the sample size is small, the survival outcomes of the present study are encouraging.


Assuntos
Soro Antilinfocitário/administração & dosagem , Antígenos HLA/genética , Haploidia , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/cirurgia , Transplante de Células-Tronco de Sangue Periférico/métodos , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/cirurgia , Condicionamento Pré-Transplante/métodos , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Seguimentos , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/epidemiologia , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/etiologia , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Lactente , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/mortalidade , Masculino , Transplante de Células-Tronco de Sangue Periférico/efeitos adversos , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/mortalidade , Recidiva , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
Ann Hematol ; 101(2): 309-316, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34989829

RESUMO

Early mortality remains a challenging therapeutic facet of the initial induction phase of intensive chemotherapy in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). The impact of standard molecular evaluation and risk category of the European LeukemiaNet (ELN) 2017 classification model on early mortality has not been rigorously evaluated thus far. We reviewed the medical records of 320 consecutive adult patients with newly diagnosed AML treated with intensive induction chemotherapy in our center from 2007 to 2021. The median age was 56 years; 33 patients (10%) died during induction. Patient age, white blood cell count, hemoglobin level, platelet level, creatinine, uric acid, lactate dehydrogenase serum levels, and FLT3-ITD and CEBPA mutational status did not significantly impact early mortality. NPM1mut patients had a lower likelihood of early death compared to NPM1wt (5% versus 13%; p = 0.023) whereas patients with high-risk cytogenetic studies experienced higher rates of induction mortality compared with intermediate and favorable risk patients (20% versus 8 and 7%, respectively; p = 0.049). Adverse risk ELN 2017 was significantly more likely to die during induction compared with intermediate and favorable risk patients (20% versus 10 and 4%, respectively; p = 0.001). Patients treated in 2007-2011 experienced a significantly higher rate of induction death compared with patients in 2012-2021 (17% versus 8%; p = 0.039). Multivariate analysis confirmed adverse ELN 2017 [odds ratio (OR), 6.7; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.74-25.3; p = 0.006) and treatment timeframe (OR, 0.35; 95% CI, 0.14-0.85; p = 0.019) as pivotal predictors of early mortality. ELN 2017 is a robust prognosticator of early mortality in intensively treated AML patients.


Assuntos
Quimioterapia de Indução , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Proteínas Estimuladoras de Ligação a CCAAT/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/diagnóstico , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/genética , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/mortalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Prognóstico , Risco , Fatores de Risco , Receptor 3 de Fatores de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/genética , Adulto Jovem
9.
Am J Hematol ; 97(3): 274-282, 2022 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34978724

RESUMO

FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 internal tandem duplication (FLT3-ITD) mutational status is a pivotal prognosticator in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients and significantly increases the risk of disease relapse. However, it remains unclear whether in FLT3-ITD patients referred for allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT), baseline cytogenetics significantly impacts clinical outcome. Using the European Society of Blood and Marrow Transplantation registry, we performed a retrospective analysis of 1631 FLT3-ITD AML patients who underwent allo-SCT with the aim of determining the influence of cytogenetic risk category on patient outcomes. Median patient age was 49 years and median follow-up duration was 36 months. Two-year leukemia-free survival (LFS) and incidence of relapse were 54% and 31.6%, respectively. Non-relapse mortality was experienced by 14.4% with a 2-year overall survival (OS) of 60.1%. On multivariate analysis, LFS was significantly lower in patients with intermediate and adverse risk cytogenetics compared with those with favorable risk cytogenetics, (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.48, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.06-2.06; p = .02), and (HR = 01.65, 95% CI, 1.13-2.40; p = .009), respectively. OS was significantly lower in patients with adverse risk cytogenetics compared with patients with favorable risk cytogenetics (HR = 1.74, 95% CI, 1.16-2.61; p = .008) with a trend toward lower OS in patients with intermediate risk cytogenetics compared to those with favorable risk cytogenetics (HR = 1.43, 95% CI, 1.00-2.05; p = .052). In addition, adverse risk patients and intermediate risk patients experienced higher relapse rates compared with favorable risk patients (HR = 1.83, 95% CI, 1.13-2.94; p = .013 and HR = 1.82, 95% CI, 1.19-2.77; p = .005). Overall, cytogenetic studies aid in refinement of risk stratification in transplanted FLT3-ITD AML patients.


