Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 11.103
Filtrar
1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(40): e22488, 2020 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33019444

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Some acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients present with features mimicking the classical hypergranular subtype of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) but without the typical promyelocytic leukemia/retinoic acid receptor α (PML/RARα) rearrangement. Herein, we report an AML patient resembling APL but with nucleoporin 98/retinoid acid receptor gamma gene (NUP98/RARG) fusion transcript and Runt-related transcription factor 1 (RUNX1) mutation. PATIENT CONCERNS: An 18-year-old male presented at the hospital with a diagnosis of AML. DIAGNOSES: The patient was diagnosed with bone marrow examination. Bone marrow smear displayed 90.5% promyelocytes. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis failed to detect the PML/RARα fusion transcript or RARα amplification. While real-time polymerase chain reaction showed positivity for the NUP98/RARG fusion transcript. G-banding karyotype analysis showed a normal karyotype. INTERVENTIONS: The patient showed resistance to arsenic trioxide and standard 3 + 7 chemotherapy, but eventually achieved complete remission through the Homoharringtonine, Cytarabine, and Aclarubicin chemotherapy. OUTCOMES: These measures resulted in a rapid response and disease control. LESSONS: Acute myeloid leukemia with the NUP98/RARG fusion gene and the RUNX1 mutation may be a special subtype of AML and may benefit from the alkaloid-based regimen.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/genética , Adolescente , Subunidade alfa 2 de Fator de Ligação ao Core/genética , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Humanos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/diagnóstico , Leucemia Promielocítica Aguda/diagnóstico , Masculino , Complexo de Proteínas Formadoras de Poros Nucleares/genética , Receptores do Ácido Retinoico/genética
2.
Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi ; 28(5): 1440-1444, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33067934

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the efficacy and adverse reactions of decitabine combined with reduction FLAG regimen on the senile patients with high-risk AML. METHODS: 12 senile patients with high-risk AML received decitabine combined with reduced FLAG regimen (decitabine 20 mg/m2, intravenous drip, qd, d 1-5; fludarabine 30 mg/m2, intravenous drip lasts 30 min, qd, d 3-6; Ara-C 1 g/m2, intravenous drip, qd, d 3-6; and G-CSF 300 µg/d, subcu- taneous injection, d 2 to neutrophils reached the lowest return to>1.0×109/L) in our study. The efficacy and adverse reactions of this regimen were analyzed. RESULTS: 9 patients achieved complete remission(CR) after one course of decitabine combined with reduced FLAG regimen, 2 patients achieved partial remission (PR) and 1 patient reached a stable disease (SD). The overall response rate was 92%. The median follow-up period was 7.4 months ranged from 3 to 12 months. The median survival time for all patients was 6.4 months. The main treatment-related toxicities were myelosuppression and infection due to neutropenia. Severe non-hematologic toxicities were not observed in these patients, and there was no treatment-related mortality. CONCLUSION: Decitabine combined with reduced FLAG regimen has a definite clinical efficacy in the treatment of senile patients with high-risk AML. This regimen, as induction remission regimen, can effectively improve the CR rate and reduce the adverse reactions. Therefore, it may be used as one of the preferred induction remission regimen to treat the senile patients with high-risk AML.


Assuntos
Decitabina , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica , Azacitidina/uso terapêutico , Citarabina/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Resultado do Tratamento
3.
Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi ; 28(5): 1516-1522, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33067947

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the short-term and long-term curative efficacy of low-intensity traditional chemotherapy regimen for elderly patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML, non-M3) and related adverse reactions, in order to explore whether low-intensity traditional chemotherapy regimen still has application value in the treatment of elderly AML patients today. METHODS: The clinical characteristics, treatment response and prognosis of 67 elderly patients with AML (non-M3) admitted to our hospital from June 2008 to December 2018 were retrospectively analyzed. All patients received low-intensity conventional chemotherapy (i.e. lower standard dose, and without new drugs listed in China since the 21st century), including DA, HA, CAG, etc. The CR rate, median survival time and 5-year cumulative survival rate of patients were evaluated, and the related indexes were compared with the data reported in domestic and foreign literatures at the same time. RESULTS: The CR rate was 55.2% (37/67), the median survival time was 13.7 months, and the 5-year cumulative survival rate was (24.4±6.3)% in patients received low-intensity tradional chemotherapeutic regimens. The CR rates of high-risk group and non-high-risk group were 38.7% (12/31) and 69.4% (25/36), respectively; the median survival time of high-risk group and non-high-risk group was 8.9 months and 25.2 months respectively; the 5-year cumulative survival rate of high-risk group was (10.2±6.6)% and that of non-high-risk group was (36.0± 9.4)%. Compared with the data reported in the literature at the same time, the data obtained from the low-intensity traditional chemotherapy regimen for the elderly AML did not have an obvious disadvantage, morever had relatively short bone marrow suppression time, low induction early mortality rate and low incidence of severe infection. CONCLUSION: At present, the low-intensity traditional chemotherapy regimen still has good curative effect and survival advantages for elderly AML patients, especially for non-high-risk patients. The adverse reactions are controllable, and the physical and economic conditions of the vast majority of patients can bear the treatment regimen.


