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1.
J Exp Med ; 219(11)2022 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36053753

RESUMO

Thrombocytopenia, prevalent in the majority of patients with myeloid malignancies, such as myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) or acute myeloid leukemia (AML), is an independent adverse prognostic factor. Azacitidine (AZA), a mainstay therapeutic agent for stem cell transplant-ineligible patients with MDS/AML, often transiently induces or further aggravates disease-associated thrombocytopenia by an unknown mechanism. Here, we uncover the critical role of an acute type-I interferon (IFN-I) signaling activation in suppressing megakaryopoiesis in AZA-mediated thrombocytopenia. We demonstrate that megakaryocytic lineage-primed progenitors present IFN-I receptors and, upon AZA exposure, engage STAT1/SOCS1-dependent downstream signaling prematurely attenuating thrombopoietin receptor (TPO-R) signaling and constraining megakaryocytic progenitor cell growth and differentiation following TPO-R stimulation. Our findings directly implicate RNA demethylation and IFN-I signal activation as a root cause for AZA-mediated thrombocytopenia and suggest mitigation of TPO-R inhibitory innate immune signaling as a suitable therapeutic strategy to support platelet production, particularly during the early phases of AZA therapy.


Assuntos
Leucemia Mieloide Aguda , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas , Trombocitopenia , Azacitidina/farmacologia , Azacitidina/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Imunidade Inata , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/patologia , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas/tratamento farmacológico , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas/patologia
2.
Front Immunol ; 13: 980911, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36081495

RESUMO

Acute myelocytic leukemia (AML) is a malignancy of the stem cell precursors of the myeloid lineage. CD4+ and CD8+ T cells play pivotal roles in influencing AML progression but are functionally suppressed in the bone marrow microenvironment. We aimed to find hub genes related to T cell exhaustion and suppression, thereby providing evidence for immunotherapy. In this study, gene transcriptome expression data from TCGA and TARGET databases were utilized to find key genes. Firstly, CIBERSORT immune cell infiltration algorithm and WGCNA method were used to identify CD4+ and CD8+ T cells-related genes. Univariate and multivariate cox regression analyses were then introduced to construct the overall survival prognosis model and included hub genes. The ESTIMATE and ssGSEA scoring methods were used to analyze the correlation between the hub genes and immune activity. Single-cell transcriptome analysis was applied to detect the immune cells expressing hub genes, hence, to detect exact mechanisms. Consequently, FLT3LG and IFITM3P6 were determined to be positively correlated with patients' overall survival and microenvironment immune activity. Further study suggested FLT3-FLT3LG and IFITM3P6-miR-6748-3p-CBX7 signaling axes were involved in CD4+ and CD8+ T cells activation. This may be one of the mechanisms of T cells suppression in AML.


Assuntos
Medula Óssea , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda , Medula Óssea/metabolismo , Células da Medula Óssea/metabolismo , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/metabolismo , Fatores de Crescimento de Células Hematopoéticas , Humanos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/patologia , Complexo Repressor Polycomb 1/metabolismo , Prognóstico , Microambiente Tumoral
3.
Hematology ; 27(1): 994-1002, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36066283

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Several studies have confirmed that mutations in the Wilms tumor 1 (WT1) gene occur in adult acute myeloid leukemia (AML). However, few data are available regarding the incidence of WT1 mutations in CEBPAmut AML and their impact. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the frequency and clinical impact of WT1 mutations in 220 newly diagnosed AML patients with CEBPA mutations(CEBPAmut). Chromosome karyotype analysis was performed by R or G banding method and further confirmed either by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and/or by multiple reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (multiple RT-PCR). Mutations were detected with a panel of 112mutational genes using next-generation sequencing (NGS). RESULTS: Overall, 30 WT1 mutations were detected in 29 of the 220 CEBPAmut AML patients (13.18%) screened. These mutations clustered overwhelmingly in exon 7 (n=16). WT1 mutations were found to be significantly more frequent in AML patients with double-mutated CEBPA (CEBPAdm) than in AML patients with single-mutated CEBPA (17.36%vs. 8.08%, P = 0.043). Among WT1-mutated patients, the most common co-mutation was FLT3-ITD (n = 7, 24.14%), followed by NRAS (n = 5, 17.24%), CSF3R (n = 4, 13.79%), GATA2 (n = 4, 13.79%), and KIT (n = 4, 13.79%). The most frequent functional pathway was signaling pathways inas many as 62.07% of cases. Notably,the concomitant mutations in epigenetic regulatorswere inversely correlated with WT1 mutations(P = 0.003). CEBPAdm AML patients with WT1 mutations had inferior relapse-free survival, event-free survival and overall survival compared with patients CEBPAdm AML without WT1 mutations (P = 0.002, 0.004, and 0.010, respectively). CONCLUSION: Our data showed that WT1 mutations are frequently identified in CEBPAmut AML, especially in CEBPAdm AML. CEBPAmut AML patients with WT1 mutations show distinct spectrum of comutations. In the context of CEBPAdm AML, WT1 mutations predict a poor prognosis.