Assuntos
Análise Citogenética , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda , Mutação , Tirosina Quinase 3 Semelhante a fms/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/genética , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/mortalidade , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/terapia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Taxa de Sobrevida
10.
Am J Hematol ; 97(3): 322-328, 2022 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34981560

RESUMO

Gilteritinib is approved for the treatment of relapsed/refractory (R/R) acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with an FLT3-mutation (FLT3mut+ ). However, the gilteritinib phase 3 ADMIRAL study (Perl et al NEJM 2019) was conducted prior to widespread adoption of either midostaurin as a component of standard intensive induction and consolidation or posttransplant FLT3 inhibitor maintenance. We performed a retrospective analysis using data from 11 US centers and where we identified 113 patients who received gilteritinib alone or as combination therapy for the treatment of R/R FLT3mut+ AML. The composite complete remission (CR) rate (CRc, defined as CR + CRi + CR with incomplete platelet recovery [CRp]) was 48.7% (n = 55). The CRc rate after treatment with gilteritinib in patients who were treated with only prior 7+3 and midostaurin with or without consolidation was 58% with a median survival of 7.8 months. Survival was longest in patients who obtained a CR, particularly a cMRD (clinical minimal or measurable residual disease) negative response; this remained significant after censoring at the time of stem cell transplant. The mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway activating mutations that are known for gilteritinib resistance (NRAS, KRAS, and PTPN11) had lower CRc (35% vs. 60.5%) and lower median overall survival than patients' whose leukemia did not express these mutations (4.9 months vs. 7.8 months) (HR 2.4; 95% CI 1. 5.4) p value <.01.


Assuntos
Compostos de Anilina/administração & dosagem , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda , Mutação , Pirazinas/administração & dosagem , Estaurosporina/análogos & derivados , Tirosina Quinase 3 Semelhante a fms , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/enzimologia , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/genética , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/mortalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estaurosporina/administração & dosagem , Taxa de Sobrevida , Tirosina Quinase 3 Semelhante a fms/antagonistas & inibidores , Tirosina Quinase 3 Semelhante a fms/genética
11.
Am J Hematol ; 97(3): 329-337, 2022 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34981570

RESUMO

Mutations in fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3) gene are common genomic alterations in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). FLT3 internal tandem duplication mutations (FLT3-ITD) have consistently been shown to be adversely prognostic, particularly those with high allelic ratio (AR). Current AML treatment strategies, including high dose cytarabine, purine analogs, FLT3 inhibitors (FLT3i), and with or without allogeneic stem cell transplant (SCT) have been shown to improve the outcomes in patients with FLT3 mutations. We analyzed a consecutive cohort of newly diagnosed patients with AML treated at a large academic medical center from January 2012 to January 2020. A total of 1576 patients with a new diagnosis of AML were reviewed. Among these, 1438 (91%) had molecular testing for FLT3 mutations and 21% (304/1438) had an FLT3 mutation, including 17% with an FLT3-ITD mutation. We show that FLT3-ITD high AR with NPM1 wild-type have significantly improved survival compared with other European LeukemiaNet (ELN) adverse risk disease. In multivariable cox proportional hazards model of patients receiving intensive or low-intensity induction regimens, FLT3 mutations did not have prognostic significance. The use of allogeneic SCT in CR1 for patients with FLT3 mutations appears to improve survival, particularly in those with ELN adverse risk disease. Overall, this data highlights the changing prognostic impact of FLT3 mutations in a contemporary era with appropriate use of induction therapy combined with targeted agents and allogenic SCT.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda , Medição de Risco , Transplante de Células-Tronco , Tirosina Quinase 3 Semelhante a fms/genética , Aloenxertos , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/enzimologia , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/genética , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/mortalidade , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/terapia , Masculino , Mutação , Taxa de Sobrevida
12.
BMC Cancer ; 22(1): 11, 2022 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34979982