Assuntos
Citarabina , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda , Idoso , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica , China , Citarabina/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Análise de Sobrevida
4.
Orv Hetil ; 161(38): 1623-1628, 2020 09.
Artigo em Húngaro | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32924966

RESUMO

Maintenance therapy has been the strong and standard element of many acute lymphoblastic leukaemia protocols, used much less frequently and systematically in adult oncohematological disorders. The first adult maintenance efforts appeared in follicular and mantle cell lymphoma (mostly monoclonal antibody based), along with an early maintenance effort to prolong the plateau phase of myeloma. For the time being, after a long debate, the prognosis-dependent type of consolidation and maintenance became - sometimes until relapse - the standard approach in myeloma patients. The so-called small molecules, which turned out to be effective as induction and relapse agents, are continuously moving toward maintenance settings. Moreover, maintenance efforts seem to be more and more considered and used in transplanted or some non-transplanted acute myeloid leukaemia patients as well. Nevertheless, maintenance should be patient-friendly, easy to use (e.g., tablets) by enabling short outpatient office time, done not very frequently, and as much quality-of-life-based as possible. Orv Hetil. 2020; 161(38): 1623-1628.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Mieloma Múltiplo/tratamento farmacológico , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Humanos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/patologia , Mieloma Múltiplo/patologia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/patologia
5.
Yonsei Med J ; 61(9): 762-773, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32882760

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Pharmacological inhibition of mutant isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) reduces R-2-hydroxyglutarate (2-HG) levels and restores cellular differentiation in vivo and in vitro. The IDH2 inhibitor enasidenib (AG-221) has been approved by the FDA as a first-in-class inhibitor for the treatment of relapsed or refractory (R/R) IDH2-mutant acute myeloid leukemia (AML). In this study, the effects of a combination of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) and AG-221 on AML cell differentiation was explored, along with the mechanisms employed by IDH2-mutant cells in AML. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We treated the human AML cell line, IDH2-mutant-TF-1, and primary human AML cells carrying IDH2 mutation with 30 µM AG-221 and 100 nM ATRA, alone or in combination. RESULTS: Combined treatment with AG-221 and ATRA inhibited 2-HG production and resulted in synergistic effects on differentiation among IDH2-mutant AML cells and primary AML cells expressing IDH2 mutation. Combined treatment with AG-221 and ATRA altered autophagic activity. AG-221 and ATRA treatment-induced differentiation of IDH2-mutant AML cells was associated with autophagy induction, without suppressing autophagy flux at maturation and degradation stages. A RAF-1/MEK/ERK pathway was founded to be associated with AG-221 and ATRA-induced differentiation in IDH2-mutant AML cells. IDH-associated changes in histone methylation markers decreased after AG-221 and ATRA combination treatment. CONCLUSION: Our preliminary evidence indicates that the addition of ATRA to treatments with IDH2 inhibitor may lead to further improvements or increases in response rates in IDH2-mutant AML patients who do not appear to benefit from treatments with IDH2 inhibitor alone.


Assuntos
Aminopiridinas/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Isocitrato Desidrogenase/genética , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Tretinoína/farmacologia , Triazinas/farmacologia , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/genética , Humanos , Isocitrato Desidrogenase/antagonistas & inibidores , Isocitrato Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/genética , Mutação
6.
Tumour Biol ; 42(9): 1010428320954735, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32873193

RESUMO

Acute myeloid leukemia is the most common form of acute leukemia in adults, constituting about 80% of cases. Although remarkable progress has been made in the therapeutic scenario for patients with acute myeloid leukemia, research and development of new and effective anticancer agents to improve patient outcome and minimize toxicity is needed. In this study, the antitumor activity of axolotl (AXO) Ambystoma mexicanum crude extract was assessed in vitro on the human acute myeloid leukemia HL-60 cell line. The anticancer activity was evaluated in terms of ability to influence proliferative activity, cell viability, cell cycle arrest, and differentiation. Moreover, gene expression analysis was performed to evaluate the genes involved in the regulation of these processes. The AXO crude extract exhibited antiproliferative but not cytotoxic activities on HL-60 cells, with cell cycle arrest in the G0/G1 phase. Furthermore, the AXO-treated HL-60 cells showed an increase in both the percentage of nitroblue tetrazolium positive cells and the expression of CD11b, whereas the proportion of CD14-positive cells did not change, suggesting that extract is able to induce differentiation toward the granulocytic lineage. Finally, the treatment with AXO extract caused upregulation of CEBPA, CEBPB, CEBPE, SPI1, CDKN1A, and CDKN2C, and downregulation of c-MYC. Our data clearly show the potential anticancer activity of Ambystoma mexicanum on HL-60 cells and suggest that it could help develop promising therapeutic agents for the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia.