Assuntos
Leucemia Mieloide Aguda , Proteínas Estimuladoras de Ligação a CCAAT/genética , Humanos , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/patologia , Mutação , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Proteínas WT1/genética
4.
BMC Cancer ; 22(1): 909, 2022 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35986311

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: HuR/ELAVL1 (embryonic lethal abnormal vision 1) was a downstream target of miR-29b in some cancer cells. HuR protein exerts important prognostic effects of involving in the pathogenesis and development of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). This study aims to investigate the role of miR-29b-3p in biological behaviors of AML cells by targeting HuR and the involvement of the NF-κB and JAK/STAT signaling pathways. METHODS: The expressions of HuR and miR-29b-3p in AML cells were determined using RT-qPCR and Western blot, and the association between them was analyzed using the Spearman method. Next, the target relationship between HuR and miR-29b-3p was predicted by biological information databases and verified by the dual-luciferase reporter gene assay. MTS, methyl cellulose, flow cytometry and transwell assay were employed to detect the cell proliferation, clone formation, cell cycle and apoptosis, invasion and migration respectively, the effect of miR-29b-3p targeted HuR on the biological behaviors of AML cells was explored after over- /down-expression of miR-29b-3p and rescue experiment. Then, immunofluorescence assay and western blot were employed to detect location expression and phosphorylation levels of NF-κB and JAK/STAT signaling pathways related molecules respectively. RESULTS: HuR was negatively correlated with miR-29b-3p, and was the downstream target of miR-29b-3p in AML cells. When miR-29b-3p was overexpressed in AML cells, HuR was down-regulated, accompanied by cell viability decreased, cell cycle arrest, apoptosis increased, invasion and migration weakened. Moreover, the opposite result appeared after miR-29b-3p was down-regulated. The rescue experiment showed that miR-29b-3p inhibitor could reverse the biological effect of HuR down-regulation in AML cells. Molecular pathway results showed that miR-29b-3p could inhibit p65 expression in nucleus and phosphorylation levels of p65, IκBα, STAT1, STAT3 and STAT5. CONCLUSION: miR-29b-3p can inhibit malignant biological behaviors of AML cells via the inactivation of the NF-κB and JAK/STAT signaling pathways by targeting HuR. miR-29b-3p and its target HuR can be used as a new potential molecular for AML treatment.


Assuntos
Leucemia Mieloide Aguda , MicroRNAs , Apoptose/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/genética , Humanos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/patologia , MicroRNAs/genética , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/genética , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/genética
5.
Mol Cancer ; 21(1): 166, 2022 08 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35986270

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a heterogeneous and aggressive blood cancer that results from diverse genetic aberrations in the hematopoietic stem or progenitor cells (HSPCs) leading to the expansion of blasts in the hematopoietic system. The heterogeneity and evolution of cancer blasts can render therapeutic interventions ineffective in a yet poorly understood patient-specific manner. In this study, we investigated the clonal heterogeneity of diagnosis (Dx) and relapse (Re) pairs at genetic and transcriptional levels, and unveiled the underlying pathways and genes contributing to recurrence. METHODS: Whole-exome sequencing was used to detect somatic mutations and large copy number variations (CNVs). Single cell RNA-seq was performed to investigate the clonal heterogeneity between Dx-Re pairs and amongst patients. RESULTS: scRNA-seq analysis revealed extensive expression differences between patients and Dx-Re pairs, even for those with the same -presumed- initiating events. Transcriptional differences between and within patients are associated with clonal composition and evolution, with the most striking differences in patients that gained large-scale copy number variations at relapse. These differences appear to have significant molecular implications, exemplified by a DNMT3A/FLT3-ITD patient where the leukemia switched from an AP-1 regulated clone at Dx to a mTOR signaling driven clone at Re. The two distinct AML1-ETO pairs share genes related to hematopoietic stem cell maintenance and cell migration suggesting that the Re leukemic stem cell-like (LSC-like) cells evolved from the Dx cells. CONCLUSIONS: In summary, the single cell RNA data underpinned the tumor heterogeneity not only amongst patient blasts with similar initiating mutations but also between each Dx-Re pair. Our results suggest alternatively and currently unappreciated and unexplored mechanisms leading to therapeutic resistance and AML recurrence.