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The mixed-lineage leukemia (MLL) gene is located on chromosome 11q23. The MLL gene can be rearranged to generate partial tandem duplications (MLL-PTD), which occurs in about 5-10% of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with a normal karyotype and in 5-6% of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) patients. Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) is currently one of the curative therapies available for AML and MDS with excess blasts (MDS-EB). However, how the prognosis of patients with high levels of MLL-PTD after allo-HSCT, and whether MLL-PTD could be used as a reliable indicator for minimal residual disease (MRD) monitoring in transplant patients remains unknown. Our study purposed to analyze the dynamic changes of MLL-PTD peri-transplantation and the best threshold for predicting relapse after transplantation. METHODS: We retrospectively collected the clinical data of 48 patients with MLL-PTD AML or MDS-EB who underwent allo-HSCT in Peking University People's Hospital. The MLL-PTD was examined by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RQ-PCR) at the diagnosis, before transplantation and the fixed time points after transplantation. Detectable MLL-PTD/ABL > 0.08% was defined as MLL-PTD positive in this study. RESULTS: The 48 patients included 33 AML patients and 15 MDS-EB patients. The median follow-up time was 26(0.7-56) months after HSCT. In AML patients, 7 patients (21.2%) died of treatment-related mortality (TRM), 6 patients (18.2%) underwent hematological relapse and died ultimately. Of the 15 patients with MDS-EB, 2 patients (13.3%) died of infection. The 3-year cumulative incidence of relapse (CIR), overall survival (OS), disease-free survival (DFS) and TRM were 13.7 ± 5.2, 67.8 ± 6.9, 68.1 ± 6.8 and 20.3% ± 6.1%, respectively. ROC curve showed that post-transplant MLL-PTD ≥ 1.0% was the optimal cut-off value for predicting hematological relapse after allo-HSCT. There was statistical difference between post-transplant MLL-PTD ≥ 1.0% and MLL-PTD < 1.0% groups (3-year CIR: 75% ± 15.3% vs. 0%, P < 0.001; 3-year OS: 25.0 ± 15.3% vs. 80.7% ± 6.6%, P < 0.001; 3-year DFS: 25.0 ± 15.3% vs. 80.7 ± 6.6%, P < 0.001; 3-year TRM: 0 vs. 19.3 ± 6.6%, P = 0.277). However, whether MLL-PTD ≥ 1% or MLL-PTD < 1% before transplantation has no significant difference on the prognosis. CONCLUSIONS: Our study indicated that MLL-PTD had a certain stability and could effectively reflect the change of tumor burden. The expression level of MLL-PTD after transplantation can serve as an effective indicator for predicting relapse.


Assuntos
Histona-Lisina N-Metiltransferase/genética , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/genética , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas/genética , Proteína de Leucina Linfoide-Mieloide/genética , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/genética , Proteínas de Fusão Oncogênica/genética , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Seguimentos , Rearranjo Gênico/genética , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Humanos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/mortalidade , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/cirurgia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas/mortalidade , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas/cirurgia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/mortalidade , Neoplasia Residual , Período Pós-Operatório , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Recidiva , Estudos Retrospectivos , Transplante Homólogo , Carga Tumoral/genética
13.
BMC Cancer ; 22(1): 24, 2022 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34980040

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to analyze the level of CD33 expression in patients with newly diagnosed AML and determine its correlation with clinical characteristics. METHODS: Samples were collected for analysis from AML patients at diagnosis. We evaluated the level of CD33 expression by flow cytometry analysis of bone marrow. Chi-square or t- tests were used to assess the association between the high and low CD33 expression groups. Survival curves were generated by the Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression model method. RESULTS: In this study we evaluated the level of CD33 expression in de novo patients diagnosed from November 2013 until January 2019. The mean value of 73.4% was used as the cutoff for the two groups. Statistical analysis revealed that 53 of the 86 (61.2%) AML patients were above the mean. Although there was no statistical significance between CD33 expression level and gene mutation, FLT3 mutation (P = 0.002) and NPM1 mutation (P = 0.001) were more likely to be seen in the high CD33 group. The overall survival (OS) was worse in the high CD33 group (39.0 m vs. 16.7 m, x2 = 13.06, P < 0.001). The Cox survival regression display that the CD33 is independent prognostic marker (HR =0.233,p = 0.008). Univariate analysis showed that the high expression of CD33 was an unfavorable prognostic factor. Of the 86 patients, CD33-high was closely related to the patients with normal karyotype (x2 = 4.891,P = 0.027), high white blood cell count (WBC, t = 2.804, P = 0.007), and a high ratio of primitive cells (t = 2.851, P = 0.005). CONCLUSIONS: These findings provide a strong rationale for targeting CD33 in combination with chemotherapy, which can be considered a promising therapeutic strategy for AML.