Assuntos
Ambystoma mexicanum , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Misturas Complexas/farmacologia , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Proteína beta Intensificadora de Ligação a CCAAT/genética , Proteínas Estimuladoras de Ligação a CCAAT/genética , Pontos de Checagem do Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidor de Quinase Dependente de Ciclina p18/genética , Inibidor de Quinase Dependente de Ciclina p21/genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Células HL-60 , Humanos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/genética , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/patologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-myc/genética
7.
Lancet Haematol ; 7(10): e724-e736, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32896301

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Venetoclax combined with hypomethylating agents is a new standard of care for newly diagnosed patients with acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) who are 75 years or older, or unfit for intensive chemotherapy. Pharmacodynamic studies have suggested superiority of the longer 10-day regimen of decitabine that has shown promising results in patients with high-risk AML in phase 2 trials. We hypothesised that venetoclax with 10-day decitabine could have improved activity in patients with newly diagnosed AML and those with relapsed or refractory AML, particularly in high-risk subgroups. METHODS: This single centre, phase 2 trial was done at the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center (Houston, TX, USA). The study enrolled older patients (aged >60 years) with newly diagnosed AML, not eligible for intensive chemotherapy; secondary AML (progressed after myelodysplastic syndrome or chronic myelomonocytic leukaemia); and relapsed or refractory AML. Patients were required to have an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status of 3 or less, white blood cell count less than 10 × 109 per L, and adequate end-organ function. Patients with favourable-risk cytogenetics (eg, t[15;17] or core-binding factor AML) or who had received previous BCL2-inhibitor therapy were excluded. Patients received decitabine 20 mg/m2 intravenously for 10 days with oral venetoclax 400 mg daily for induction, followed by decitabine for 5 days with daily venetoclax for consolidation. The primary endpoint was overall response rate. The secondary endpoints analysed within this report include safety, overall survival, and duration of response, in keeping with recommendations of European LeukemiaNet 2017 guidelines. All patients who received at least one dose of treatment were eligible for safety and response assessments. The trial was registered on ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT03404193) and continues to accrue patients. FINDINGS: Between Jan 19, 2018, and Dec 16, 2019, we enrolled 168 patients; 70 (42%) had newly diagnosed AML, 15 (9%) had untreated secondary AML, 28 (17%) had treated secondary AML, and 55 (33%) had relapsed or refractory AML. The median age was 71 years (IQR 65-76) and 30% of patients had ECOG performance status of 2 or higher. The median follow-up for all patients was 16 months (95% CI 12-18; actual follow-up 6·5 months; IQR 3·4-12·4). The overall response rate was 74% (125 of 168 patients; 95% CI 67-80) and in disease subgroups were: 89% in newly diagnosed AML (62 of 70 patients; 79-94), 80% in untreated secondary AML (12 of 15 patients; 55-93), 61% in treated secondary AML (17 of 28 patients; 42-76), and 62% in relapsed or refractory AML (34 of 55 patients; 49-74). The most common treatment-emergent adverse events included infections with grades 3 or 4 neutropenia (n=79, 47%) and febrile neutropenia (n=49, 29%). 139 (83%) of 168 patients had serious adverse events, most frequently neutropenic fever (n=63, 38%), followed by pneumonia (n=17, 10%) and sepsis (n=16, 10%). The 30-day mortality for all patients was 3·6% (n=6, 95% CI 1·7-7·8). The median overall survival was 18·1 months (95% CI 10·0-not reached) in newly diagnosed AML, 7·8 months (2·9-10·7) in untreated secondary AML, 6·0 months (3·4-13·7) in treated secondary AML, and 7·8 months (5·4-13·3) relapsed or refractory AML. The median duration of response was not reached (95% CI 9·0-not reached) in newly diagnosed AML, 5·1 months (95% CI 0·9-not reached) in untreated secondary AML, not reached (95% CI 2·5-not reached) in previously treated secondary AML, and 16·8 months (95% CI 6·6-not reached) in relapsed or refractory AML. INTERPRETATION: Venetoclax with 10-day decitabine has a manageable safety profile and showed high activity in newly diagnosed AML and molecularly defined subsets of relapsed or refractory AML. Future larger and randomised studies are needed to clarify activity in high-risk subsets. FUNDING: US National Institutes of Health and National Cancer Institute.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Compostos Bicíclicos Heterocíclicos com Pontes/uso terapêutico , Decitabina/uso terapêutico , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/tratamento farmacológico , Sulfonamidas/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Compostos Bicíclicos Heterocíclicos com Pontes/administração & dosagem , Compostos Bicíclicos Heterocíclicos com Pontes/efeitos adversos , Decitabina/administração & dosagem , Decitabina/efeitos adversos , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Humanos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/diagnóstico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/diagnóstico , Sulfonamidas/administração & dosagem , Sulfonamidas/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(35): e21848, 2020 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32871908