Assuntos
Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda , Humanos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/genética , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/patologia , Mutação , Recidiva , Análise de Célula Única , Transcriptoma , Tirosina Quinase 3 Semelhante a fms/genética
6.
Elife ; 112022 08 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36040792

RESUMO

Background: Mutations in the SF3B1 splicing factor are commonly seen in myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML), yet the specific oncogenic pathways activated by mis-splicing have not been fully elucidated. Inflammatory immune pathways have been shown to play roles in the pathogenesis of MDS, though the exact mechanisms of their activation in splicing mutant cases are not well understood. Methods: RNA-seq data from SF3B1 mutant samples was analyzed and functional roles of interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase 4 (IRAK4) isoforms were determined. Efficacy of IRAK4 inhibition was evaluated in preclinical models of MDS/AML. Results: RNA-seq splicing analysis of SF3B1 mutant MDS samples revealed retention of full-length exon 6 of IRAK4, a critical downstream mediator that links the Myddosome to inflammatory NF-kB activation. Exon 6 retention leads to a longer isoform, encoding a protein (IRAK4-long) that contains the entire death domain and kinase domain, leading to maximal activation of NF-kB. Cells with wild-type SF3B1 contain smaller IRAK4 isoforms that are targeted for proteasomal degradation. Expression of IRAK4-long in SF3B1 mutant cells induces TRAF6 activation leading to K63-linked ubiquitination of CDK2, associated with a block in hematopoietic differentiation. Inhibition of IRAK4 with CA-4948, leads to reduction in NF-kB activation, inflammatory cytokine production, enhanced myeloid differentiation in vitro and reduced leukemic growth in xenograft models. Conclusions: SF3B1 mutation leads to expression of a therapeutically targetable, longer, oncogenic IRAK4 isoform in AML/MDS models. Funding: This work was supported by Cincinnati Children's Hospital Research Foundation, Leukemia Lymphoma Society, and National Institute of Health (R35HL135787, RO1HL111103, RO1DK102759, RO1HL114582), Gabrielle's Angel Foundation for Cancer Research, and Edward P. Evans Foundation grants to DTS. AV is supported by Edward P. Evans Foundation, National Institute of Health (R01HL150832, R01HL139487, R01CA275007), Leukemia and Lymphoma Society, Curis and a gift from the Jane and Myles P. Dempsey family. AP and JB are supported by Blood Cancer UK (grants 13042 and 19004). GC is supported by a training grant from NYSTEM. We acknowledge support of this research from The Einstein Training Program in Stem Cell Research from the Empire State Stem Cell Fund through New York State Department of Health Contract C34874GG. MS is supported by a National Institute of Health Research Training and Career Development Grant (F31HL132420).


Genes contain blocks of code that tell cells how to make each part of a protein. Between these blocks are sections of linking DNA, which cells remove when they are preparing to use their genes. Scientists call this process 'splicing'. Cells can splice some genes in more than one way, allowing them to make different proteins from the same genetic code. Mutations that affect the splicing process can change the way cells make their proteins, leading to disease. For example, the myelodysplastic syndromes are a group of blood cancers often caused by mutations in splicing proteins, such as SF3B1. The disorder stops blood cells from maturing and causes abnormal inflammation. So far, the link between splicing, blood cell immaturity, inflammation and cancer is not clear. To find out more, Choudhary, Pellagatti et al. looked at the spliced genetic code from people with myelodysplastic syndromes. Mutations in the splicing protein SF3B1 changed the way cells spliced an important signalling molecule known as IRAK4. Affected cells cut out less genetic code and made a longer version of this signalling protein, named IRAK4-Long. This altered protein activated inflammation and stopped blood cells from maturing. Blocking IRAK4-Long reversed the effects. It also reduced tumour formation in mice carrying affected human cells. The molecule used to block IRAK4, CA-4948 ­ also known as Emavusertib ­ is currently being evaluated in clinical trials for myelodysplastic syndromes and other types of blood cancer. The work of Choudhary, Pellagatti et al. could help scientists to design genetic tests to predict which patients might benefit from this treatment.