Assuntos
Medula Óssea/metabolismo , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/metabolismo , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/mortalidade , Lectina 3 Semelhante a Ig de Ligação ao Ácido Siálico/metabolismo , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Feminino , Citometria de Fluxo , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Prognóstico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Taxa de Sobrevida , Adulto Jovem , Tirosina Quinase 3 Semelhante a fms/genética
14.
Br J Haematol ; 196(2): 316-328, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34350585

RESUMO

In the past few years research in the underlying pathogenic mechanisms of acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) has led to remarkable advances in our understanding of the disease. Cytogenetic and molecular aberrations are the most important factors in determining response to chemotherapy as well as long-term outcome, but beyond prognostication are potential therapeutic targets. Our increased understanding of the pathogenesis of AML facilitated by next-generation sequencing has spurred the development of new compounds in the treatment of AML, particularly the creation of small molecules that target the disease on a molecular level. Many of the hopeful predictions outlined in our AML review of 2018 are now therapeutic realities: gemtuzumab ozogamicin, venetoclax, FLT3 inhibitors (midostaurin, gilteritinib), IDH inhibitors (ivosidenib, enasidenib), CPX-351, glasdegib, oral decitabine, and oral azacitidine. Others may soon be (quizartinib, APR246 magrolimab, menin inhibitors). The wealth of positive data allows reconsideration of what might soon be new standards of care in younger and older patients with AML. In this review we give an overview of recently approved therapies in AML and address present and future research directions.


Assuntos
Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Terapia Combinada , Gerenciamento Clínico , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Resistência a Medicamentos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/diagnóstico , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/etiologia , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/mortalidade , Terapia de Alvo Molecular/efeitos adversos , Terapia de Alvo Molecular/métodos , Mutação , Prognóstico , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Recidiva , Retratamento , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
Blood ; 139(8): 1135-1146, 2022 02 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34543383

RESUMO

Uproleselan (GMI-1271) is a novel E-selectin antagonist that disrupts cell survival pathways, enhances chemotherapy response, improves survival in mouse xenograft and syngeneic models, and decreases chemotherapy toxicity in vivo. A phase 1/2 study evaluated the safety, tolerability, and antileukemic activity of uproleselan (5-20 mg/kg) with MEC (mitoxantrone, etoposide, and cytarabine) among patients with relapsed/refractory (R/R) acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Among the first 19 patients, no dose-limiting toxicities were observed. The recommended phase 2 dose (RP2D) was 10 mg/kg twice daily. An additional 47 patients with R/R AML were treated with uproleselan at the RP2D plus MEC. At the RP2D, the remission rate (complete response [CR]/CR with incomplete count recovery [CRi]) was 41% (CR, 35%), and the median overall survival (OS) was 8.8 months. In a separate cohort, 25 newly diagnosed patients age ≥60 years received uproleselan at the RP2D plus cytarabine and idarubicin (7 + 3). In these frontline patients, the CR/CRi rate was 72% (CR, 52%), and the median OS was 12.6 months. The addition of uproleselan was associated with low rates of oral mucositis. E-selectin ligand expression on leukemic blasts was higher in patients with relapsed vs primary refractory AML and in newly diagnosed older patients with high-risk cytogenetics and secondary AML. In the R/R cohort, E-selectin expression >10% was associated with a higher response rate and improved survival. The addition of uproleselan to chemotherapy was well tolerated, with high remission rates, low induction mortality, and low rates of mucositis, providing a strong rationale for phase 3 randomized confirmatory studies. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT02306291.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Glicolipídeos/administração & dosagem , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Citarabina/administração & dosagem , Citarabina/efeitos adversos , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Etoposídeo/administração & dosagem , Etoposídeo/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Glicolipídeos/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/mortalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mitoxantrona/administração & dosagem , Mitoxantrona/efeitos adversos , Taxa de Sobrevida
16.
Am J Hematol ; 97(1): 68-78, 2022 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34716921