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Drug-induced pancreatitis (DIP) is a kind of acute pancreatitis with a relatively low incidence. There are many cases of acute pancreatitis (AP) caused by chemotherapeutic agents that have been reported. However, few reports focus on the combination of chemotherapeutic agents that induce acute pancreatitis. This article aims to retrospectively analyze a case of DIP and to explore the relationship between chemotherapeutic agents and acute pancreatitis. PATIENT CONCERNS: Here, we report a 35-year-old Chinese female patient who was diagnosed as acute myeloid leukemia with BCR/ABL expression. After induction chemotherapy of daunorubicin and cytarabine, bone marrow aspiration showed: Acute myeloid leukemia-not relieved (AML-NR). Then the regimen of homoharringtonine, cytarabine and dasatinib was started. The patient developed abdominal pain on the 14th day of chemotherapy. Laboratory tests showed elevated serum amylase (AMY) and lipase (LIPA). Computed tomography (CT) of the abdomen revealed a swollen pancreas with blurred edges and thickened left prerenal fascia. DIAGNOSIS: The patient was diagnosed as DIP by the symptoms of upper abdominal pain and the change of CT images. Other common causes of AP were excluded meanwhile. INTERVENTIONS: The chemotherapy was stopped immediately. And after fasting, fluid infusion and inhibiting the secretion of the pancreas, the symptoms were relieved. OUTCOMES: DIP relapsed when the regimen of aclacinomycin + cytarabine + G-CSF + dasatinib regimen (G-CSF (400ug/day, day 1 to 15), cytarabine (30 mg/day, day 2 to 15), aclacinomycin (20 mg/day, day 2 to 5)and dasatinib (140 mg/day, continuously)) was given, and was recovered after treatment for AP was performed. LESSONS: To choose the best treatment plan for patients, clinicians should raise awareness of DIP, and should know that chemotherapeutic agents can induce pancreatitis and the combination of chemotherapeutic agents may increase the risk of drug-induced pancreatitis.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Pancreatite/induzido quimicamente , Adulto , Citarabina/administração & dosagem , Citarabina/efeitos adversos , Dasatinibe/administração & dosagem , Dasatinibe/efeitos adversos , Daunorrubicina/administração & dosagem , Daunorrubicina/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Mepesuccinato de Omacetaxina/administração & dosagem , Mepesuccinato de Omacetaxina/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Pancreatite/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
9.
Med Microbiol Immunol ; 209(6): 693-703, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32995957

RESUMO

Microbial translocation (MT) and altered gut microbiota have been described in acute leukemic patients and contribute to immune activation and inflammation. However, phage translocation has not been investigated in leukemia patients yet. We recruited 44 leukemic patients and 52 healthy adults and quantified the levels of 3 phages in peripheral blood, which were the most positive phages screened from fecal samples. The content of 16S rRNA in plasma was detected by qPCR to assess the intestinal mucosa of these patients. Spearman's rank correlation was used to analyze the relationship between phage load and the relevant clinical data. We found the most prevalent phages in fecal samples were λ phage, Wphi phage, and P22 phage, and λ phage had the highest detection rate in plasma (68%). Phage content was affected by chemotherapy and course of disease and correlated with the levels of CRP (r = 0.43, p = 0.003), sCD14 (r = 0.37, p = 0.014), and sCD163 (r = 0.44, p = 0.003). Our data indicate that plasma phage load is a promising marker for gut barrier damage and that gut phage translocation correlates with monocyte/macrophage activation and systemic inflammatory response in leukemic patients.


Assuntos
Translocação Bacteriana , Bacteriófagos/isolamento & purificação , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Mucosa Intestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/sangue , RNA Bacteriano/sangue , RNA Ribossômico 16S/sangue , Viremia/diagnóstico , Adulto , Idoso , Antígenos CD/sangue , Antígenos de Diferenciação Mielomonocítica/sangue , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Proteína C-Reativa/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Mucosa Intestinal/microbiologia , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/microbiologia , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/virologia , Receptores de Lipopolissacarídeos/sangue , Ativação de Macrófagos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Permeabilidade , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/sangue , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/tratamento farmacológico , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/microbiologia , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/virologia , Receptores de Superfície Celular/sangue , Viremia/etiologia
10.
Ann Hematol ; 99(11): 2547-2553, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32974837