Assuntos
Leucemia Mieloide Aguda , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas , Fosfoproteínas/metabolismo , Fatores de Processamento de RNA/metabolismo , Criança , Humanos , Quinases Associadas a Receptores de Interleucina-1/genética , Quinases Associadas a Receptores de Interleucina-1/metabolismo , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/genética , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/patologia , Mutação , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/genética , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Isoformas de Proteínas/metabolismo , Splicing de RNA
7.
Exp Cell Res ; 419(2): 113319, 2022 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35995176

RESUMO

Hepatic ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury, a common and unavoidable pathophysiological process during liver transplantation or resection operation, may impede postoperative liver function recovery, and its mechanism and targeted therapy remain largely unknown. SIRT5 is a well-known deacetylase and participates in the regulation of many physiological and pathological processes, including I/R. The role of SIRT5 in I/R is controversial or tissue-specific, restricting I/R progression in the heart while deteriorating injury in the kidney and brain, while its effect on hepatic I/R remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the function of SIRT5 in hepatic I/R using AAV8 and lentivirus to overexpress SIRT5 in vivo and in vitro. The data showed that SIRT5 overexpression alleviated liver I/R injury in mice and hypoxia/reoxygenation treated AML-12 cells. Moreover, gain- and loss-of-function of SIRT5, SOD1 and IDH2 experiments in AML-12 were performed. Our results demonstrated that SOD1 and IDH2 knockdown abolished the effect of SIRT5 on restraining oxidative stress and inflammation. Therefore, our work revealed that SIRT5 may alleviates hepatic I/R injury by diminishing oxidative stress and inflammation via up-regulating the SOD1 and IDH2 expression, which enriches the theory and therapeutic strategies of hepatic I/R injury.


Assuntos
Leucemia Mieloide Aguda , Hepatopatias , Traumatismo por Reperfusão , Sirtuínas , Animais , Apoptose , Inflamação/metabolismo , Isquemia/patologia , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/patologia , Fígado/metabolismo , Hepatopatias/metabolismo , Camundongos , Estresse Oxidativo , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/patologia , Sirtuínas/genética , Sirtuínas/metabolismo , Superóxido Dismutase-1/metabolismo
8.
Cancer Chemother Pharmacol ; 90(3): 251-265, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35960342

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is an aggressive hematologic malignancy with high mortality, and it is urgent to find new and optimized treatment strategies for AML. In this study, bavachinin, isolated from Psoralea corylifolia L. exhibiting extensive anti-tumor activity in many solid tumors and a series of its synthesized analogs, were screened for their anti-cancer activity on AML cell lines. METHODS: The cell viability of AML cells was measured using CCK-8 assays. Cell apoptosis and cell cycle were detected by flow cytometry. The expression of apoptosis-related protein and autophagy-related protein/gene was detected by western blot, immunofluorescence or RT-PCR. Subcutaneous mice tumor model was used to evaluate the anti-cancer activity of D36 in vivo. RESULTS: D36 robustly induced AML cells death in a dose-dependent manner with the IC50 value of 1.0 µM for HL-60 cells and 0.81 µM for MV4-11 cells at 24 h. D36 activated autophagy by inducing the accumulation of LC3B and promoting the autophagy flux. In addition, D36 triggered the extrinsic apoptosis by upregulating the protein level of FAS, cleaved-caspase 8, cleaved-caspase 3 and cleaved-PARP. D36 also blocked the cell cycle at S phase or G2/M phase in AML cells. In addition, we find that activation of caspase cascade induced apoptosis and meanwhile activated autophagy, autophagy activation in turns contributes to apoptosis. Furthermore, D36 suppressed the tumor growth in HL-60 AML-bearing mice without obvious side effects. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that D36 is a promising small-molecule for the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia.


Assuntos
Autofagia , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda , Animais , Apoptose , Morte Celular , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células , Flavonas , Células HL-60 , Humanos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/patologia , Camundongos
9.
Cancer Genet ; 266-267: 69-73, 2022 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35802949