RESUMO

The progress with intensive chemotherapy and supportive care measures has improved survival in patients with newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Given the recent development of effective low intensity therapies, an optimal decision on the therapy intensity may improve survival through the avoidance of early mortality. We reviewed the outcome of 3728 patients with newly diagnosed AML who received intensive chemotherapy between August 1980 and May 2020. Intensive chemotherapy was defined as a cumulative cytarabine dose ≥ 700 mg/m2 during induction therapy. We divided the whole cohort into a training and validation group at a 3:1 ratio. The population was divided into a training (2790 patients) and a validation cohort (938 patients). The median age was 55 years (range, 15-99). Among them, 442 patients (12%) had core-binding factor AML. Binary logistic regression identified older age, worse performance status, hyperbilirubinemia, elevated creatinine, hyperuricemia, cytogenetic abnormalities other than CBF and -Y, and pneumonia as adverse prognostic factors for an early 4-week mortality. This risk classification for early mortality was verified in the validation cohort of patients. In the validation cohort of more recently treated patients from 2000 to 2017, the 4-week mortality rates with intensive chemotherapy were 2%, 14%, and 50% in the low-, high-, and very high-risk group, respectively. The mortality rates with low intensity therapies were 3%, 9%, and 20%, respectively. The risk classification guides treatment intensity by the assessment of age, frailty, organ dysfunction, cytogenetic abnormality, and infection to avoid early mortality.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/diagnóstico , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/mortalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos
17.
J Clin Oncol ; 40(3): 252-261, 2022 01 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34855461

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Increased CD123 surface expression has been associated with high-risk disease characteristics in adult acute myeloid leukemia (AML), but has not been well-characterized in childhood AML. In this study, we defined CD123 expression and associated clinical characteristics in a uniformly treated cohort of pediatric patients with newly diagnosed AML enrolled on the Children's Oncology Group AAML1031 phase III trial (NCT01371981). MATERIALS AND METHODS: AML blasts within diagnostic bone marrow specimens (n = 1,040) were prospectively analyzed for CD123 protein expression by multidimensional flow cytometry immunophenotyping at a central clinical laboratory. Patients were stratified as low-risk or high-risk on the basis of (1) leukemia-associated cytogenetic and molecular alterations and (2) end-of-induction measurable residual disease levels. RESULTS: The study population was divided into CD123 expression-based quartiles (n = 260 each) for analysis. Those with highest CD123 expression (quartile 4 [Q4]) had higher prevalence of high-risk KMT2A rearrangements and FLT3-ITD mutations (P < .001 for both) and lower prevalence of low-risk t(8;21), inv(16), and CEBPA mutations (P < .001 for all). Patients in lower CD123 expression quartiles (Q1-3) had similar relapse risk, event-free survival, and overall survival. Conversely, Q4 patients had a significantly higher relapse risk (53% v 39%, P < .001), lower event-free survival (49% v 69%, P < .001), and lower overall survival (32% v 50%, P < .001) in comparison with Q1-3 patients. CD123 maintained independent significance for outcomes when all known contemporary high-risk cytogenetic and molecular markers were incorporated into multivariable Cox regression analysis. CONCLUSION: CD123 is strongly associated with disease-relevant cytogenetic and molecular alterations in childhood AML. CD123 is a critical biomarker and promising immunotherapeutic target for children with relapsed or refractory AML, given its prevalent expression and enrichment in patients with high-risk genetic alterations and inferior clinical outcomes with conventional therapy.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/análise , Subunidade alfa de Receptor de Interleucina-3/análise , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/imunologia , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Ensaios Clínicos Fase III como Assunto , Citometria de Fluxo , Humanos , Imunofenotipagem , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/genética , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/mortalidade , Neoplasia Residual , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Recidiva , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo
18.
Int J Hematol ; 115(3): 414-423, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34822127