RESUMO

Patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) are often exposed to broad-spectrum antibiotics and thus at high risk of Clostridioides difficile infections (CDI). As bacterial infections are a common cause for treatment-related mortality in these patients, we conducted a retrospective study to analyze the incidence of CDI and to evaluate risk factors for CDI in a large uniformly treated AML cohort. A total of 415 AML patients undergoing intensive induction chemotherapy between 2007 and 2019 were included in this retrospective analysis. Patients presenting with diarrhea and positive stool testing for toxin-producing Clostridioides difficile were defined to have CDI. CDI was diagnosed in 37 (8.9%) of 415 AML patients with decreasing CDI rates between 2013 and 2019 versus 2007 to 2012. Days with fever, exposition to carbapenems, and glycopeptides were significantly associated with CDI in AML patients. Clinical endpoints such as length of hospital stay, admission to ICU, response rates, and survival were not adversely affected. We identified febrile episodes and exposition to carbapenems and glycopeptides as risk factors for CDI in AML patients undergoing induction chemotherapy, thereby highlighting the importance of interdisciplinary antibiotic stewardship programs guiding treatment strategies in AML patients with infectious complications to carefully balance risks and benefits of anti-infective agents.


Assuntos
Carbapenêmicos/administração & dosagem , Clostridium difficile , Glicopeptídeos/administração & dosagem , Quimioterapia de Indução , Tempo de Internação , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Enterocolite Pseudomembranosa/tratamento farmacológico , Enterocolite Pseudomembranosa/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/epidemiologia , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/microbiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
12.
Ann Hematol ; 99(10): 2405-2416, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32813071

RESUMO

Predictive factors of response to hypomethylating agents (HMA) in elderly acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients remain unclear in the real-life setting and no direct comparison between azacitidine (AZA) and decitabine (DEC) has been carried out. We retrospectively evaluated 110 AML patients treated with HMA (78 AZA, 32 DEC) as first-line therapy outside of clinical trials. Median age was 75 years (range 58-87). The median overall survival (OS) of the entire cohort was 8.0 months (95% CI 6.1-10), without significant differences among the subgroups: AZA 8.8 months vs DEC 6.3 months (p = 0.291). HMA treatment yielded an overall response rate (ORR) of 40% (AZA 37% vs DEC 47%, p = 0.237). A stable disease (SD) after 4 HMA cycles was not associated with a worse survival outcome compared with an early optimal response. Factors independently associated with a better OS were transfusion independence during treatment (p = 0.049), achievement of an optimal response to treatment (p < 0.001), and a baseline hemoglobin level ≥ 9.25 (p = 0.018). A bone marrow (BM) blast count ≥ 30% (p < 0.001) and a therapy-related AML (p = 0.008) remain poor survival predictors. Of the available biologic features, an adverse risk category according to the ELN classification was significantly associated with a shorter survival over the intermediate risk category (p = 0.034). Disease progression remains the primary cause of death. Infectious complications were more severe (p = 0.036) and occurred earlier (p = 0.006) in the DEC group compared with that of the AZA group. In conclusion, clinical prognostic factors associated to response and survival have been identified without significant associations concerning overall outcomes between the two HMAs.


Assuntos
Antimetabólitos Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Azacitidina/uso terapêutico , Metilação de DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , DNA de Neoplasias/efeitos dos fármacos , Decitabina/uso terapêutico , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Medula Óssea/patologia , Causas de Morte , Contagem de Células , DNA de Neoplasias/química , Progressão da Doença , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Hemoglobinas/análise , Humanos , Infecções/etiologia , Infecções/mortalidade , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/mortalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0235503, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32760083

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We evaluated the outcomes of decitabine as first-line treatment in older patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and investigated the predictors, including a baseline mini nutritional assessment short form (MNA-SF) score, of response and survival. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Between 2010 and 2018, 96 AML patients aged 65 and above who received decitabine treatment at 6 centers in Korea were retrospectively evaluated. Response rates, hematologic improvements (HI), progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS) were analyzed. RESULTS: The median age at diagnosis was 73.9 years, and the median number of decitabine treatments administered to the patients was 4 (range, 1-29). Of 85 patients, 15 patients (17.6%) achieved complete remission (CR) or CR with incomplete blood count recovery. Twelve patients (14.1%) showed partial remission (PR), and 18 (21.2%) demonstrated HI without an objective response. The median PFS and OS were 7.0 (95% confidence interval [CI], 4.9-9.0) and 10.6 (95% CI, 7.7-13.5%) months, respectively. In multivariate analyses, MNA-SF score ≥ 8 and the absence of peripheral blood (PB) blasts were significant predictors for improved PFS and OS. CONCLUSIONS: For older patients with newly diagnosed AML, a high MNA-SF score and the absence of PB blasts were independently associated with improved survival.