RESUMO

Chromosomal aberrations are among the most important prognostic parameters in AML, and conventional cytogenetic analysis remains essential for risk stratification. In this report, we describe an adult male patient with a high percentage of circulating blasts, pathologically confirmed as AML with maturation. Cytogenetic analysis of a bone marrow sample revealed heptasomy 21 and trisomy 13 within a complex karyotype of 52,XY,der(2)t(2;13)(q33.3;q32.1),+13,+21,+21,+21,+21,+21 in all 20 cells examined, which was confirmed by metaphase FISH. Chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA) revealed complete loss of heterozygosity (LOH) of chromosome 21, supporting a common origin. In addition, LOH of chromosome 1p, trisomy 13, and partial tetrasomy of 13q and partial monosomy of 2q as a result of an unbalanced translocation between chromosomes 2 and 13 were observed. Molecular analysis identified two pathogenic missense variants: RUNX1 p.D198Y and SRSF2 p.P95R. The clonal allele ratio of RUNX1 p.D198Y was consistent with all copies of chromosome 21 in the leukemic clone carrying the mutation. Within the medical literature, there are no reports of heptasomy 21 for comparison; however, there are reports of AML with either polysomy 21 or trisomy 13. Our results suggest that even relatively 'common' AML aneuploidies may be associated with much more complex genomic changes, including loss of heterozygosity, which impact prognosis.


Assuntos
Subunidade alfa 2 de Fator de Ligação ao Core , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda , Aberrações Cromossômicas , Subunidade alfa 2 de Fator de Ligação ao Core/genética , Humanos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/genética , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/patologia , Perda de Heterozigosidade , Masculino , Mutação/genética , Trissomia , Síndrome da Trissomia do Cromossomo 13
10.
Stem Cell Res Ther ; 13(1): 369, 2022 07 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35902872

RESUMO

RUNX1T1 (Runt-related transcription factor 1, translocated to 1), a myeloid translocation gene (MTG) family member, is usually investigated as part of the fusion protein RUNX1-RUNX1T1 for its role in acute myeloid leukemia. In the main, by recruiting histone deacetylases, RUNX1T1 negatively influences transcription, enabling it to regulate the proliferation and differentiation of hematopoietic progenitors. Moreover, the formation of blood vessels, neuronal differentiation, microglial activation following injury, and intestinal development all relate closely to the expression of RUNX1T1. Furthermore, through alternative splicing of RUNX1T1, short and long isoforms have been noted to mediate adipogenesis by balancing the differentiation and proliferation of adipocytes. In addition, RUNX1T1 plays wide-ranging and diverse roles in carcinoma as a biomarker, suppressor, or positive regulator of carcinogenesis, closely correlated to specific organs and dominant signaling pathways. The aim of this work was to investigate the structure of RUNX1T1, which contains four conserved nervy homolog domains, and to demonstrate crosstalk with the Notch signaling pathway. Moreover, we endeavored to illustrate the effects of RUNX1T1 on cell fate from multiple aspects, including its influence on hematopoiesis, neuronal differentiation, microglial activation, intestinal development, adipogenesis, angiogenesis, and carcinogenesis.


Assuntos
Leucemia Mieloide Aguda , Proteínas de Fusão Oncogênica , Carcinogênese/genética , Humanos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/patologia , Proteínas de Fusão Oncogênica/genética , Proteínas de Fusão Oncogênica/metabolismo , Proteína 1 Parceira de Translocação de RUNX1/genética , Proteína 1 Parceira de Translocação de RUNX1/metabolismo , Translocação Genética
11.
Cells ; 11(14)2022 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35883692

RESUMO

Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have revolutionized the treatment of many solid tumors, with limited progress made in the area of myeloid malignancies. The low mutational burden of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is one potential reason behind the lack of activity of T-cell harnessing ICIs, particularly CTLA-4 and PD-1 inhibitors. Innate immune checkpoints play a critical role in the immune escape of AML and myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). The CD47 targeting agent, magrolimab, has shown promising activity when combined with azacitidine in early phase trials conducted in AML and higher-risk MDS, especially among patients harboring a TP53 mutation. Similarly, sabatolimab (an anti-TIM-3 monoclonal antibody) plus hypomethylating agents have shown durable responses in higher-risk MDS and AML in early clinical trials. Randomized trials are currently ongoing to confirm the efficacy of these agents. In this review, we will present the current progress and future directions of immune checkpoint inhibition in AML and MDS.


Assuntos
Leucemia Mieloide Aguda , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas , Azacitidina/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico , Fatores Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/patologia , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas/tratamento farmacológico , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas/patologia
12.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 620: 83-91, 2022 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35780585

RESUMO

MicroRNA (miRNA)-222-3p is overexpressed in numerous tumors, where it acts as an oncogene. Although miRNA-222 is highly expressed in acute myeloid leukemia (AML), its functions and the mechanisms underlying these functions have not yet been fully elucidated. This study aimed to investigate the regulatory roles of miRNA-222-3p in AML and the molecular mechanisms underlying these roles. In this study, we observed that miRNA-222-3p increased the viability and suppressed the apoptosis of AML cells. Axin2 was demonstrated to be a direct target of miRNA-222-3p, which when overexpressed, inhibited Axin2 expression and stimulated the Wnt/ß-catenin pathway. In contrast, upregulation of Axin2 expression levels reduced the viability and enhanced the apoptosis of AML cells. Moreover, it partially reversed the effects of the miRNA-222-3p mimic on the proliferation and apoptosis of, and modulation of the Wnt/ß-catenin pathway in, AML cells. Taken together, this study provides strong evidence that miRNA-222-3p can serve as a molecular target for AML treatment.