RESUMO

Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) is the preferred treatment for children with high-risk hematologic malignancies, but post-allo-HSCT relapse has a poor prognosis and limited treatment options. We evaluated the feasibility, outcome, and risk factors influencing survival after T-cell-replete haploidentical HSCT with low-dose anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG) in 30 patients with post-allo-HSCT relapse of acute lymphoblastic leukemia and acute myeloid leukemia. Overall, 50% of the patients had complete remission (CR) before the second transplant and the overall survival (OS) rate was 52%. In surviving patients (median follow-up 614 days), Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed estimated 2-year leukemia-free survival and OS rates of 48.1% and 61.1%, respectively. Cumulative incidences of 2-year non-relapse mortality and relapse were 24.7% and 36.3%, respectively. Achieving CR before the second allo-HSCT was a predominant independent prognostic factor identified in the multivariate analysis, with a significantly improved 2-year OS rate of 86.7%. T-cell-replete haplo-HSCT with low-dose ATG for second allo-HSCT may benefit a selected patient population.


Assuntos
Soro Antilinfocitário/administração & dosagem , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/métodos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/cirurgia , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/cirurgia , Reoperação/métodos , Linfócitos T/transplante , Condicionamento Pré-Transplante/métodos , Transplante Homólogo , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/mortalidade , Humanos , Lactente , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/mortalidade , Masculino , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/mortalidade , Recidiva , Taxa de Sobrevida , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
19.
J Pediatr Hematol Oncol ; 44(1): e114-e122, 2022 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34001781

RESUMO

Survival disparities in children and adolescents with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) are documented, however, the etiology of these disparities is understudied. Few studies have evaluated factors that predict in-hospital mortality in childhood AML and racial/ethnic disparities associated with in-hospital death. Our study aimed to investigate factors associated with the risk of in-hospital death among childhood AML hospitalizations. We conducted a retrospective study of childhood AML hospitalizations using the National Inpatient Sample (NIS) from 2003 to 2017. We estimated incidences of in-hospital death among AML hospitalizations. We performed survey logistic regression models to measure the association between patient and hospital characteristics and in-hospital mortality. We identified 71,050 hospitalizations of children with AML. Compared with non-Hispanic (NH) whites, NH-black children had a higher risk of in-hospital mortality (adjusted odds ratio: 1.41, 95% confidence interval: 1.06-1.87, P<0.02). Further, NH-black patients with hematopoietic stem cell transplant experienced the highest risk of mortality (adjusted odds ratio: 5.88, 95% confidence interval: 3.13-11.06, P<0.001) as compared with NH-black children who did not receive hematopoietic stem cell transplant. Our findings highlight that NH-black children with AML continue to experience a disproportionately higher likelihood of in-hospital mortality when compared with their NH-white counterparts. Further studies are needed to delineate the etiology of these disparities.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/etnologia , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/mortalidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/terapia , Masculino , Fatores Raciais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
20.
Cancer Discov ; 12(2): 388-401, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34789538

RESUMO

We generated ex vivo drug-response and multiomics profiling data for a prospective series of 252 samples from 186 patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). A functional precision medicine tumor board (FPMTB) integrated clinical, molecular, and functional data for application in clinical treatment decisions. Actionable drugs were found for 97% of patients with AML, and the recommendations were clinically implemented in 37 relapsed or refractory patients. We report a 59% objective response rate for the individually tailored therapies, including 13 complete responses, as well as bridging five patients with AML to allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Data integration across all cases enabled the identification of drug response biomarkers, such as the association of IL15 overexpression with resistance to FLT3 inhibitors. Integration of molecular profiling and large-scale drug response data across many patients will enable continuous improvement of the FPMTB recommendations, providing a paradigm for individualized implementation of functional precision cancer medicine. SIGNIFICANCE: Oncogenomics data can guide clinical treatment decisions, but often such data are neither actionable nor predictive. Functional ex vivo drug testing contributes significant additional, clinically actionable therapeutic insights for individual patients with AML. Such data can be generated in four days, enabling rapid translation through FPMTB.See related commentary by Letai, p. 290.This article is highlighted in the In This Issue feature, p. 275.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Apoio para a Decisão , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente , Medicina de Precisão , Feminino , Finlândia , Humanos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/mortalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Indução de Remissão , Análise de Sobrevida
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