Assuntos
Antimetabólitos Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Decitabina/administração & dosagem , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Indução de Remissão/métodos , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antimetabólitos Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Contagem de Células Sanguíneas , Medula Óssea/patologia , Decitabina/efeitos adversos , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Humanos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/sangue , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/mortalidade , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/patologia , Masculino , Avaliação Nutricional , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Perda de Peso
14.
N Engl J Med ; 383(7): 617-629, 2020 08 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32786187

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Older patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) have a dismal prognosis, even after treatment with a hypomethylating agent. Azacitidine added to venetoclax had promising efficacy in a previous phase 1b study. METHODS: We randomly assigned previously untreated patients with confirmed AML who were ineligible for standard induction therapy because of coexisting conditions, because they were 75 years of age or older, or both to azacitidine plus either venetoclax or placebo. All patients received a standard dose of azacitidine (75 mg per square meter of body-surface area subcutaneously or intravenously on days 1 through 7 every 28-day cycle); venetoclax (target dose, 400 mg) or matching placebo was administered orally, once daily, in 28-day cycles. The primary end point was overall survival. RESULTS: The intention-to-treat population included 431 patients (286 in the azacitidine-venetoclax group and 145 in the azacitidine-placebo [control] group). The median age was 76 years in both groups (range, 49 to 91). At a median follow-up of 20.5 months, the median overall survival was 14.7 months in the azacitidine-venetoclax group and 9.6 months in the control group (hazard ratio for death, 0.66; 95% confidence interval, 0.52 to 0.85; P<0.001). The incidence of complete remission was higher with azacitidine-venetoclax than with the control regimen (36.7% vs. 17.9%; P<0.001), as was the composite complete remission (complete remission or complete remission with incomplete hematologic recovery) (66.4% vs. 28.3%; P<0.001). Key adverse events included nausea of any grade (in 44% of the patients in the azacitidine-venetoclax group and 35% of those in the control group) and grade 3 or higher thrombocytopenia (in 45% and 38%, respectively), neutropenia (in 42% and 28%), and febrile neutropenia (in 42% and 19%). Infections of any grade occurred in 85% of the patients in the azacitidine-venetoclax group and 67% of those in the control group, and serious adverse events occurred in 83% and 73%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: In previously untreated patients who were ineligible for intensive chemotherapy, overall survival was longer and the incidence of remission was higher among patients who received azacitidine plus venetoclax than among those who received azacitidine alone. The incidence of febrile neutropenia was higher in the venetoclax-azacitidine group than in the control group. (Funded by AbbVie and Genentech; VIALE-A ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02993523.).


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Azacitidina/administração & dosagem , Compostos Bicíclicos Heterocíclicos com Pontes/administração & dosagem , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Sulfonamidas/administração & dosagem , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Azacitidina/efeitos adversos , Compostos Bicíclicos Heterocíclicos com Pontes/efeitos adversos , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Análise de Intenção de Tratamento , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/mortalidade , Leucopenia/induzido quimicamente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonia/etiologia , Recidiva , Indução de Remissão , Sulfonamidas/efeitos adversos , Trombocitopenia/induzido quimicamente
15.
Lancet Haematol ; 7(8): e566-e574, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32735836

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The median overall survival of patients with high-risk myelodysplastic syndromes refractory to hypomethylating agents is less than 6 months. Currently, no standard therapy for such patients exists. Preclinical studies have shown that inhibition of the nuclear export protein exportin 1 (XPO1) causes nuclear accumulation of p53 and disruption of NF-κB signalling, both relevant targets for myelodysplastic syndromes. We therefore aimed to assess the safety and activity of selinexor in patients with myelodysplastic syndromes or oligoblastic acute myeloid leukaemia refractory to hypomethylating agents. METHODS: We did a single-centre, single-arm, phase 2 trial at the Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center in the USA. We included patients 18 years or older with high-risk myelodysplastic syndromes or oligoblastic acute myeloid leukaemia (defined as blasts ≥20% but ≤30%) refractory to hypomethylating agents and with an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status score of 0-2. Eligible patients received 3-week long cycles of oral selinexor (60 mg twice per week for 2 weeks, followed by 1 week off). The primary outcome was overall response rate. Complete remission, partial remission, marrow complete remission, or haematological improvement were included in the response categories for assessing the primary endpoint. The activity analysis included all patients who completed at least one full-scheduled post-treatment disease assessment. All patients who were given selinexor were included in the safety analysis. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02228525. FINDINGS: Between Sept 23, 2014, and March 13, 2018, 25 patients were enrolled on this study. The median follow-up was 8·5 months (IQR 3·1-12·2). Two patients did not meet the full eligibility criteria after baseline assessment; therefore, 23 patients were evaluable for activity assessment. In the 23 evaluable patients, overall response rate was 26% (95% CI 10-48) in six patients with marrow complete remission, with an additional 12 patients (52%, 95% CI 31-73) achieving stable disease. The most common grade 3 or 4 adverse events were thrombocytopenia (eight [32%] of 25 patients) and hyponatraemia (five [20%]). There were no drug-related serious adverse events and no treatment-related deaths. INTERPRETATION: Selinexor showed responses in patients with myelodysplastic syndromes or oligoblastic acute myeloid leukaemia refractory to hypomethylating agents. Adverse events were manageable with supportive care implementation. Further studies are needed to compare selinexor with supportive care alone, and to identify patient subgroups that might benefit the most from selinexor treatment. FUNDING: Karyopharm Therapeutics.