Assuntos
Proteína Axina , Proliferação de Células , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda , MicroRNAs , Apoptose , Proteína Axina/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Humanos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/genética , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/patologia , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Via de Sinalização Wnt , beta Catenina/genética , beta Catenina/metabolismo
13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(14)2022 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35886899

RESUMO

Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) represent an unmet clinical need whose prognosis is still dismal. Alterations of immune response play a prominent role in AML/MDS pathogenesis, revealing novel options for immunotherapy. Among immune system regulators, CD47, immune checkpoints, and toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) are major targets. Magrolimab antagonizes CD47, which is overexpressed by AML and MDS cells, thus inducing macrophage phagocytosis with clinical activity in AML/MDS. Sabatolimab, an inhibitor of T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain-containing protein 3 (TIM3), which disrupts its binding to galectin-9, has shown promising results in AML/MDS, enhancing the effector functions of lymphocytes and triggering tumor cell death. Several other surface molecules, namely CD33, CD123, CD45, and CD70, can be targeted with monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that exert different mechanisms of action and include naked and conjugated antibodies, bispecific T-cell engagers, trispecific killer engagers, and fusion proteins linked to toxins. These novel mAbs are currently under investigation for use as monotherapy or in combination with hypomethylating agents, BCL2 inhibitors, and chemotherapy in various clinical trials at different phases of development. Here, we review the main molecular targets and modes of action of novel mAb-based immunotherapies, which can represent the future of AML and higher risk MDS treatment.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Imunológicos , Antineoplásicos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas , Anticorpos Monoclonais/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Antígeno CD47 , Humanos , Fatores Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/patologia , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas/tratamento farmacológico , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas/patologia
14.
Nutrients ; 14(14)2022 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35889808

RESUMO

Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is an aggressive and often fatal hematopoietic malignancy. A very attractive way to treat myeloid leukemia, called "differentiation therapy", was proposed when in vitro studies showed that some compounds are capable of inducing differentiation of AML cell lines. One of the differentiation-inducing agents, all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA), which can induce granulocytic differentiation in AML cell lines, has been introduced into clinics to treat patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) in which a PML-RARA fusion protein is generated by a chromosomal translocation. ATRA has greatly improved the treatment of APL. Since 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25D) is capable of inducing monocytic differentiation of leukemic cells, the idea of treating other AMLs with vitamin D analogs was widely accepted. However, early clinical trials in which cancer patients were treated either with 1,25D or with analogs did not lead to conclusive results. Recent results have shown that AML types with certain mutations, such as isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) mutations, may be the right targets for differentiation therapy using 1,25D, due to upregulation of vitamin D receptor (VDR) pathway.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda , Leucemia Promielocítica Aguda , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Diferenciação Celular , Humanos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/genética , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/patologia , Leucemia Promielocítica Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Tretinoína/farmacologia , Tretinoína/uso terapêutico , Vitamina D/farmacologia , Vitamina D/uso terapêutico , Vitaminas/uso terapêutico
15.
Leuk Res ; 120: 106906, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35780573

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Deregulated expression of miRNAs contributes to the development of numerous malignancies, including acute myeloid leukemia (AML). The present work focused on investigating the role of miR-1306-5p in AML pathogenesis and the possible mechanisms. METHODS: The expression levels of miR-1306-5p and PHF6 were assessed in 30 healthy controls and 48 newly diagnosed AML patients. CCK-8 assay, EdU staining, quantitative real-time PCR, TUNEL assay, western blots, and flow cytometry were used to characterize the changes induced by miR-1306-5p or PHF6 overexpression or inhibition. In addition, Starbase and miRWalk databases were adopted to predict the miR-1306-5p target genes. RESULTS: Here we reported that upregulation of miR-1306-5p was a frequent event in both primary leukemic cells from AML patients and AML cell lines. Functional assays indicated that downregulation of miR-1306-5p leads to AML cell growth arrest, less proliferation, and elevated rates of apoptosis. Mechanistically, miR-1306-5p targets PHF6, a protein that plays a key role in gene transcription regulation. Our data further showed that PHF6 was downregulated in AML patients and cell lines, and depletion of PHF6 expression using RNA interference further enhanced the proliferation while reducing the apoptosis of those leukemic cells. CONCLUSION: Our findings show that miR-1306-5p promotes proliferation and prevents apoptosis in AML by directly modulating PHF6 expression and consequently contributes to AML development and progression. miR-1306-5p may function as an oncogene in AML, providing a promising therapeutic target for AML patients.


Assuntos
Leucemia Mieloide Aguda , MicroRNAs , Apoptose/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/genética , Humanos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/patologia , MicroRNAs/genética , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Proteínas Repressoras/genética , Proteínas Repressoras/metabolismo , Regulação para Cima
16.
Bioorg Med Chem ; 70: 116937, 2022 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35863236

RESUMO

Fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3) mutation has been strongly associated with increased risk of relapse, and the irreversible covalent FLT3 inhibitors had the potential to overcome the drug-resistance. In this study, a series of simplified 4-(4-aminophenyl)-6-methylisoxazolo[3,4-b] pyridin-3-amine derivatives containing two types of Michael acceptors (vinyl sulfonamide, acrylamide) were conveniently synthesized to target FLT3 and its internal tandem duplications (ITD) mutants irreversibly. The kinase inhibitory activities showed that compound C14 displayed potent inhibition activities against FLT3 (IC50 = 256 nM) and FLT3-ITD by 73 % and 25.34 % respectively, at the concentration of 1 µM. The antitumor activities indicated that C14 had strong inhibitory activity against the human acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cell lines MOLM-13 (IC50 = 507 nM) harboring FLT3-ITD mutant, as well as MV4-11 (IC50 = 325 nM) bearing FLT3-ITD mutation. The biochemical analyses showed that these effects were related to the ability of C14 to inhibit FLT3 signal pathways, and C14 could induce apoptosis in MV4-11 cell as demonstrated by flow cytometry. Fortunately, C14 showed very weak potency against FLT3-independent human cervical cancer cell line HL-60 (IC50 > 10 µM), indicating that it might have no off-target toxic effects. In light of these data, compound C14 represents a novel covalent FLT3 kinase inhibitor for targeted therapy of AML.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda , Aminas/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/química , Apoptose , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Humanos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/patologia , Mutação , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/química , Tirosina Quinase 3 Semelhante a fms
17.
Expert Rev Hematol ; 15(8): 769-779, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35902358

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a hematologic malignancy with genetic alterations. RUNX1, which is an essential transcription factor for hematopoiesis, is frequently mutated in AML. Loss-of-function mutation of RUNX1 is correlated with poor prognosis of AML patients. It is urgent to reveal the underlying mechanism. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: TCGA AML, GSE106291, GSE142700, and GSE67609 datasets were used. R package was used to define differentially expressed miRNAs, miRNA target genes, RUNX1-related gene, RUNX directly regulating genes, and so on. The relationship of gene expression with overall survival was analyzed by Cox regression. KEGG and GO analyses were applied to the above-mentioned genesets and overlapped genes. Alteration and importance of MAPK pathway were validated in K562 cells by Western blotting and apoptosis assay in vitro. RESULTS: RUNX1 regulated MAPK pathway indirectly and directly. MAPK pathway was altered in K562-cell-induced mutated RUNX1, and these cells were more sensitive to AraC after p38 was inhibited. CONCLUSIONS: RUNX1 could modulate MAPK pathway, which may provide a potential therapeutic target for AML patients with RUNX1 mutations.


Assuntos
Leucemia Mieloide Aguda , MicroRNAs , Subunidade alfa 2 de Fator de Ligação ao Core/genética , Humanos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/patologia , Mutação , Transdução de Sinais
18.
Blood Adv ; 6(16): 4793-4806, 2022 08 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35797243

RESUMO

High-mobility group AT-hook 2 (HMGA2) is a nonhistone chromatin-binding protein that is normally expressed in stem cells of various tissues and aberrantly detected in several tumor types. We recently observed that one-fourth of human acute myeloid leukemia (AML) specimens express HMGA2, which associates with a very poor prognosis. We present results indicating that HMGA2+ AMLs share a distinct transcriptional signature representing an immature phenotype. Using single-cell analyses, we showed that HMGA2 is expressed in CD34+ subsets of stem cells and early progenitors, whether normal or derived from AML specimens. Of interest, we found that one of the strongest gene expression signatures associated with HMGA2 in AML is the upregulation of G2/M checkpoint genes. Whole-genome CRISPR/Cas9 screening in HMGA2 overexpressing cells further revealed a synthetic lethal interaction with several G2/M checkpoint genes. Accordingly, small molecules that target G2/M proteins were preferentially active in vitro and in vivo on HMGA2+ AML specimens. Together, our findings suggest that HMGA2 is a key functional determinant in AML and is associated with stem cell features, G2/M status, and related drug sensitivity.