Assuntos
Azacitidina/farmacologia , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Hidrazinas/uso terapêutico , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas/tratamento farmacológico , Triazóis/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antimetabólitos Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/patologia , Masculino , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas/patologia , Segurança do Paciente , Prognóstico , Taxa de Sobrevida
16.
Lancet Oncol ; 21(9): 1201-1212, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32791048

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Findings of retrospective studies suggest that sorafenib maintenance post-transplantation might reduce relapse in patients with FLT3 internal tandem duplication (FLT3-ITD) acute myeloid leukaemia undergoing allogeneic haematopoietic stem-cell transplantation. We investigated the efficacy and tolerability of sorafenib maintenance post-transplantation in this population. METHODS: We did an open-label, randomised phase 3 trial at seven hospitals in China. Eligible patients (aged 18-60 years) had FLT3-ITD acute myeloid leukaemia, were undergoing allogeneic haematopoietic stem-cell transplantation, had an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0-2, had composite complete remission before and after transplantation, and had haematopoietic recovery within 60 days post-transplantation. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) to sorafenib maintenance (400 mg orally twice daily) or non-maintenance (control) at 30-60 days post-transplantation. Randomisation was done with permuted blocks (block size four) and implemented through an interactive web-based randomisation system. The primary endpoint was the 1-year cumulative incidence of relapse in the intention-to-treat population. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02474290; the trial is complete. FINDINGS: Between June 20, 2015, and July 21, 2018, 202 patients were enrolled and randomly assigned to sorafenib maintenance (n=100) or control (n=102). Median follow-up post-transplantation was 21·3 months (IQR 15·0-37·0). The 1-year cumulative incidence of relapse was 7·0% (95% CI 3·1-13·1) in the sorafenib group and 24·5% (16·6-33·2) in the control group (hazard ratio 0·25, 95% CI 0·11-0·57; p=0·0010). Within 210 days post-transplantation, the most common grade 3 and 4 adverse events were infections (25 [25%] of 100 patients in the sorafenib group vs 24 [24%] of 102 in the control group), acute graft-versus-host-disease (GVHD; 23 [23%] of 100 vs 21 [21%] of 102), chronic GVHD (18 [18%] of 99 vs 17 [17%] of 99), and haematological toxicity (15 [15%] of 100 vs seven [7%] of 102). There were no treatment-related deaths. INTERPRETATION: Sorafenib maintenance post-transplantation can reduce relapse and is well tolerated in patients with FLT3-ITD acute myeloid leukaemia undergoing allogeneic haematopoietic stem-cell transplantation. This strategy could be a suitable therapeutic option for patients with FLT3-ITD acute myeloid leukaemia. FUNDING: None.


Assuntos
Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/epidemiologia , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Sorafenibe/administração & dosagem , Tirosina Quinase 3 Semelhante a fms/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , China/epidemiologia , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/tratamento farmacológico , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/patologia , Feminino , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/etiologia , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/genética , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/patologia , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/epidemiologia , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/genética , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases , Indução de Remissão , Sorafenibe/efeitos adversos , Sequências de Repetição em Tandem/genética , Transplante Homólogo/efeitos adversos , Adulto Jovem
17.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3639, 2020 07 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32686665

RESUMO

Integrated analysis of genomes, transcriptomes, proteomes and drug responses of cancer cell lines (CCLs) is an emerging approach to uncover molecular mechanisms of drug action. We extend this paradigm to measuring proteome activity landscapes by acquiring and integrating quantitative data for 10,000 proteins and 55,000 phosphorylation sites (p-sites) from 125 CCLs. These data are used to contextualize proteins and p-sites and predict drug sensitivity. For example, we find that Progesterone Receptor (PGR) phosphorylation is associated with sensitivity to drugs modulating estrogen signaling such as Raloxifene. We also demonstrate that Adenylate kinase isoenzyme 1 (AK1) inactivates antimetabolites like Cytarabine. Consequently, high AK1 levels correlate with poor survival of Cytarabine-treated acute myeloid leukemia patients, qualifying AK1 as a patient stratification marker and possibly as a drug target. We provide an interactive web application termed ATLANTiC (http://atlantic.proteomics.wzw.tum.de), which enables the community to explore the thousands of novel functional associations generated by this work.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Proteoma/metabolismo , Adenilato Quinase/metabolismo , Animais , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Biologia Computacional , Simulação por Computador , Citarabina/metabolismo , Citarabina/farmacologia , Desenvolvimento de Medicamentos , Genômica , Humanos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/metabolismo , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Proteoma/genética , Proteômica , Cloridrato de Raloxifeno/metabolismo , Cloridrato de Raloxifeno/farmacologia , Receptores de Progesterona/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia
18.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(27): e21119, 2020 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32629746