Assuntos
Leucemia Mieloide Aguda , Antígenos CD34 , Pontos de Checagem do Ciclo Celular , Humanos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/patologia , Regulação para Cima
19.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 11444, 2022 07 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35794161

RESUMO

As immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) continue to advance, more evidence has emerged that anti-PD-1/PD-L1 immunotherapy is an effective treatment against cancers. Known as the programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1), this co-inhibitory ligand contributes to T cell exhaustion by interacting with programmed death-1 (PD-1) receptor. However, cancer-intrinsic signaling pathways of the PD-L1 molecule are not well elucidated. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate the regulatory network of PD-L1 and lay the basis of successful use of anti-PD-L1 immunotherapy in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Data for AML patients were extracted from TCGA and GTEx databases. The downstream signaling pathways of PD-L1 were identified via Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) enrichment analysis. The key PD-L1 related genes were selected by weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA), MCC algorithm and Molecular Complex Detection (MCODE). The CCK-8 assay was used to assess cell proliferation. Flow cytometry was used to determine cell apoptosis and cell cycle. Western blotting was used to identify the expression of the PI3K-AKT signaling pathway. PD-L1 was shown to be elevated in AML patients when compared with the control group, and high PD-L1 expression was associated with poor overall survival rate. The ECM-receptor interaction, as well as the PI3K-AKT signaling pathway, were important PD-L1 downstream pathways. All three analyses found eight genes (ITGA2B, ITGB3, COL6A5, COL6A6, PF4, NMU, AGTR1, F2RL3) to be significantly associated with PD-L1. Knockdown of PD-L1 inhibited AML cell proliferation, induced cell apoptosis and G2/M cell cycle arrest. Importantly, PD-L1 knockdown reduced the expression of PI3K and p-AKT, but PD-L1 overexpression increased their expression. The current study elucidates the main regulatory network and downstream targets of PD-L1 in AML, assisting in the understanding of the underlying mechanism of anti-PD-1/PD-L1 immunotherapy and paving the way for clinical application of ICIs in AML.


Assuntos
Antígeno B7-H1 , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt , Apoptose/genética , Antígeno B7-H1/metabolismo , Proliferação de Células/fisiologia , Humanos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/genética , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/metabolismo , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/patologia , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/genética , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais
20.
Blood ; 140(11): 1305-1321, 2022 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35820057

RESUMO

Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) is the most effective treatment for selected patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and relies on a "graft-versus-leukemia" effect (GVL) where donor T lymphocytes mediate control of malignant cell growth. However, relapse remains the major cause of death after allo-HSCT. In various malignancies, several immunoregulatory mechanisms have been shown to restrain antitumor immunity, including ligand-mediated engagement of inhibitory receptors (IRs) on effector cells, and induction of immunosuppressive cell subsets, such as regulatory T cells (Tregs) or myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs). Relapse after HSCT remains a major therapeutic challenge, but immunoregulatory mechanisms involved in restraining the GVL effect must be better deciphered in humans. We used mass cytometry to comprehensively characterize circulating leukocytes in 2 cohorts of patients after allo-HSCT. We first longitudinally assessed various immunoregulatory parameters highlighting specific trends, such as opposite dynamics between MDSCs and Tregs. More generally, the immune landscape was stable from months 3 to 6, whereas many variations occurred from months 6 to 12 after HSCT. Comparison with healthy individuals revealed that profound alterations in the immune equilibrium persisted 1 year after HSCT. Importantly, we found that high levels of TIGIT and CD161 expression on CD4 T cells at month 3 after HSCT were distinct features significantly associated with subsequent AML relapse in a second cross-sectional cohort. Altogether, these data provide global insights into the reconstitution of the immunoregulatory landscape after HSCT and highlight non-canonical IRs associated with relapse, which could open the path to new prognostic tools or therapeutic targets to restore subverted anti-AML immunity.


Assuntos
Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/patologia , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/patologia , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/terapia , Ligantes , Receptores Imunológicos , Recidiva , Transplante Homólogo
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