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Myeloid sarcoma (MS) is a rare tumor mass. It may occur at any extramedullary anatomic sites but is uncommon in the sinonasal location.MS commonly presents concurrently with acute myeloid leukemia (AML), but it may predate AML over several months or years, named isolated MS. PATIENT CONCERNS: We report a case of a 15-month-old child who presented with mouth breathing, bilateral rhinorrhea, palpebral edema and proptosis. The routine blood tests were normal for the first few months. Computed tomography scan revealed neoplasm in nasal cavity. DIAGNOSIS: The patient was definitely diagnosed with isolated MS in the nasal cavity through immunohistochemistry combined with clinical features and radiological investigations, and MS further progressed to AML which was confirmed by hematologist. INTERVENTIONS: Endoscopic sinus surgery was performed to acquire specimens. After diagnosis, the patient was promptly treated with systemic chemotherapy. OUTCOMES: All symptoms gradually subsided and the mass of nasal cavity was invisible. No relapse occurred during follow-up. CONCLUSION: Sinonasal MS may be misdiagnosed and should be considered when symptoms persist and worsen. Prompt clinic examinations are essential for cases with suspected MS. Diagnosis of MS is dependent on the immunohistological investigations combined with clinical features, radiological investigations. Early diagnosis and systemic chemotherapy are vital for patients to achieve best prognosis.


Assuntos
Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Cavidade Nasal/diagnóstico por imagem , Sarcoma Mieloide/complicações , Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Erros de Diagnóstico/prevenção & controle , Diagnóstico Precoce , Edema/etiologia , Exoftalmia/etiologia , Doenças Palpebrais/patologia , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica/métodos , Lactente , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/diagnóstico , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/cirurgia , Masculino , Cavidade Nasal/patologia , Cavidade Nasal/cirurgia , Sarcoma Mieloide/diagnóstico por imagem , Sarcoma Mieloide/metabolismo , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
Ann Hematol ; 99(9): 2193-2195, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32621180
20.
Ann Hematol ; 99(9): 1989-2007, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32683457

RESUMO

Several small molecule inhibitors (SMIs) have been recently approved for AML patients. These targeted therapies could be more tolerable than classical antineoplastics, but potential drug-drug interactions (DDI) are relatively frequent. Underestimation or lack of appropriate awareness and management of DDIs with SMIs can jeopardize therapeutic success in AML patients, which often require multiple concomitant medications in the context of prior comorbidities or for the prevention and treatment of infectious and other complications. In this systematic review, we analyze DDIs of glasdegib, venetoclax, midostaurin, quizartinib, gilteritinib, enasidenib, and ivosidenib. CYP3A4 is the main enzyme responsible for SMIs metabolism, and strong CYP3A4 inhibitors, such azoles, could increase drug exposure and toxicity; therefore dose adjustments (venetoclax, quizartinib, and ivosidenib) or alternative therapies or close monitoring (glasdegib, midostaurin, and gilteritinib) are recommended. Besides, coadministration of strong CYP3A4 inducers with SMIs should be avoided due to potential decrease of efficacy. Regarding tolerability, QTc prolongation is frequently observed for most of approved SMIs, and drugs with a potential to prolong the QTc interval and CYP3A4 inhibitors should be avoided and replaced by alternative treatments. In this study, we critically assess the DDIs of SMIs, and we summarize best management options for these new drugs and concomitant medications.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/sangue , Inibidores do Citocromo P-450 CYP3A/sangue , Aprovação de Drogas , Interações Medicamentosas/fisiologia , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/sangue , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Benzimidazóis/efeitos adversos , Benzimidazóis/sangue , Compostos Bicíclicos Heterocíclicos com Pontes/efeitos adversos , Compostos Bicíclicos Heterocíclicos com Pontes/sangue , Inibidores do Citocromo P-450 CYP3A/efeitos adversos , Drogas em Investigação/efeitos adversos , Drogas em Investigação/metabolismo , Humanos , Síndrome do QT Longo/sangue , Síndrome do QT Longo/induzido quimicamente , Compostos de Fenilureia/efeitos adversos , Compostos de Fenilureia/sangue , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/efeitos adversos , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/sangue , Estaurosporina/efeitos adversos , Estaurosporina/análogos & derivados , Estaurosporina/sangue , Sulfonamidas/efeitos adversos , Sulfonamidas/sangue
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA